e-Proceedings - 7th International Table Grape Symposium

12-14 November, 2014
How the Australian table grape industry looks to the
rest of the world
Australia’s major
export varieties
Australian Grape
Growing Areas
Thompson
Seedless
Emerald
Ti Tree
Alice Springs
Mundubbera
Carnarvon
Crimson
Seedless
St. George
Cunnamulla
Swan Valley
Stanthorpe
Red
Globe
Flame
Seedless
Grape exports by
Australian States
Menindee
Riverland
Bunbury
Menindee
Seedless
Sunraysia Region
Mildura
Robinvale
%
VIC 93.85
5%
NSW 4.6
8,000
120,000
of grapes
produced
hectares
tonnes
330
6%
QLD .8
million
SA
farm gate value
.41%
WA .23%
Aussie grape export varieties and seasonality
Major
M
Maj
Ma
ajo
jor Export
Expo
Expo
Ex
p rtt V
Varieties
ariie
ar
ietities
ies
Dawn
Daw
a n Seedless (WA
W only)
y
Menindee Seedless
Thompson Seedless
Crimson Seedless
Flame Seedless
Ralli Seedless
Red Globe
Autumn Royal
Midnight Beauty
Seeds
Seed
Se
eds
ds
Nov
Nov
No
Dec
Dec
De
Jan
Jan
Ja
Feb
Feb
Fe
Mar
Mar
Ma
A
Ap
Apr
pr
May
May
Ma
Welcome to Mildura
Organising Committee’s foreward
Dear 7th International Table Grape Symposium
Participants,
On behalf of the 7th International Table Grape
Symposium (7ITGS) Organising Committee and the
Australian Table Grape Association (ATGA), we formally
welcome you to Mildura, Australia for the 7ITGS.
Held every three to four years, the symposium is
the premier international event for the table grape
industry, presenting the latest scientific research into
table grape production to an audience of more than
250 delegates from around the world. This year is
especially significant in that it marks the event’s 20th
anniversary. The symposium’s history can be traced
back to 1994 in Anaheim, California, almost 20 years
ago. Since then it has been held in South Africa, Chile,
California and now Australia.
The Organising Committee is confident that your
journey to Australia will be worthwhile both
professionally and personally. We hope you value this
7ITGS event and we look forward to showcasing the
very best of what Australia has to offer.
Yours sincerely,
Planning and Scientific Committee
Mark Krstic AWRI
Jeff Scott CEO ATGA
Rowena Norris ATGA
Allison McTaggart ATGA
Paula Smith ATGA
Peter Clingeleffer CSIRO
Jennifer Hashim-Maguire AUSCAL Viticulture
Colin Gordon WA DAF
Rachael McClintock R&D Viticultural Service
The 7ITGS will be held at the recently renovated
Mildura Arts Centre (MAC), in the heart of the
Australia’s Sunraysia table grape production region
and will showcase the very best of what regional
Australia has to offer.
Irrigation in the Sunraysia region was established
1886 by George and William Chaffey, Australia’s
first irrigation scheme. The Chaffey brothers were
approached by the then Victorian Premier Alfred
Deakin who was under pressure to open up more land
for farming and settlement. Now Mildura is the heart
of Australia’s largest table grape producing region
and gateway to the iconic junction of the Murray and
Darling Rivers.
The 7ITGS has attracted much international interest.
The oral program is packed with presentations from
over 40 presenters from a range of countries including
Australia, the United States, Israel, Italy, Portugal,
South Africa, Chile, Brazil, Spain and Argentina. The
poster session also contains an impressive array of
presentations from over 30 different authors.
In addition delegates are treated to a great social
program with plenty of networking opportunities. This
includes an impressive indigenous cultural experience
during the Welcome ceremony, grand Symposium
Gala Dinner, Murray River Paddleboat cruise and
post-symposium tour of the Sunraysia table grape
production region.
We thank all those who have assisted during the
organisation of the symposium and its proceedings,
especially the speakers and the generosity of our
valued sponsors for without their support this event
would not be possible.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
1
2
7th International Table Grape Symposium
PROGRAM
Symposium Program Mildura Arts Centre, 11 – 14 November
TUESDAY, 11 NOVEMBER
1730-1930
Pre-Symposium Registration and Welcome Function, Mildura Arts Centre
Sponsored by Sun World International
WEDNESDAY, 12 NOVEMBER
0730-1800
Registration desk open (tea and coffee on arrival)
0830-0840
Welcome and Official Opening
0830
Welcome to the 7th International Table Grape Symposium
Mark Krstic, Chairman 7th International Table Grape Symposium Organising Committee
0840-1020
Session 1
Table Grape Production and Marketing: Future Challenges and Opportunities
Moderator: Richard Lomman Chair ATGA
0840
Overview of table grape production in Australia
Jeff Scott, CEO ATGA
0900
Keynote Address
Impact of projected climate change on key table grape growing regions around the world
Gregory Jones, Department of Environmental Studies at Southern Oregon University
0930
Keynote Address
Management of food safety issues in fresh fruit production
Richard Bennett, Technology Manager for Produce Marketing Association Australia-New Zealand
0950
Panel questions and answers
1000-1030
Morning tea
1030
Insights into exporting table grapes into Asian markets
Peter Walsh, Victorian Minister for Agriculture and Food Security, Minister for Water
1050-1220
Session 2
Soil Management and Mineral Nutrition
Moderator: Colin Gordon
Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, South Perth, WA, Australia
1050
Soilless table grape cultivation - A review
Rosario Di Lorenzo, Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
1110
Soil management using no tillage and cover crops in a table grape vineyard in South-eastern Italy,
(Puglia region)
Giuseppe Ferrara, Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari
‘Aldo Moro’, Italy
1130
First results on soil management of organically produced ‘Midnight Beauty’ table grapes covered
with plastic film in Apulia region
Gianvito Masi, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura - Research Unit for
Viticulture and Enology in Southern Italy, Turi, Italy
7th International Table Grape Symposium
3
PROGRAM
4
1150
Advancing ripening of Scarlet Royal grown in the desert region in California
Carmen Gispert, University of California, Cooperative Extension, Indio, California, USA
1210
Panel questions and answers
1220-1320
Lunch
1320-1520
Session 3
Rootstocks, Breeding and Cultivar Improvement
Moderator: Jennifer Hashim-Maguire
AUSCAL Viticulture, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
1320
Keynote Address
Advanced Genetic Improvement Strategies: New vines for new times
Mark Thomas, CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia
1350
New table grape varieties obtained in the breeding program by ITUM-IMIDA in Spain
Juan Carreño, Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario, La Alberca,
Murcia, Spain
1410
Developments in the Australian table grape breeding program
Peter Clingeleffer, CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia
1430
Apulia Seedless: Description and effect of cultural practices
Pietro Scafidi, Agriproject Group Australia Pty Ltd, Euston, NSW, Australia
1450
What can we learn from the table grape breeding program in Israel?
Amnon Lichter, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
1510
Panel questions and answers
1520-1550
Afternoon tea
1550-1730
Session 4
Rootstocks, Breeding and Cultivar Improvement (Continued)
Moderator: Allison Ferry-Abee
University of California, California, USA
1550
Keynote Address
Using novel genetics to breed unique new table grape varieties
John Clark, Department of Horticulture/Plant Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas,
USA
1620
Addressing challenges in the global development of proprietary varieties through applied varietal
research
Hovav Weksler, Sun World International, Bakersfield, California, USA
1640
Effect of rootstock on leaf nutrient composition of V. vinifera cultivars Superior Seedless and Red
Globe
María Beatriz Pugliese, INTA EEA Pocito, San Juan, Argentina
1700
Performance of Autumn King and Scarlet Royal table grapes on some standard and recently
released rootstocks
Matthew Fidelibus, Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, California,
USA
1720
Panel questions and answers
1730
Closing remarks and housekeeping (nominations for 8ITGS close)
7th International Table Grape Symposium
PROGRAM
1830-1900
Pre Dinner drinks and canapés, Quality Hotel Mildura Grand
1900-2330
Symposium Dinner, Quality Hotel Mildura Grand Ball Room (Dress: smart casual)
Sponsored by Perfection Fresh
Dinner MC: Jeff Scott, CEO ATGA
Dinner entertainment: perceptionist Tom Berger, an entertaining blend of mystery, humour,
psychology and intuition using total audience participation
THURSDAY, 13 NOVEMBER
0730-1400
Day registration desk open (tea and coffee on arrival)
0830-1020
Session 5
Pest and Disease Management
Moderator: Mark Krstic
Australian Wine Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
0830
Welcome and housekeeping
0840
Keynote Address
Identification and management of trunk diseases in Australia
Mark Sosnowski, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide, South Australia,
Australia
0910
Canker diseases in the Coachella Valley: Incidence and evaluation of management strategies
Carmen Gispert, University of California, Cooperative Extension, Indio, California, USA
0930
Control of grapevine Powdery Mildew with the biofungicide Timorex Gold.
Juan Cristobal Arroyo, Stockton Israel Ltd, Petach Tikva, Israel
0950
Effective control of fruit fly for market access using a systems management approach in table
grapes
David Oag, Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Stanthorpe, Queensland,
Australia
1010
Panel questions and answers
1020-1050
Morning tea
1050-1300
Session 6
Plant Growth Regulators
Moderator: Peter Clingeleffer
CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia
1050
Understanding the control of grape berry ripening and developing opportunities for its
manipulation
Christopher Davies, CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia
1110
Effect of shade and gibberellic acid (GA3) on fruit set and final quality of Thompson Seedless and
Crimson Seedless table grape cultivars - A field assay in South Portugal
Sara Domingos, Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, Portugal
1130
Effects of PGR’s (GA3 and CPPU) and cane girdling on yield, quality and metabolic profile of cv. Italia
table grape
Giuseppe Ferrara, Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari
‘Aldo Moro’, Italy
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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PROGRAM
6
1150
Effect of CPPU (N-(2-Chloro-4-Pyridinyl)-N’-Phenylurea) and a seaweed extract on Crimson Seedless
grape quality
Janéne Strydom, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch, South Africa
1210
Evaluation of table grape colouration programs in global production areas
Robert Fritts, Valent BioSciences Corporation, Clovis, California, USA
1230
Improving table grape colouring programs with s-abscisic acid (Protone™): the importance of
application technology
Schalk Reynolds, Philagro SA, Somerset West, South Africa
1250
Panel questions and answers
1300-1400
Lunch
1400-1605
Session 7
Table Grape Growing in Tropical/Subtropical Environments and Dormancy
Moderator: David Oag
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Stanthorpe, Queensland, Australia
1400
Keynote Address
Challenges and opportunities to growing table grapes in sub-tropical/tropical regions
Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Petrolina, Brazil
1430
Comparative Transcriptomic study of bud dormancy in sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates
Michael Considine, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA Australia
1450
Low temperature-dependent release from dormancy involves a transient oxidative burst in
grapevines (Vitis vinfera) buds
Karlia Meitha, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA Australia
1510
Influence of external dormancy release forcing factors on grape vine bud dormancy and the
concomitant changes in bud respiration
Yazhini Velappan, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley WA Australia
1530
Control of grape bud dormancy release
Etti Or, Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Volcani Centre, ARO, Israel
1550
Panel questions and answers
1600
Closing remarks and housekeeping
1610-1810
Poster Session – includes drinks and canapés, marquee Mildura Arts Centre
Sponsored by Sheehan Genetics Australia
MC – Peter Clingeleffer, CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, SA, Australia
Announcement of ‘Best Poster Award’
Voting for host of 8th International Table Grape Symposium
Note – no symposium dinner tonight, please make own dinner arrangements
7th International Table Grape Symposium
PROGRAM
FRIDAY, 14 NOVEMBER
0730-1400
Day registration desk open (tea and coffee on arrival)
0830-1110
Session 8
General Viticulture and Vine Physiology
Moderator: Matthew Fidelibus
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, California, USA
0830
Welcome and housekeeping
0840
Plastic rain covers affect canopy microclimate and fruit quality of table grapes
Matthew Fidelibus, Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, California,
USA
0900
Identification and characterisation of factors affecting development of size diversity among berries
in a clusters of cv. Early Sweet
Etti Or, Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Volcani Center, ARO, Israel
0920
Irrigation strategy and vine performance of organic ‘Italia’ table grape grown in Apulia region
(Southern Italy)
Luigi Tarricone, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for
Viticulture and Enology in Southern Italy, Turi, Italy
0940
A study on the factors involved with russet stains in Thompson Seedless table grapes
Hovav Weksler, Department of Postharvest Science, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
1000
Causes and prevention of Thompson Seedless berry collapse
Peter Clingeleffer, CSIRO Plant Industry, Urrbrae, South Australia, Australia
1020
The use of autofluorescence and imaging for phenological analysis of table grapes
Amnon Lichter, Department of Postharvest Science, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel
1040
Satellite-based assessments of irrigation water use by table grapes grown in the Robinvale district
of SE Australia
Des Whitfield, Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Tatura, Australia
1100
Panel questions and answers
1110-1140
Morning tea
1140-1335
Session 9
Postharvest Technologies
Moderator: Don Luvisi
University of California Cooperative Extension, Viticulture Advisor, Emeritus
1140
Sulfur dioxide in the berry: metabolism, inducible defences and insights
Michael Considine, School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western
Australia, Australia
1200
VapormateTM : applications as a fumigant for the table grape industry
Swaminathan Thalavaisundaram, Linde Crop Sciences, North Ryde, Australia
1220
New techniques for postharvest application of SO2 on table grapes
Eduardo Maldonado Araneda, Insumos Frutìcolas INFRUTA SA, Lampa, Santiago, Chile
1240
Alternative fumigation and cold treatment disinfestation methods
Andrew Jessup, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Gosford, NSW, Australia
7th International Table Grape Symposium
7
PROGRAM
1300
Predicting rachis browning and quality loss in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless during cool
storage
John Lopresti, Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia
1320
Panel questions and answers
1330
Symposium closing remarks and announcement of host for 8ITGS
1335-1435
Lunch
1830-2230
River cruise, boarding ‘Mundoo’ from 1830 for a 1900 departure. Mildura Wharf, Hugh King Drive
Sponsored by GrapeCo.
SATURDAY AND SUNDAY, 15 - 16 NOVEMBER
Post Symposium Technical Tour
0830-2200
Saturday - Mildura and Robinvale regions
0830-1500
Sunday - Mildura and local district area
Dress: Please wear light-weight clothing, a wide-brimmed hat and sun protection cream.
Sponsored by UVASYS, Netafim and R&D Viticultural Services
Platinum sponsor
Presented by
Disclaimer
The 7ITGS2014 Committee and the editors of this publication accept no responsibility or liability of any kind for
any statement, opinion or other material contained in this publication. Abstracts published do not necessarily
represent the opinion of the committee or founding partners. Articles and other comments represent the opinions
of their respective authors and might contain mistakes of fact, hypotheses and other unsubstantiated material.
Notwithstanding the mention of any products or services in this publication the committee gives no warranty or
endorsement in respect to them.
8
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table of Contents
Welcome to Mildura..................................................................................................................................................................................1
Symposium Program................................................................................................................................................................................3
Keynote speaker profiles.................................................................................................................................................................... 13
Richard Bennett................................................................................................................................................................................................13
Dr Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão..............................................................................................................................................................13
Professor John R. Clark...................................................................................................................................................................................14
Professor Gregory V. Jones...........................................................................................................................................................................14
Dr Mark Sosnowski..........................................................................................................................................................................................15
Dr Mark R. Thomas...........................................................................................................................................................................................15
Oral Presentation Abstracts Wednesday 12 November 2014...................................................................................... 17
Session 1. Table grape production and marketing: future challenges and opportunities................................................17
Climate change, agriculture and global table grape production........................................................................................................17
Management of food safety issues in fresh fruit production ..............................................................................................................20
Session 2. Soil management and mineral nutrition...........................................................................................................................24
Soilless table grape cultivation - a review................................................................................................................................................24
Soil management using no tillage and cover crops in a table grape vineyard in southeastern Italy (Puglia region)................26
First results on soil management of organic Midnight Beauty® table grapes covered with plastic film in Apulia region.........28
Advancing ripening of Scarlet Royal grown in the desert region in California.................................................................................33
Session 3. Rootstocks, breeding and cultivar improvement..........................................................................................................35
Advanced genetic improvement strategies: New vines for new times..............................................................................................35
New table grape varieties obtained in the breeding program by ITUM-IMIDA in Spain.................................................................37
Developments in the Australian table grape breeding program .......................................................................................................39
Apulia Seedless: Description and effect of cultural practices...............................................................................................................43
What can we learn from the table grape breeding program in Israel?...............................................................................................47
Session 4. Rootstocks, breeding and cultivar improvement (Continued)................................................................................48
Using novel genetics to breed unique new table grape varieties ......................................................................................................48
Addressing challenges in the global development of proprietary varieties through applied varietal research.........................51
Effect of rootstocks on leaf nutrient composition of Vitis vinifera cvs. Superior Seedless and Red Globe....................................53
Performance of Autumn King and Scarlet Royal table grapes on some standard, and more recently released, rootstocks ...56
7th International Table Grape Symposium
9
Oral Presentation Abstracts Thursday 13 November 2014........................................................................................... 59
Session 5. Pest and disease management.............................................................................................................................................59
Identification and management of trunk diseases in Australia ..........................................................................................................59
Canker diseases in the Coachella valley: Incidence and evaluation of management strategies...................................................60
Control of grapevine powdery mildew with the natural biofungicide Timorex Gold .....................................................................62
Effective control of fruit fly for market access using a systems management approach in table grapes.....................................65
Session 6. Plant growth regulators...........................................................................................................................................................68
Understanding the control of grape berry ripening and developing opportunities for its manipulation...................................68
Effect of shade and gibberellic acid (GA3) on fruit set and final quality of Thompson Seedless and
Crimson Seedless table grape cultivars - A field assay in South Portugal..........................................................................................70
Effects of PGRs (GA3 and CPPU) and cane girdling on yield, quality and metabolic profile of cv Italia table grape...................74
Effect of CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea) and a seaweed extract on Crimson Seedless grape quality .............76
Evaluation of table grape colouration programs in global production areas...................................................................................80
Improving table grape colouring programs with s-abscisic acid (Protone™): the importance of application technology.......82
Session 7. Table grape growing in tropical/subtropical environments and dormancy......................................................84
Challenges and opportunities to growing table grapes in sub-tropical/tropical regions...............................................................84
Comparative transcriptomic study of bud dormancy in sub-tropical and Mediterranean climates.............................................85
Low temperature-dependent release from dormancy involves a transient oxidative burst in grapevine
(Vitis vinifera) buds.......................................................................................................................................................................................87
Influence of external dormancy release forcing factors on grapevine bud dormancy and the concomitant changes
in bud respiration.........................................................................................................................................................................................91
Control of grape bud dormancy release .................................................................................................................................................93
Oral Presentation Abstracts Friday 14 November 2014.................................................................................................. 94
Session 8. General Viticulture and Vine Physiology............................................................................................................................94
Plastic rain covers affect canopy microclimate and fruit quality of table grapes..............................................................................94
Identification and characterisation of factors affecting development of size diversity among berries in a clusters
of cv. Early Sweet..........................................................................................................................................................................................96
Irrigation strategy and vine performance of organic ‘Italia’ table grape grown in Apulia region (Southern Italy)......................97
A study on the factors involved with russet stains in Thompson Seedless table grapes............................................................. 101
Causes and prevention of Thompson Seedless berry collapse......................................................................................................... 102
The use of autofluorescence and imaging for phenological analysis of table grapes.................................................................. 105
Satellite-based assessments of irrigation water use by table grapes grown in the Robinvale district of SE Australia............ 106
Session 9. Postharvest technologies..................................................................................................................................................... 109
Sulfur dioxide in the berry: metabolism, inducible defences and insights..................................................................................... 109
VapormateTM application in a commercial chamber for controlling table grapes pests ............................................................. 112
New techniques of postharvest application of SO2 on table grapes............................................................................................... 114
Alternative fumigation and cold treatment disinfestation methods .............................................................................................. 118
Predicting rachis browning and quality loss in Vitis vinifera L cv ‘Thompson Seedless’ during cool storage............................ 120
10
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Poster Presentations Abstracts Thursday 13 November 2014..................................................................................123
Changes in the table grape industry – challenges for a sulphur dioxide pad manufacturer...................................................... 123
Timorex Gold - a new natural bio-fungicide for the control of sour rot complex and grey mould in table grapes ................ 124
Agronomic and qualitative performances of some table grape Dalmasso crosses (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in
Piedmont (NW of Italy)............................................................................................................................................................................. 127
Inconsistent yielding between years is a threat to the sub-tropical table grape industry in Queensland................................ 130
Performance of table grape JD 874 grafted onto different rootstocks in two regions of São state, Brazil................................ 132
Ethephon and abscisic acid for improving colour of ‘Crimson Seedless’ table grape in the Vale do São Francisco,
Northeastern of Brazil in 2012 growing season................................................................................................................................... 134
Moving in on mealybugs in Western Australian table grape vineyards.......................................................................................... 136
Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation................ 139
Postharvest conservation of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes as influenced by ethephon and abscisic acid application on field.... 141
Effects of Kelpak® Ecklonia maxima seaweed product on quality and yield of red globe table grape in Sicily, Italy............... 143
Policy assessment for the table grape production in southern Italy................................................................................................ 145
Effect of rootstock on growth and nutritional status of Thompson Seedless grown under soils with different air content.... 146
Use of ABA to improve the colour of Red Globe table grapes in the San Juan region, Argentina.............................................. 147
Potential to enhance fruit quality of table grapes with potassium sorbate and cincturing........................................................ 149
Temperature and light regimes under different plastic rain covers................................................................................................. 151
Flame Seedless cluster quality according to bud position ............................................................................................................... 153
Development of ProtoneTM SL (10% s-ABA) for colouration of red seedless table grapes in Europe......................................... 154
Inheritence of terpenoids in F1 population of ‘Jingxiu’ and ‘Xiangfei’ grape.................................................................................. 158
Making decisions in table grape production with benchmarking data.......................................................................................... 162
Prospecting for fungicide activity on wild mushrooms extracts against gray and blue mould of table grapes ..................... 165
The effects of elevated CO2 and a rise in air temperature on commercially grown grapevines ................................................. 168
Effect of NAA on the sucrose metabolism and expression of some related genes in grape fruit............................................... 171
Effects of natural auxin-based Ecklonia maxima seaweed product on reduction of postharvest berry drop in table
grape cv. Thompson Seedless................................................................................................................................................................. 172
Abscisic acid (S-ABA) and sucrose effects on skin colour, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of
‘Crimson Seedless’ grape berries............................................................................................................................................................ 174
Fumigation and cold treatment disinfestation methods................................................................................................................... 176
Author Index............................................................................................................................................................................................180
Notes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................182
Notes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................183
Notes.............................................................................................................................................................................................................184
7th International Table Grape Symposium
11
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Keynote speaker profiles
KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Richard Bennett
Dr Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão
Richard Bennett is the technology manager for the
Produce Marketing Association (PMA) Australia-New
Zealand, based in the Goulburn Valley, Victoria. The
activities of this role revolve around communicating
the latest information on food safety, science and
technology to PMA A-NZ members and the broader
industry.
Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão is a Agronomy
Engineering graduate from Universidade Federal
Rural de Pernambuco (1993). She has a Master’s
in Agronomy (Plant Breeding and Genetics) from
Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita
Filho (1999) and Ph.D. in Genetics and Breeding,
from the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV) and
University of California, Davis (2008).
The objective is to increase knowledge of business
best practices and improve food safety culture and
performance. In this way, consumer and supply
chain trust and confidence in the integrity of fresh
produce will be maximised. Themes include quality
assurance, food safety, environmental management,
product standards and specifications, product
identification and traceability, business continuity,
compliance issues and crisis management. In
addition, the role includes the technical functions of
the newly established Fresh Produce Safety Centre,
an organisation dedicated to food safety outreach,
education and research.
Since 1994 Patricia has worked as a researcher at
the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation,
Embrapa Semiarid, in Petrolina, PE, Brazil where
her research projects focus on grape breeding and
crop science working on germplasm evaluation,
rootstocks, improvement of new varieties and
canopy management.
Patricia has authored or co-authored 32 papers in
periodicals, 21 book chapters and more than 100
abstracts in scientific congress and symposium.
Richard has worked in numerous aspects of
horticulture including in the nursery, seed and fruit
processing industries, and as an industry development
officer, trainer, agronomist and executive officer for a
number of fruit grower associations.
He has been heavily involved in food safety and
related issues for over 15 years. He has developed
and implemented Approved Supplier Programs
and implemented SQF 2000 and Freshcare in fruit,
vegetable, nut and wine grape businesses.
Richard has qualifications in orchard management,
applied science, agribusiness and food safety.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
13
KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Professor John R. Clark
Professor Gregory V. Jones
John Clark is a university professor of horticulture at
the University of Arkansas. His research responsibilities
are his primary appointment, where he directs the
University’s Division of Agriculture fruit breeding
program and teaches in the areas of fruit production
and plant breeding. He has worked in the Arkansas
program for 34 years and has released 50 commercial
varieties. Crops he works with include blackberries,
table grapes, muscadine grapes, blueberries, and
peaches/nectarines. His research activities are
carried out in Arkansas, several US states, and various
countries in the world.
Gregory Jones is a professor and research
climatologist in the Department of Environmental
Studies at Southern Oregon University who specialises
in the study of climate structure and suitability for
viticulture, and how climate variability and change
influence grapevine growth, wine production
and quality. He holds a Bachelor of Arts and Ph.D.
from the University of Virginia in Environmental
Sciences with a concentration in the Atmospheric
Sciences. His dissertation was on the climatology of
viticulture in Bordeaux, France with a focus on the
spatial differences in grapevine phenology, grape
composition and yield, and the resulting wine quality.
A native of Mississippi, John has Bachelor of Science
and Masters of Science degrees from Mississippi State
University and a PhD from the University of Arkansas.
His work in table grapes has involved hybridising
American species-derived grapes with Vitis vinifera,
to combine increased flavour, winter hardiness, fruit
cracking resistance, components of disease resistance,
and broader adaptation from V. labrusca with the
high-quality fruit attributes of V. vinifera.
The program in Arkansas has been ongoing for 50
years, the longest effort thus far with a focus on table
grapes of this type. The program has released 10
varieties, primarily intended for local marketing in the
Midwest and eastern United States.
For over 10 years John has worked in cooperation with
International Fruit Genetics in California, blending
the traits from the Arkansas developments with
commercial table grapes in California. Products from
this effort are released by IFG and are now in the
US market, providing for unique table grapes not
seen by American consumers prior. These unique
flavours combined with excellent skin and texture
characteristics plus diversified shapes have the
potential to have substantial impact on American and
world markets.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Gregory’s teaching and research interests include
meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and
agriculture; phenology of plant systems; biosphere
and atmosphere interactions; climate change; and
quantitative methods in spatial and temporal analysis.
He conducts applied research for the grape and
wine industry in Oregon and has given hundreds of
international, national, and regional presentations
on climate and wine-related research. He is the
author of numerous book chapters, including being
a contributing author to the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize
winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Report, and other reports and articles on wine
economics, grapevine phenology, site assessment
methods for viticulture, climatological assessments of
viticultural potential, and climate change.
He was named in Decanter Magazine’s 2009 Power
List representing the top 50 most influential people
in the world of wine, named the Oregon Wine Press’s
2009 Wine Person of the Year, and has been in the top
100 most influential people in the US wine industry in
2012 and 2013 (www.intowine.com).
KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Dr Mark Sosnowski
Dr Mark R. Thomas
Mark Sosnowski leads the Plant Health and Biosecurity
science program at the South Australian Research
and Development Institute (SARDI). After graduating
with a Bachelor of Agricultural Science from the
University of Adelaide (UA), he commenced working
for SARDI in 1997 and went on to complete a PhD in
2002, studying the epidemiology and management of
blackleg disease of canola at UA.
Mark Thomas is a Senior Principal Research Scientist
at CSIRO and has been conducting grapevine research
since 1990. He received the P. L. Goldacre Medal of
the Australian Society of Plant Physiologists in 1994
and has served on a number of international scientific
grapevine committees and was Chairman of the
International Grape Genome Program from 20022008.
Since 2003, Mark has been responsible for research
on managing Eutypa dieback disease in grapevines
at SARDI, collaborating with colleagues in the US,
Spain and Canada. He is currently responsible for
research programs on management of Eutypa and
Botryosphaeria dieback diseases in both Australia and
New Zealand. As the current Australasian regional
representative on the International Council for
Grapevine Trunk Diseases, Mark will convene the
upcoming International Workshop on Grapevine Trunk
Diseases in Australia.
Mark developed the DNA typing method that is
currently used throughout the world for identifying
grapevine cultivars and his grapevine research
has been published in a number of high quality
research journals including Nature. His team was
also responsible for developing rapid forward and
reverse genetic approaches in grapevine using a novel
grapevine form known as the microvine.
In addition, Mark manages a biosecurity research
program focussing on impact management of exotic
grapevine pathogens in collaboration with Cornell
University, US. He is an Affiliate Senior Lecturer at UA
and supervises numerous postgraduate students in a
range of plant pathology projects.
Mark has a long standing interest in grapevine
improvement and the identification of genes and
alleles responsible for traits of economic importance
to the grape industry.
Mark has a decade of grapevine disease research
experience in Australia and draws from his extensive
international experience and collaboration to provide
industry with the latest information for effective
management of trunk diseases.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
15
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
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Oral Presentation Abstracts
WEDNESDAY 12 NOVEMBER 2014
ORAL SESSION 1
Session 1. Table grape production and marketing: future challenges
and opportunities
Keynote address
Climate change, agriculture and global table grape production
Gregory V. Jones
Department of Environmental Studies, Southern Oregon University, 1250 Siskiyou Blvd, Ashland, Oregon, 97520, USA
Tel: +1 541 552 9192, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Agricultural production is environmentally sensitive being highly influenced by changes in climate, soil water and
nutrition, and land use practices. From a climate perspective, agriculture is extremely vulnerable to climate change
as most crop systems have been optimised to fit a given climate niche allowing for economically sustainable quality
and production. These climatic niches range from fairly broad conditions suitable for crops such as wheat or corn, to
more narrow conditions suitable for specialty crops such as grapevines. Potential agricultural responses to changing
climates reflect the interactions between temperature, water availability and timing, increasing soil salinity and
nutrient stresses, and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. As such, understanding agricultural impacts from
climate change necessitates integrated information and research examining the combined effects of these and
other factors.
This presentation will examine the overall state of the climate today and discuss the role that historic and future
climates have on agriculture in general. In addition, the work will detail how climate change and variability impact
growing grapes for both wine and fresh fruit production – including drought frequency and timing, heat stress
events, and the lack of chilling in warm to hot climate regions – providing insights into the potential impacts of
projected changes in growing conditions worldwide.
Discussion
Human interactions within earth’s environment have brought significant changes, producing a situation in which
we now face some of the most complex collection of ecological problems in our history. Driven by population
growth and often ecologically unsustainable processes these problems include an increasingly less predictable and
stable climate and a wide range of interrelated social, environmental, and economic problems. Compounded by
growing water scarcity, deforestation, species extinction, and ocean acidification, our ability to function as a species
is challenged more than ever before (IPCC, 2013).
Climate is at the forefront of these issues as it presents a very complex, highly variable, and pervasive factor in
our natural earth and human-based systems. From controlling vegetation patterns and geological weathering
characteristics to influencing water resources and agricultural productivity, climate is at the heart of the delicate
equilibrium that exists on earth. While it is clear from historical evidence that changing climates are a part of the
earth’s natural adjustments to both internal and external forces (e.g., volcanic eruptions and solar variability),
more and more evidence is pointing to increasing human impacts on our climate (IPCC, 2013). Processes such as
desertification, deforestation, and urbanisation by which the global energy balance is disrupted, and changes in
atmospheric composition that enhance the greenhouse effect beyond its natural equilibrium demonstrate that our
role in changing the climate is increasing.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
17
Agriculture represents probably one of the most complex aspects of our human-environmental interactions
whereby we need increasingly more productive systems to feed our growing population, yet aspects of doing so
have, and will likely continue to, exacerbate the problems. As such agriculture has both a role in producing some of
our challenges, but more importantly has been increasingly asked to develop sustainable practices that reduce our
vulnerability and increase our adaptive capacity in the face of global change (Diffenbaugh et al., 2011).
ORAL SESSION 1
Today, as in the past, climate is clearly one of the most important factors in the success of all agricultural
systems, influencing whether a crop is suitable to a given region, largely controlling crop production and
quality, and ultimately driving economic sustainability (Jones et al., 2012). While decisions about what to crop
to grow commercially are largely driven by regional history and tradition, they are also influenced by regional to
international economics. However, both tradition and economics are ultimately driven by the ability to grow the
crop sustainably within a given climate (White et al., 2009).
From broadacre crops such as wheat, rice, corn, and soybeans to specialty crops such as fruits and vegetables,
tree nuts, dried fruits, and coffee; they all have strong ties to global to regional climates. While broadacre crops
are clearly more important as global food sources, specialty crops present unique sensitivities to climate that have
made them especially interesting to researchers examining global change. This fact is never more evident than with
wine and table grape production where climate is arguably the most critical environmental aspect in ripening fruit
to its optimum quality to produce a marketable product (Jones, 2014).
As a specialty crop, both wine and table grape production typically occurs over relatively narrow geographical
and climatic ranges (Jones, 2006). While historically associated with Mediterranean climates, viticulture has spread
throughout much of the world with wine grapes found as far north as in Scandinavia (helped by a warming climate),
on east coasts of continents (e.g., China, Japan, and the eastern US) and near the equator where two crops per year
are produced (e.g., Brazil) (Jones et al., 2012). Table grape production has also spread throughout the drier subtropical climates with warm to hot and dry summers (e.g., China, Turkey, Brazil, India, etc.). The broader bounds
for wine and table grape production occur in climates where the growing season temperatures averages 13-24°C
average growing season temperatures (Jones, 2006). However, table grape production is typically more suited to
climates where growing season average temperatures range from 17-24°C and where water availability for irrigation
is readily available.
Research on climate trends and future projections for table grape production is limited. However, recent research
on aspects of global environmental change on wine grape production reveals significant changes but also many
unknowns (Fraga et al., 2012). From a general climate perspective, wine regions worldwide have seen changes
in average climate structure producing warmer and longer growing and dormant periods (Jones et al., 2005a).
Growing season temperatures in many of the best wine producing regions in the world warmed 1.3°C during 19502000. However, the warming was not uniform across all regions with greater magnitudes in the western US and
Europe and less warming in Chile, South Africa, and Australia. Also trends between day and night temperatures vary
by region, with some seeing much more significant warming at night and others seeing more heat stress events
through higher daytime temperatures (Nemani et al., 2001; Jones et al., 2005b). In addition to warmer growing
seasons with greater heat accumulation, many of the world’s wine regions have experienced a decline in frost
frequency and shifts in the timing of frosts (Jones, 2005; Donat et al., 2013).
A comprehensive global assessment of 27 core indices that define the frequency or severity of extreme of
temperature and precipitation events (Peterson, 2005) was conducted over 1951-2011 worldwide (Donat et al.,
2013). The results show that minimum temperature extremes have been warming at 2-4 times the rate of maximum
extremes, resulting in a decline in the diurnal temperature range and a reduction in dormant season chilling.
Likewise, the percentage of days with temperatures in the lower 10th percentile has declined while the percentage
in the upper 90th percentile has increased. During this period the length of the growing season has increased,
while frost days (< 0°C) and cold spells (consecutive cold days) have declined and warm nights (Tmin > 20°C),
warm days (Tmax > 25°C), and warm spells (consecutive warm days) have increased. However, cold extremes still
occur and there is some evidence that acclimation to more benign conditions can make both the plant system and
human readiness for such events more susceptible to their occurrence (Gu et al., 2008). For precipitation, the annual
contribution from very and extremely wet days (> 95th and 99th percentile) has increased significantly while the
number of consecutive dry days (< 1 mm) has declined globally (Donat et al., 2013).
Depending on the underlying emission scenario, climate models predict continued increases in global temperatures
of 1.3°C to 4.8°C by the end of this century (IPCC 2013). Furthermore, observations and modelling have shown that
changes in climate have not and will not likely be manifested in just changes in the mean, but also in the variance
where there are likely to be more extreme heat occurrences, but still swings to extremely cold conditions (IPCC,
2013). Therefore, even if average climate structure gets better or more suitable in some regions, variability will still
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
be very evident and possibly even more limiting than what is observed today (Schär et al., 2004). Work over the
last three decades using model projections show that the observed warming trends in wine regions worldwide are
predicted to continue. Globally, Jones et al., (2005a) found that mean growing season temperatures could warm
by an average 2°C in 27 of the world’s top wine producing regions by 2049. Other research as detailed significant
historical changes in drought frequency and timing, that likely will be exacerbated in many regions worldwide
(IPCC, 2013).
ORAL SESSION 1
Overall, table grapes are a specialty crop with moderate climatic sensitivity whereby sustainable production is
achieved across a fairly narrow geographic range. In addition, table grapes are grown largely in mid-latitude to subtropical regions that are prone to moderate to high climatic variability that influences productivity. The projected
rate and magnitude of future climate change will likely bring about numerous potential impacts for the table grape
industry, including – added pressure on increasingly scarce water supplies, additional changes in growth timing,
disruption or alteration of grape composition, and potential spatial changes in viable grape growing regions. While
uncertainty exists in the exact rate and magnitude of climate change in the future, it would be advantageous for
the table grape industry to be proactive in assessing the impacts, invest in appropriate plant breeding and genetic
research, be ready to adopt suitable adaptation strategies, be willing to alter varieties and management practices or
controls, or mitigate fruit quality differences by developing new technologies.
References
IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Eds. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, lignor M,
Allen SK, Boschung J, NaueIs A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom
and New York, NY, USA. 1535 pp.
Diffenbaugh NS, White MA, Jones GV, and Ashfaq M. 2011. Climate adaptation wedges: a case study of premium
wine in the western United States. Environmental Research Letters, 6(024024). doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/2/024024.
Donat MG, Alexander LV, Yang H, Durre I, Vose R, Caesar J. 2013. Global Land-Based Datasets for Monitoring Climatic
Extremes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 94: 997–1006.
Fraga H, Malheiro AC, Moutinho-Pereira, J. and J.A. Santos. 2012. An overview of climate change impacts on
European viticulture. Food and Energy Security 1(2): 94-110.
Gu L, Hanson PJ, Post WM, Kaiser DP, Yang B, Nemani R, Pallardy SG, Meyers T. 2008. The 2007 eastern US spring
freezes: Increased cold damage in a warming world? BioScience, 58: 253–262.
Jones GV. 2006. Climate and Terroir: Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Wine. In: Fine Wine and Terroir - The
Geoscience Perspective. Macqueen, R.W., and Meinert, L.D., (eds.), pp. 203-216. Geoscience Canada Reprint Series
Number 9, Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, Newfoundland, 247 pages.
Jones GV, Reid R, Vilks, A. 2012. Climate, Grapes, and Wine: Structure and Suitability in a Variable and Changing
Climate pp 109-133 in The Geography of Wine: Regions, Terrior, and Techniques, edited by P. Dougherty. Springer
Press, 255 pp.
Jones GV, White MA, Cooper OR, Storchmann K. 2005a. Climate Change and Global Wine Quality. Climatic Change
73(3): 319-343.
Jones GV, Duchene E, Tomasi D, Yuste J, Braslavksa O, Schultz, H, Martinez, C, Boso S, Langellier F, Perruchot
C, Guimberteau G. 2005b. Changes in European Winegrape Phenology and Relationships with Climate, XIV
International GESCO Viticulture Congress, Geisenheim, Germany, 23-27 August, 2005. 875 pp. Vol.1 (23.0-27.8): 55-62.
Nemani RR, White MA, Cayan DR, Jones GV, Running, SW, and Coughlan JC. 2001. Asymmetric climatic warming
improves California vintages. Climate Research, Nov. 22 19(1): 25-34.
Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger M, Appenzeller C. 2004. The role of increasing temperature
variability in European summer heat waves. Nature 427, 332-336.
White MA, Whalen P, Jones, GV. 2009. Land and Wine. Nature Geoscience 2: 82-84.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
19
Keynote address
Management of food safety issues in fresh fruit production
Richard R Bennett
ORAL SESSION 1
Produce Marketing Association (PMA) Australia-New Zealand Ltd, PO Box 1968, Shepparton, Victoria, 3632, Australia.
Tel: +61 429 329 731, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Food safety is an important global issue for the fresh produce industry. Physical contaminants, human pathogens
and agricultural chemicals have and continue to cause illness and injury to consumers. The World Health
Organisation estimates that foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2.2 million people
annually, most of whom are children (WHO, 2013).
In Australia, an estimated 5.4 million cases of foodborne disease occur annually, costing an estimated $1.2 billion per
year (Hall et al., 2012). OzFoodNet – the Australian Government’s foodborne disease surveillance system – considers
that most cases manifest as mild self-limiting gastroenteritis and that only 20% of affected people take their illness
to a medical practitioner (OzFoodNet, 2012). Although OzFoodNet also contends that many of these illnesses are
preventable, neither regulatory, customer nor self-interest drivers appear effective in reducing the issue, which
continues to grow.
Against this background, fresh produce industries around the globe, in developed and developing nations, have
been implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) based systems and Good Agricultural
Practices (GAPs) in order to manage food safety hazards. However, massive gaps in adoption, and in the quality of
adoption, continue to exist.
This paper aims to use Australia as a case study of the emergence of food safety management, analysis of food
safety issues in fresh produce, a focus on table grape issues and an introduction to crisis management.
Results and Discussion
1. The food safety operating environment
It is important to understand where the management of food safety fits in the overall value chain, to identify the
competing and contributing influences that shape the delivery of safe food to consumers.
Food safety needs to be seen in the context of a rapidly evolving product mix that caters to the changing demands
of consumers. Fresh produce is increasingly available in a mix of ingredients, and not necessarily just other
produce items. Convenient meal solutions is the current growth category, and the food service sector accounts for
approximately 17% of Australian fresh fruit and vegetable domestic market share (Spencer and Kneebone, 2012).
Consumers are expecting their fresh produce in whatever format to be available from an increasing range of retail
and food service outlets, they expect greater shelf life if they take it home and they expect it to be healthy and
wholesome. The ongoing drive to meet these expectations at a price that is competitive with other meal solutions is
a constant challenge for the value chain.
Safety of this food is a given and is afforded a high priority by consumers. The Roy Morgan Research Group
interviewed 15,471 Australian grocery buyers aged 14 plus in 2013 and concluded that “food safety at the
supermarket is important to more Australian grocery buyers than proximity to home, good value, trading hours or
the quality and range of fresh fruit and vegetables.” (Roy Morgan Research, 2013).
Supply chain complexity not only includes the range of products combined as ingredients but also their varying
origin. Greater availability of imported ingredients emphasises the need for detailed product identification and
traceability.
Building this integrity into quality assurance systems is also challenging. Again, there is an expectation that others in
the value chain have the same knowledge, attitudes, skills and aspirations (KASA) as the final supplier needs and the
consumer demands. This is not always the case.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Finally, it comes down to the grower. Faced with a growing burden of customer and regulatory requirements, and
needing to be hands-on horticulturist, business manager, IT savvy, marketer, mechanical engineer and dangerous
goods handler, the grower must recognise that most food safety issues originate on farm. Some basic microbiology
has also become a prerequisite for the job.
2. Development of quality assurance in fresh produce
ORAL SESSION 1
HACCP is a logical science-based approach – analyse a product to identify the hazards to 100% compliance with
an agreed specification, identify the critical points in the manufacturing process where those hazards can be
controlled, and apply the appropriate measures to build out faults. The alternative is to continue to manufacture
variable quality goods and then sort out the good from the bad by inspecting and testing the final products. This is
wasteful and expensive.
The foundation of food safety management, HACCP, has its food industry origins in the United States in the 1960s
when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) wanted to manage the risk of contaminated food
for space flights.
HACCP entered mainstream Australian fresh produce supply in the mid-1990s when major retailers first approached
their direct suppliers – wholesalers and larger packers - with compliance deadlines. Although a business can be
certified to HACCP alone, schemes such as the Woolworths Vendor Quality Management Standard and the Safe
Quality Food (SQF) 2000 Code included additional requirements from ISO9000 quality management standards.
In time, direct suppliers set about ensuring that their suppliers became approved to supply into the supermarket
system. How they went about this varied markedly, from requiring only recent agrichemical application records to
SQF2000 certification.
An informal network of horticulture specialists with an interest in food safety put together a risk-based approach
to developing an approved supplier program, to lead and inform industry in a more intuitive way than other
approaches. While appearing prescriptive in approach, Developing an Approved Supplier Program for Fresh Produce
was actually based on HACCP principles and was widely acclaimed. It directly led to the development of the
Freshcare Food Safety and Quality Code of Practice, which was launched in 2000.
This was followed by the Guidelines for On-Farm Food Safety for Fresh Produce, designed to provide the next level of
detail around actual implementation. This document became the major reference for QA facilitators, trainers and
auditors.
It is now estimated that there are over 8,000 third party certifications of horticultural businesses in Australia
(Howe, 2011). However, given that a number of businesses are direct suppliers to more than one retailer, Coles and
Woolworths in particular, and would therefore require more than one certification, the actual number of certified
businesses is estimated to be 6,200.
As part of its evaluation whether to implement a Primary Production and Processing Standard for Horticulture,
effectively a regulation requiring all horticulture businesses to implement a food safety system, Food Standards
Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) estimated that those 8,000 certifications represented between 70-80% of
horticultural production (FSANZ, 2014). This is cited as one of the reasons why FSANZ decided to abandon Proposal
1015 in favour of other measures.
3. Attribution of food safety issues
Despite the implementation of food safety systems throughout the world, food safety issues continue to arise.
One needs to consider that there are three types of contaminants that need to be managed – physical, chemical
and microbiological. Physical contaminants include foreign objects from the environment (sticks, stones, etc),
from equipment and containers (nails, glass, shavings) and from people (jewellery, adhesive dressings). Chemical
contaminants are usually pesticides, heavy metals, lubricants or cleaners. Microbiological hazards are the human
pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, and Hepatitis A (DAFF, 2004).
The contaminant with the highest profile is microbiological, thanks to a number of internationally well publicised
outbreaks of foodborne illness and multiple deaths, for example:
•
•
•
Spinach, E. coli O157:H7, USA, 2006, over 4,000 illnesses and four deaths,
Fenugreek seed sprouts from Egypt, E. coli O104:H4, 2011, 3,816 sickened and 54 deaths principally in
Germany,
Cantaloupe (rockmelon), Listeria monocytogenes, USA, 147 hospitalisations and 33 deaths.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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Microbiological contamination is likely to be more prevalent in developing countries with generally poorer hygiene
and food safety standards but an absence of data makes this difficult to quantify. We can, however, see how fresh
produce compares with other food types from the thorough surveillance data collected by the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA.
ORAL SESSION 1
The CDC studied 4,589 foodborne disease outbreaks between 1998 and 2011 where the illness could be attributed
to a specific food category. Produce (six food categories – Fruits-Nuts, Fungi, Leafy vegetables, Root vegetables,
Sprout vegetables, Vine-Stalk vegetables) accounted for 46% of all illnesses. Leafy vegetables was the highest
individual category at 23% (CDC, 2013).
In Australia, a compilation of food safety and related incidents since 2000 that have had the potential to cause
reputational harm to the produce industry indicates that 50% of incidents are microbiological and a further 33% are
related to pesticides (Bennett, 2014). Of 144 incidents, six mentioned table grapes. Four of these related to pesticide
residues, one to table grape storage and one to physical contamination (spiders). Pesticide residue coverage was
mostly spill-over of the US-based Environmental Working Group “Dirty Dozen” coverage.
Not surprising, microbiological contamination did not feature. While contamination from harvest and postharvest
handling equipment and workers is a possibility, table grapes should not come into contact with soil, there would
be minimal pre-harvest water contact and no postharvest water contact. This equals low risk.
Residues feature above average and are certainly a sensitive issue with Australian table grape consumers. Following
the November 2012 launch of the Australian Table Grape Facebook page, a small number of consumers were quick
to use the opportunity to question agrichemical and sulphur dioxide use by growers (Sinclair, D. pers comm. 2013).
A response was prepared but this is an issue that needs greater attention.
4. Crisis Management
Risk management and business continuity are contemporary priorities for successful businesses. The consolidation
of supply chains horizontally and vertically and the concentration of supply to fewer and bigger retail and food
service customers only serves to magnify the business risks. Contemporary quality assurance includes the need to
formalise crisis management.
Horticulture Australia, through its Across Industry Program, launched its Horticulture Industry Crisis Management
Guidelines V1.0 in 2010. This initiative recognised that although much of the industry had adopted quality assurance
as the most direct method of preventing food safety incidents, domestic and international experience suggests that
incidents will still occur. The industry peak bodies in particular were not well placed to assist businesses respond and
recover from a food safety incident but would be inextricably engaged should such an incident occur. A number of
those peak industry bodies have now used the industry guidelines to develop their own crisis management plans
and many businesses have accessed the guidelines to develop their own plans. The guidelines are not exclusively
for food safety and can include natural disaster, work health and safety, fraud, sabotage and other crisis-stimulating
events.
Significance of the Study
Management of food safety is a modern business imperative. Consumers, customers, regulators and businesses
themselves have an interest in ensuring that all horticultural businesses produce safe food 24/7/365. To achieve this
requires affective systems based on international standards, effectively implemented and competently audited. As
consumers demand more complex but healthy and convenient meal solutions, the integrity requirements of fresh
fruit and vegetables will only increase. Horticultural products already feature disproportionately high in foodborne
illness so there is much work to be done, including the need for crisis management when things do go wrong.
Acknowledgements
This work was undertaken by the author as part of his Product Integrity Manager role at Horticulture Australia
from 2001-2014, and continued in his Technology Manager role at PMA Australia-New Zealand Ltd and the Fresh
Produce Safety Centre since February 2014. The Fresh Produce Safety Centre is financially supported by Voluntary
Contributions from industry and matching funds from the Australian Government through Horticulture Australia.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
References
Bennett RR. 2007. Product Integrity Portfolio Strategic Plan 2007-2010. (Horticulture Australia Ltd., unpublished).
Bennett RR. 2014. Food safety and related incidents involving horticulture. (Horticulture Australia Ltd/PMA AustraliaNew Zealand Ltd, unpublished).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Attribution of Foodborne Illness in the USA 1998-2008. Emerging
Infectious Diseases 19(3).
ORAL SESSION 1
Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry. 2004. Guidelines for On-Farm Food Safety for Fresh Produce. 2nd
Edition.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand. 2014. Abandonment – Proposal 1015. Primary Production and Processing
Requirements for Horticulture.
Hall G, Kirk MD, Becker N, Gregory JE, Unicomb L, Millard G. 2012. Estimating foodborne gastroenteritis, Australia.
Emerging Infectious Diseases 11(8):1257–1264.
Howe T. 2011. Review of Food Safety Systems in Australian Horticulture, FSANZ Proposal 1015 - Primary Production
and Processing Requirements for Horticulture, Supporting Document 3.
OzFoodNet. 2012. Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia:
Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2010. Communicable Diseases Intelligence 36(3): E213-E241.
Roy Morgan Research. 2013. Food safety standards in supermarkets important to more shoppers than location, price
or product range. (Media release).
Spencer, S., and Kneebone, M. 2012. FOODmap: An analysis of the Australian food supply chain:51.
World Health Organisation. 2013. Advancing food safety initiatives: strategic plan for food safety including
foodborne zoonoses 2013-2022:7.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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Session 2. Soil management and mineral nutrition
Soilless table grape cultivation - a review
Rosario Di Lorenzo*, P. Scafidi and C. Gambino
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali - University of Palermo - Viale delle Scienze 11, Palermo, Italy
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +39 328 986 6197, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 2
The competition between producing countries, the changes in consumer needs, the new systems of
commercialising and globalisation, impose to table grape industry the development of innovations in production
processes and varieties. For these reasons the Agrarian and Forestry Science Department of Palermo University since
late nineties (Di Lorenzo et al., 2001; Barbagallo et al., 2005;Di Lorenzo et al., 2009; Gambino et al., 2008; Di Lorenzo et
al., 2012) started a study on table grape soilless cultivation.
First experiences of table grape soilless cultivation were done already in the 19th century (Foex 1891; Ottavi 1893).
“The cultivation of vines in pots, as well as provide pleasure and satisfaction, may be able to give a gain because it
often gives amazing results for quantity, quality and beauty of the product...” (Longo, 1926).
The goal of present work is the description of growing and managing techniques for soilless table grape cultivation,
and in the meantime to show the economic potential of this system.
Results and Discussion
The soilless table grape cultivation gives the following advantages:
1. Quick varietal renovation
In the first year own-roots vines are formed and grown, while in the second year the vines are fully productive. At
the end of the first winter, two-bud cuts are put in alveolar pots (0.4L) for rooting. When cuttings are rooted and the
shoot is about 20cm long, the vines are transplanted into 10L pots where they receive fertigation through a drip
irrigation system with auto-compensating pressure emitters (4L.h-1). The substrate choice is very important, the
qualitative and productive results, but also the costs could be very different. The number and the time of fertigation
are dependent from substrate characteristics, variety, environmental conditions and phenological stage.
The nutrient solution contains (mg/l) 78 N, 22 P, 63 K, 106 Ca, and 22 Mg as macronutrients while EC and pH are
adjusted respectively to 1.6 – 2.2mS.cm-1 (at 25 C°) and to 5.5-6.0. The training phase can be carried out inside or
outside the greenhouse. At the end of first vegetative season the plant should have one cane, 1.70m long, well
lignified, with a diameter of 1-1.5cm. The first productive cycle begins, inside the greenhouse, with winter pruning,
leaving the cane about 1.30m long: 0.8m will be vertical portion and 0.50m (4-6 buds) will be rolled on horizontal
wire. The vine density for productive cycle can be various (form 1 to 2 vines per square metre) depending of
greenhouse features.
2. Enlargement of harvest period
In soilless cultivation it is possible to harvest the grapes 15 days before traditional systems under the plastic or in the
greenhouse.
3. Out-of-season production
With a soilless cultivation it is possible to schedule the vegetative cycle like in the tropical areas. It is possible to
harvest early varieties in the late period and late varieties in the early period.
4. Passing of issues like soil tiredness, soil and roots diseases
5. Easy vineyard management
6. Increased productivity
24
7th International Table Grape Symposium
The soilless table grape cultivation allows high yield per hectare (35-40 tons per hectare) with appropriate
commercial standards. In the Mediterranean area, the yield per hectare can be improved carrying out multiple
cycles in the same vegetative season. Research carried out in 2011 in a multi-tunnel greenhouse located in Favara
(Agrigento – Sicily - 37 ° 19 ‘N, - 13 ° 39’ E), on Black Magic and Victoria cv. showed that is possible to obtain, with a
double cycle, a production of 55-70 tons per hectare.
ORAL SESSION 2
In that trial, after the ‘conventional’ production cycle (winter-spring) a ‘late’ cycle (summer-autumn) was carried out
comparing vines that have been harvested already in the ‘conventional’ cycle (2° production vines) and cold-stored
vines (4°C). Bud-break was on 8 July and the harvest on 15 October for a total of 97 days. The yield per plant was
2.9, 1.4 and 1.9 kg respectively in ‘conventional’ cycle vines, 2° production vines and cold-stored vines, with yield per
hectare, considering a plant density of 15.600 plants per hectare, respectively, of 45 tons in ‘conventional’ cycle, 22
tons in 2° production vines and 30 tons in cold-stored vines. In the ‘conventional’ cycle, the bunch weight was 727g,
while in the ‘late’ cycle the bunch weight was 422g in cold-stored vines and 562g in the 2° production vines. The
quality of grape in the ‘late’ cycle, although it was lower than in ‘conventional’ cycle, was acceptable and appropriate
to commercial standards (Cefola et al., 2011). In these trials has been demonstrated that it is possible to carry out, on
the same vine, 4 production cycles before to change it.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the Sicilian Region Government for the financial support, Dr. Biagio Di Mauro for the
technical assistance, and the farms (Agrimed, Fortunato Salerno, Fiorilla, Vita, Minio, Rondinò di Miglione Angré and
Sorace) for their collaboration.
References
Barbagallo MG, Gambino C, Dimauro B, Di Lorenzo R. 2005. Ulteriori considerazioni sulla coltivazione in fuori suolo
dell’uva da tavola. Rivista Di Frutticoltura E Di Ortofloricoltura. vol. 1, pp. 32-36 ISSN: 0392-954X.
Cefola M, Pace B, Buttaro D, Santamaria P, Serio F. 2011. Postharvest evaluation of soilless-grown table grape during
storage in modified atmosphere. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4432.
Di Lorenzo R, Dimauro B, Guarasci F, Rinoldo C, Gambino C. 2012. Più cicli produttivi in un anno nella viticoltura da
tavola in fuori suolo. Proceedings of the 35th World Congress of OIV Vine and Wine, 18-22 June 2012, Izmir, Turkey ISBN
979-10-91799-00-3.
Di Lorenzo R, Gambino C, Di Mauro B. 2009. La coltivazione dell’uva da tavola in fuori suolo: stato attuale e
prospettive. Le Bulletin de L’OIV. Vol. 82, No.935-936-937, pp. 33-44. ISSN 0029-7127. Lavoro preparato per il XXXI
World Congress of Vine and Wine, Verona, Italy, 15-20 June, 2008.
Di Lorenzo R., Barbagallo MG, Mafrica R, Palermo G, Dimauro B. 2001. “Bio-Agronomic and phisiological aspects of
the training of “soilless” table grapes in Sicily”. Atti XII Gesco.
Foex G. 1891. “Cours complet de viticulture”. Aux Bureaux Du Progres Agricole Et Viticole. Montpellier Et Villefranche
(Rhone) - Bibliotheque Du Progres Agricole Et Viticole: 898-906.
Gambino C and Di Lorenzo R. 2008. Comportamento vegeto-produttivo ed ecofisiologico di viti allevate fuori suolo
in coltura protetta. Rivista Di Frutticoltura E Di Ortofloricoltura. vol. 1, pp. 22-26 ISSN: 0392-954X.
Longo A. 1926. “La coltivazione delle viti in vaso”. Velletri, Luglio. Edizione L’Italia Agricola. Estratto Da L’italia Vinicola
Ed Agraria: 65-66; 68-70; 86-87; 103-105.
Ottavi O. 1893. Viticoltura Teorico-Pratica.
Prenger JJ and Ling PP. 2000. Greenhouse condensation control. Fact Sheet (Series) AEX-804. Ohio State University
Extension, Columbus, OH: 1-4.
Ruggiero C, Dilorenzo R, Angelino G, Scaglione G, Gambino C, Divaio C. 2012. Root hydraulic conductivity in three
self-rooted and grafted table grape cultivars. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin. 01/12.
Vidaud J. 1991. “Coltures sous abris en hors-sol”. Special Essais No. 284-239. Ctifl – n.17.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
25
Soil management using no tillage and cover crops in a table grape vineyard in
southeastern Italy (Puglia region)
G Ferrara1, A Mazzeo1, C Lasorella2, P Montemurro2,*, A Mastropirro3 and M Fracchiolla2
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, via Amendola 165/A
- 70126 Bari (Italy)
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Agro Ambientali e Territoriali - University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, via Amendola 165/A - 70126
Bari (Italy)
3
Agriproject Group - Rutigliano (Italy)
*
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 2
Southern Italy, in particular Puglia and Sicilia regions, is the main area where table grapes are cultivated, with more
than 90% of Italian production. Changing from conventional table grape vineyard soil management, which includes
soil tillage and chemical control of weeds, to cover crops mulching has agronomic, economical and environmental
advantages, but may create competition between the cover crops and the vine.
Over time, different sustainable soil managements systems with different types of mulching techniques (organic,
inorganic, artificial mulches) have been proposed for wine grapes, especially in climates with higher amounts of
rain, but scarce information is available for such management systems for a table grape vineyard in Mediterranean
climates. The objective of the study was to verify the effects of various types of no tillage techniques, including the
use of cover crops, in a table grape vineyard under Mediterranean conditions.
Experimental Procedure
The trial was carried out in the years 2010 and 2011 in a commercial and irrigated 7-year old table grape vineyard
located in the countryside of Acquaviva delle Fonti (Ba). The cultivar tested in the trial was Italia, grafted on 1103P
and cultivated with an overhead trellising system slightly modified; vines were spaced 2.3m on the rows and 2.8m
between the rows.
The treatments were:
•
•
•
•
T1: no tillage, with Trifolium subterraneum L. as cover crop.
T2: no tillage with Festuca arundinacea Schreb. as cover crop.
T3: no tillage with naturally occurring flora.
T4: traditional soil tillage as control.
A randomised block design with 4 repetitions was adopted, with a tested area of 5 plants. In the first three
treatments, cover crops or natural flora were mowed whenever vegetation reached a height of 20cm. At harvest,
yield per vine, berry skin colour and some chemical characteristics of the berries were determined.
Results and Discussion
In 2010 mean marketable yield per vine ranged from 22.0kg in T4 to 23.9kg in T3; number of bunches/vine ranged
from 27.6, in the traditionally tilled control, up to 29.2 in T1 and T2. There were no statistically significant differences
among the treatments for all data, including morphological characteristics of berries, titratable acidity, °Brix, pH
and ratio °Brix/acidity. Colourimetric analyses (with Minolta® CR-400 colourimeter) gave values statistically different
for lightness (parameter L), with a minimum value of 41.0 for T2 to a maximum of 41.6 for the treatment sown
with clover. With regards to the chroma (parameter C), a significantly lower value (equal to 9.4) was measured for
the tilled control compared to T3, whereas for the angle of colour or hue (parameter h°) there were no significant
differences among all treatments.
In 2011 the measurements of the marketable production per vine and the number of bunches/vine did not show
significant differences. In particular, for the yield the mean values ranged from a minimum of 23.0kg for T3 to a
maximum of 25.4kg for T1, whereas the number of bunches ranged from 28.4 (T4) up to 31.0 (T3). With regard to the
morphological characteristics of berries any notable difference was found.
Mean °Brix values were significantly higher for the tilled control, whereas similar values were measured in all the
other treatments. Similarly, titratable acidity was significantly higher in T3 treatment. With regards of the colour of
the skin, higher L value was measured in T2 with respect to T1; however, both these treatments were no statistically
different from T3. C value was significantly higher in T3 compared to T1 but similar T4 and T2; h° value was not
significantly different among the treatments.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
With regard to the yield and the number of bunches per vine, the weight of the berries, as well as for most of
chemical and qualitative parameters, there were no significant differences among all the treatments. Colourimetric
data evaluated in treatment sown with fescue, appeared able to provide berries, in both years, with a level of
lightness (L) and chroma (C) of the skin higher than the other types of soil management systems evaluated. These
results confirm those detected in a previous trial on the quality of the berry, in particular skin colour and berry
texture (Mazzeo et al., 2013).
We can conclude that in Puglia Region the use of no tillage and cover crops can be considered as a possible
alternative to traditional soil management. Paying attention to avoid high competition (mainly nutrients, water and
temperature stresses) between cover crop or natural flora and vine, it is possible to eliminate negative effects and
even improve the sustainability of table grape production. In particular, soil management with no tillage and cover
crop can:
•
provide fuel savings, due to the limited number of mechanical treatments;
increase the soil fertility, as already found in previous experiments conducted in other fruit species, when
using legume species, such as T. subterraneum;
match the principles of ‘Environmental Conditionality’, included in the most recent environmental measures
of the European Community Agricultural Policy.
ORAL SESSION 2
•
•
The presence of the cover crops in the vineyard can also be seen as an adequate agronomic strategy to control vine
vegetative growth and yield (Pinamonti et al., 1996), in particular for vigorous cultivars such as Crimson Seedless
thus improving the skin colour and the ripening of the berry. Moreover, consumers of agricultural products demand
that the use of chemicals and the negative impact of intensive agricultural practices on the environment must be
reduced (Fourie, 2011), and the presence of cover crops may be a useful tool.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank the Valenzano farm for the use of the vineyard.
References
Fourie JC. 2011. Soil Management in the Breede River Valley Wine Grape Region, South Africa. 3. Grapevine
Performance. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 32(1): 60-70.
Mazzeo A, Matarrese MS, Montemurro P, Pacifico A, Lasorella C, Ferrara G. 2013. Effetti di diverse tipologie di
inerbimento sugli aspetti qualitativi della cultivar Italia in provincia di Bari. IV Convegno Nazionale di Viticoltura. Asti,
10-12 Luglio 2012. Quaderni di Scienze Viticole ed Enologiche 32 (2011-2012): 305-309. ISSN: 1970-6545.
Pinamonti F, Stefanini M, Dalpiaz A. 1996. Soil management effects on nutritional status and grapevine performance.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 51: 76-82.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
27
First results on soil management of organic Midnight Beauty® table grapes
covered with plastic film in Apulia region
Gianvito Masi*, L Tarricone, D Di Gennaro, G Gentilesco and AM Amendolagine
Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura - Research Unit for Viticulture and Enology in Southern
Italy, Via Casamassima, 148 70010 Turi (BA) Italy
*
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 2
In the world there is an increasing consumer demand for residue-free, organically grown seedless table grapes.
Organic table grape cultivation is very delicate and in organic viticulture cover crops are considered a highly
sustainability choice for the soil management strategies. There are many choices for cover crops in viticulture,
ranging from perennial and annual grasses, to legumes considering that each species has strengths and
weaknesses, as well as associated seed and management costs.
The use of inter-row cover crops (permanent or temporary) in viticulture has many advantages, with the reduction
of water runoff and soil erosion, restriction of evaporation from the soil surface, improvement soil water holding and
soil organic matter, the reduction of temperature fluctuations in the soil, as well as the regulation of the vine growth
and vigour, with influence on grape quality and quantity (de Palma et al., 2007; Fourie, 2010).
Sugrathirteen® (Midnight beauty® brand) is a new early-season black seedless table grape variety obtained by
David W Cain in Wasco, (California) and developed and produced under license throughout the world by Sun
World Int., (Coachella, California, USA). It’s characterised by high productivity and has firm, low acid, early ripening
(ripens along with Superior Seedless) naturally large, elongated black berries, which does not require exogenous
applications of gibberellic acid to obtain commercially acceptable berry size (USPP No. 10.434;Gentilesco et al.,
2011).
In this research three soil management techniques were compared to test their effects on vine growth, vine water
status, production and juice composition of organic Sugrathirteen® table grape vines.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Research was carried out in the year 2012 in the Apulia region in an organic table grape vineyard on Vitis vinifera
cv Sugrathirteen (Midnight Beauty® brand), grafted onto Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris 140 Ruggeri rootstock, with
a spacing of 3.5 x 2.0 m apart (1.428 vines ha-1), 4 years old located in ‘Gioia del Colle’ area, 344m above sea level,
(latitude 40°47°48° N and longitude 16°55°24° E).
Vines were cane pruned (six twelve-nodes cane were retained, 72 buds per vine ) and trained to Y trellis system,
drip-irrigated and covered on the top of each row with plastic film from budbreak to harvest, to protect canopy and
clusters from the negative effect of wind, rain and hail. Annual average rainfall in the region is moderate (500mm.
year-1) with high summer evaporation and low relative humidity.
In this research three soil management strategies were compared: (MC) mechanical cultivation along the rows and
inter-rows, (RV) mechanical cultivation along the rows while inter-rows space were occupied by permanent resident
vegetation (cheap and generally easy to manage) and (TR) mechanical cultivation along the rows while inter-rows
space were sown with Trifolium subterraneum L. ssp. brachycalicinum cv Antas.
The clover cover crop was sown during the end of November 2010 and the seedbed preparation was done with
a disc harrow approximately two weeks before the seeding date. After mechanical sowing, the clover seeds were
covered using a disc harrow. In conclusion in two cover crop types, the vineyard soil management consists of
two zones: the rows, a 70cm wide area underneath the vines, which are managed primarily to control weeds by
mechanical cultivation and the middles, interspersed between the rows, which are vegetated by clover cover crops
or resident vegetation and are mown three fold per year in spring and early summer. Cultivation was carried out
every 4 to 5 weeks during the growing season with a cultivator equipped with trunk sensor to avoid vine damage.
Irrigation was provided trough drip system with a single irrigation line per row and pressure-compensated emitters,
with a discharge rate of 10L.h-1 per vine respectively. Drip irrigation and fertigation were applied uniformly across
all treatments and fertiliser was not applied to the grass cover. Soil water content was evaluated from soil moisture
sensors (10 HS Decagon Device Inc.) installed in-row and adjacent middles to a depth of 60 and 30cm in all plots.
28
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Soil of the experimental vineyard is characterised by a medium chemical fertility and soil texture was clay-loam. On
15 vines per treatment, shoots and clusters number per vine, were assessed, and fruitfulness was calculated. Cluster
number of vines was standardised one week after berry set in order to retain an average of 30 bunches per vine in
all treatments with manual cluster thinning.
To quantify vine water status, midday stem water potentials (Ψmds) were measured on 10 leaves of similar maturity
per treatment with a pressure chamber (3005F01, Soilmoisture Equipment Corp., Santa Barbara CA, USA). Leaf
stomatal conductance was determined on cloudless days during ‘midday’ period using a portable porometer
(Model SC-1, Decagon Devicess, Pullman, WA). Moreover, in a typical day of July, parameters of physiological leaf gas
exchange were measured, between 12:00 and 14:00 solar time, on well-exposed main leaves of the second node
above the distal cluster on a middle vigorous shoot (4 leaves per replicate) at ~1500μmol.m-2 .s-1 of photosynthetic
photon flux (ADC Mod. LCproSD, ADC BioScientific Ltd., Hoddesdon, UK).
ORAL SESSION 2
At the commercial harvest, on random samples of 45 clusters per treatment, bunch and berry mass, cluster length,
berry diameters and yield per vine were determined. On a juice samples the total soluble solids, titratable acidity
and pH were also determined. Besides, 50 berries per treatment were randomly sampled and their skin firmness,
berry removal force and firmness were determined using a digital penetrometer (Digital Fruit firmness tester, TR
Turoni S.r.l., Forlì, Italy).
On a sample of 100 berries per treatment the berry skin colour parameters (brightness L*, a* measure of range colour
from green (-) to red (+) and b* measure of range colour from blue (-) to yellow (+)) by use of colourimeter (Minolta
Croma Meter CR 400) were determined. After the harvest, six vines per treatment were completely defoliated and
total leaf area per vine determined with a leaf area meter (area-meter Li-3100, LI-COR, USA) and the leaf area/crop
weight ratio was calculated. During winter period vegetative growth was quantified by measuring cane mass at
pruning and the fruit to pruning weight ratio was calculated. Data were statistically analysed using procedure of
Systat 11 package (SYSTAT Software Inc., Richmond, California, USA).
The different soil management strategies have influenced bud fruitfulness with the highest clusters number per vine
in TR treatment. Compared to TR treatment, a reduction of cluster number per vine of 21% and 8% was observed
for MC and RV treatments respectively (Table 1). Midday stem water potential showed slight differences between
treatments during the shoots growth and at véraison. At véraison, midday stem water potential in TR and RV vines
reached the minimum value of -1.02 and -0.98 MPa (moderate water stress) and were significantly lower than that
of MC vines. Same tendency was observed for stomatal conductance, given that the competition of cover crops
affected the stomata aperture as indicated by lowest values on TR and RV vines during shoots growth (Table 2).
Table 1. Vegetative and yield characteristics of Sugrathirteen® vines before cluster thinning.
Buds
per vine
(n)
Shoots
per vine
(n)
MC
72 a
TR
72 a
RV
72 a
Treatment
Clusters
per vine
(n)
Clusters per
vine/Buds per
vine
Clusters per
vine/Shoots per
vine
52.67 a
59 b
0.82 b
1.12 a
57.70 a
74.33 a
1.03 a
1.29 a
56.73 a
68.67 ab
0.95 ab
1.21 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Table 2. Midday stem water potential and stomatal conductance of Sugrathirteen® vines.
Parameter
Midday stem water potential
(Ψmds, MPa)
Stage
Shoot
growth
Pea-size
Véraison
Harvest
MC
-0.87 b
-0.89 a
-0.72 b
TR
-1.04 a
-0.92 a
-1.02 a
RV
-1.01 a
-0.87 a
-0.98 a
Stomatal conductance
(mmol.m-2.s-1)
Shoot
growth
Pea-size
Véraison
Harvest
-0.88 a
393.10 a
392.70 a
301.33 a
347.09 a
-0.96 a
223.20 b
352.40 a
316.04 a
299.38 a
-0.72 a
275.50 b
388.90 a
307.64 a
352.62 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
29
The gas exchange of leaves exposed to about 1500μmol.m-2 .s-1 of direct photosynthetically active radiation, showed
considerably higher rates of stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis in all treatments. MC vines have shown
the lowest leaf transpiration and leaf temperature (Table 3).
Table 3. Leaf gas exchange of Sugrathirteen® vines.
Parameter/Treatment
Leaf temperature
(°C)
Stomatal
conductance
(mol.m-2.s-1)
Net
photosynthesis
(µmol.m-2.s-1)
Transpiration
(mol.m-2.s-1)
WUE
(µmol:mmol)
MC
33.60 b
0.295 a
13.08 a
4.72 b
2.77 a
TR
35.42 a
0.352 a
12.77 a
6.35 a
2.20 b
RV
35.22 a
0.342 a
13.10 a
5.88 ab
1.99 b
ORAL SESSION 2
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Soil moisture declined most rapidly in the middles of MC plots during periods without rainfall and remain stable for
more time in TR middles.
At harvest no significant difference among treatments were noted for bunch weight and berry physical parameters
(Table 4) while cover crops had a significant impact on berry weight. Berry weight shown the lowest value in
mechanical cultivation vines compared with the two types of cover crops. In all plots with ground cover, berries
number per cluster was lower than tilled treatment probably due to the high competition of cover crops in the
blooming period of grapevine. In the tilled vines the absence of weeds competition have allowed a higher fruit
set, and consequently highest berries number per cluster, with a reduction of the berry weight, as expected. At the
beginning of August, ‘Sugrathirteen® grapes of TR and RV treatments reached 16.70÷16.90° Brix; the lowest total
soluble solids was reached in MC vines with a decrement of 9% (Table 5). Titratable acidity was quite low and ranged
between 5.3g.L-1 (on MC and RV vines) to 5.7 (on TR vines).
Table 4. Quantitative fruit parameters of organic Sugrathirteen® table grape at harvest.
Treatment
Bunch
weight
(g)
Rachis Berry
weight
per
(g)
cluster
(n)
Berry
weight
(g)
Polar
Equatorial
Cluster
Skin
Berry Firmness
diameter diameter compact- firmness removal
(g)
(mm)
(mm)
ness index
(g)
force
(berry/cm
(g)
rachis)
MC
563.51 a
13 a
131 a
4.30 b
24.39 a
19.61 a
5.69 a
140 a
270 a
1320 a
TR
554.86 a
11 ab
116 ab
4.80 a
23.99 a
19.41 a
5.27 a
120 a
260 a
1360 a
RV
518.18 a
10 b
108 b
4.70 a
22.79 b
18.77 b
5.14
130 a
270 a
1420 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Table 5.Berry parameters and skin colour coordinates of organic Sugrathirteen® table grape at harvest.
Treatment
Total soluble
solids
(°Brix)
Titratable
acidity
(g.L-1)
pH
L*
(brightness)
a*
(greenness)
b*
(yellowness)
MC
15.20 b
5.32 b
3.29 b
31.41 a
2.49 b
-7.14a
TR
16.70 a
5.74 a
3.26 c
29.69 b
2.89 a
-7.49 b
RV
16.90 a
5.32 b
3.39 a
31.65 a
2.86 a
-7.88 c
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
In our research berry sugar content was not correlated to yield per vine, in fact the yield was similar and no
significantly different among treatments (Table 6) considering the same clusters number retained per vine after
cluster thinning. Monthly field measurements of SPAD (greenness index of leaves) throughout the 2012 seasons
showed significant differences among treatments with the highest values on leaves of MC vines (data not shown).
Skin colour parameters didn’t shown significant differences between treatments (Table 5), on the other hand
Sugrathirteen® is a grape variety with no problem of skin berry colour, also in relation to specific anthocyanins
composition (Tarricone et al., 2011).
30
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Different soil management induced significant differences in total leaf area per vine. Leaf area of TR vines (clover
cover crop) was quantitatively higher than that of the other soil treatments (Table 6) and maximum berry weight
was obtained in TR treatment which showed a highest leaf area (m2) per fresh yield (kg) ratio. Leaf area crop weight
ratio reached values about of 1m2.kg-1 in TR and RV vines, but it was reduced of 21% in MC vines, not differed
from optimal values comprised between 0.8 to 1.2m2.kg-1 of fruit (Kliewer and Dokoozlian, 2005). Different soil
management did not reduce significantly the vegetative growth (Table 7) as shown by the pruning weight, cane
weight and considering the Ravaz index (crop yield/pruning weight).
Table 6. Main vegetative parameters of Sugrathirteen® vines.
Treatment
Total leaf area per vine (m2 vine-1)
Leaf area/yield (m2 kg-1)
MC
16.90 a
13.70 b
0.81 b
TR
16.64 a
17.13 a
1.03 a
RV
15.54 a
14.93 b
0.96 a
ORAL SESSION 2
Yield (kg vine-1)
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Table 7. Effect of the soil management on the pruning weight of Sugrathirteen® vines.
Treatment
Pruning weight (g)
Average cane weight (g)
Ravaz Index
MC
2767 a
61.30 a
6.76 a
TR
2989 a
89.53 a
5.87 a
RV
2369 a
59.80 a
6.94 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
According to the preliminary results cover crops had positive effects on berry sugar content and berry weight of
organic Sugrathirteen® vines. These parameters were higher and statistically different in all plots with grass cover
compared to mechanical cultivation. This can be explained by the vegetative cycle and low competiveness of
resident weeds in the vineyard also in relation to the shade effect on cover due to grapevine canopies.
Finally, the benefit of temporary clover cover crop, which was at beginning of véraison (July) in its summer standstill,
and exerts mulching effect and less water competition to the vines, was evaluated. In conclusion a temporary cover
crop with clover or resident vegetation had no negative effect on vine growth and productivity of organic seedless
table grape, with clear benefits of the cover crops in relation to soil compaction, soil water storage, organic matter
and soil microbial biomass.
Acknowledgements
The work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Policy (D.M. MIP.A.A.F 26763/7818/2011
del 15/12/2011, Bando Progetti di ricerca per PMI agricole proposti da piccole e medie imprese condotte da giovani
imprenditori agricoli) Project “METODI DI GESTIONE ECOSOSTENIBILI NELLA PRODUZIONEDI UVE DA TAVOLA APIRENE ”,
acronimo ECO.APIREN; publication No. 1.
References
de Palma L, Novello V, Tarricone L, Frabboni L, Lopriore G, Soleti F. 2007. Qualità del prodotto e protezione
agronomica dell’ambiente edafico in un sistema vitivinicolo dell’Italia meridionale. Quaderni di Scienze Viticole ed
Enologiche University of Torino 29: 83-111.
Fourie JC. 2010. Soil management in the Breede River Valley wine grape region, South Africa. 1. Grapevine
performance. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 32: 60-70.
Fourie JC. 2010. Soil management in the Breede River Valley wine grape region, South Africa. 3. Cover crop
performance and weed control. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 31: 14-21, 165-168.
Gentilesco G, Amendolagine AM, Giannandrea MA, Notarangelo L, Roccotelli S, Suriano S, Savino M, Romanazzi V,
7th International Table Grape Symposium
31
Tarricone L. 2011. Effect of crop load and time of girdling on Sugrathirtheen® table grape: first results. Le Progrés
Agricole et Viticole, Proceedings 17th International Symposium GiESCO, Asti-alba (CN). Italy 29 august- 2 September 2011:
419-422. ISSN: 0369-8173.
Kliewer WM and Dookzlian NK. 2005. Leaf area/crop weight ratios of grapevines: influence of fruit composition and
wine quality. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56: 170-181.
United States Plant Patent No. 10.434: June 9, 1998.
ORAL SESSION 2
32
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Advancing ripening of Scarlet Royal grown in the desert region in California
William L Peacock1, Joseph L Smilanick2 and Carmen Gispert3,*
University of California, Cooperative Extension. Visalia, CA 93292. Viticulturist Emeritus
USDA-ARS. San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center 9611 S. Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648. Retired Plant
Pathologist
3
University of California, Cooperative Extension, 81-077 Indio Blvd. Suite H, Indio, CA 92201
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 760 342 2466. Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 2
Colour development is a limiting factor to grow Scarlet Royal in the desert region and is common practice to use
colour enhancement materials such as Ethephon and abscisic acid (ABA) to colour the bunches.
In red grapes, anthocyanins are responsible for the colour red which start accumulating at véraison (Somers 1976).
The content and composition of anthocyanins is influenced by numerous factors and can be manipulated by
viticultural practices such as canopy management, yield regulation, irrigation and timing of harvest (Downey, et al.,
2006). In previous work we observed that the application of foliar potassium accelerated berry maturity as defined
as soluble solids content, but did not influence the composition of sugars as determined by fructose/glucose ratio,
or influence titrable acid content, so berry flavour would not change by potassium applications (Smilanick et al.,
2013).
In this study we evaluated the efficacy of foliar potassium, ethephon, abscisic acid and a maturity girdle in
combination with deficit irrigation on fruit colour, vine production and vine growth.
Experimental Procedure
The experiment was designed as a 3x factorial. Factor A compared two treatments: fully irrigated vines with vines
deficit irrigated. Factor B compared two treatments: Albion foliar K (3.785L per 4047m2) applied at 14° Brix along
with a control. Factor C evaluated four treatments: ethephon (946mL per 4047m2), abscisic acid (150g per 4047m2),
maturity girdle, and untreated control. The plant growth regulators (PGRs) and girdle treatments were all applied in
early véraison. Plot size consisted of three blocks with three vines each with a total of 48 plots.
Table 1. Experiment design, completely randomised split pilot.
Treatment Factor
Factor A
Irrigation
Factor B
Foliar K
Factor C
PGRs
1. Full
1. Control
1. Control
2. Deficit
2. K at 14° brix
2. Ethephon
3. ABA
4. Maturity girdle
In this study, deficit irrigation consisted of applying full evapotranspiration (ET) from budbreak until the lag phase
and then fifty percent ET through ripening and harvest. Irrigation amounts were based on the San Joaquin Drip
Irrigation Scheduler (Peacock et al., 1978), modified for the desert area, and adjusted based on tensiometers. Water
meters were used to record amounts applied to both deficit and full ET treatments.
During the period from 28 March (three weeks after bud break) to 21 May (early véraison) deficit and full irrigation
treatments received about 5.5 acre inches (565.3m3) of water. Deficit irrigation at 50% ET began 21 May, and
continued throughout ripening until harvest in July. During the ripening and harvest period the deficit and full
irrigation treatments received 5.6 acre inches (575.6m3) and 10.4 acre inches (1069m3) respectively.
Results and Discussion
Deficit irrigation can impact metabolite accumulation decreasing root and shoot growth (Jones, 1992). In this study
the primary purpose of deficit irrigation treatments during fruit ripening was to slow shoot growth and redirect the
flux of carbohydrates to the fruit. The amount of stress due to deficit irrigation can have negative impacts on fruit
and vine development and it will be important to find the right level of deficit irrigation to maximise fruit maturity
while minimising negative impacts on fruit and vine capacity.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
33
In 2013, harvest occurred on 1 July. Fruit was determined harvestable solely based on colour when 90% of the
berries on a cluster were 90% coloured.
Results showed that harvestable fruit increased from 6% to 12% when deficit irrigation treatments were compared
to full irrigation. However, deficit irrigation in combination with foliar potassium increased harvestable fruit from
6% to 24%. The most effective deficit irrigation treatment was foliar potassium plus ethephon, which increased
harvestable fruit from 6% to 35%. Under full irrigation, the most efficacious treatment was foliar potassium with
either ethephon or maturity girdle.
We found that berry characteristics as soluble solids, berry weight, berry width, and berry firmness were not affected
by deficit irrigation, foliar K, ethephon, abscisic acid, or maturity girdle treatments and did not have a significant
impact on cluster rot, sunburn, or shrivel berries.
ORAL SESSION 2
When soluble solids were compared at 5% no significant differences were found, however, there was significance
at the 15% level. The maturity girdle and ethephon advanced soluble by about 0.8° Brix, and the combination of a
maturity girdle and foliar potassium advanced maturity by almost 1.0° Brix compared to the untreated control.
There was a positive interaction between foliar potassium and deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation during fruit
ripening enhanced colour and sugar maturity compared to vines fully irrigated. Under full irrigation, the most
efficacious treatment was foliar potassium and ethephon. The greatest increase in fruit colour occurred with the
combination of deficit irrigation, foliar potassium and ethephon, which increased packable fruit (based on colour)
from 6% to 35%. Although vines were stressed for four weeks during ripening, deficit irrigation had no negative
effects on fruit quality (berry weight, firmness, rot, shrivel, or sunburn), however it will be important to consider that
colour could be improved with a shorter period of deficit irrigation.
Significance of the Study
Understanding factors that may affect the firmness, size, and colour of grape berries, and the identification of
interactions among these and deficit irrigation, foliar potassium and ethephon, would be useful to understand how
they affect fruit ripening.
Acknowledgments
Funding was provided by the California Table Grape Commission. 392 W. Fallbrook, Suite 101. Fresno, CA 937116150.
References
Downey MO, Dokoozlian NK, Kristic MP. 2006. Cultural practice and environmental impacts on the flavonoid
composition of grapes and wine: A review of recent research. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57: 257268.
Peacock WL, Christensen LP, Andris HL. 1987. Development of a drip irrigation schedule for average-canopy
vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 38:113-119.
Smilanick JL, Gispert C, Peacock WL. 2013. Development of foliar potassium and deficit irrigation strategies that
optimise fruit quality. California Table Grape Research Report. Vol.41.
Somers TC. 1976. Pigment development during ripening of the grape Vitis 14: 269-277.
34
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Session 3. Rootstocks, breeding and cultivar improvement
Keynote address
Advanced genetic improvement strategies: New vines for new times
Mark R Thomas*, Ian B. Dry, Angela Feechan, Pat Corena and Don Mackenzie
CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, Wine Innovation West Building, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA 5064, Australia
*Corresponding author: Tel: +61 8 8303 8600, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 3
Reducing input costs and having a desirable marketable product are both key to ensuring economic sustainability.
Grapevines are highly susceptible to a wide range of pests and microbial pathogens. Historically, grape growers
have relied heavily on the use of pesticides and fungicides, in combination with various management techniques,
to minimise the impact of these pathogens. There is, however, increasing financial, regulatory and market pressure
on grape growers to minimise the application of agrochemicals in the vineyard. In the face of these increasing
pressures, the development of new grapevine cultivars with improved genetic resistance to pathogens is a high
priority.
In other crops, such as cereals, similar diseases have been controlled by breeding to incorporate resistance genes.
However, previous attempts to introgress resistance by conventional grapevine breeding strategies has been
hampered by the slow generation times and the costs required to propagate and screen sufficiently large numbers
of progeny to identify resistant cultivars.
The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by powdery mildew and
downy mildew. These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in the 1840s and have
subsequently spread to all major grape producing regions of the world. The wild North American grapevine species
Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognised as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew.
This paper will give an overview of progress we have made both in the identification of the genes responsible for
powdery and downy mildew resistance in M. rotundifolia and the introduction of mildew resistance genes into
existing grape cultivars either by genetic transformation or marker-assisted selection. Future deployment of these
new disease-resistant cultivars will also be discussed and how similar approaches can be used to produce improved
table grape varieties.
Experimental Procedure and Results
We have developed a number of advanced genetic tools to reduce the time taken to produce new grapevine
varieties. These are:
•
Microvine plants for rapid forward and reverse genetic studies in grapevine (Chaib et al., 2010).
•
Genetic modification (GM) methods to introduce genes in grapevine (Franks et al., 1998; Iocco et al., 2001;
Bouquet et al., 2008).
•
Linking DNA markers to grapevine traits (Chaib et al., 2010; Fernandez et al., 2013) for marker-assisted
selection (MAS).
The use of rapid cycling microvine plants has allowed the rapid testing and linking of DNA markers to traits of
economic importance to identify candidate genes responsible for the trait. GM studies and gene expression and
DNA sequencing studies have allowed the identification of the gene responsible for a trait to be confirmed and to
produce a GM plant containing the trait of interest such as a mildew resistance gene. This information when known
can also be used in a MAS approach to develop a DNA marker panel to screen thousands of grapevine seedlings to
select both disease resistant traits and specific fruit traits without the need to grow the plant in the field for fruiting
and evaluation. Only a small percentage of seedlings having the correct DNA profile and therefore gene allele
combinations (e.g. 15% or less depending on the traits being selected for) are selected for further field evaluation.
This represents a considerable saving in resources and time.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
35
We have used the above approaches to produce both GM vines resistant to mildew and non-GM vines resistant to
mildews by MAS.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
We have developed new vines for both research and industry adoption.
For research we have developed a number of unique microvine genotypes that provide a model system suitable for
rapid forward and reverse genetic studies in small controlled environments. It is based on the Vvgai1 mutant allele
that confers a dwarf stature, short generation cycle and continuous flowering. The microvine provides a unique
system for rapid genetic studies of grapevine by changing the perennial long life cycle of the plant to one with
features and advantages similar to an annual plant. We have used this model system for studying gene function and
linking genes and DNA markers to traits.
For industry we have investigated both a GM approach and the use of DNA markers linked to traits for markerassisted selection of new grapevine varieties to produce the first generation of low input varieties based on genetic
selection that are superior to the old conventional varieties in terms of reduced production costs, performance and
market protection.
ORAL SESSION 3
Combining disease resistance with improved grape quality can be achieved over a relatively short time frame using
advanced genetic improvement strategies compared to traditional breeding methods. Reducing the time from
research to adoption was an important part of the research as well as industry involvement in the screening and
evaluation of the new vines.
GM or non-GM approaches to grapevine improvement have different advantages and disadvantages. At the present
time it appears that GM vines will remain an important component of research. For new improved varieties for
industry adoption the non-GM MAS approach would appear to be the most attractive.
Acknowledgements
This work was funded in part by CSIRO Plant Industry, Grape and Wine Research Development Corporation and the
Institut National de Recherche Agronomique, France. We thank Vladimir Jiranek, Tommaso Liccioli and Frank Schmid
from the University of Adelaide and Peter Rogers from DPI VIC for winemaking. Greatly appreciated was the advice
and guidance from members of the Industry Winemakers Group associated with the project.
References
Bouquet A, Torregrossa L, Iocco P, Thomas MR. 2008. Grapes. In: C Kole, TC Hall, eds, Compendium of Transgenic Crop
Plants: Transgenic Temperate Fruits and Nuts, Vol 4. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp 189-232.
Chaib J, Torregrosa L, Mackenzie D, Corena P, Bouquet A, Thomas MR. 2010 The grape microvine - a model system for
rapid forward and reverse genetics of grapevines. Plant Journal 62: 1083-1092.
Fernandez L, Chaib J, Martinez-Zapater JM, Thomas MR, Torregrosa L. 2013. Mis-expression of a PISTILLATA-like
MADS box gene prevents fruit development in grapevine. Plant Journal 73: 918-928.
Franks T, He DG, Thomas M (1998) Regeneration of transgenic Vitis vinifera L. Sultana plants: genotypic and
phenotypic analysis. Molecular Breeding 4: 321-333.
Iocco P, Franks T, Thomas MR. 2001. Genetic transformation of major wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. Transgenic
Research 10: 105-112.
36
7th International Table Grape Symposium
New table grape varieties obtained in the breeding program by ITUM-IMIDA
in Spain
Juan Carreño1,*, M Tornel1 and I Carreño2
IMIDA, Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario. Dept. Viticulture and Enology, Table
Grape. C/ Mayor s/n, 30150 La Alberca, Murcia, Spain
2
ITUM (Research and Technology Table Grape), Lomas de Marín s/n 30540 Blanca, Spain
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 34 616309563, Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 3
IMIDA started the table grape breeding program in 1991. ITUM is a private company which includes most table
grape growers in the region of Murcia and was created in order to develop new table grape varieties. ITUM and
IMIDA started together a new table grape breeding program in 2003. The main goal of our breeding program is to
develop new table grape varieties with good quality for the consumer and economically profitable for the farmer
and the marketing. Our aim is to obtain very productive varieties with no production or marketing problems. In
recent years we have started a new line of crosses in order to obtain resistant varieties for powdery and downy
mildew. We have promising new hybrids that will soon be registered as high quality varieties which are resistant to
these fungi.
Experimental Procedure and Results
In our program we use the classical crossing method with embryo rescue when we use two seedless varieties as
parents. We started the program by hybridising the best Spanish seeded varieties with the best seedless varieties
worldwide. To date ITUM has released twelve varieties and expects to release six new varieties in the near future.
Varieties in commercial planting or production are described below:
Itumone
• Early-middle season (harvest: two weeks after Sugraone), white seedless
• Neutral-acidic flavour (like Crimson)
• Berries are crunchy, 18-23mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F. (bunches / shoot) 1-1.5, 450-550g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little or no gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
Itumfour
• Late season (mid-August to mid December in Spain), white seedless
• Neutral flavour
• Berries are crunchy, 18-22mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 1.2-1.5, 500-550g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Long duration of the clusters on the plant
Itumfive
• Late season (mid-August to end of December in Spain), white seedless
• Neutral flavour
• Berries are very crunchy, 18-23mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.5-0.8, 700-850g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little or no gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little or no gibberellic acid for sizing
• Long duration of the clusters on the plant
• Very good cold storage
Itumsix
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Late season (mid-August to end of December in Spain), white seedless
Neutral flavour
Berries are very crunchy, 18-22mm diameter
Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1.1, 650-800g bunch weight
Not require manual cluster thinning
Gibberellic acid for thinning 1-2ppm. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
Long duration of the clusters on the plant
Very good cold storage
7th International Table Grape Symposium
37
Itumeight
• Middle-late season (-1 week Crimson), Red seedless
• Neutral-acidic flavour
• Berries are very crunchy, 18-22mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1.2, 700-850 g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Very productive and colours easily
Itumnine
• Middle-late season (like Crimson), Red seedless
• Neutral-acidic flavour (like Crimson)
• Berries are very crunchy, 18-22mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1, 700-850g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Very productive and colours easily
ORAL SESSION 3
Itumtwelve
• Middle-late season (like Autumn Royal), very nice dark black
• Neutral-acidic flavour (like Crimson)
• Berries are very crunchy, 18-21mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1, 450-550g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Good resistance to rain and cold storage
Varieties for next year:
Itumthirteen
• Middle season (like Princess), white seedless
• Light muscat flavour
• Berries are very crunchy, 18-24mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1, 500-700g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Good resistance to rain and cold storage
Itumfourteen
• Middle-late season, red seedless
• Light muscat flavour
• Berries are crunchy, 19-25mm diameter
• Productivity: I.F.: 0.8-1, 500-700g bunch weight
• Not require manual cluster thinning
• Very little or no gibberellic acid for thinning. Very little gibberellic acid for sizing
• Good resistance to rain and cold storage
Varieties for the coming years:
07-313-1: Early season, white colour, light muscat flavour, very crunchy
10-21-12: Early season, white colour, light muscat flavour, crunchy
08-339-50: Early-middle season, red colour, very nice muscat flavour, crunchy
08-339-24:
Early-middle season, bright red colour, light muscat flavour, very crunchy
07-415-13: Mid-late season, red colour, light muscat flavour, very crunchy
We are also developing several hybrids resistant to powdery mildew and downy mildew.
Acknowledgements
Research support from the Consejería de Agricultura of the Murcia Region, IMIDA and the ITUM company.
38
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Developments in the Australian table grape breeding program
Peter Clingeleffer1,2*, Belinda McCarthy2,3, Colin Gordon4, Ian Cameron4, David Oag5, Cameron McConchie6 and Rob
Walker1,2.
CSIRO Agriculture, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5065
Formerly CSIRO Plant Industry, Merbein, Victoria 3505
3
Australian Table Grape Association, Mildura, Vic
4
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, Perth, WA
5
Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Stanthorpe, Qld
6
Northern Territory Department of Resources, Berrimah, NT
*
Corresponding author: Tel: (08) 8303 8721, Email, [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
ORAL SESSION 3
The Australian table grape grower is faced with new and evolving challenges surrounding production in a
changing and variable climate, increasing consumer and regulatory demands with respect to product integrity
and environmental responsibility and a need to maintain international competiveness. Table grape industries
throughout the world are adopting new, deliberately bred varieties with a trend towards seedless types. The table
grape industry, Horticulture Australia, CSIRO and collaborating research organisations have supported a national
approach to table grape breeding and development since 1998 (Clingeleffer 2005, 2010, 2013). Breeding strategies
have aimed to develop varieties to address specific market requirements in terms of key consumer based quality
traits (seedlessness, berry size, texture and flavour), disease resistance, early and late maturity to extend the
harvest season, long storage life to allow access to more distant markets and development of alternate varieties to
Thompson Seedless that are not prone to berry collapse.
Modern management practices were applied to advanced selections grown in key regions with different climates
and seasonality in a nationally coordinated approach with input from collaborating agencies in Queensland,
the Northern Territory and Western Australia. These regional tests included application of various management
techniques to enhance quality (eg. pruning regimes, bunch thinning and trimming, GA where appropriate) and visual,
physical, chemical and sensory evaluation of fruit at harvest and after long-term storage.
This paper provides an overview of the program leading to the release of new table grape varieties and to new
knowledge incorporated into the studies.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Conventional hybridisation techniques between selected parents were used to produce new seedling progeny.
The progeny were evaluated at different stages of development (i.e. as single vine seedlings, promising selections
established in multiplied plots including grafted on rootstocks, advanced selections established in regional
sites with different climate and management practices and, for near to release selections, established on semicommercial grower sites to refine management practices and provide sufficient fruit for test marketing.
Key components of the program have been the improvement in embryo rescue techniques for crosses between
seedless parents, the development of disease resistant screening techniques and application of modern
quantitative genetic methods to understand the inheritance of key characteristics (Clingeleffer et al., 1999, 2003,
2009; Sykes et al., 2001).
1. Embryo rescue
In order to improve the efficiency of breeding seedless varieties, in-ovulo embryo rescue techniques were used to
develop new hybrids from seedless x seedless grape crosses (Clingeleffer et al., 1999). Under in-vitro conditions (i.e.
in tissue culture), embryos which would normally abort, continue to develop and can be established as normal
plants in the research vineyard. Over the course of the program more than 200 seedless x seedless combinations
were tried, including 25% which were unsuccessful and produced no progeny. This may be attributed, at least in
some cases, to the fact that seedlessness can be due to pathenocarpy, where berry development occurs without
fertilisation and development of an embryo (Clingeleffer et al., 2003).
Investigations to improve the efficiency of the embryo rescue technique included effects of genotype; the culture
medium, including supplements of various minerals, plant growth regulators and other organic substances; and the
effect of ovule age at removal on ovule elongation, embryo recovery, embryo growth and plantlet formation (Liu et
al., 2003a, 2008a). As a result, survival rates at all stages of culture improved (i.e. ovule culture, embryo rescue and
plant acclimatisation), giving results comparable to overseas programs (Liu et al., 2003a).
7th International Table Grape Symposium
39
2. Disease resistance screening
A major aim of the program was to develop disease resistant varieties to reduce usage of agrichemicals in the
vineyard (Clingeleffer et al., 1999, Sykes et al., 2001). The main diseases targeted were botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis
cinerea), powdery mildew (Uncinula necator) and downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), which originate from the
American continent. A diverse range of disease resistant genotypes were used as parents. In some cases, crosses
over a number of generations have produced complex pedigrees in the breeding lines.
Parents used have included V. rotundifolia, V. cinerea, V. caribaea, V. longii, V. aestivalis and V. labrusca as well
as hybrids with pedigrees incorporating many species. Rapid, leaf based laboratory screening protocols were
developed for powdery and downy mildew (Sykes et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2003b; Liu et al., 2008b) and used to assess
hybrid populations for resistance (Liu et al., 2008). Among the hybrid populations there were no lines completely
resistant to powdery mildew but some that had complete resistance to downy mildew (Liu et al., 2008). Correlations
between powdery and downy mildew resistance were weak. For downy mildew resistance appears to be governed
a limited number of recessive genes, indicating potential to develop molecular markers to rapidly screen very young
seedlings (Liu et al., 2008b).
ORAL SESSION 3
The disease screening results show that development of varieties which are tolerant or resistant to both powdery
and downy mildew is achievable. Indeed, CSIRO recently released a new, early ripening, disease resistant currant
variety with small black berries, M 48-42 (syn. Black Gem) which can be grown without the use of fungicides
(Clingeleffer et al., 2011). Black Gem was selected from progeny of a controlled cross between Seyve-Villard 39-639,
a complex multispecies, disease resistant hybrid and Beauty Seedless, a black, early ripening table grape variety.
There has been limited niche marketing of Black Gem as a table grape in domestic and export markets.
3. Inheritance of key characteristics.
Genetic parameters including heritability and genetic correlations of production and fruit quality characteristics
were investigated to enable effective selection of parents and to predict outcomes of crosses with greater accuracy
(Wei et al., 2003a). Yield and quality characteristics were collected across a diverse range of complex bi-parental
progenies comprising of more than 5000 seedlings involving combinations of 40 female and 60 male parents in
1999 and 2000 (Wei et al., 2002; Wei et al., 2003 a,b). Genetic parameters were estimated from data for each season
separately and from data pooled over both years using advanced statistical methods (Wei et al., 2003a). Narrowsense heritability estimates (h2) provided a basis for selection of parents based on their estimated breeding values,
which indicate how well they will transmit the characteristics they display to progenies.
Overall, there were three major findings applicable to table grape varietal development (Wei et al., 2002; Wei et al.,
2003 a,b). First, most characteristics were generally under medium to strong genetic control and reasonable genetic
gain could be expected from selection based on individual vine performances. This was particularly the case for
quality traits where the estimates h2 indicated that selection for ripening date, berry size, sugar content and acidity
should be very effective. Second, there were no significant family by harvest season interaction effects. Hence,
selection based on single year’s data was as effective as that based on two years’ data. Third, selection based on
individual characteristics could be hindered by negative genetic correlations. Hence it would be unwise to select a
vine based on only one or two characteristics as this may have unfavourable impacts on other traits. For example,
berry weight was negatively with juice sugar concentration.
4. Varietal release
Three new varieties have been released with PBR protection (i.e. the early ripening white seeded Muscat, M 5118
, the mid-season black seedless type, M 1301 and the mid-late ripening white seedless, M4414 ; Figure 1).
Marketing involves use of trademarks for fruit of the new varieties that meet quality specifications (i.e. Millennium
MuscatTM, Magic Seedless® and Mystic SeedlessTM for the three new varieties, respectively).
M 51-18 produces very early ripening, white seeded grapes that develop a distinct muscat character. It is being
grown in the sub-tropical Carnarvon region of Western Australia for domestic markets.
M 1301 produces very attractive loose bunches with green stems and large natural berries (5-7g) and does not
require GA treatments. It is grown in most regions for both domestic and export markets.
The latest release, M 4414 (Clingeleffer et al., 2011), produces large, crisp, seedless berries and is suited to long-term
cool storage. It requires GA treatments for thinning and GA and CPU treatments for berry sizing to give a 5-7g berry.
40
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Figure1. Views of the varieties released from the program, i.e. M 5118 (left), M 1301 (centre) and M 4414 (right).
ORAL SESSION 3
5. Current status of the program
No new breeding has been undertaken since 2008. Material retained for evaluation includes 630 seedless single vine
seedlings, 210 multiplied selections and 21 seedless selections identified with promise for evaluation at regional
sites. The latter material includes 12 white (one with strong muscat character), 6 red and 1 black selection with
natural berry weights ranging from 4-6g without the use of GA. A further 3 early ripening selections (1 white, 1 red
and 1 black selection) are established on grower sites for semi-commercial evaluation.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
A national table grape breeding and evaluation has been conducted for 16 years in Australia. New breeding has
generated new genotypes which have been established in the field for evaluation. A number of seedless selections
have been identified with significant potential for further evaluation and commercial development. The national
evaluation of selections with high potential in the major growing regions has enabled assessment to be conducted
in a diverse range of climates with varying seasonality and management practices.
Three new varieties, the early ripening the white seeded muscat M 51-18 , the black seedless selection, M 13-01
and the white seedless M 44-14 have been released from the program. New knowledge concerning the inheritance
of key characteristics, improvements for in-ovulo embryo rescue and rapid screening for disease resistance have
been incorporated into the program.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to acknowledge the financial support since 1998 from state and regional grower associations for
their voluntary contributions, Horticulture Australia and the in-kind contributions of collaborating research agencies
and growers with trial sites. Significant guidance has been provided by members of the national project steering
committee, the commercialisation sub-committee and the Australian Table Grape Association. The significant input
from all project research officers across the collaborating research is gratefully acknowledged.
References
Clingeleffer PR. 2005. Table grapes for the new Millennium. Final report, project FR 97047, Horticulture Australia Ltd.
Clingeleffer, PR. 2010. Table grapes for the 21st Century, Final report, project TG 03008, Horticulture Australia Ltd.
Clingeleffer PR. 2013. Table grapes for the changing and variable Australian environment that address marketing
needs. Final report, project TG09003, Horticulture Australia Ltd.
Clingeleffer PR, Powell RL, Wei X, Ganeshan D, Walker RR and Sykes SR. 1999. Table grapes for the new millennium:
an overview of CSIRO’s table grape breeding program including new developments. Jacka, L. (ed.). Table grapes into
the next century: proceedings of the 5th Australian Table Grape Technical Conference, 43-47.
Clingeleffer PR, McCarthy BV, Liu SM, Sykes SR and Walker RR. 2003. Breeding table grapes for the 21st century. In:
Jacka, L., compiler. Proceedings of the 6th Australian Table Grape Growers Technical Conference. Mildura, Vic.: Murray
Valley Table Grape Growers Council: 27-310.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
41
Clingeleffer PR, McCarthy B, Cameron I, Gordon C, Oag D, Sykes S and Walker R. 2009. New Australian table grapes
to meet consumer needs. In: Proceedings, 7th Australian Table grape Conference. Rising to the challenge, Mildura,
September 2009. 12-14.
Clingeleffer PR, McCarthy B, Gordon C, Cameron I, Oag D, Sykes S and Walker R. 2011. New white seedless table
grape, M 44-14, released. The Vine 7(1): 32-33.
Clingeleffer PR, Emanuelli DE, Tarr CR, Singh DP, Sykes SR and Walker RR. 2011. M48-42 (Syn. Black Gem), a new early
ripening, disease tolerant currant variety. The Vine 7(3): 32-33.
Liu S, Sykes SR and Clingeleffer PR 2003a. Improved in-ovulo embryo culture for stenospermic grapes (Vitis vinifera
L). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 54: 869-876.
Liu S, Sykes SR and Clingeleffer PR. 2003b. A method using leafed single node cuttings to evaluate downy mildew
resistance in grapevines. Vitis 42: 173-80.
Liu SM, Sykes SR, Clingeleffer PR. 2008. Effect of culture medium, genotype, and year of cross on embryo
development and recovery from in vitro cultured ovules in breeding stenospermocarpic seedless grape varieties.
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 59(2): 175-82.
Liu SM, Sykes SR, Clingeleffer PR. 2008. Variation between and within grapevine families in reaction to leaf
inoculation with downy mildew Sporangia under controlled conditions. Vitis 47: 55-63.
ORAL SESSION 3
Sykes SR, Clingeleffer PR, Wei X and Walker RR. 2001. Developments in table grape breeding. Australian Grapegrower
and Winemaker 449a: 119-122.
Wei X, Sykes SR and Clingeleffer PR. 2002. An investigation to estimate genetic parameters in CSIRO’s table grape
breeding program. 2. Quality characteristics. Euphytica 128: 343-351.
Wei X, Clingeleffer PR and Sykes SR. 2003a. Narrow-sense heritability estimates for yield and quality characteristics in
CSIRO’s table grape breeding progam. Acta Horticulturae 173-179.
Wei X, Sykes SR and Clingeleffer PR. 2003b Effects of selection on early stage genetic evaluation for berry weight in
breeding table grapes. Plant Breeding 122(1):77-82.
42
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Apulia Seedless: Description and effect of cultural practices
Pietro Scafidi1,*, Bartolomeo De Tommaso2, Cesare La Sorella2, Stefano Somma2 and Rosario Di Lorenzo3
Agriproject Group Australia Pty Ltd, 14 Bertram Road - Euston NSW 2737
Grape&Grape, Via delle Orchidee, 20 - Rutigliano (Bari), Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Forestali – University of Palermo – Viale delle Scienze 11, Palermo, Italy
*Corresponding author: Tel: +393454635161, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Apulia is an Italian red seedless variety (UE registration 2008/1662), resulting from the crossing of Emperor and
Thompson Seedless. The cultivar was obtained by Stefano Somma and was released in 1996.
ORAL SESSION 3
Apulia is a late season variety, in Italy budbreak (BBCH 08) usually occurs at beginning of April (2-3 days after
Crimson), full bloom (BBCH 65) at mid-May (5-6 days before Crimson), ripening from late September to mid-October,
and the grape can stay on the vine until mid-December. The cluster naturally is long, conical with large shoulders.
The rachis is green and strong, the link to the shoot is woody at harvest. Apulia produces red firm berries strongly
linked to the rachis (berry removal force: 4.17 N). The berry has generally spherical shape, medium size (average
mass of 5.5g), and herbaceous rudimentary seeds. At ripening the taste is neutral, having low total acidity (below
4.6g.L-1 of Tartaric acid) and a TSS/TA ratio between 25 and 30.
Apulia is characterised by high and even bud fertility (1.76 bunches per shoot) and elevate plant vigour. It is well
adapted to be grafted onto Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris rootstock (1103P, 140Ru), commonly trained on V trellis,
it is spaced 2.40m between vines and 3m between rows. Usually, Apulia is pruned on canes (4 canes of 10/12 buds),
although, taking in consideration the high bud fertility, quadrilateral cordon training and spur pruning could be
suggested for good productivity and easy management.
In Italy, the application of GA3 during bloom to reduce fruit set is not necessary, due to the adequate number of
flowers that set. In some seasons, the first bunch shoulder (widow) could present a poor set, in that situation a good
bunch appearance could be obtained removing it.
The natural production potential is very high, considering that without any crop-load management it is possible
to have 48-60 bunches per vine and the bunch weight can be easily over 850 grams (55-70 tons per hectare).
Preliminary results show that Apulia responds well to crop load reduction (cluster thinning to 36-40 bunches per
vine) and bunch manipulation. Crop control should be done just after berry set. As already found in other varieties,
bunch trimming has a primary effect on berry size but it might improve colour uniformity.
Trunk girdles applied at the end of berry set (6-7mm berry diameter) could increase the berry weight but also delays
fruit maturity, prolongs harvest and increases the chances of berry splitting. Girdle applied at berry softening or
véraison has no effect on fruit ripening and berry size. As a result, this treatment is generally not recommended.
No studies have been carried out on the effect of plant grow regulators (PGRs) application on Apulia. The purpose of
this study was to evaluate the potential use of PGRs to increase natural berry size without compromising the quality
of fruit.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Five-year-old Apulia grapevines (Soc. Coop. Agricola Ponterosa, Taranto, Italy) of similar capacity and crop load,
grafted onto 140 Ru rootstock were used in this study. Each vine was trained by a gable trellis and cane pruned. The
vines were spaced 2.4m within rows and 3m between rows. The vineyard was drip irrigated and standard cultural
practices were followed, including basal leaf removal, shoot and bunch thinning. The bunch number per vine was
adjusted at 45 bunches.
Four treatments were imposed:
1. 5ppm CPPU (Sitofex® Forclorfenuron 7.5g.L-1 - AlzChem Trostberg);
2. 5ppm GA3 (Gibersol Giberellic Acid 47.8 g.L-1 - CIFO);
3. 5ppm CPPU + 5ppm GA3
4. Untreated
7th International Table Grape Symposium
43
Each treatment was randomly replicated three times on three adjacent rows (3 field replicates of 5 vines). All PGRs
were applied when approximately the berry diameter was between 10 and 12mm (17 June 2013). The PGRs were
applied directly to the clusters with a handheld sprayer until runoff.
At harvest, 5 bunches were sampled from each field replicate and weighed. On 10 berries, randomly selected per
bunch (50 berries per field replicate; 150 berries per treatment), the removal force was measured. Others 10 berries
were randomly selected from each cluster (50 berries per field replicate; 150 berries per treatment) and they were
clipped using shears, leaving the pedicel attached to the berries. Each field replicate was analysed independently.
Berry breaking force was tested, by measuring the force, expressed in Newton (N), required to compress a berry
through a needle probe (8mm diameter) to crack it. Total soluble solids (TSS) were measured using a digital
refractometer in juice obtained by squeezing, homogenising and filtrating peeled berries. Titratable acidity,
expressed as grams of tartaric acid per 100ml, was determined by titrating the berry juice with a sodium hydroxide
solution.
ORAL SESSION 3
The surface colour of berries in each sample was measured with a reflectance colourimeter (CR-200, Minolta Inc.,
Ramsey, NJ), using the CIELAB colour system, where L* is the lightness and corresponds to a black-white scale (0,
black; 100, white), h° is the hue angle on the colour wheel, and C* is the chroma, a measure of the intensity of colour,
which begins at zero (achromatic) and increases in intensity. Two colour measurements were made around the
equator of each berry.
Means and standard errors were reported. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s HSD test was used at a 5% level
of significance (α=0.05). All statistical analyses were performed using SYSTAT® 12.
Results: PGRs had a clear effect on berry weight. Berry weight was significantly higher in the bunches treated with
5ppm CPPU + 5ppm GA3 (6.67g), followed by berries treated only with 5ppm CPPU (6.14g) and 5ppm GA3 (5.80g).
The Natural berries were significantly smaller (5,46 g; -18% than 5 ppm CPPU + 5 ppm GA3) (Table 1). Also berry
diameter followed the same trend of berry weight, meanwhile only bunches treated with 5ppm CPPU + 5ppm GA3
had a significantly higher weight. All the other treatments did not show any significant difference in bunch weight
(Table 1).
Table 1. Effect of PGRs applications on berry and bunch characteristics.
Treatment
Natural
CPPU
GA3
CPPU + GA3
Berry weight
(g)
Berry diameter
(mm)
Bunch weight
(g)
No. of berries
per bunch
Mean
5.46 d
20.17 d
835.69 bc
153.20
± s.e.
± 0.06
± 0.10
± 24.38
± 8.85
Mean
6.14 b
21.09 b
890.9 ab
145.70
± s.e.
± 0.08
± 0.14
± 26.20
± 9.24
Mean
5.80 c
20.47 c
864.2 b
149.10
± s.e.
± 0.11
± 0.13
± 26.54
± 8.63
Mean
6.67 a
22.04 a
913.47 a
145.90
± s.e.
± 0.09
± 0.20
± 18.30
± 10.94
*
**
**
n.s.
** and * indicate, respectively, statistically significant differences at P = 0.01 and 0.05; n.s. indicates no significant
differences. Means followed by different letters were significantly different at P = 0.05 using Tukey’s HSD test.
CPPU applications, significantly affected fruit mechanical characteristics and the highest values were recorded when
it was sprayed by its own. Specifically, for berry breaking force and berry removal force values of 34.59 and 5.28N
were measured in CPPU treatment, against values of 28.67 and 4.17N in Natural and of 22.43 and 4.32N in GA3. In
berries treated with 5ppm CPPU + 5ppm GA3 a cumulative effect of the PGRs was found, and the values of berry
breaking force and berry removal force were in the middle between treatment with only CPPU and GA3 but still
higher than Natural. (Table 2).
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 2. Effect of PGRs applications on berry physical properties.
Treatment
Natural
CPPU
GA3
CPPU + GA3
Removal force (N)
Berry breaking force (N)
Mean
4,17 b
28,67 b
± s.e.
± 0,25
± 1,42
Mean
5,28 a
34,59 a
± s.e.
± 0,22
± 1,67
Mean
4,32 b
22,43 c
± s.e.
± 0,30
± 1,41
Mean
4,57 ab
28,90 b
± s.e.
± 0,23
± 1,55
*
*
** and * indicate, respectively, statistically significant differences at P =0.01 and 0.05; n.s. indicates no significant
differences. Means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using Tukey’s HSD test.
ORAL SESSION 3
The total solid soluble (TTS) content was always lower in berries treated with CPPU, sprayed by its own or mixed with
GA3, than in other treatments. GA3 application, instead, didn’t affected total soluble solids accumulation (Table 3). In
consequence of above, also the ratio of TSS to TA was affected, and significantly higher values of TTS/TA were found
after CPPU applications. At harvest, berries of different treatments had not significantly different values with respect
to h°, L*, and C* (data not shown).
Table 3. Effect of PGRs applications on berry chemical properties.
Treatment
Natural
CPPU
GA3
CPPU + GA3
Total Soluble Solids (°Brix)
TSS/TA
Mean
17,88 a
28,82 a
± s.e.
±0,05
±0,48
Mean
16,25 b
25,10 b
± s.e.
±0,03
±0,44
Mean
17,83 a
27,97 a
± s.e.
±0,14
±0,15
Mean
16,85 b
25,97 b
± s.e.
±0,40
±0,58
*
*
** and * indicate, respectively, statistically significant differences at P = 0.01 and 0.05; n.s. indicates no significant
differences. Means followed by different letters were significantly different at P = 0.05 using Tukey test.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
As was predictable, PGRs application improved berry weight and diameter. Many studies demonstrated that most
seedless table grapes, when are treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) or CPPU increase berry size and uniformity (Peppi
and Fidelibus, 2008; Diaz and Maldonado, 1992; Dokoozlian et al., 1994; Reynolds et al., 1992; Wolf et al., 1994). The
highest value was recorded under the treatment with 5ppm CPPU + 5ppm GA3. These results are in agreement with
findings of Retamales and colleagues (1995), that reported CPPU, used in combination with GA3 at the same timing,
improved berry size in experiments conducted over 4 years on Sultanina grape.
CPPU improved berry removal force and fruit firmness, especially when it was sprayed by its own. (Dokoozlian et al.,
1994; Reynolds et al., 1992; Wolf et al., 1994; Zabadal and Bukovac, 2006). Soluble solids were decreased by CPPU
application, in agreement with others authors (Peppi and Fidelibus, 2008; Dokoozlian et al., 1994, Reynolds et al.,
1992), but changes were not enough to change probable harvest date of the fruit. It is notable that grapes treated
with CPPU or GA3 had essentially the same colour as untreated grapes, confirming that Apulia Seedless has good
genetic colouring potentiality.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
45
In conclusion, the combined use of CPPU and GA3 has the potential to improve the quality of Apulia Seedless table
grapes because they are generally effective at increasing berry size and the physical properties of the grape and
meanwhile the negative effects of CPPU on maturity, and particularly on sugar content and skin colour, can be
negligible.
References
Diaz DH and Maldonado LA. 1992. Forchlorfenuron effects on berry size and maturity of Perlette and Flame Seedless
grapes. Proceedings of the Plant Growth Regulator Society of America. Annual Meeting 19:123-128.
Dokoozlian NK, Moriyama MM, Ebisuda N. 1994 Forchlorfenuron (CPPU) increases the berry size and delays the
maturity of Thompson Seedless table grapes. International Symposium on Table Grape Production Proceedings
Anaheim. American Society for Enology and Viticulture. pp 63-68
Peppi MC and Fidelibus MW. 2008. Effects of Forchlorfenuron and Abscisic Acid on the Quality of ‘Flame Seedless’
Grapes. Vol. 43 No. 173-176.
Retamales J, Bangerth F, Cooper T, Callejas R. 1995. Effects of CPPU and GA3 on fruit quality of Sultanina table grape.
ISHS Acta Horticulturae 394: Plant Bioregulators in Horticulture
ORAL SESSION 3
Reynolds AG, Wardle DA, Zurowski C, Looney NE. 1992. Phenylureas CPPU and thiadiazuron affect yield components,
fruit composition, and storage potential of four seedless grape selections. Journal of the American Society for
Horticultural Science 117: 85-89.
Wolf EE, Viljoen JA, Nieuwenhuys A, Loubser JT. 1994. The effect of forchlorfenuron on bunch quality in table
grapes. International Symposium on Table Grape Production Proceedings Anaheim. American Society for Enology and
Viticulture. pp 50-53.
Zabadal TJ and Bukovac MJ. 2006. Effect of CPPU on fruit development of selected seedless and seeded grape
cultivars. HortScience 41:154-157.
46
7th International Table Grape Symposium
What can we learn from the table grape breeding program in Israel?
E Raban1, I Maoz2, T Kaplunov2, Y Zutahy2, A Daus2, O Degani2, A Perl2 and A Lichter2,*
Extension Service, The Ministry of Agriculture, Bet Dagan, Israel
ARO, The Volcani Center, POB 6, 50250, Bet Dagan, Israel
*Corresponding author: Tel: 972 3 9683684, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The breeding program of the Volcani Center is focused on seedless table grapes but the high genetic variability
between the breeding lines, the large number of lines tested and the systematic collection of quantitative trait data
offers new insights which are difficult to obtain by analysis of individual varieties.
The breeding lines are treated by standard program of table grape cultivation in Israel and by plant growth
regulators (PGRs) to enlarge the berries. However, PGRs are known to delay ripening as expressed by either delayed
accumulation of brix or by delayed colour development. It is therefore of interest to find out if the effect of PGRs on
ripening are general.
ORAL SESSION 3
Another focus of breeding program is flavour which has been somewhat neglected. All breeding lines of sufficient
quality are tested for flavour by trained panels. The content of volatiles in the breeding lines is analysed to identify
unique profiles.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Data was collected during 2012 and 2013. Ten vines of each breeding line were grown under standard practice. Five
vines were treated by a combination of 20ppm gibberellin and 1ppm of the cytokinin CPPU. At maturity 10 clusters
were harvested from each treatment and were analysed for cluster and berry weight, firmness, uniformity, berry
shot, shatter, juice colour, acidity, brix and flavour. Flavour analysis was carried out by trained panel that graded the
grapes for various parameters. Juice was frozen for GC-MS analysis and volatile composition was analysed. Specific
breeding lines of interest will be presented.
As expected, PGRs increased the size of most lines. Unlike common knowledge, PGRs increased juice colour intensity
in most of the breeding lines. With regard to flavour preference it was observed that sugar and acidity explained
only part of the flavour preference. Analysis of volatiles revealed that some lines were very reach in different
compounds which can be significant for flavour while other lines including commercial control lines were very poor
in volatiles. The volatiles could be divided into a basic profile which was present in most of the lines and unique
profile which was present in only few lines with some lines having unique characteristic volatiles.
Table 1: The effect of PGRs on juice colour. The number of lines showing significantly reduced or enhanced colour as
compared to the control.
PGR< Control
PGR>Control
2012
0/12
4/12
2013
2/14
8/14
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The effect of PGRs on fruit colour is interesting and worth further research and tracing of the phenomenon to parent
lines. The intensive flavour analysis should yield breeding lines of better flavour which are not compromised for the
basic traits. Data elaboration should yield understanding of which aroma compounds are of significant value and
incorporation of this knowledge into the breeding program.
Acknowledgement
We thank the Table Grape Board – The Plant Council, Israel for the financial support and the taste panelists for their
significant contribution.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
47
Session 4. Rootstocks, breeding and cultivar improvement (Continued)
Keynote address
Using novel genetics to breed unique new table grape varieties
John R Clark
Department of Horticulture, Plant Science 316, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 72701 USA,
Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
On August 3, 2013, one of the major national morning news shows in the US, Good Morning America, had a leading
story that began….”First, they put a man on the moon. Then, they invented cell phones. Now, this morning another major
breakthrough for mankind. A fruit breeder in California has invented grapes that taste like allegedly cotton candy.” And,
two days prior, the Los Angeles Times had a front page story “Cotton Candy off the vine”. It is rare that a fruit breeding
story gets national press such as this. I want to share with you a little of the story about this and unique table grape
germplasm utilisation.
ORAL SESSION 4
Diversity in table grapes is increasing due to incorporation of new traits into new variety products in a number of
innovative breeding programs in the world. I have been involved with a very exciting cooperation that involves
diversification of traits since 2002 between the University of Arkansas and International Fruit Genetics (IFG) of
Bakersfield/Delano, California.
The University of Arkansas table grape breeding effort began in 1964, started by Dr. James N. Moore (Clark, 2010).
I came to the University of Arkansas as a research technician and PhD student in 1980, and have worked in the
program ever since, taking Dr. Moore’s place upon his retirement in 1996. The program has been carried out in the
middle of the country, in the upper south. Several key environmental characteristics include rainfall of 1,100mm per
year (with rain each month), hot summer temperatures of 35°C in most summers, winter minimum temperatures of
-15°C, and some risk of spring frost leading to emerging shoot damage.
There is a substantial group of biotic challenges at this site including a range of diseases such as black rot
(Guignardia bidwellii Viala & Ravaz), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator Schw. (syns. Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr.,
E. tuckeri Berk., U. americana Howe, and U. spiralis Berk. & Curt; anamorph Oidium tuckeri Berk.), downy mildew
(Plasmopara viticola Berl. & de Toni), and anthracnose (Elsinoë ampelina Shear) and several insects including grape
berry moth (Paralobesia viteana Clemens). These biotic and abiotic factors have provided for substantial selection
pressure for winter hardiness, fruit cracking, and to some degree disease resistance. However, the breeding material
has been sprayed with fungicides for the life of the program due to the intense disease pressure coupled with the
lack of high enough disease resistance to allow a non-spraying approach to program management.
Dr. Moore’s dream was to develop primarily table grape varieties to create an eastern US table grape industry. There
was also a minor effort in breeding juice and wine grapes.
The germplasm used in the program has been much different than that used in the Vitis vinifera L. table grape
breeding programs in California or other locations in the world where this is the sole species grown. Vitis vinifera is
not well adapted in Arkansas due to lack of winter hardiness, disease susceptibility, and fruit cracking limitations.
To develop successful varieties, other sources of adaptation were required. A primary source was V. labrusca L., an
eastern US native species. This species offers better adaptation including winter hardiness, disease resistance, fruit
cracking resistance, and a new flavour profile. It also introduces limitations such as soft, slip-skin texture, thick skins,
more procumbent growth habit, and flavours that can be overwhelming for some palates. Over the years, it was
found that the higher the quality including thin skins with crisp texture, the less adapted the vines were as shown by
winter injury and fruit cracking. The program has produced 10 table grape varieties, mainly targeted for local-market
use in the eastern US. These include Reliance, Mars, Jupiter, Neptune, and the newer Faith, Hope, Joy, and Gratitude
(Clark, 2010; Clark and Moore, 2013). However, none have the level of fruit characteristics (particularly crisp texture,
fruit cracking resistance, and large berry size) required of commercial V. vinifera varieties found in the national table
grape market.
48
7th International Table Grape Symposium
However, the University of Arkansas was not the first public entity to breed table grapes with V. labrusca. The New
York Agricultural Experiment Station began grape breeding in the early 1900s, mainly using eastern genotypes.
The release in 1952 of Himrod (resulting from a cross of Ontario x Sultanina (Clark, 1997). This was one of the first
seedless grapes developed in the eastern US, and combined qualities of both species for a local-market-type grape.
Himrod did not have quality comparable to California developments.
The Arkansas program used a number of the New York developments as parents in early crossing. Much later, Dr.
David Ramming with the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Center in California in
1983 crossed Thompson Seedless x Concord (the main US juice grape variety), and released Thomcord from this
progeny in 2003 (Ramming, 2008). It too combined characteristics of each species.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Dr. David Cain visited me in Arkansas in the summer of 2001. Dr. Cain had just started his new IFG fruit breeding
program in California, and was very familiar with the Arkansas grape breeding effort as he had visited the program
at various times over the years. Dr. Cain was very experienced in table grape breeding, but he needed an expansion
of breeding germplasm to complement the V. vinifera material he was crossing with. He shared the idea of
incorporating the Arkansas program achievements (selections developed but not released) into his IFG effort. At
first, I was not sure of the feasibility of this idea, as cooperation between public and private fruit breeding efforts has
been rare in the US or other locations in the world. However, an agreement was made between the University and
IFG, and the University material was shared with IFG and crossing was begun in 2002.
ORAL SESSION 4
What was Dr. Cain interested in with the Arkansas material other than a broadening of the germplasm of the IFG
breeding program? He knew that there were several traits in the program that could be innovative including new
flavours, shapes, skin cracking resistance, seedlessness, and overall broader adaptation that might be incorporated
for use in California or other locations in the world. He also knew that there had been almost 40 years of focused
breeding in Arkansas to enhance quality of largely V. labrusca-derived table grapes, never done before in the history
of table grape breeding in the US. His ‘genius’, as I like to say, led to the discoveries he has made at IFG.
Discussion and Significance
I remember visiting Dr. Cain when he fruited the first seedlings that incorporated the Arkansas material with pure V.
vinifera germplasm. I was very impressed with the initial progeny, in that he was able to achieve very good fruit size
and quality in the seedlings in the first-generation crosses. I was not sure the path these might take toward possible
commercial use, but was excited to see the initial products particularly after so many years of evaluating table
grapes in Arkansas where the environment limited the potential quality achievements compared to the California
climate.
One of these early seedlings resulted in the selection that later was commercialised under the trademark Cotton
Candy®. This development incorporated the largely Arkansas-derived flavours (a blend of V. labrusca and muscat)
with large berry size and crispness of V. vinifera, with quality comparable to the more neutral-flavoured V. vinifera
cultivars. He also produced many more selections with unique flavours, providing for an entirely new range of
genotypes for potential commercialisation. And, key to this was the enhanced quality combined with the flavours,
never done in table grape breeding prior.
The Arkansas program also focused on elongated shapes. This was done by crossing among semi-elongated to
elongated selections, and selecting those with a greater expression of this trait. Elongated shapes have also been
developed in other programs in the world, but likely not from the same genetic basis as done in Arkansas. Dr. Cain
used the elongated selections in crossing, and developed the trademarked Witches Fingers product now marketed
to a limited extent in the US.
How did this innovation in table grape breeding come about? As I have told the story over the years, there are a few
key components for this and most successful plant breeding commercial achievements: someone with a vision and
inspiration, a source of genetic variation of desirable traits, and an approach to marketing the resulting product.
Public agency plant breeding cooperation has undergone increasing difficulty in the last 25 years due to the
tightening of germplasm exchange among programs. Methods of sharing germplasm through formal agreements
offer a pathway to encourage germplasm exchange.
The IFG and Arkansas example is one where public and private exchange was possible. And, the results have been
very exciting: IFG acquired diverse germplasm resulting in innovative products, the University of Arkansas has
been able to have its decades-long breeding effort be utilised in more mainstream table grape breeding. Plus,
the University benefitted from program support from IFG, support that was lacking before due to a lack of a local
industry.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
49
What will these innovative products from IFG contribute to table grapes in the short and long term? I am not in a
good position to say for sure. Coming from the eastern US, I am very familiar with more diverse flavours in grapes
beyond the more neutral flavours of V. vinifera along with the V. vinifera muscat flavour. First and foremost, I am
excited to see table grape consumers have more diversity in products to enjoy. Furthermore, I am a strong believer
that table grapes deserve more and more product identity by variety and or brand in the marketplace, not simply
green, red, and black groupings common in most US retail markets. We can only look to our apple colleagues to
see the value of variety differentiation in the marketplace. Of course, with this differentiation will come increasing
limitations in the availability of new varieties to all growers. That appears to be inevitable for a number of reasons,
one being to provide a way to fund the substantial breeding program costs.
As I impress on plant breeding students, recognising diversity in breeding germplasm and in potential products
is one of the most exciting aspects of plant improvement. Diversity in the customer base is an opportunity, not an
insurmountable challenge that can’t be taken advantage of. There is likely a large number of people that will be
excited about and enjoy diverse table grape flavours once they get to try these. I believe this is one of the most
exciting times in table grape breeding, and I appreciate the opportunity to have a small part in this ‘show’, and share
my experiences and comments.
References
Clark JR. 2010.Eastern United States table grape breeding. Journal of the American Pomological Society 64:72-77.
Clark JR. 1997. Grapes. Pp. 248-299. In: Brooks and Olmo register of fruit and nut varieties, third edition. ASHS Press,
Alexandria, Va.
Clark JR and Moore JN. 2013. Faith, Gratitude, Hope, and Joy seedless table grapes. HortScience 48:913-919.
Ramming DW. 2008. ‘Thomcord’ grape. HortScience 43: 945-946.
ORAL SESSION 4
50
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Addressing challenges in the global development of proprietary varieties
through applied varietal research
Hovav Weksler*
Sun World International LLC, 5701 Truxton Avenue, Suite 200, Bakersfield CA USA 93309
*Corresponding author: Tel: 972 2 9910781, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Sun World International is based in California and is a grower, marketer and breeder of table grapes amongst other
crops. The company has over 4,000 hectares of farming land and around 1,000 domestic and international licensed
partner growers, and is directly involved with the farming, packing, marketing and distribution operations for a
large part of its US grown produce. For many years Sun World has differentiated itself in the produce industry as
the sole producer and marketer of proprietary varieties developed at the company’s Variety Development Center
but then, at around year 2000, Sun World launched its global licensing program by partnering with leading growers
and marketers throughout the world which by today reached around 9,000 hectares of fruit varieties grown in all
continents, ensuring year-round supply of proprietary varieties to premium markets.
ORAL SESSION 4
To manage such a large network, licensing offices were established in Chile, Italy, South Africa Australia and Mexico,
and professional grower and marketer licensees were picked to ensure that the proprietary varieties are grown,
harvested and delivered to the company’s high specifications. Licensees are provided with the technical and
marketing support they need to succeed in today’s competitive global market, including on-site consultant visits,
special group field days and international expos, fruit trial results (from weekly held taste panel evaluations) with
updates on new varieties in the pipeline, and more. Through a special Licensee web portal licensees are offered
exclusive access to cutting-edge research and information about new varieties and, finally, licensed marketers and
growers are connected so they can work together to efficiently deliver produce to markets worldwide. All that
support is offered to licensees because knowledgeable growers and marketers are more successful and because
their success is Sun World’s success as well.
The Applied Varietal Research (AVR) program officially started at Sun World in May 2013 although field trials and
applied research have routinely been carried out by the company’s R&D and technical staff prior to that. The primary
objectives of the AVR program were to address technical issues that might potentially limit the profitability of
existing globally widely planted varieties as well as to develop best cultural practices for newly released varieties
prior to their commercialisation by Sun World and by its licensees.
The logic behind establishing a target oriented unit within the company to address those issues was that even the
best varieties, once globally commercialised in numerous sites and grown under various conditions that are totally
different from where they were bred, are expected to exhibit challenges that would require application of specific
practices in order to make them successful. While for existing varieties the AVR program is expected to develop
curative protocols for each identified challenge, for new varieties the objective is to develop preventative protocols
against potential risks and to shorten the learning curve’s period at new production sites.
Procedures and Results
The program’s initial objectives were to identify technical challenges with Sun World’s commercially grown
proprietary varieties, suggest a research program to address those issues and establish a global network of
agronomists to work on it through coordinated research under the AVR program. Noted challenges were sugar
enhancement in early varieties, season stretching in late varieties, thinning in specific varieties, colour improvement
and decay prevention. While some of the challenges were known beforehand, especially on older varieties, valuable
information was gathered through preliminary discussions with producers, marketers and advisors which were
then used to prioritise the challenges and set up a detailed research program which included over 50 trials in eight
countries last year. Standardisation of the trials between the various countries was achieved through practicing
similar procedures with regards to design, setup, application and evaluation methods, forms used and analysis of
the results.
Half day seminars were conducted in various countries during which results were presented and their significance
was discussed with local producers and marketers. Additional information distribution channels such as webinars,
discussion groups, library establishment, Q&A and others are yet to be developed.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
51
Discussion and Significance of the Program
While still at its first steps of establishment, the AVR program has gained much interest amongst Sun World’s
licensees who look at it as a tool that can be used to create information, distribute it and effectively integrate it.
The company’s presence in both the southern and the northern hemispheres allows for the accomplishment of
two research seasons in one calendar year which saves precious time and which has already contributed to making
progress in some of the highly prioritised challenges.
The program’s success, in Sun World’s eyes, is expected to not only improve the immediate profitability of the
company’s proprietary varieties but also to strengthen the licensees’ confidence in Sun World’s breeding and
licensing program in general.
Acknowledgement
We thank all the many dedicated licensed growers and marketers in Chile, Brazil, Australia, South Africa, Spain, Italy,
California and Israel who contributed their vineyards, ideas, energy and time to this program. Without their support
this program could not have taken off the way it did.
ORAL SESSION 4
52
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Effect of rootstocks on leaf nutrient composition of Vitis vinifera cvs. Superior
Seedless and Red Globe
María Beatriz Pugliese1,*, Sergio Vega Mayor2, Franco Pugliese2, Rodrigo Espindola2, Pedro Gil1, Sergio Mundaca1
and Lisando Bustos1
INTA EEA Pocito, Calle 11 y Vidart, San Juan, Argentina
INTA AER Caucete, San Juan, Argentina
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 54 264 4921079, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
There is a lack of information in Argentina about the use of rootstocks for table grapes, although there is some
information available on the effects of rootstock such as resistance to soil borne pests and diseases, vigour,
production and fruit quality. There is also insufficient information available regarding interactions between the scion
cultivar, the rootstock and the nutrient status of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) (Ibacache and Sierra 2009, Morales et al.,
2013), although several studies have shown that rootstocks affects the nutritional status of the scion cultivar (García
et al., 2001, Ibacache and Sierra 2009, Morales et al., 2013).
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of six and eight rootstocks on the leaf nutrient/element composition
of Vitis vinifera cvs. Superior Seedless and Red Globe, respectively.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 4
The study was conducted for five consecutive seasons from 2008/09 to 2012/13. The Red Globe trial was done at
Pocito locality, San Juan (31° 37´S; 68° 32´ W) on clay loam soil whereas the Superior Seedless was done at Caucete
locality, San Juan (31° 39,5´S; 68° 16,54´ W) on sandy loam soil. The trellis system was a Parral (Pergola) with a vine
spacing of 2.5 x 2.5m and 3.0 x 3.0m for Red Globe and Superior Seedless respectively. Drip irrigation was applied in
both sites.
The treatments were: Red Globe, grafted onto the rootstocks, Cereza (Vitis vinifera L.); Salt Creek (Ramsey); 140Ru;
101-14 Mgt; Harmony; Freedom; SO4 and Control (vines grown on their own roots). Superior Seedless, grafted onto
the rootstocks, Salt Creek; 140Ru; 1103P; 101-14 Mgt; Harmony; Freedom; SO4 and Control. The experimental design
was a randomised complete block design, with four replicates and two vines as at experimental unit.
Whole leaves (leaf blade and petiole) opposite the clusters were collected at véraison stage. The sample contained
80 whole leaves per treatment in each replicate. The total concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu were
determined for each of the samples and were used as a reference for interpreting optimal and excessive nutritional
levels Silva and Rodríguez (1995). All leaf analysis was done at INTA EEA San Juan Laboratory. Data were analysed by
ANOVA and the comparison of means were done by the Fisher LSD test, with a significance level of p≤ 0.05.
Results: The whole leaf nutrient levels at véraison exhibited the highest N content for Red Globe on Harmony.
Highest P levels were observed for both Red Globe on Freedom and Superior Seedless on Salt Creek and S04.
Regarding leaf K content of both scion cultivars, the highest value was obtained with Harmony, while a suboptimal
level was obtained with Red Globe on Own root and Cereza but with Superior Seedless it was Salt Creek. The highest
Ca levels were obtained with Red Globe on Cereza with Superior Seedless on Salt Creek and SO4. Own root (both
Red Globe and Superior Seedles) and Cereza rootstock (Red Globe) resulted in the highest Mg and lowest B content.
Suboptimal Mg levels were obtained with Red Globe on S04, as well as Harmony and Superior Seedless on all
rootstocks. The Fe levels of Red Globe were significantly lower on Cereza. Mn content was found to be highest with
Red Globe on Cereza, Salt Creek, 140Ru, Freedom and SO4; as well as with Superior Seedless on Own root. The Cu
content of, Red Globe grafted onto Salt Creek and SO4 was the highest. In the case of Na, higher levels was obtained
with Own root (for both Superior Seedless and Red Globe) and Cereza with Red Globe as scion (Table 1 and 2).
7th International Table Grape Symposium
53
Table 1: Effect of rootstock on leaf element composition of Superior Seedless in Caucete, San Juan, Argentina. Data are
averages for the seasons 2008/09 to 2012/13.
Rootstock
%N
%P
%K
% Ca
% Mg
% Na
B ppm
Fe
ppm
Mn
ppm
Zn
ppm
Cu
ppm
Own root
2.33
0.16a
1.27bc
2.38b
0.32d
0.17b
57.44a
144.44
80.50c
36.69
9.88
Salt Creek
2.10
0.20c
1.10a
2.87c
0.24bc
0.14a
74.00bc
128.63
65.75bc
39.13
8.63
140Ru
2.20
0.17ab 1.26bc 2.23ab 0.23abc
0.13a
67.50ab
139.19
59.00b
36.13
9.38
1103P
2.19
0.17ab 1.23bc 2.14ab
0.25c
0.14a
78.88bc
133.06
42.88a
35.56
8.75
Harmony
2.28
0.18ab
1.66d
2.06a
0.23abc
0.14a
76.00bc
153.38
59.17b
36.19
10.75
Freedom
2.41
0.16a
1.31c
2.20ab
0.21ab
0.14a
63.94ab
150.38
40.44a
34.94
8.63
SO4
2.07
0.19bc
1.21b
2.69c
0.20a
0.13a
83.88c
132.50
66.50bc
37.25
8.50
Optimal
level
1.82.4
0.2
1.2
1.5
0.3
40-60
50
30
30
4
Excessive
level
> 0.5
>300
Different letters mean significant differences in test LSD with p≤ 0.05.
ORAL SESSION 4
Table 2: Effect of rootstock on leaf element composition of Red Globe in Pocito, San Juan, Argentina. Data are averages for
the seasons 2008/09 to 2012/13.
Mn
Zn
Cu
Rootstock
%N
%P
%K
% Ca % Mg % Na
B ppm
Fe ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
Own root
2.07ab 0.16cd
1.08a
2.77b
0.48f
0.19c
179.08a
139.94bcd
82.13b
31.25
7.08c
Cereza
1.90a
1.09ab
3.65e
0.40e
0.17c
173.50a
110.44a
112.81c
32.94
6.08ab
Salt Creek
1.99ab 0.16cd 1.23bc 3.10cd 0.31bc
0.11a
216.50ab
149.25cd
112.56c
33.75
8.33d
140Ru
2.05ab 0.16cd 1.37cd 3.05cd 0.37de
0.11a
226.75b
122.75ab
107.19c
32.00
5.67a
0.14a
101–14 Mgt 2.07ab
0.14a
1.43de
2.50a
0.30bc 0.14b
256.50b
141.75bcd
81.13b
33.94
6.33abc
Harmony
2.27c
0.16cd
1.74f
2.30a
0.26b
0.14b
246.50b
159.56d
59.31a
37.75
7.17c
Freedom
2.09b
0.17d
1.55e
2.90bc 0.34cd
0.14b
231.67b
153.81cd
101.44c
34.94
6.75bc
SO4
2.13bc
0.14a
1.28cd
3.23d
0.19a
0.11a
237.83b
133.25bc
99.25c
31.67
8.63d
1.8-2.4
0.2
1.2
1.5
0.3
40-60
50
30
30
4
Optimal
level
Excessive
level
> 0.5
>300
Different letters mean significant differences in test LSD with p ≤ 0.05.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
This study demonstrated the effect of rootstocks on the leaf nutrient composition of two table grape scion cultivars.
The results of this work, combined with information available on rootstocks’ resistance to soil borne pests and
diseases, as well as vigour and influence on production and grape quality of the scion, would allow selection of
rootstocks for particular soil and cultivation conditions.
This study showed that American rootstocks resulted in the lowest scion Na leaf content. Therefore, it could be
hypothesised that for soil with high sodium content, these particular rootstocks could be used. In this study, Cereza
rootstock showed the highest levels of Ca and Mg and also exhibited highest production and grape quality (data
not presented).
54
7th International Table Grape Symposium
It is also important to highlight the behaviour of Vitis vinifera L., Red Globe and Superior Seedless on Own root
and Cereza, with respect to the low B leaf content obtained, which could be potentially of practical value for
agro climatic conditions where high B levels are present in both water and soil. Further studies are required to
understand the influence of the rootstock on mineral absorption.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Yuaider D, Castro D, Morales O, Escudero E and Orosco G for their important
collaboration in field trials.
References
García, M., Gallego P., Daverede C. and Ibrahim H. 2001. Effect of three rootstocks on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) cv.
Négrette, grown hydroponically. I. Potassium, calcium and magnesium nutrition. South African Journal for Enology
and Viticulture 22:101-103.
Ibacache A. and Sierra B.C. 2009. Influence of rootstocks on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in petioles
of four table grape varieties. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 69(4):503-508.
Morales M., Ferreyra R., Ruiz R., Zúñiga C., Pinto M., Sellés G. 2013. Effect of rootstocks on nutrient content in petioles
of Thompson Seedless variety. IX International Symposium on grapevine Physiology and Biotechnology, La Serena,
Chile. 184p.
Silva H, y Rodríguez J. 1995. Diagnóstico del estado nutricional. Fertilización de plantaciones frutales. Colección en
Agricultura. Facultad de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Santiago, Chile. 406p.
ORAL SESSION 4
7th International Table Grape Symposium
55
Performance of Autumn King and Scarlet Royal table grapes on some
standard, and more recently released, rootstocks
Matthew W Fidelibus1,, Jennifer Hashim-Maguire2 and Donald A. Luvisi3
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA
69 Beach Road, Hampton, VIC 3188, Australia
3
University of California Cooperative Extension, Kern County, 1031 South Mount Vernon Avenue, Bakersfield,
California 93307, USA
*Corresponding author: Tel: 15596466510, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
In the warm regions of central and southern California, areas most suitable for growing table grapes, nematodes,
especially root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are the most important soil pests, and their feeding may reduce
grapevine yields by as much as 25% (Anwar and McKenry, 2000). Pre-plant soil fumigation has been an important
management practice to help control soil pest populations, but the future availability of effective fumigants and
post-plant nematicides is uncertain, and some species of root-knot nematode have adapted to the resistance
mechanisms of commonly used rootstocks. Therefore, plant breeders have redoubled their efforts to develop new
rootstocks with broad and durable pest resistance, and a number of new rootstocks have been released to industry
in recent years.
ORAL SESSION 4
The aim of this study was to determine the effect that a range of rootstocks, including traditional and recently
released stocks, may have on fruit quality and yield, vine nutrition and vigour, and plant-parasitic nematode species
diversity and populations levels, in three different commercial table grape vineyards.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Three rootstock trials were established in commercial vineyards in 2008 and 2009. Autumn King is the scion in two
of the vineyards, and Scarlet Royal is the scion in the other vineyard. Eight to 15 rootstocks are being evaluated
in each vineyard (Table 1), however, vines on GRN5 were planted at Ducor, but most have died or struggled to
establish, so GRN5 has been eliminated from that trial. Vines on each rootstock have been planted in six to nine-vine
plots, replicated five times in each vineyard. Petiole samples were collected at bloom from each plot, and macro and
micro nutrient content determined. Fruit quality, yield, pruning weights, and nematode populations are monitored
annually.
Rootstocks strongly influenced mineral nutrient content of ‘Autumn King’ and ‘Scarlet Royal’ petioles at all locations.
At Ducor, the ‘Autumn King’ vines on Freedom had greater NO3-N, Mg, and K than own-rooted vines, or vines on
most other rootstocks. In contrast, vines on Harmony amassed macro nutrients at a similar, or lower, level as ownrooted vines. Most of the other rootstocks induced similar or higher levels of macronutrients in petioles as ownrooted vines. Petiole nitrate levels of all vines at Ducor were >600ppm, suggesting all vines had adequate nitrogen
nutrition.
Rootstock effects on micronutrients at Ducor were more variable than their effects on macronutrients. Vines on
Freedom had lower levels of Zn and Cu than own-rooted vines, whereas vines on Harmony had similar levels of
Zn and Cu as own-rooted vines. As in the case of macro nutrients, the two Vitis vinifera stocks, ‘Crimson’ and ownrooted, were generally more similar to each other than to most other rootstocks. One striking benefit of most
rootstocks other than 10-17A was a clear reduction in petiole Na and Cl levels compared to vines on V. vinifera roots.
‘Autumn King’ vines at Traver shared some similar rootstocks as the trial at Ducor, including Freedom, Harmony,
10-17A, RSD-34, Teleki 5C, and own-root, and most of these stocks induced similar effects on vine nutrition at
both sites. Once again, vines on Freedom amassed the most, or among the most, NO3-N, Mg, and K, whereas vines
on their own roots typically amassed the lowest, or among the lowest, levels of those macronutrients. Vines on
Harmony had NO3-N and Mg levels that were similar to those on own-rooted vines, as observed at Ducor, though
vines on Harmony at Traver had higher levels of P and K than own-rooted vines, in contrast to what was observed at
Ducor. Vines on 10-17A, RSD-34, and Teleki 5C had relatively low NO3-N, Mg, and K at both sites. Rootstock effects on
micronutrients were also generally similar to what was observed at Ducor, with vines on Freedom having the lowest
levels of Zn and Cu, and most rootstocks except 10-17A and RSD-34 reducing Na and Cl content compared to ownrooted vines.
56
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 1. Rootstocks tested in ‘Autumn King’ and ‘Scarlet Royal’ table grape vineyards in California.
Rootstock
Origin
Parentage
‘Autumn King’, Ducor, California
USDA, Fresno
V. vinifera
Freedom
USDA, Fresno
V champinii x 1613C
Harmony
USDA, Fresno
V. champinii x 1613C
Teleki 5C
Hungary
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
Salt Creek (Ramsey)
Texas
V. candicans x. V. rupestris
1103-P
Sicily, Italy
V. berlandieri x V. rupestris
‘Crimson Seedless’
USDA, Fresno
V. vinifera
USDA 10-17 A
USDA, Fresno
V. simpsoni x Edna ((V. lincecumii x V. rupestris) x V. vinifera)
RS-3
UC KAC, Parlier
(V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)
RSD-34
UC KAC, Parlier
((V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)) x V. doaniana
GRN1
UC Davis
V. rupestris x M. rotundifolia hybrid
GRN2
UC Davis
(V. rufotomentosa x (V. champinii Dog Ridge x Riparia Gloire)) x
Riparia Gloire
GRN3
UC Davis
(V. rufotomentosa x (V. champinii Dog Ridge x Riparia Gloire)) x
V. champinii c9038 (probably V. candicans x V. monticola)
GRN4
UC Davis
(V. rufotomentosa x (V. champinii Dog Ridge x Riparia Gloire)) x
V. champinii c9038 (probably V. candicans x V. monticola)
GRN-5
UC Davis
(V. champinii Ramsey x Riparia Gloire) x V. champinii c9021
(probably V. candicans x V. berlandieri)
ORAL SESSION 4
‘Autumn King’
‘Autumn King’, Traver, California
‘Autumn King’
USDA, Fresno
V. vinifera
Freedom
USDA, Fresno
V champinii x 1613C
Harmony
USDA, Fresno
V champinii x 1613C
Salt Creek (Ramsey)
Texas
V. candicans x. V. rupestris
Teleki 5C
Hungary
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
RS-3
KAC, Parlier
(V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)
RS-9
KAC, Parlier
(V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)
USDA 10-17A
USDA, Fresno
V. simpsonii x Edna ((V. lincecumii x V. rupestris) x V. vinifera))
RSD-34
KAC, Parlier
((V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)) x V. doaniana
‘Scarlet Royal’, Goshen, California
‘Scarlet Royal’
USDA, Fresno
V. vinifera
Freedom
USDA, Fresno
V champinii x 1613C
1103-P
Sicily, Italy
V. berlandieri x V. rupestris
Kober 5BB
Austria
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
Teleki 5C
Hungary
V. berlandieri x V. riparia
RS-3
KAC, Parlier
(V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V .rupestris)
RS-9
KAC, Parlier
(V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)
USDA 10-23B
USDA, Fresno
V. doaniana
10-17A
USDA, Fresno
V. simpsoni x Edna ((V. lincecumii x V. rupestris) x V. vinifera))
RSD-34
KAC, Parlier
((V. candicans x V. rupestris) x (V. riparia x V. rupestris)) x V. doaniana
7th International Table Grape Symposium
57
‘Scarlet Royal’ vines at Goshen had considerably lower petiole NO3-N levels than vines in other vineyards. Petioled
NO3-N ranged from 490 ppm for Teleki 5C to approximately 890 ppm for Freedom. Vines on Freedom, 1103P, and
10-23B had the highest petiole NO3-N levels, and own-rooted vines had among the lowest NO3-N levels. These
findings bolster the observations from the other vineyards where Freedom enhanced petiole NO3 content. Petiole
K contents of all vines were fairly similar in this vineyard, though vines on Freedom had the highest K content, as in
other vineyards. Once again, own-rooted vines had the highest levels of Na and Cl. Another consistent finding was
the fact that vines on Freedom tended to have the lowest, or among the lowest, levels of Zn, a finding that has been
reported previously. Vines on 1103P had the highest pruning weights.
Autumn King, Ducor. Rootstocks affected berry weight, with vines on Salt Creek, 1103P, and Freedom having the
heaviest berries, and own-rooted vines and vines on RSD-34 and GRN1 having the lightest, or among the lightest
berries; vines on other stocks generally produced berries of similar mass. Rootstocks also affected fruit composition,
with vines on RSD-34, Teleki 5C, and Harmony having higher Brix than vines on 10-17A, GRN1, or Salt Creek. Juice
pH and TA was about 4 and 3 (g.L-1), respectively, and not necessarily related to Brix. It appears there was an inverse
relationship between petiole K levels and juice pH, as has been observed in wine grapes (Mullins et al., 1992). For
example, vines on Freedom, and GRN2, GRN3, GRN4, and RS3 had the highest petiole K levels and among the
highest pH levels. Harmony was an exception, having relatively low K, but high pH. The high pH of fruit from vines
grafted to Harmony may be more related to high fruit maturity, as evidenced by their high Brix.
ORAL SESSION 4
Rootstocks affected the amount of packed fruit and culls on the first pick, and those effects were enough to also
affect the total amount of packed fruit. Vines on ‘Crimson’, Freedom, 1103P, 10-17A, GRN3, GRN4, Harmony, RS3, Salt
Creek, and Teleki 5C all produced more packable fruit on the first harvest than own-rooted vines, but ultimately only
vines on ‘Crimson’, 1103P, GRN3, RS3 and Salt Creek produced more than own-rooted vines for the season as a whole
(considering both harvests). The first harvest from these vines was in 2013, and the differences in yield can likely
be attributed to vine size. Rootstocks also affected cull weights on the first harvest, with the most productive vines
generally having the most culls.
Autumn King, Traver. Vines at this vineyard had much greater average berry weights than those at Ducor, and there
were few differences in berry weights among treatments. Vines on Ramsey and Teleki 5C had heavier berries than
those on RS9 and Freedom, which is in contrast with the findings from Ducor, where vines on Freedom had among
the heaviest berries. Berries from vines on RS3 had the highest Brix, whereas vines on 10-17A had among the lowest,
a finding that is consistent with the Ducor trial. Vines with the highest petiole K levels, Freedom, RS3, and Harmony,
had the highest fruit pH, a relationship that was also observed at Ducor.
Unlike Ducor, most rootstocks had no effect on yield at Traver, the vines of which are a few years older. However,
vines on 10-17A had much greater yields than vines on any other stock, with most of the fruit being picked on the
second harvest. It is uncertain why vines on 10-17A had much greater yields than vines on other stocks; similar
results were not observed in previous years. Additional years of data are needed to determine if this finding is
repeatable or spurious.
Scarlet Royal, Goshen. Scarlet Royal vines had berries of about 9 grams, and berry weight was not affected by
rootstock. However, the stocks did slightly affect berry colour and composition. Vines on RS9 had among the darkest
(lowest “lightness”), most red coloured (as evidenced by the lowest hue angle) fruit, whereas vines on their own
roots or on 10-17A had the most light coloured, least red fruit. Vines on RS9 also had the highest Brix, and the lowest
titratable acidity (TA), whereas fruit from own rooted vines had among the lowest Brix and highest TA. There were
no differences among rootstocks with respect to packed fruit or culls on the first harvest, but on the second harvest
two rootstocks, 10-23 B and RSD-34, were more productive than own rooted vines. However, not much fruit was
harvested on the second pick as compared to the first and, overall, rootstocks did not affect total packable yields.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Characteristic differences among rootstocks are becoming clear, and these data will help table grape growers select
the most appropriate rootstocks for new vineyards.
References
Anwar SA and McKenry MV. 2000. Penetration, development and reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria on two new
resistant Vitis spp. Nematropica 30: 9-17.
Mullins MG, Bouquet A and Williams LE. 1992. Biology of the Grapevine. Cambridge University Press, New York.
58
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Oral Presentation Abstracts
THURSDAY 13 NOVEMBER 2014
Session 5. Pest and disease management
Keynote address
Identification and management of trunk diseases in Australia
Mark R. Sosnowski*
South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), GPO Box 397, Adelaide, South Australia 5001,
Australia, Email: [email protected]
Background
ORAL SESSION 5
Eutypa and botryosphaeria dieback increasingly contribute to grapevine decline in Australia and worldwide,
reducing vineyard productivity and longevity. Vines are infected, by species of Diatrypaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae,
through pruning wounds and colonise wood, causing dieback and eventual vine death, and in the case of eutypa
dieback, stunting and yellowing of shoots and leaves via toxins produced by the Eutypa lata fungus. Worldwide,
grapevine industries are under increased pressure from trunk disease due to aging vineyards and production
stresses, in particular Australia and New Zealand, which are dominated by the highly susceptible wine grape
varieties Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, and management of dieback is becoming imperative.
Culturally, pruning should be avoided in wet weather if possible and preferably delayed to late winter when wound
healing is more rapid, inoculum levels reduced and sap flowing. Removal of dead wood from grapevines and
alternative hosts in and around the vineyard will also reduce the potential inoculum level. Contamination of pruning
tools is not considered a major means of spreading the disease.
Wounds can be protected effectively with the application of paints and pastes such as Greenseal, Gelseal, Bacseal
(each containing tebuconazole) and Garrison Rapid (cyproconazole), which are registered and recommended
as wound protectants, especially on large wounds. The fungicides carbendazim, tebuconazole, fluazinam and
pyraclostrobin are the most effective available in Australia and New Zealand as wound protectants and current
research is working towards registration for control of eutypa and botryosphaeria dieback. Fungicides can be
applied efficiently to pruning wounds with commercial spray machines. It is important to direct nozzles to target the
pruning wound zone and use high spray volumes (600L.ha-1) to maximise coverage on wounds.
Biological control agents, such as the fungi Trichoderma spp. have controlled E. lata in trials worldwide, but
the results have been variable and control is usually less effective than fungicides, paints and pastes. Vinevax
(containing Trichoderma) is registered for eutypa dieback control in Australia and New Zealand. Although biological
control offers long-term protection, the time required for biological control agents to colonise the wound creates a
window of susceptibility to infection. Garlic and lactoferrin have also shown potential for pruning wound protection.
Control of infected vines can be achieved by remedial surgery, the process of cutting out all discoloured cordon or
trunk wood by and a further 10cm of healthy wood to ensure all infection is removed. Remaining wounds must be
protected, preferably with paints or pastes. Cordons and trunks can be retrained from watershoots to return vines to
full production within a few years.
Research is ongoing in Australia and New Zealand, with efforts now focussing on inoculum dispersal, wound
susceptibility, optimal timing of fungicide application, potential sources of resistance and effects of water stress
along with the economic impact of trunk disease and the cost-benefit of managing it.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
59
Canker diseases in the Coachella valley: Incidence and evaluation of
management strategies
Carmen Gispert1,* and Philippe E Rolshausen2
University of California Cooperative Extension, 81077 Indio Blvd. Suite H, Indio, CA 92201.
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +1 760 342 2466, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The Coachella Valley represents a unique area for its climatic conditions and offers an attractive niche for the
production of table grapes. It produces the earliest grape crop in the country ensuring a favourable market with
lucrative prices. Grapevine canker diseases such as Eutypa dieback, Esca, or Bot canker caused by fungal pathogens
infect the grapevines through pruning wounds and are one of the primary factors limiting vineyard longevity and
productivity. These diseases have been studied mainly in wine grapes and little is known of their impact in table
grape production.
Our goal was to identify the causal agents of trunk diseases in vineyards grown in the Coachella valley and evaluate
if grapevines can be protected from infection early in their development by double pruning (pre-pruning in early
winter followed by hand pruning) before bud break, and the application of Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl registered
for grapes in California) immediately after pruning.
Experimental Procedure
Sixty wood samples were collected from cordons and spurs of vineyards in the Coachella valley in southern
California. Cankers were collected from spurs, cordons and trunks showing dieback symptoms or wood streaking.
Small pieces of wood with canker symptoms were placed on potato dextrose agar. Cultures were incubated at room
temperature until fungal colonies were observed. Pathogens were identified to the species based on morphological
characters and DNA analysis using multi-gene sequence phylogenies.
ORAL SESSION 5
In addition the efficacy of Topsin will be evaluated in the winter of 2014 using artificial inoculations of Lasodiplodia
theobromae, Lasodiplodia crassispora, Togninia minima and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora after pruning and the
percentage of infected spurs will be recorded (Rolshausen, et al., 2010).
Environmental conditions in the Coachella valley are not conducive for trunk diseases as low rainfall occurs during
the pruning season (December). However, a common practice is the use of evaporative cooling with overhead
irrigation during that time, and is likely that this practice has allowed the fungi to spread and cause disease.
Results and Discussion
We identified the following fungal species known to be associated with esca/measles and bot canker:
Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Togninia minima, Phaeoacremonium fuscum,
Phialophora sp., Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Lasodiplodia theobromae, Lasodiplodia crassispora, and Eutypella
sp. We confirmed the presence of L. theobromae in Coachella (Urbez et al., 2006). We identified T. minima and P.
chlamydopsora, two of the major pathogens associated with Esca.
In addition N. dimidiatum was found for the first time on grapevines in California. Symptomatic grapevines infected
with N. dimidiatum showed shoot blight with wilting and necrosis of leaves and shrivelled berries. Some vines
had collapsed completely. Wood cankers in the spurs, cordons and trunks in the affected vines were also present
(Rolshausen et al., 2013).
In the Coachella valley, grapevines are often replanted between stumps left from previous plantings. Is very likely
that this practice contributes to increasing disease incidence because stumps are reservoirs for fungal inoculum and
spores are spread when overhead irrigation is used.
A long term goal of this study is to test if the combination of double pruning and tractor sprays of Topsin M
immediately after pruning can reduce infection. We are currently investigating the long-term of this management
strategy in young vineyards in the Coachella valley.
60
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Acknowledgments
Funding Source was provided by the California Table Grape Administrative Committee. 82901 Bliss Avenue, Indio,
CA. 92201.
References
Rolshausen PE, Úrbez-Torres JR, Rooney-Latham S, Eskalen A, and Gubler WD. 2010. Evaluation of pruning wound
susceptibility and protection against fungi associated with grapevine trunk diseases. American Journal of Enology
and Viticulture 61: 113-119.
Rolshausen PE, Akgül D, Perez R, Eskalen A and Gispert C. 2013. First report of wood canker caused by
Neoscytalidium dimidiatum on grapevine in California. First Look Plant Disease. PDIS-04-13-0451-PDN.
Úrbez-Torres JR, Leavitt GM, Voegel TM and Gubler WD. 2006. Identification and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp.
associated with grapevine cankers in California. Plant Disease 90: 1490-1503.
ORAL SESSION 5
7th International Table Grape Symposium
61
Control of grapevine powdery mildew with the natural biofungicide Timorex
Gold
M Reuveni1,2,*, JC Arroyo2 and JL Henriquez3
Golan Research Institute, University of Haifa, Katzrin 12900 Israel
Stockton Israel Ltd, 17 Ha’Mefalsim St. P.O.B. 3517 Petach Tikva 4951447, Israel
3
Fac. Cs. Agronómicas, Universidad De Chile, Santa Rosa 11.315, Casilla 1004, La Pintana, Santiago Chile
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is the main disease in table grape production in dry and warm areas in Chile and
Peru as well as in many other countries that grow table grapes. Often it is a problem from bud break up to harvest.
An average of 16 to 18 applications per season are used for the control of this disease due the predominantly
favourable environmental conditions for powdery mildew development. Considering the amount of treatments for
powdery mildew control in a season and the continued use (more than 3 times in the season) of fungicides with similar
modes of action (MoA) and considering also that table grapes growers need to comply with residue levels (not to exceed
MRLs) or a certain number of active ingredient residues, these issues limit the alternation of fungicides with different
MoA, giving as a result loss of sensibility in most of the fungicides for the control of powdery mildew.
With this scenario, the introduction of new effective fungicides with a different and unique mode of action, with very
low risk for resistance development and without adding residues seems to be very promising addition to disease
management programs that allow table grapes growers to produce high quality grapes with lower amount of residues
and keeping the effectiveness of the fungicides with specific MoA in a high level.
Experimental Procedures and Results
ORAL SESSION 5
The natural biofungicide Timorex Gold (TG) contains 23.8% of Melaleuca alternifolia extract with a unique MoA (FRAC,
F7) was found to be effective against broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi and was evaluated in table and wine
grapes against powdery mildew (PM). Applications of TG at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0L.ha-1 as prophylactic and curative treatment
effectively controlled powdery mildew and suppressed the existed colonies of Erysiphe necator. Spraying at the rate of
2.0L.ha-1 provided an excellent curative control in infected tissue.
In-vitro trials demonstrated that TG with very low concentrations can inhibit the conidial germination of Erysiphe
necator >95 % from 0.01ppm (Table 1) Confirming the efficacy performance demonstrated on the field in different
countries with diverse environmental conditions.
Table 1. Percentage of germination of conidia of Erysphe necator, growing in Timorex Gold (23% Melaleuca alternifolia
extract) amended media, and percentage of inhibition of germination. Chile 2011.
Concentration ppm
Conidial Germination (%)
Inhibition (%)
Control
30.00
-
0.0001
16.50
45.0
0.001
14.83
50.6
0.01
1.5
95.0
0.1
0.25
99.2
Field trials were conducted during 2010-11, 2011-2012 in Chile and in 2012-2013, 2013-2014 in Peru and other
countries. These experimental trials were performed in table and wine grapes on different cultivars in Chile such as
Moscatel, Ovalle, Coquimbo (Table 2), Cabernet Sauvignon, Antumapu, Santiago (Table 3) and Red Globe Villacuri,
Ica, Peru (Tables 4 and 5).
Chile trials were designed as complete randomized design with 6 treatments and 4 replications, 3 consecutive
applications with spray volume of 800L.ha-1 at 7-10 days interval. Peru trial designed as complete randomised block
design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, 1 application with a spray volume of 600L.ha-1.
Disease incidence (percentage of infested cluster per treatment) and severity (percentage of infested berries per
plant) was recorded in these trials. In all assessments infested clusters and berries were considered for evaluations
and recorded as percentage of incidence and percentage of severity. In Chile trials applications were performed
62
7th International Table Grape Symposium
from fruit set up to véraison. Incidence and severity were evaluated just before the first application and then at 7,
14, days after last spray, respectively. In Peru trials applications were performed at berries of 6-8mm and bunch close
respectively in each trial. Incidence and severity were evaluated just before the first application and at 4, 7, and 10
days after the single spray.
Table 2. Incidence (percentage of infested clusters per plant), severity (percentage of infested berries per cluster) and % of
Control observed in table grapes cv. Moscatel de Alejandría at full colour berries after 7 days of last application. Ovalle.
Coquimbo, Chile 2011-2012.
Treatments
Incidence (%)
Severity (%)
Control (%)
22.3 bc
3.20 bc
88.7
17.1 cd
1.60 c
92.2
Difenoconazole 25% 150mL.ha
7.9 d
0.50 d
97.0
Myclobuthanil 20% 120mL.ha
27.1 ab
8.00 ab
84.4
Sulphur Flo 3.0kg.ha
22.9 bc
3.60 bc
89.2
Untreated Control
89.3 a
17.6 a
Timorex 1.0L.ha
-1
Timorex Gold 1.4L.ha
-1
-1
-1
-1
X
X
Means follow by same letter are not different according Tukey (α < 0,05).
Table 3. Incidence (percentage of infested clusters per plant), severity (percentage of infested berries per cluster) and
% of control observed in wine grapes cv. Cabernet Sauvignon at full colour berries after 14 days after last application.
Antumapu, Santiago, Chile, 2010-2011.
Treatments
Incidence (%)
Severity (%)
Control (%)
40 b
2.95 b
96.4
40 b
1.05 b
98.7
50 b
3.50 b
95.8
Myclobuthanil 20% 120mL.ha
30 b
0.50 b
99.4
1.Sulphur Flo 3.0kg.ha
2.Triadimenol 200g.ha-1
3.Sulphur Flo 3.0kg.ha-1
100 b
78.58 a
4.9
Untreated Control
100 b
Timorex 1.0L.ha
-1
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha
-1
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
-1
-1
X
-1
ORAL SESSION 5
X
82.60 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Tukey (α < 0,05).
Table 4. Incidence (percentage of infested clusters per plant), severity (percentage of infested berries per cluster) and % of
control observed in table grapes cv. Red Globe at berries 12mm. Villacuri, Ica, Peru, 2012.
Treatments
Incidence (%)
Severity (%)
Control (%)
Timorex Gold 1.0L.ha-1
62.5 b
2.29 b
89.9
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha-1
62.5 b
1.04 b
91.9
60.4 b
0.73 b
94.3
64.6 b
1.00 b
92.2
100.0 a
12.79 a
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
-1
Tebuconazol 25% 750g.ha
Untreated Control
X
-1
Means follow by same letter are not different according Tukey (α < 0,05).
Table 5. Incidence (percentage of infested clusters per plant), severity (percentage of infested berries per cluster) and % of
control observed in table grapes cv. Red Globe at full colour berries. Villacuri, Ica, Peru, 2013.
Treatments
Incidence (%)
Severity (%)
Control (%)
Timorex Gold 1.0L.ha
35.0 b
0.55 b
78.9
Timorex Gold 1.2L.ha
17.5 bc
0.18 b
93.1
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha
15.0 bc
0.15 b
94.3
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha-1
10.0 c
0.10 b
96.2
Untreated Control
60.0 a
2.61 a
-1
-1
-1
X
Means follow by same letter and not different according Tukey (α < 0,05).
7th International Table Grape Symposium
63
Trials in Chile revealed that spraying TG at application rate of 1.5-2.0L.ha-1controlled PM on berries, and was as
effective as sulfur and systemic fungicides against powdery mildew when applied at 10 day intervals. Nevertheless
spraying TG at rate of 1.0L.ha-1 shows an effective prophylactic effect against PM in berries, when applied at 7 days
intervals.
In the Chile trials, all TG dosages show significant difference compare to the untreated control 7 and 14 days
after three consecutive sprays with a level of efficacy above 85% at 7 days after the last application of each trial,
considering that the trial started with powdery mildew symptoms. TG was also as effective as sulfur and DMI’s
fungicides in controlling PM on berries.
Peru trials show strong effectiveness of TG in rates of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0L.ha-1 up to 7 days starting with medium and
high incidence of powdery mildew before spray one time at two different phonological stages. The first trial was
performed in critical phonological stage with high disease pressure and favourable disease development conditions
and TG demonstrated to be highly effective with > 89 % of control. The second trial was performed with mediumhigh incidence in late season. In this case all TG treatments recorded very low severity < 0.6% , in a stage where
treatments should have strong curative effect to reduce late powdery mildew and avoid worst sanitary conditions of
the grapes berries, but at the same exist some limitations in the use of fungicides at that stage due residues concern.
TG as a natural bio fungicide does not harm beneficial insects and bees, has no residue limitations (Is exempt of
MRL’s) and may complement sulfur, biological and synthetic fungicides in table grape production, as well as, being
an attractive tool for anti-resistance programs.
ORAL SESSION 5
64
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Effective control of fruit fly for market access using a systems management
approach in table grapes
David R Oag1,*, Brendan P Missenden2 and Edward L Hamacek2
Horticulture and Forestry Science, Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, Applethorpe, Queensland,
4380, Australia
2
Ecosciences Precinct, Brisbane, 4000
*Corresponding author: Tel: +61 7 4681 6147, Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) (Bacterocera tryoni) is naturally occurring throughout Queensland and occurs in large
numbers in hot, humid conditions of eastern Australia (Drew, 1989). Qfly numbers are small in the table grape
production districts located in inland Queensland where conditions are much drier. In 2008, access restrictions
were introduced in several state domestic markets for Queensland table grapes. At the same time the insecticides
(fenthion and dimethoate) most commonly used for control of Qfly were being withdrawn from use in Australia.
This necessitated the development of a protocol for the control of Qfly, so Queensland table grapes could maintain
access to these important domestic markets.
The strategy taken was a systems management approach involving pre-harvest bait sprays along with culling
damaged fruit and inspection during the harvesting process. The protocol for table grapes (ICA20) is based on
the protocol developed for citrus (ICA28). Systems management approaches are internationally accepted for the
control of various pests, including fruit flies, with increasingly more protocols being accepted to access international
export markets (ISPM 35, 2012). A two year field study was undertaken to confirm the effectiveness of the systems
management approach to control Qfly in table grapes.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 5
Field trials were established in vineyards of Menindee Seedless and Red Globe in each of the three major
Queensland table grape districts (Emerald, Mundubbera, St George), each comprising a one hectare plot and
total of six trials per variety. A regime of bait sprays was applied throughout the season to control Qfly. Bait spray
applications commenced in the crop at least 6 weeks prior to harvest and continued at 4-10 day intervals. The bait
(Mauris Pinnacle Protein Lure [protein hydrolysate], and Hy-mal® [1150g.L-1 maldison]) was applied at 20L.ha-1 to the
grapevine foliage high in the canopy and above the fruit zone, as a continuous strip to every 3rd row.
Qfly numbers were monitored using traps installed at each trial site. Each season, 9,000 bunches per variety
were collected for assessment of Qfly infestation. This consisted of 3,000 bunches collected immediately prior
to commercial harvest in order to quantify the level of control achieved from bait sprays alone. A further 6,000
commercially packed bunches were also collected for assessment, which included the additional measure of
culling and inspection. The individual bunches were incubated at 26°C and 70% humidity for 7-10 days to allow
development of fruit fly larvae that may be present in fruit.
Fruit fly trapping numbers were very low over both seasons and rarely exceeded 1 fly per trap per day. The
maximum number of flies ever caught was 3 flies per trap per day on one occasion (Figure 1). There was no apparent
difference between the three districts for fruit fly population pressure.
The level of infestation was not significantly different between varieties. In the first season (2008/09), low numbers
of infested fruit was recorded from most vineyards for both varieties. The level of infested fruit was considerably
greater at one vineyard in Emerald (Table 1) and it was subsequently established that the localised infestation within
the crop was attributable to an incursion of flies from untreated fruit trees located nearby. In the following season,
no infested berries were found from all locations, in both varieties, including the vineyard where a high infestation
was recorded in the previous year.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
A systems management strategy incorporating bait sprays with harvest culling and inspection provides effective
control of Qfly in table grapes grown in subtropical regions of Queensland. The systematic application of the bait
(every 3rd row in a continuous strip) provides a blanket coverage of the vineyard in a similar sense as an insecticide
spray.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
65
A greater level of control was achieved in the second season and this was likely due to the growers becoming more
experienced in applying and managing the timing of bait sprays. A systems management strategy demands more
vigilance by growers than the past practice of cover sprays using broad spectrum organophosphate insecticides.
Baits applied well above ground attract the greatest number of flies. Lloyd et al. (2005) demonstrated very
few flies visited baits applied close to the ground (0.3m), however baits applied at heights of 1.0m or 1.8m were
significantly more effective at attracting flies as evidenced by 15-times and 25-times more flies killed, respectively.
Similar studies on Qfly (Balagawi, 2012) concur that bait sprays applied high in the canopy results in more flies
feeding.
Baits applied to foliage are more attractive to flies. Maximum fly visits are achieved where bait sprays are applied
to crop foliage (Lloyd, 2005). Applying baits to non-foliar materials (eg trellis posts) is an option where the crop is
highly sensitive to bait phytotoxicity, however the practical difficulty of applying the bait spray increases the risk of
not achieving effective fruit fly control.
Reducing fly population pressure from ‘hot spots’ outside the vineyard assists in achieving effective control of
Qfly. Treating other fruit fly host plants in the vicinity of the vineyard is an integral part of a systems management
strategy and a requirement within ICA-20. Extending this concept to area-wide management, where bait spraying
in nearby townships is conducted to control sources of fruit flies, has been successful in citrus growing districts in
Queensland (Lloyd et al., 2010).
Initially developed for table grape growers in Queensland, the systems management strategy and ICA20 has now
benefited growers in the Sunraysia (Victoria) where outbreaks of Qfly have occurred in recent years. The relevance
of the systems management strategy for providing effective control of fruit fly may increase in the event of climate
change leading to more frequent outbreaks in southern Australia.
In the domestic markets with restrictions on access of Queensland table grapes there has been zero detections of
fruit fly in packed table grapes by quarantine authorities since the adoption of ICA20 by Queensland growers. This
reinforces the effectiveness of the systems management strategy.
ORAL SESSION 5
Table 1. Infested fruit and calculated percent infestation rate of Menindee Seedless bunches for pre-harvest (pick) sample
and packed fruit sample in season 2008/09.
District /Vineyard
No.
infested
bunches
No.
infested
berries
% Bunches
infested
Upper % bunch
infestation
(95% confidence)
Emerald 3
Pick
507
22
34
4.34
6.196075
Pack
1273
13
15
1.02
1.623574
Emerald 2
Pick
482
0
0
0.00
0.621515
Pack
1302
0
0
0.00
0.230084
Combined 1784
0
0
0.00
0.167920
Mundubbera 2
Pick
711
0
0
0.00
0.421336
Pack
1178
0
0
0.00
0.254304
Mundubbera 1
Pick
512
0
0
0.00
0.585098
Pack
1250
0
0
0.00
0.239656
Total pick
1223
0
0
0.00
0.244947
Total pack
2428
0
0
0.00
0.123381
Combined
3651
0
0
0.00
0.082051
Pick
1035
1
1
0.10
0.458271
Pack
2306
0
0
0.00
0.129909
Combined
3341
1
1
0.03
0.141966
St George
66
Sample type No. Bunches
7th International Table Grape Symposium
3.5
3.0
Mean Qfly / trap / day
2.5
Emerald 1
Emerald 2
2.0
Mundubbera 1
1.5
Mundubbera 2
1.0
St George 2
St George 1
0.5
22/08/2009
29/08/2009
5/09/2009
12/09/2009
19/09/2009
26/09/2009
3/10/2009
10/10/2009
17/10/2009
24/10/2009
31/10/2009
7/11/2009
14/11/2009
21/11/2009
28/11/2009
5/12/2009
12/12/2009
19/12/2009
26/12/2009
2/01/2010
9/01/2010
16/01/2010
23/01/2010
30/01/2010
6/02/2010
13/02/2010
0.0
Figure 1. Mean number of Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) per trap per day recorded at trial sites in season
2009/10.
Acknowledgements
ORAL SESSION 5
We thank Marianne Eelkema, Allan McWaters and Thelma Peek for their dedicated technical assistance. The
collaboration of individual Queensland table grape growers who hosted the vineyard trials is gratefully
acknowledged. The research was financially supported by a voluntary contribution from grower members of
GrapeConnect, with matching funds from the Australian Government.
References
Bagalawi S, Jackson K, Hamacek EL and Clarke AR. 2012 Spatial and temporal foraging patterns of Queensland
fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for protein and implications for management. Australian
Journal of Entomology 51: 279-288
Drew, R. A. I. (1989). The tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the Australasian and Oceanian regions.
ICA-20: Pre-harvest treatment and inspection of table grapes. http://domesticquarantine.org.au/ica-database/
queensland/queensland-ica-20
Lloyd AC, Hamacek EL, Kopittke RA, Neale CJ and Peek T. 2005. Development of non-foliar bait spot treatments for
fruit fly control. Final project report, HG02066. Horticulture Australia Ltd.
Lloyd AC, Hamacek EL, Kopittke RA, Peek T, Wyatt PM, Neale CJ, Eelkema M and Gu HN. 2010. Area-wide
management of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Central Burnett district of Queensland, Australia. Crop
Protection 29(5): 462-469.
ISPM 35. 2012. Systems approach for pest risk management of fruit flies (Tephritidae). Rome, IPPC, FAO. http://www.fao.
org/docrep/016/k6768e/k6768e.pdf
7th International Table Grape Symposium
67
Session 6. Plant growth regulators
Understanding the control of grape berry ripening and developing
opportunities for its manipulation
C Davies*, C Böttcher and P Boss
CSIRO Plant Industry, Adelaide, Australia
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected], Tel: +61 8 83038628
Background and Aims
Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are molecules that control global changes in gene expression in plants. These
coordinated changes in gene expression play crucial roles in the control of plant development. Plants contain a
range of PGRs which have different structures and which are involved in the control of different developmental
processes and the plant’s responses to environmental influences. PGRs act through a complex process of
recognition and signal transduction to effect these changes.
Fruit ripening is a complex process which is largely regulated by PGRs. Classically fruit have been divided by
physiologists into two categories. So-called climacteric fruit undergo an increase in respiration and the evolution of
ethylene, a gaseous PGR, at the commencement of ripening. The application of ethylene before the commencement
of ripening can induce ripening in these fruit (e.g. apples, bananas and tomatoes). In contrast, the ripening of nonclimacteric fruit (e.g. grapes, olives, strawberries) is less dependent on ethylene and appears to be controlled by
several other PGRs. However, this doesn’t mean that ethylene doesn’t have some effect on berry ripening and this
will be discussed.
There are a number of synthetic PGRs, some of which are copies of the endogenous forms, others affect the action
of endogenous PGRs or their receptors. The use of gibberellic acid by the table grape industry to control berry size
is an example of the utility of PGRs in manipulating fruit development. In this work the role endogenous PGRs play
in the control of berry ripening is investigated at both macro and molecular levels. The second aim is to apply this
knowledge to manipulate grape berry development, and in particular ripening, for the benefit of the grape and
wine industries.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 6
Two basic approaches were used in this research. The first approach was to understand how endogenous PGRs act
during berry development. This involved using a range of techniques to study PGR metabolism, perception and
signalling at a number of levels. The identity and concentrations of endogenous PGRs were determined throughout
berry development using techniques such as stable isotope dilution analysis by LC-MS. Measuring the expression
of genes involved in PGR biosynthesis, perception, signalling and breakdown/sequestration also gave valuable
information.
These investigations were performed using a range of methods including microarray analysis, next generation
sequencing and real-time QPCR analysis. Such techniques can also indicate which processes are controlled by each
of the PGRs present. This is important in understanding the role of the PGRs during berry development and enables
the prediction of effects arising from the perturbation of the action of a particular PGR. Data such as berry weight,
total soluble solids, organic acid levels, anthocyanin levels were collected so that PGR levels and associated changes
in gene expression could be related to berry developmental stage. Ultimately the PGR-induced changes in gene
expression are reflected in changes in the levels of proteins, frequently enzymes, which translate the signalling
by PGRs into action within the plant. A number of different methods were used to study these changes including
biochemical assays of enzyme activity.
Another way to better our understanding the action of PGRs is to apply exogenous PGRs to berries at particular
stages of development. A range of natural and synthetic PGRs are available for this purpose. Not only does the
application of these reagents indicate how the PGRs work but it also provides tools to manipulate ripening that
may be of benefit to industry. PGR treatments were applied at low concentrations by spraying in the presence of a
surfactant. These experiments were carried out in randomised, controlled, fully replicated trials on mature vines but
ex planta studies on isolated berries were also conducted. The various measures of berry development described
above were determined throughout the experiments to follow the effect of the treatment on berry development.
Samples were taken throughout these studies for later additional analysis. A range of detailed measurements were
taken of PGR levels and changes in gene expression. In many cases wine was made from the fruit and the levels of
aroma/flavour molecules in the wine headspace was measured by GC-MS analysis. Sensory analysis with trained
panels was also undertaken to determine differences in overall flavour/aroma and wine appearance.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
These studies showed that some PGRs are involved in the promotion of véraison, and therefore harvest, and
others act to delay it. The application of abscisic acid and castasterone, for example, during the pre-véraison phase
promotes the onset of grape berry ripening as measured by sugar and colour accumulation and berry weight
increase (Symons et al., 2006; Wheeler et al., 2009). Advancing the time of véraison could be useful in growing
areas with short seasons, for example, wine grapes in cool areas and table grapes in tropical regions. Other PGRs,
in particular auxins, delayed ripening when applied during the pre-véraison period. For example, application of
the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid delayed changes in ripening indicators such as sugar accumulation,
skin colouration and acid catabolism (Böttcher et al., 2011, 2013). Interestingly, these treatments also increased
the synchronicity of ripening and can affect the accumulation of some wine volatile components. Berry flavour
characteristics haven’t been tested directly but small differences in wine flavour and volatiles indicate that there
may be some effects on the levels of berry metabolites and therefore berry flavour.
At this stage it is not known whether the changes are due to direct effects of the PGR or due to the changes in
ripening conditions due to altered timing of véraison. Endogenous PGR levels are governed by their synthesis and
their breakdown or sequestration. A family of enzymes called IAA-amido synthetases are important in controlling
auxin levels as they sequester indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) into inactive forms through conjugation to amino acids.
Investigation of their activity explains why some auxins are more effective than others in delaying berry ripening.
Ethylene, the PGR so heavily involved in the ripening of climacteric fruit has a biphasic effect on grape berry
ripening, i.e. if applied early in berry development it delayed ripening but if applied nearer to the time of the
initiation of ripening it advanced it. The delaying of ripening by ethylene may be due to its interactions with the
auxin pathway. This emphasises two important points in regard to PGRs in berries. First, the timing of application
of exogenous PGRs is crucial to the effect achieved as the berry response varies during development. Second, the
various PGR pathways interact in a complex cross-talk network.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Endogenous PGRs play important roles in the control of berry development and a greater knowledge of their action
is crucial to understanding processes such as ripening. These studies provide significant insights into the role of
PGRs during grape berry development. This information opens the way for the innovative use of a range of PGRs to
manipulate berry development for the benefit of the grape and wine industries.
For the wine industry exogenous PGRs provide potential tools with which to manipulate the timing of harvest
and could be used to overcome a variety of problems associated with the increased season compression and
higher temperatures during ripening caused by changing climatic conditions. In some cases delaying ripening and
therefore harvest may also be useful to the table grape industry through extending the harvest season. In areas
where climatic conditions require more rapid ripening of fruit to avoid cold temperatures or heavy rainfall that could
damage fruit advancing ripening would be an advantage. As our knowledge increases further opportunities will
arise to manipulate other aspects of grape berry development.
ORAL SESSION 6
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Crista Burbidge, Katie Harvey, and Angela Keulen for technical assistance. We also thank
Chalk Hill Wines and Nepenthe Wines for providing the fruit used in this study. This work was supported by CSIRO
and the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (Grant No CSP0905). CSIRO Plant Industry is a
partner of the Wine Innovation Cluster.
References
Böttcher C, Harvey KE, Boss PK and Davies C. 2013. Ripening of grape berries can be advanced or delayed by
reagents that either reduce or increase ethylene levels. Functional Plant Biology. doi: 10.1071/FP12347
Böttcher C, Harvey K, Forde CG, Boss PK and Davies C. 2011. Auxin treatment of pre-véraison grape (Vitis vinifera L.)
berries both delays ripening and increases the synchronicity of sugar accumulation. Australian Journal of Grape and
Wine Research 17: 1-8.
Symons GM, Davies C, Shavrukov Y, Dry IB, Reid JB and Thomas MR. 2006. Grapes on Steroids. Brassinosteroids Are
Involved in Grape Berry Ripening. Plant Physiology 140: 150-158.
Wheeler S, Loveys B, Ford C and Davies C. 2009. The relationship between the expression of ABA biosynthesis genes,
accumulation of ABA and the promotion of Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening by ABA. Australian Journal of Grape and
Wine Research 15: 195-204.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
69
Effect of shade and gibberellic acid (GA3) on fruit set and final quality of
Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless table grape cultivars - A field assay
in South Portugal
Sara Domingos1,2*, Hugo Nóbrega1, Vânia Cardoso2, José C. Ramalho3, António E. Leitão2, Cristina M. Oliveira1 and
Luis F. Goulao2
CEER, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
Agri4Safe/ BioTrop: Polo Mendes Ferrão, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, I.P. (IICT), Pavilhão de Agro-Indústrias e Agronomia Tropical, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
3
PlantStress&Biodiversity / BioTrop, Instituto Investigação Científica Tropical, I.P. (IICT), Quinta do Marquês, Avenida
da República, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal
*Corresponding author: Tel: +351213653453, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Thinning berries is an important cultural operation in table grape production, in order to eliminate the excessive
number of berries, maximising the quality and value of the production. The reduction of total berry number and
removal of small-sized berries results in improved final bunch aspect (decreasing bunch compactness, increasing
berries weight and size and uniformising the maturation within the bunch), quality (sugar and colour pigments
accumulation) and decreased incidence of diseases(Di Lorenzo et al., 2011).
The most common thinning practice is chemical thinning (Gibberellic acid (GA3) sprays) followed by hand
adjustments when necessary. However, the success of GA3 treatment depends on the environmental conditions, the
concentration and time of application varies with the cultivar, and its use is not authorised in organic production
and, in some countries, in integrated crop management system.
The effect of shade imposition in berry set was firstly investigated by Roubelakis and Kliewer (1976), reducing 72%
and 82% the incident light in Vitis vinifera cv.Carignane vines during five weeks, starting one week before bloom,
which resulted in a decreased number of berries per cluster. More recently, it was verified that carbon shortage
caused by defoliation and by shade conditions during bloom reduced berry set and the final number of berries
per bunch in Semeillon (Lohitnavy et al., 2010) and in ‘Seyval’ and ‘Chambourcin’ (Ferree et al., 2001), respectively.
In contrast, no significant differences were found in ‘DeChaunac’ and ‘Vidal’ (Ferree et al., 2001). In table grapes, the
response of shade in berries thinning on ‘Black Magic’ was successful tested in greenhouse conditions (Domingos et
al., 2013), needing confirmation of this effect under field conditions.
ORAL SESSION 6
The aim of this study was to test the potential of total light reduction (with shading nets) and GA3 application during
bloom in Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless table grape cultivars as thinning methods to reduce berry set
and to improve quality.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The present work was conducted in a commercial vineyard, in the south of Portugal (38° 05’ 23,80” N; 8° 04’ 52,7
1” W) in 2013, with seven-year-old ‘Thompson Seedless’ and ‘Crimson Seedless’ (V. vinifera L.) vines grafted on ‘140
Ruggeri’ rootstock, spaced 3x3m and grown on a overhead trellis system covered with plastic.
Five different treatments were tested, in five vines per treatment. For ‘Thompson’ the treatments were: total
shade (two polypropylene 82% shading net, Hubel) imposed at 50% (SH_50B) and at 100% (SH_100B) bloom
(stage 65 and 69 of the BBCH scale) during 14 and 11 days, respectively and GA3 (Berelex,Kenogard) sprays at
10ppm+12.5ppm+12.5ppm (GA3_35ppm) and 20ppm+25ppm+25ppm (GA3_70ppm) done at 20%, 50% and 100%
bloom, respectively. For ‘Crimson’ the treatments were: total shade imposed at 50% (SH_50B) and at 100% (SH_100B)
bloom during 18 and 15 days, respectively, GA3 sprays at 1ppm (GA3_1ppm) and 4ppm (GA3_4ppm) at 100% bloom.
For both cultivars the controls were non-treated vines.
Flower drop was monitored using non-woven cloth bags positioned around 10 bunches per treatment at 100%
bloom. Climate conditions were monitored above the canopy of shaded and control vines (WatchDogMicroSta.,
Spectrum Tech., USA). Leaf gas exchanges (open infrared gas analyser system (CIRAS-1, PP Systems, USA), estimated
leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD-502 m, Minolta, Japan) and primary leaf area (non-destructive method according to
Lopes and Pinto, 2005), were measured. Final quality and yield were assessed at harvest regarding to bunch weight,
total number of berries, rachis length, berry diameter and weight, firmness (by compression test), soluble solid
content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic, anthocyanins, resveratrol and catechin skin contents. The bunch
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
compactness (number of berries/cm of rachis) was also calculated. To access the significance of the differences
between treatments, one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test were performed using Statistix9 software.
In 2013, 50% and 100% bloom in ‘Thompson’ occurred at 2nd and 6th May, and in ‘Crimson’ at 10th and 13th May. The
day/night mean temperatures were 27/14°C and 25/13°C during the shading periods of Thompson and Crimson
Seedless, respectively, and shading nets intercepted 100% of PAR in shaded vines comparing to non shaded ones.
In ‘Thompson’, SH_50B, SH_100B and GA3 (35ppm) treatments induced flower drop that reached values of 955±94,
816±75 and 887±74 flowers, respectively, which are significantly higher comparing to natural drop (569±81 flowers),
whileGA3 (70ppm) was not significantly different from the control. In contrast, in ‘Crimson’ none of the treatments
were effective in promoting significant flower shedding (Table 1).
During the shade period, net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was 100% reduced, and stomatal conductance (gs) and
transpiration rates were 85-90% reduced, in both varieties, in shaded vines. ‘Crimson’ vines treated with GA3 (4ppm)
presented a reduction of ca. 30% in Pn and gs in both time points (during and after shading period) (Figure 1). In
control vines of ‘Thompson’ and ‘Crimson’ the primary leaf area at 100% bloom was 23.1±3.0 and 31.6±4.0m2.vine-1,
initial shoot length was 151±14 and 141±10 and shoot growth was 2.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1cm.day-1, respectively. In
‘Thompson’ daily leaf area growth was reduced in shade treatments. Estimated chlorophyll content was significantly
reduced in SH_50B comparing to control, from 5 or 21 days onwards shade imposition in ‘Thompson’ and ‘Crimson’,
respectively (data not shown).
At harvest on ‘Thompson’, shade and GA3 treatments reduced bunch compactness and berry number and increased
berry firmness and longitudinal diameter, comparing to control. Both shade treatments decreased bunch weight,
SH_50B reduced rachis length while GA3 (35ppm) increased TA. On ‘Crimson’, SH_50B induced a reduction of berries
number and bunch compactness and SH_100B reduced berry longitudinal diameter. GA3 (1ppm) reduced SSC and
anthocyanins skin content (data not shown) and increased TA and firmness. Resveratrol and catechin contents were
unaffected.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Only for ‘Thompson Seedless’, shade and GA3 application during bloom significantly reduced fruit set. The shade
treatments showed the highest effectiveness on reducing the number of berries per bunch, and affect more
significantly vegetative-related parameters. This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that C-starvation during
bloom is a major factor in berries abscission induction.
ORAL SESSION 6
In ‘Thompson Seedless’ a smaller leaf area (source capability) and an higher daily shoot growth (vegetative sink
strength) was observed at bloom, comparing to ‘Crimson Seedless’, which can indicate a greater competition
between shoots and berries for photosynthetic resources, making this cultivar more sensitive to thinning
treatments. GA3 bloom application is commonly used in table grapes as a means for inducing cluster loosening,
however the environment is known to play a key role in the response to growth regulator treatments. The same
cultivar can show different results over the years, as observed for ‘Sovereign Coronation‘ in a three-year trial
(Reynolds et al., 2006). In ‘Thompson Seedless’, the lower GA3 concentration successfully increased the flowers and
berries drop, in contrast with higher doses, which agrees with similar reports for ‘Crimson Seedless’ (Dokoozlian and
Peacook, 2001). Still, under our conditions, GA3 didn’t induce flowers and berries drop in ‘Crimson Seedless’ in 2013,
further supporting this response dependence of the genotype/environment.
Total light reduction drastically decreased the number of berries per bunch in ‘Thompson Seedless’ becoming
important to test the effect of less percentage of light reduction on fruit set and final quality. In ‘Crimson Seedless’,
a tendency for an increase on % flower drop induced by SH_50B treatment, resulted in a significant decrease of
berries number and bunch compactness at harvest. Our results showed that shade can be an alternative thinning
method, with effects in both cultivars, although the effect is stronger in ‘Thompson Seedless’.
In summary, the magnitude of the shade imposition and the GA3 application effects during bloom depends on the
cultivar, time of shade imposition and on the GA3 concentration. To fully evaluate the potential of the shade as a
non-chemical commercial method for thinning berries, further studies in different years and with lower % of PAR
interception for ‘Thompson Seedless’, and evaluation of economic feasibility, are needed.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
71
Figure 1. Effect of shade and GA3 treatments on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) for
‘Thompson’ and ‘Crimson Seedless’. Different letters means that treatments were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05),
uppercase and lowercase for comparison during and after shade, respectively.
ORAL SESSION 6
Table1. Effect of shade and GA3 treatments on percentage of flower drop and on shoot and primary leaf area (LA) growth
rates during shade period and bunch and berry quality at harvest, on ‘Thompson Seedless’ vines (mean±SE). Different
letters (a,b,c) express significant differences between treatments (P ≤ 0.05).
Thompson Seedless
Control
GA3 (35ppm)
GA3 (70ppm)
SH_50B
SH_100B
63.1±4.2 c
83.0±1.9 b
73.7±4.0 bc
99.0±0.7 a
98.0±1 a
Shoot growth rate (cm.day-1) n=5
2.9±0.3 ab
3.8±0.4 a
4.1±0.2 a
1.6±0.4 b
1.9±0.6 b
LA growth rate (m .day )
0.66±0.18 a
0.61±0.05 a
0.70±0.10 a
0.02±0.01 b
0.12±0.04 b
1480±238 ab
822±186 bc
1554±144a
97±59 c
197±50 c
324.2±34.8 a
168±17.5 b
220.6±20.9 b
14.8±9.1 c
43.8±11.9 c
48.5±2.2 a
44.9±2.0 a
50.5±2.2 a
20.8±0.1 b
38.6±6.1ab
6.8±0.7 a
3.9±0.3bc
4.6±0.4 b
0.7±0.4 c
1.1±0.4 bc
Berry long diametre (mm) n=48
24.6±0.3 c
29.5 ±0.3 a
29.9±0.2 a
26.3±0.2b
26.7±0.3 b
Berry firmness (N)
11.3±0.5 c
17.5±0.7 a
16.8±0.5 a
14.1±0.5 b
13.6±0.5 b
16.1±0.2
17.4±0.5
16.2±0.9
17.5±0.3
17.7±0.9
5.5±0.1 bc
6.8±0.3 a
6.3±0.3 ab
5.3±0.1 c
5.7±0.1 c
Flower Drop (%)
n=10
2
Bunch weight (g)
Berries number
-1
n=10
n=10
Rachis length (cm)
n=10
Bunch compactness
SSC (°Brix)
TA (g.L )
-1
72
n=5
n=10
n=48
n=6
n=6
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table2. Effect of shade and GA3 treatments on percentage of flower drop and on shoot and primary leaf area (LA) growth
rates during shade period and bunch and berry quality at harvest, on ‘Crimson Seedless’ vines (mean±SE). Different letters
(a,b,c) express significant differences between treatments (P ≤ 0.05).
Crimson Seedless
Control
GA3 (1ppm)
GA3 (4ppm)
SH_50B
SH_100B
58.4±9.4
55.4±7.3
63.4±5.2
77.1±4.2
58.0±3.9
Shoot growth rate (cm.day-1) n=6
0.71±0.12
0.48±0.08
0.53 ±0.11
0.38±0.02
0.32±0.04
LA growth rate (m .day )
0.25±0.05
0.19±0.02
0.28±0.09
0.10±0.03
0.10±0.01
727±38
810±91
684±52
566±98
821±114
275±31 a
299±23 a
195±15 ab
144±25 b
285±34 a
39.7±1.7
41.1±1.1
39.3±2.2
45.1±2.1
45.9±2.2
6.6±0.7 a
7.2±0.5 a
4.9±0.3 ab
3.6±0.6 b
6.3±0.8 a
Berry long diameter (mm) n=48
23.0±0.2 ab
22.3±0.2 b
23.9±0.3a
23.2±0.2ab
20.8±0.3 c
Berry firmness (N)
14.2±0.5 b
17.8±1.0 a
13.6±0.5 b
15.3±0.6 ab
14.7±0.6 b
20.4±0.5 a
17.6±0.5 c
19.9±0.4 ab
20.1±0.2 ab
18.3±0.3 bc
4.4±0.2 bc
5.4 ±0.2 a
4.3±0.1 bc
3.9±0.1 c
4.6±0.1 b
Flower Drop (%)
n=10
2
Bunch weight (g)
Berries number
-1
n=10
n=10
Rachis length (cm)
n=10
Bunch compactness
SSC (°Brix)
TA (g.L )
-1
n=6
n=10
n=48
n=6
n=6
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the
project “VitiShade: PTDC/AGR-GPL/116923/2010” and the PhD grant SFRH/BD/69076/2010 to S.D.,by ProDer:
ProdUva23921/2/3/4 Action4.1 and by the company Herdade Vale da Rosa.
References
Dokoozlian NK, Peacock WL. 2001. Gibberellic acid applied at bloom reduces fruit set and improves size of ‘Crimson
Seedless’ table grapes. HortScience 36(4):706–709.
ORAL SESSION 6
Domingos S, Scafidi P, Oliveira MC, Di Lorenzo R and Goulao LF. 2013. Effects of light reduction at bloom on fruit set
in Black Magic table grape cultivar in early and late production cycles.18th International GiESCO Symposium, July
8-12Porto, Portugal.Cienc. Tec.Vitivinic./ American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 28(2): 1001-1005.
Ferree DC, McArtney SJ and Scurlock DM. 2001. Influence of irradiance and period of exposure on fruit set of srenchamerican hybrid grapes. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 126: 283-290.
Lohitnavy N, Bastina S and Collins C. 2010. Early leaf removal increases flower abscission in Vitis vinifera ‘Semillon.
Vitis 49(2):51-53.
Lopes C and Pinto PA. 2005. Easy and accurate estimation of grapevine leaf area with simple mathematical models.
Vitis 44(2): 55-61.
Di Lorenzo R, Gambino C and Scafidi P. 2011. Summer pruning in table grape. Advances in Horticultural Science
25(3):143-150.
Reynolds AG, Roller JN, Forgione A and De Savigny C. 2006. Gibberellic acid and basal leaf removal: implications for
fruit Maturity, vestigial seed development, and sensory attributes of sovereign coronation table Grapes. American
Journal of Enology and Viticulture 57(1): 41-53.
Roubelakis KA and Kliewer WM. 1976.Influence of light intensity and growth regulators on fruit-set and ovule
fertilization in grape cultivars under low temperature conditions. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 27: 163167.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
73
Effects of PGRs (GA3 and CPPU) and cane girdling on yield, quality and
metabolic profile of cv Italia table grape
G Ferrara1,, A Mazzeo1, AMS Matarrese1, C Pacucci1 and V Gallo2,3
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, via Amendola 165/A
- 70126 Bari (Italy)
2
DICATECh, Politecnico di Bari, via Orabona 4 – 70125 Bari (Italy)
3
Innovative Solutions S.r.l. – Spin Off company of Politecnico di Bari, zona H 150/B Noci (Bari, Italy)
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
In Italy, 41% of table grape area is cultivated with cultivar Italia with a yield of 574,000 tons (Puglia Region, 2010).
Puglia, in Southeastern Italy, is the most important region for table grape production (32,450ha) and ‘Italia’ table
grape (15,000ha) is one of most important cultivars in the overall regional table grape production (ISMEA, 2012).
Berry size is the main quality factor affecting sales of table grapes in international markets. Berry size is genetically
predetermined among cultivars, but it can be considerably increased by crop load adjustment (Dokoozlian et al.,
1994), bunch and berry thinning (Sharples et al., 1955), trunk girdling (Dokoozlian et al., 1994), and the use of plant
growth regulators (PGRs).
The use of PGRs is common in table grape viticulture (either seeded or seedless grapes), and more limited is their
application for wine grape cultivars. Gibberellins (GAs) are PGRs commonly applied to many table grape cultivars.
The mechanism of GAs is the stimulation of cell elongation and division, with higher sugar and water intake into the
cells. The compound generally used is gibberellic acid (GA3) isomer, which is commonly applied after berry-set to
increase berry size (Dokzoolian et al., 2001).
Other PGRs used in table grape viticulture are cytokinins. In nature, cytokinins are produced in tissues where there
is an intense cellular activity such as germinating seeds, fruits growth, and especially root tips. Cytokinins are
used for berry growth (Retamales et al., 1995) because they stimulate cell division in association with auxins. They
also regulate the cellular metabolism by acting on the synthesis of RNA, DNA and proteins. Sometimes they are
applied with GAs in order to obtain a double effect: cell division (cytokinins) and elongation (gibberellins). The most
common cytokinin used in viticulture (USA, Chile, South Africa, Italy) is forchlorfenuron with the trade name CPPU
(N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N’-phenylurea) and Sitofex (registered name in Italy).
Trunk or cane girdling consists of removing a ring of bark (phloem tissue) from either the vine trunk or canes to
restrict the movement of assimilates from the aerial portion of the vine to the roots in order to increase the berry
size (Dokoozlian et al., 1995).
ORAL SESSION 6
This trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard in order to verify the effects of GA3, CPPU and girdling, on
morphological, chemical, qualitative and yield parameters; the effects of GA3, CPPU and girdling on metabolic
profile of the berries were also studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Experimental Procedure
The study was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in a commercial vineyard located in Turi (Bari), in the Puglia region,
Southeastern Italy. The vineyard was planted in 2002, with Italia cultivar grafted onto 34 E.M. (V. berlandieri × V.
riparia). The grapevines, similar in vigour and crop load, were spaced 2.4×2.4m, trained to an overhead trellis system
(‘tendone’) and drip irrigated (3,000-3,200m³.ha-1). The experimental design was a randomised block with three
replicates for each treatments; each replicate consisted of three grapevines. The concentration and the times of
application are listed in Table 1.
At harvest, yield, berry size, chemical characteristics, berry texture, skin colour and metabolic profile were
determined. NMR data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA) after bucketing the spectra in small
regular regions (0.04ppm). PCA is multivariate unsupervised statistical method that reduces the dimensionality
of data to a subspace consisting in a few principal components (PCs). Such PCs are related to directions of largest
amount of the variance in the spectra matrix.
Table 1. Treatments, time of application and concentration.
Treatment
74
Véraison
Time of application
Concentration
T1
Control
T2
Girdling
Berry-set
T3
GA3
10-11mm berry
10ppm
T4
CPPU
11-12mm berry
9.75ppm
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Significant differences were measured for yield and morphological parameters. All treatments improved
morphological parameters; in particular, the treatment with girdling and PGRs presented the highest yield per vine
and produced larger berries than the control in both years.
With regards to the chemical parameters, in 2011 °Brix resulted lower in GA3 compared to control, whereas
the acidity was significantly lower in all the treatments with respect to the control. In 2012 differences were
observed only for pH values. No significant differences were found among treatments for berry firmness and berry
detachment force in both years. Colourimetric parameters showed differences mainly in 2011, and berries of GA3and CPPU-treated and girdled vines presented higher value of h° (a shift from yellow to pale yellow-green) with
respect to the control.
The NMR studies showed that from June to October, the relative amount of glutamine decreased while valine,
leucine, isoleucine, alanine, lactic acid and arginine increased. In the low-field region, signals intensities of caffeic
acid gradually decreased during ripening, reaching negligible values at maturity. The differences between the
samples were due to (glucose+fructose)/(malic acid) ratio which was found higher in 2012. Tartaric acid amount was
almost constant for both years.
CPPU increased berry size to a less extent with respect to other works in different conditions (Dokoozlian et al., 1994;
Zabadal and Bukovac, 2006), whereas the effects of GA3 and girdling were similar to what was previously reported.
In our conditions, all the treatments affected the morphological parameters with an increase of the berry size, but
with some negative effects on skin colour. This late aspect could be considered for extending the storage of the
bunches on the vine and for consumers preferring table grape with a less intense yellow colour.
Metabolomic approach indicated that samples collected at ripening (October) in 2011 could be better differentiated
than those harvested in the same period of 2012. In fact, in 2011, cane girdling and application of CPPU caused a
higher production of ethanol in the berries, whereas application of GA3 resulted in a higher content of glutamine,
proline, leucine and arginine. The effects of cane girdling and the application of CPPU or GA3 in 2012, could not be
appreciated as in the previous year.
In conclusion, the PGRs improved berry size but induced a slight change of the skin colour which resulted in a pale
yellow-green; some differences were also detected in the metabolic profile.
Acknowledgements
ORAL SESSION 6
The authors would like to thank Isabella Cafagna (Politecnico di Bari) and Mariangela Vezzoso (Innovative Solutions
S.r.l.) for technical help and Prof. Piero Mastrorilli (Politecnico di Bari) for helpful discussion on NMR metabolic
profiling.
The authors also thank Giuseppe Netti for allowing the trial in the vineyard and for his important support both in
the field and in the lab and Andrea Pacifico for technical help.
References
Dokoozlian NK, Luvisi DA, Schrader PL and Moriyama MM. 1994. Influence of trunk girdle timing and ethephon on
the quality of Crimson Seedless table grapes. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Table Grapes Production,
Anaheim, CA, USA pp. 237-240.
Dokoozlian N, Luvisi DA, Moriyama M and Schrader P. 1995. Cultural practices improve colour, size of ‘Crimson
Seedless’. California Agriculture 49: 36-40.
Dokoozlian NK, Ebisuda N and Hashim JM. 2001. Gibberellic acid bloom spray reduce fruit set and improve packable
yield of ‘Autumn Royal’ table grapes. Journal of the American Pomological Society 55: 52-57.
Retamales J, Bangerth F, Cooper T and Caliejas R. 1995. Effects of CPU and GA3 on fruit quality of Sultanina table
grape. Acta Horticulturae 188: 149-157.
Sharples GC, Hilgerman RH and Milne L. 1955. The relation of cluster thinning and trunk girdling of Cardinal grapes
to yield and quality of fruit in Arizona. Proceedings of the Society for Horticultural Science. 65: 225-233.
Zabadal TJ and Bukovac MJ. 2006. Effect of CPPU on fruit development of selected Seedless and seeded grape
cultivars. HortScience 41: 154-157.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
75
Effect of CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea) and a seaweed extract
on Crimson Seedless grape quality
Janéne Strydom*
ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa, Tel: + 27 (0) 809 3159,
E-mail: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Application of GA3 (gibberellic acid) in combination with CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea) may result
in larger berries (Dokoozlian et al., 1994; Wolf et al., 1994; Zoffoli et al., 2009). However, excessive use of CPPU can
also reduce TSS (total soluble solids) and result in reduced berry colour (Peppi and Fidelibus, 2008; Wolf et al., 1994).
Seaweed extract can, depending on the dosage, improve brightness and redness of Trakya Ilkeren grapes (Kok et
al., 2010) and improve berry firmness of Sultanina (Norrie et al., 2002). The study aimed to determine whether CPPU
and a seaweed extract, containing auxins, cytokinins and nutrients, can be included with GA3 as part of a berry
enlargement programme on Crimson Seedless without negative effects on other quality attributes.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The trial was conducted on 4-year-old Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L.) grafted onto Ramsey (Vitis champinii) on the
commercial farm Roepersfontein in the Lower Orange River region (LOR) of South Africa during the 2008/09 season.
Climate data were recorded (Figure 1). The micro-irrigated grapevines were spaced 3.0m x 2.5m on a sandy soil and
trained onto a pergola trellis system. Across all treatments, standard viticultural practices were applied according to
guidelines for preparation of export grapes (Greyling, 2007).
The trial was laid out as a randomised complete block design with five treatments, replicated in six blocks with
one grapevine per experimental unit. The five treatments consisted of a control (standard berry enlargement spray
application of 20ppm GA3 with 400g.kg-1 gibberellins active ingredient), seaweed extract (0.3% v/v solution of
Ecklonia maxima derivative with 11/0.031mg.L-1 Auxins/Cytokinins) in combination with standard GA3, and three
dosages of CPPU (10ppm active ingredient) applied at dosages of 2, 3 and 4ppm in combination with standard GA3.
ORAL SESSION 6
All CPPU treatments were applied at 6-10mm berry diameter in a mixture with the standard GA3 berry enlargement
spray. The seaweed extract treatments were applied five times, commencing at 50% flowering and repeated at
1-4mm, 6-10mm, 12-15mm and 15-16mm berry diameter. Bladbuff 5® (250mL.1000L-1), was used as pH buffer for all
treatments. Treatments were applied as bunch directed sprays to ensure full coverage of bunches. Plastic curtains
between grapevines prevented spray drift.
Fifty berries were sampled randomly from each experimental grapevine at harvest. Ten randomly-selected bunches
from each of the data grapevines were harvested, weighed and packed for cold storage. The freshly sampled
berries were used to determine berry diameter, visual grape colour, as well as TSS, TTA (total titratable acidity) and
anthocyanin concentration. A colour chart from the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) was
used to group berries into different colour classes, from dark (class 1) to light (class 9) (DAFF 1990). Evaluations for
loose berries, SO2 damage, berry crack, decay, soft tissue breakdown and external bruises were done after five weeks
in cold storage at -0.5°C, followed by one week at 7.5°C. After cold storage, 30 randomly sampled berries were used
to determine berry firmness using a pressure probe at 1mm press setting to apply force onto the berry skin surface,
without penetrating the skin. Data were statistically analysed at a 5% significance level to facilitate comparison
between the treatment means.
Three and 4ppm CPPU significantly increased berry diameter compared to the control. Compared to the control,
only 4ppm CPPU significantly decreased TSS. All the CPPU treatments significantly increased TTA. Although none
of the CPPU treatments had a significant effect on berry skin colour compared to the control (Figure 2), all CPPU
treatments significantly decreased anthocyanin concentration (Table 1). The seaweed extract treatment resulted
in a significantly darker berry skin colour than all the CPPU treatments, but not compared to the control. Four ppm
CPPU significantly increased the percentages of SO2 damage, bruises and total defects after cold storage (Table 2).
Split berries contributed most to total defects and there were no significant differences between treatments. Berry
firmness was significantly increased by the seaweed extract treatment compared to the control (Table 2).
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 1. Effect of treatments on berry size and grape quality variables of Crimson Seedless from Roepersfontein in the
Lower Orange River region (2008/09).
Treatment
Berry diameter
(mm)
Total soluble
solids (°Brix)
Total titratable
acidity (g.L-1)
Anthocyanin
concentration (mg/g FWb)
18.50 bc*
18.95 a
5.39 b
0.26 a
2 ppm CPPU
19.27 ab
18.47 a
5.84 a
0.17 b
3 ppm CPPU
19.62 a
18.37 ab
5.70 a
0.18 b
4 ppm CPPU
19.68 a
17.32 b
5.96 a
0.17 b
Seaweed extract
18.38 c
19.17 a
5.36 b
0.25 a
Control
a
a
a
*Means followed by the same letter in each column did not differ significantly (P=0.05).
aN-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea.
bFW = Fresh berry weight.
Table 2. Effect of treatments on defects and berry firmness of Crimson Seedless from Roepersfontein in the Lower Orange
River region (2008/09) after 6 weeks (5 weeks at -0.5°C plus 1 week at 7.5°C) of cold storage (2008/09).
Treatment*
Total
loose
berries
(%)
SO2
damage
(%)
Decay
(%)
Split
berries
(%)
Soft tissue
breakdown
(%)
Bruise
(%)
Total
defects
(%)
Berry
firmness
after cold
storage (g)
Control
1.57 a*
0.74 bc
0.14 a
1.33 a
0.14 a
0.48 b
4.40 b
107.91 b
2ppm CPPU
1.47 a
0.87 bc
0.02 a
3.71 a
0.00 a
0.59 b
6.66 ab
117.93 ab
3ppm CPPU
2.18 a
1.27 ab
0.10 a
2.20 a
0.09 a
1.32 ab
7.16 ab
117.21 ab
4ppm CPPU
1.50 a
1.88 a
0.09 a
3.12 a
0.11 a
1.77 a
8.47 a
114.06 ab
Seaweed extract
1.64 a
0.28 c
0.02 a
3.28 a
0.03 a
0.94 ab
6.19 ab
120.01 a
a
a
a
*Means followed by the same letter in each column did not differ significantly (P=0.05).
a
N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea.
ORAL SESSION 6
Figure 1. Mean monthly temperature and rainfall for Roepersfontein in the Lower Orange River region (2008/09
season), South Africa (ARC-ISCW, 2008). Tmax = mean monthly maximum temperature; Tmin = mean monthly minimum
temperature.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
77
Figure 2. The effect of CPPU (N-(2-chloro-4-pyridinyl)-N’-phenylurea) and a seaweed extract on visual colour of Crimson
Seedless berries from Roepersfontein in the Lower Orange River Region in the 2008/09 season (significance of differences
at P = 0.05 indicated with letters).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The 3ppm CPPU treatment was considered the most suitable CPPU dosage in this study because it significantly
increased berry diameter without a concomitant significant decrease in TSS. Although 3ppm CPPU significantly
increased TTA and significantly decreased anthocyanin concentration, the maturity index was still within norms for
export and the lighter coloured Crimson Seedless grapes were suitable for export (DAFF, 1990). Three ppm CPPU did
not have a significant effect on any of the cold storage defects.
ORAL SESSION 6
The increased berry diameter obtained with 3ppm and 4ppm CPPU compared to the control corresponds with
previous results where CPPU in combination with GA3 increased berry size of Thompson Seedless (Dokoozlian et al.;
Zoffoli et al., 2009). The significant decrease in TSS observed in the 4ppm CPPU treatment compared to the control
and the significant increase in TTA observed in all CPPU treatments compared to the control are in accordance with
the results of Dokoozlian et al. (1994) and Zoffoli et al. (2009). The significant decrease in anthocyanin concentration
caused by all the CPPU treatments compared to the control are similar to the significant decrease in the amount
of anthocyanins per berry skin surface area of Flame Seedless grapes treated with CPPU in combination with GA3
(Peppi and Fidelibus, 2008). However, apart from the effect of CPPU on anthocyanin pigments, the reduction in
anthocyanin concentration might also be related to the fact that maximum temperatures during the ripening
period rose above 30°C (Figure 1). Above 30°C, anthocyanin biosynthesis is reduced (Mori et al., 2005) and
anthocyanin pigments are degraded (Mori et al., 2007). Similar to the significant increase in berry firmness caused
by the seaweed extract in this study, Norrie et al. (2002) reported an increase in berry firmness of Sultanina treated
with 1.5L.ha-1 Ascophyllum nodosum extract applied twice pre-bloom, twice at bloom and twice during post-bloom.
The incidence of split berries may be attributed to rain during the ripening period (Figure 1). The lack of significant
differences in the percentage of loose berries caused by CPPU compared to the control is in contrast with studies
where CPPU in combination with GA3 increased the percentage of loose berries of Thompson Seedless, Red Globe
and Ruby Seedless (Zoffoli et al., 2009). The significant increase in SO2 damage and bruises that resulted from 4ppm
CPPU in combination with GA3 compared to the control may be related to the significantly larger berries from the
4ppm CPPU treatment compared to the control.
The results of one season indicated that 3ppm CPPU could be used, in combination with GA3, to increase berry
diameter of Crimson Seedless, without detrimental effects on grape colour and TSS. This can impact on the yield and
number of cartons exported. The seaweed extract was not effective in increasing berry size of Crimson Seedless, but
it did increase berry firmness. To make final recommendations, the trial should be repeated to verify results.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank Philagro South Africa for funding this research, as well as Roepersfontein farm in
the Lower Orange River region for the use of their vineyard and assistance by their staff and staff of ARC InfruitecNietvoorbij (Viticulture Division) for technical assistance.
References
ARC-ISCW, 2008. Private Bag X79, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001.
DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries), 1990. Export standards and requirements for table grapes:
Directorate Food safety and quality assurance. Private Bag X343, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.
Dokoozlian NK, Moriyama MM and Ebisuda NC. 1994. Forchlorfenuron (CPPU) increases the berry size and delays the
maturity of Thompson Seedless table grapes. In: Rantz, J.M. & Lewis, K.B. (eds). Proceedings International Symposium
Table Grape Production. American Society for Enology and Viticulture, June 1994, Anaheim, California, USA. pp. 63-68.
Greyling M. (ed.) 2007. Guidelines for preparing export table grapes. Capespan Ltd. P.O. Box 505, Belville, 7535, South
Africa, 77pp.
Kok D, Bal E, Celik S, Ozer C. and Karauz A. 2010. The influences of different seaweed doses on table quality
characteristics of cv Trakya Ilkeren (Vitis Vinifera L.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 16: 429-435.
Mori K, Goto-Yamamoto N, Kitayama M and Hashizume K. 2007. Loss of anthocyanins in red-wine grape under high
temperature. Journal of Experimental Botany 58: 1935-1945.
Mori K, Sugaya S and Gemma H. 2005. Decreased anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berries grown under elevated
night temperature condition. Scientia Horticulturae 105: 319-330.
Norrie J, Branson T and Keathley PE. 2002. Marine plant extracts impact on grape yield and quality. Acta Horticulturae
594: 315-319.
Peppi MC and Fidelibus MW. 2008. Effects of forchlorfenuron and abscisic acid on the quality of Flame Seedless
grapes. HortScience 43: 173-176.
Wolf EEH, Viljoen JA, Nieuwenhuys A. and Loubser JT. 1994. The effect of forchlorfenuron on bunch quality in table
grapes. In: Rantz, J.M. & Lewis, K.B. (eds). Proceedings International Symposium Table Grape Production. American
Society for Enology and Viticulture, June 1994, Anaheim, California, USA. pp. 50-53.
Zoffoli JP, Latorre BA and Naranjo P. 2009. Preharvest applications of growth regulators and their effect on
postharvest quality of table grapes during cold storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 51: 183-192.
ORAL SESSION 6
7th International Table Grape Symposium
79
Evaluation of table grape colouration programs in global production areas
Robert Fritts, Jr.*, Schalk Reynolds, Gonzalo Maturana, Francisco Casanova, Johan Pienaar and Jozsef Racsko
Valent BioSciences Corporation, 870 Technology Way, Libertyville, IL 60048, USA
*Corresponding Author: Tel: +1 559 299-2741, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Globally, table grape production tends to be from warmer growing regions that are generally considered difficult
colouring areas for quality coloured varieties. Fruit colour development can be influenced by a number of factors
including the cultivar, rootstock, plant vigour, climate, canopy management, light exposure, crop load, irrigation,
fertilisation, and plant growth regulators. Consequently, achieving optimal fruit colour requires a programmatic
approach rather than the use of a single tool or practice.
In some years colour development is further challenged due to extreme environmental conditions. Harvests are
often delayed while waiting for sufficient colour. Due to the delay in harvest, quality (e.g., firmness) declines, and
market prices become lower. Under those conditions, the desired colour may never develop and a significant
portion of the crop may not be harvested. Growers often suffer substantial economic losses under these conditions.
Anthocyanins are the major contributors to berry colour; responsible for the red, scarlet, violet and purple colours
in grape berries. Research has shown that application of the abscisic acid (S-ABA) to grape clusters increases fruit
colour in several varieties (Lee and Tomana, 1980; Kondo et al., 1998; Jeong et al., 2004; Peppi et al., 2006).
Since 2009, nine international registrations have been granted to Valent BioSciences Corporation (VBC) for the
commercial use of S-ABA to accelerate the colour development of red table grapes. Two formulations of S-ABA, a
20% Water Soluble Granule and a 10% Soluble Liquid; have been commercialised under the trade name of ProTone™.
During the 1970s, the plant growth regulator ethephon was introduced as a tool to help improve colour
development of grapes; however, ethephon can be inconsistent and can cause berry softening at higher use rates
(Dokoozlian et al., 1998). In addition, in recent years ethephon residues have come under increased scrutiny, with
the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) being lowered to 0.7mg.kg-1 in the European Union (EU) markets.
ORAL SESSION 6
The use of ProTone, alone, or in combination with ethephon, has significantly improved the options of commercial
grower to meet the demands of international markets for low residues and highly coloured premium table grapes.
These practices have been adopted in the major table grape growing regions of Chile, South Africa, Mexico, Israel,
Egypt, Peru and California. Results have been similar in response worldwide; however, this report will focus on
ProTone development programs in South Africa, Chile, and Mexico to produce highly coloured premium table
grapes that meet the stricter EU residue requirements.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Commercial ‘Flame Seedless’ table grape vineyards were selected for these field trials. Application timing was keyed
to véraison. For purposes of ProTone application, véraison was defined as the point in which 50% of the berries have
softened. ProTone and ethephon were applied at various rates using electrostatic or traditional airblast sprayers, at
100 to 1250 litres per hectare. Split rate and sequential timing treatments were also incorporated into the programs.
Plot sizes varied from one to several hectares encompassing multiple rows within each vineyard. At commercial
harvest fruit in the blocks of each treatment were evaluated. The numbers of harvests varied from two to four,
depending on the site. Fruit were commercially harvested and total weight from within each treatment was
separately tallied. In addition to yield data, fruit firmness and soluble solids were recorded at harvest for each
treatment at each vineyard site. Samples for ethephon residues were taken prior to harvest and determined by
commercial analytical laboratories.
80
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 1. Ethephon residues (mg.kg-1) resulting from spray programs using different spray volumes, spray equipment and
total quantities of ProTone and ethephon in South Africa in 2012.
Spray Program
Water
Volume
(L.Ha-1)
Sprayer
Type
Total Ethephon
(480 g.L-1)
Per Ha
Ethephon Residue
(mg.kg-1) @ Days After Last
Application
1kg ProTone
750mL Ethephon
750mL Ethephon
100
1,500
1,500
ESS
Nobili
Nobili
1,500mL
0.99 @ 8 d
0.41 @ 14 d
1kg ProTone
750mL Ethephon
500g ProTone + 750mL
Ethephon
100
100
100
ESS
ESS
ESS
1,500mL
0.89 @ 7 d
0.43 @ 13 d
1 kg ProTone
750mL Ethephon
1kg ProTone + 750mL
Ethephon
750mL Ethephon
100
1,500
100
1,500
ESS
Nobili
ESS
Nobili
2,250mL
1.64 @ 8 d
2.83 @ 13 d
3.1 @ 19 d
1.88 @ 23 d
975mL Ethephon
975mL Ethephon
455mL Ethephon
1,300
1,300
1,300
Nobili
Nobili
Nobili
2,405mL
1.23 @ 10 d
1.28 @ 22 d
Ethephon residues levels varied depending on the timing of the analysis. Residue values tended to decrease as the
number of days from the last ethephon application increased. Higher field use rates of ethephon exhibited higher
residue levels that persisted for longer periods of time. In some cases, it was necessary to divert fruit to alternate
markets due to levels above the established EU MRL of 0.7mg.kg-1.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Our findings are in strong agreement with earlier studies that S-ABA (ProTone) can be an effective tool to improve
colour development in red table grapes and increase the productivity of grape growers (Peppi et al., 2006; Ferrara
et al., 2013). S-ABA (ProTone) can be used from véraison to late in the harvest season to increase berry colour and
subsequent harvestable yields. In addition, programs incorporating ProTone with ethephon can be utilised to
reduce ethephon residues, while maintaining highly coloured premium table grapes for international markets.
References
ORAL SESSION 6
Dokoozlian N, Peacock B, Luvisi D and Vasquez S. 1998. Cultural practices for ‘Crimson Seedless’ table grapes. UC
Coop Tulare Co. Ext. Pub. TB 16-00.
Ferrara G, Mazzeo A, Matarrese AMS, Pacucci C, Pacifico A, Gambacorta G, Faccia M, Trani A, Gallo V, Cafagna I
and Mastrorilli P. 2013. Application of abscisic acid (S-ABA) to ‘Crimson Seedless’ grape berries in a Mediterranean
climate: Effects on colour, chemical characteristics, metabolic profile and S-ABA concentration. Journal of Plant
Growth Regulation 32: 491-505.
Jeong ST, Goto-Yamamoto N, Koayashi S and Esaka M. 2004. Effects of plant hormones and shading on the
accumulation of anthocyanins and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in grape berry skins. Plant
Science 167: 247-252.
Kondo S, Masuda E and Inoue K. 1998. Relationship between ABA application and fruit quality of ‘Pionnier’ grape
(Vitis sp.). Acta Horticulturae 464: 35-40.
Lee J-C and Tomana T. 1980. Physiological study on the colouration in grape. II. Effect of sucrose, abscisic acid, and
indoleacetic acid on the anthocyanin development in ‘Kyoho’ grape (Vitis labruscana). Korean Journal of Horticultural
Science and Technology 21: 158-163.
Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW and Dokoozlian N. 2006. Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness,
pigmentation and colour of ‘Flame Seedless’ grape. HortScience 41: 1-6.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
81
Improving table grape colouring programs with s-abscisic acid (Protone™):
the importance of application technology
Schalk Reynolds*, Robert Fritts Jr, Rick Hopkins, Johan Pienaar and Jozsef Racsko
Philagro SA, PO Box 442, Somerset West, 7130, South Africa
*Corresponding Author, Tel: +27 (0) 21 851-4163, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Colour is a major quality determinant of red table grapes. Grower profitability largely depends on the efficacy of
colouring programs. Therefore, considerable attention has been given recently to vineyard management factors
to improve colour development in red table grapes. Besides other technology elements, the use of plant growth
regulators has become standard grower practice to improve berry colour. Ethephon and S-abscisic acid (ProTone)
have been registered for this purpose. While the effect of ethephon on berry colour development is often erratic
and can cause berry softening (Peppi et al., 2006), S-abscisic acid (ProTone) has been reported to be a more effective
and reliable way to improve berry colouration (Lee and Tomana, 1980; Cantin et al., 2007; Ferrara et al., 2013). In
addition, field evidence for berry colouring has shown that S-abscisic acid (ProTone) is not translocated within the
plant or within the cluster.
The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of application technology in colouring efficacy of ethephon
or ethephon plus S-abscisic acid (ProTone); various types of sprayers and spray volumes were tested in South Africa
and California, USA.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Field trials were conducted in commercial table grape vineyards in South Africa (ZA) and California, USA (CA) to
study the effect of application technology on colouring. ‘Flame Seedless’ variety was selected. Two spray treatments
were applied; 1.) Ethephon at 0.90L.ha-1 (ZA) and 1.17L.ha-1 (CA) and 2.) ProTone at 1kg.ha-1 tank mixed with
Ethephon. Applications begun at véraison (i.e., 80% berry softening in ZA and 50% of the berries softened in CA)
and repeated 3 days (ZA) or 7 days (CA) thereafter. Three water volumes were tested: 500L, 1,000L and 1,500L per
hectare in CA, and two volumes; 500L and 1,000L in ZA. Also, two sprayer types were tested for coverage; one was a
Cima-like (Spectrum sprayer) and the other one a Nobili type (Pak-Blast sprayer, Atasa sprayer).
ORAL SESSION 6
All treatments included fluorescent dye to observe coverage of the spray solution. Spray coverage, i.e., fluorescent
dye coverage, on berries in each treatment was determined under UV light. Colour development of the clusters from
véraison to harvest was recorded at the CA trial site, and total yield at commercial harvest in ZA.
These trials were successful in demonstrating the improved efficacy of ethephon plus S-abscisic acid (ProTone)
compared with single ethephon spray as a colour enhancing product for red table grapes.
Both sprayer types worked well for colouring when properly calibrated. Spray deposition ratings between the front
and back of bunches were generally more uniform for application with the Cima-like spray system than the Nobili
type (Atasa) system, for both spray volumes (Figure 1).
Atasa
Cima
Figure 1. Droplet pattern between Atasa and Cima vineyard sprayer at 500 L/ha in South Africa.
It was noticed that smaller droplet sizes and spray direction (upwards from beneath) gives better coverage and thus
better colour. In general, spray coverage and efficacy were improved in CA as volume increased. Excessive volume,
however, may increase water droplets on the bottom of berries (Figure 2).
82
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Back
Bottom
Front
Figure 2. Water droplets on grape berries when sprayed with 1000L/ha using a Pak-Blast (Nobili / Atasa type) sprayer in
California.
Also, higher volume may increase disease incidence. Colour development in ZA, determined on both side of the
bunch, was significantly more advanced where vines were sprayed with a tank mix of ProTone and ethephon using
the Cima-like applicator at a spray volume of 500L.ha-1, compared to other treatments.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Our findings support earlier studies that the addition of S-abscisic acid (ProTone) in the ethephon spray can
significantly improve efficacy for colour development in red table grapes compared with untreated control or single
ethephon sprays. Although differences in spray coverage exist between various types of applicators and spray
volumes, adequate colouring can be achieved by proper calibration.
In summary, colouring programs for table grapes can be optimised by proper calibration and attention to water
droplet deposition using currently available spray equipment. Incorporation of S-abscisic acid (ProTone) into these
programs has been shown to be successful in producing highly coloured premium table grapes for international
markets.
References
Cantin CM, Fidelibus MW, and Crisosto CH. 2007. Application of abscisic acid (ABA) at véraison advanced red colour
development and maintained postharvest quality of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. Postharvest biology and technology
46: 237-241.
ORAL SESSION 6
Ferrara G, Mazzeo A, Matarrese AMS, Pacucci C, Pacifico A, Gambacorta G, Faccia M, Trani A, Gallo V, Cafagna I,
Mastrorilli P. 2013. Application of abscisic acid (S-ABA) to ‘Crimson Seedless’ grape berries in a Mediterranean
climate: Effects on colour, chemical characteristics, metabolic profile and S-ABA concentration. Journal of Plant
Growth Regulation 32: 491-505.
Lee J-C and Tomana T. 1980. Physiological study on the colouration in grape. II. Effect of sucrose, abscisic acid, and
indoleacetic acid on the anthocyanin development in ‘Kyoho’ grape (Vitis labruscana). Korean Journal of Horticultural
Science and Technology 21: 158-163.
Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW, and Dokoozlian N. 2006. Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness,
pigmentation and colour of ‘Flame Seedless’ grape. HortScience 41:1-6.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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Session 7. Table grape growing in tropical/subtropical environments and
dormancy
Keynote address
Challenges and opportunities to growing table grapes in sub-tropical/
tropical regions
Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão
Embrapa tropical Semi-Arid, BE 428, Cm 152, Box 23, Zip Code 56302-970, Petrolina, PE, Brazil,
Tel:+55(87) 3866 3668, Email: [email protected]
Tropical and subtropical viticulture can be defined in five types according the Multicriteria Climatic Classification
(Tonnieto and Carbonneau, 2004): tropical dry, tropical wet, tropical alternatively dry/wet, sub-tropical alternatively
dry/wet and sub-tropical dominantly wet. They include a wide range of countries and very particular tropical
viticultures in Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Colômbia, Guatemala, India, Thailand, and others characterised as subtropical
in the South of Brazil, Uruguay, Korea, Japan and others.
The vine adapts differentially in every climatic condition by imposing a particular management system, resulting
in varied yield and quality of grapes. Thus, the focus here is going to be in the dry tropical viticulture, highlighting
growing regions like Piura in northern Peru (05° 12’00 “S 80° 38’00” W), Zulia in Venezuela (10° 57 ‘51 “N, 71° 44 ‘8”
W) and Petrolina and Juazeiro, in the Northeast of Brazil (9° 23’ 39 “S, 40 ° 30 ‘35” W). Viticulture in these regions are
the nearest of the Equador line in the world and have higher similarities between them. São Francisco Valley can be
considered as an example for this group as one of the pioneers and most technically advanced for growing table
grapes. The climate presents an average annual precipitation of 505mm, annual average relative humidity of 60.7%,
annual average temperature, maximum, and minimum, respectively 26.7°C, 32.0°C, and 20.8°C.
The main common aspects in viticulture under tropical climate are that vine grows continuously, there is no rest
period in winter and can be made up to three crops at any time of year. As the buds do not come into physiological
dormancy, they are apt to sprout at any time of year that pruning is performed. This is the main comparative
advantage in tropical viticulture, the grower can decide what is the most convenient time of year for pruning and
harvesting grapes as a function to achieve better prices in the market.
To produce table grapes in these conditions, it is possible to list the main technical challenges, as follows:
ORAL SESSION 7
•
•
•
•
•
•
Breaking dormancy and reducing apical dominance;
Controlling of vigour and vegetative growth;
Rational water and nutrients management;
Management of clusters for growth and colouring of berries;
Phytosanitary control;
Controlling of ripening and ideal time to harvest.
In addition to these challenges in the field is also necessary to ensure post-harvest conservation of grape through
appropriate methods and practices during packaging, storage and transportation to markets.
All the above mentioned challenges are associated with a major challenge that is to achieve sustainability, where
the technical challenges are aligned to the use of efficient methods of business management in order to reduce
production costs and ensure economic viability.
In conclusion, tropical viticulture is developing fast in the world and presents some comparative advantages. The
better comprehension of the vine physiology to adapt in these environmental conditions and the advancing of new
research approaches can be the key to obtain high quality grapes for the more strict markets and sustainability by
combining yield stability and low production costs.
Reference
Tonietto J and Carbonneau A. 2004. A multicriteria climatic classification system for grape growing regions
wordwide. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 124(1-2): 81-97.
84
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Comparative transcriptomic study of bud dormancy in sub-tropical and
Mediterranean climates
Oliver Berkowitz1,2, Michael Considine1,3,4,* and JA Considine1
School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 WA
Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Energy Biology, The University of Western Australia,
Crawley 6009 WA
3
Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 WA
4
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, South Perth 6151 WA
*Corresponding author: Tel. +618 6488 1783, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Normal developmental transitions from bud dormancy to bud burst, to flowering and fruit initiation are in
synchrony with seasonal changes and their disruption can impact on grape production. Bud dormancy is an
important survival strategy in perennial plants including grapevine with key regulators of dormancy being
temperature, especially accumulated chilling time, and photoperiod (Carmona et al., 2008). As bud dormancy
is a quantitative state, suboptimal chilling conditions in sub-tropical regions will lead to poor bud burst with
subsequent yield penalties. This often needs intervention by application of chemicals such as hydrogen cyanamide
to increase and synchronise bud burst (Halaly et al., 2008).
The regulation of bud dormancy and its modulation under sub-optimal climatic conditions is currently poorly
understood. Increased understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms will allow for the development of
improved management strategies in varying climates. The aim of our study was therefore to analyse dormant buds
from two sites in sub-tropical Carnarvon (Western Australia) against a control site with a Mediterranean climate in
the Swan Valley close to Perth. This was done at two time points (pre- and post-chilling) by analysis of change in
the transcriptome using next-generation sequencing technology (RNA-seq) to identify key regulators and genetic
networks involved in the regulation of the dormancy states.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Bud material of the variety ‘Crimson seedless’ was sampled pre-chilling at the end of March (subtropical Carnarvon,
WA) and early April (Mediterranean Swan Valley, Perth) and post-chilling early and mid June, respectively. RNA
was extracted from the sampled buds using the Sigma Spectrum Plant Total RNA kit with a modified protocol in 4
biological replicates each. Corresponding libraries were generated after ribosomal RNA depletion and sequenced
on an Illumina HiSeq1500 instrument. Read mapping and differential gene expression analysis was performed
using the TopHat/Cufflinks pipeline (Trapnell et al., 2012). Genes with an at least 3-fold change and FDR<0.05 were
called as differentially expressed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed in the R environment and GO term
enrichment analysis with the ClueGO plugin for Cytoscape (Bindea et al., 2009).
ORAL SESSION 7
Results. The RNA-seq approach yielded close to 1 billion sequencing reads across all biological replicates with an
average of 40 million per sample. Reads where mapped to the grape reference genome (Pinot Noir PN40024, 12x
coverage, Jaillon et al., 2007) and on average 80% of reads could be mapped. This will allow for the identification
of differences in transcript sequences (e.g. SNPs, indels), composition (e.g. presence/absence) and structure (e.g.
alternative splicing) between the reference genome and the ‘Crimson seedless’ variety.
This analysis was followed by detailed bioinformatic analyses of gene expression using e.g. hierarchical clustering,
pathway and gene ontology analyses. Expression of genes for the two sub-tropical sites (CRV1, CRV2) was compared
to the Mediterranean control site (SV) to identify differences in their bud development. For the pre-chilling time
point there were approx. 1100 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the CRV1 vs. SV comparison, while for CRV2
only approx. 260 showed differences in expression level when compared to SV. Post-chilling this number increased
slightly to around 340 gene while decreasing for CRV1 to 660 genes (Table 1).
Table 1: Number of DEGs (compared to control site SV) at different time points and sampling sites.
Timepoint /
site
Pre-chilling
Post-chilling
CRV1
CRV2
CRV1
CRV2
Up-regulated
902
136
601
219
Down-regulated
132
132
63
124
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Hierarchical cluster analysis of these DEGs combined identified 7 clusters of genes with distinct expression patterns.
For several of these clusters we were able to identified a number of gene ontology (GO) terms specifically enriched
that are related to e.g. developmental and hormonal processes (Table 2).
Table 2: GO term enrichment in DEG clusters.
Cluster #
Enriched GO terms
Cluster 1
Auxin transport
Lipid metabolism
Cluster 2
Cell growth
Chromatin organisation
Microtubule-based process
Leaf development
Cluster 4
Negative regulation of molecular function
Response to nitrogen
Cluster 6
Response to high light
Iron transport
Cluster 7
Pectin metabolism
Cell wall organisation
In addition a number of genes coding for key regulators of development, i.e. transcription factors of the MADS-box
family, showed also difference in expression levels in the buds originating from the three sites.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
This study has identified key mechanisms important in the regulation of bud dormancy in sub-tropical climates
down to the molecular level. In addition, application of RNA-seq technology provides proof-of-concept for further
analyses using next-generation technologies in non-model grape varieties. This increase in knowledge will help in
the development of improve management practices for table grape growers in suboptimal climates and help to
ensure industry viability and growth.
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by the Australian Research Council (Linkage Project LP0990355) with contributions from
the Department of Agriculture and Food of Western Australia and the Gascoyne Table Grape Growers Association.
References
ORAL SESSION 7
Bindea G, Mlecnik B, Hackl H, Charoentong P, Tosolini M, Kirilovsky A, Fridman WH, Pages F, Trajanoski Z and Galon
J. 2009. ClueGO: a Cytoscape plug-in to decipher functionally grouped gene ontology and pathway annotation
networks. Bioinformatics 25: 1091-1093.
Carmona MJ, Chaib J, Martinez-Zapater JM and Thomas MR. 2008. A molecular genetic perspective of reproductive
development in grapevine. Journal of Experimental Botany 59: 2579-2596.
Halaly T, Pang X, Batikoff T, Crane O, Keren A, Venkateswari J, Ogrodovitch A, Sadka A, Lavee S, and Or E. 2008. Similar
mechanisms might be triggered by alternative external stimuli that induce dormancy release in grape buds. Planta
228: 79-88.
Jaillon O, Aury JM, Noel B, Policriti A, Clepet C, Casagrande A, Choisne N, Aubourg S, Vitulo N, Jubin C, Vezzi A,
Legeai F, Hugueney P, Dasilva C, Horner D, Mica E, Jublot D, Poulain J, Bruyere C, Billault A, Segurens B, Gouyvenoux
M, Ugarte E, Cattonaro F, Anthouard V, Vico V, Del Fabbro C, Alaux M, Di Gaspero G, Dumas V, Felice N, Paillard S,
Juman I, Moroldo M, Scalabrin S, Canaguier A, Le Clainche I, Malacrida G, Durand E, Pesole G, Laucou V, Chatelet
P, Merdinoglu D, Delledonne M, Pezzotti M, Lecharny A, Scarpelli C, Artiguenave, F, Pe ME, Valle G, Morgante M,
Caboche M, Adam-Blondon AF, Weissenbach J, Quetier F and Wincker P. 2007. The grapevine genome sequence
suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449: 463-467.
Trapnell C, Roberts A, Goff L, Pertea G, Kim D, Kelley DR, Pimentel H, Salzberg SL, Rinn JL, and Pachter L. 2012.
Differential gene and transcript expression analysis of RNA-seq experiments with TopHat and Cufflinks. Nature
Protocols 7: 562-578.
86
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Low temperature-dependent release from dormancy involves a transient
oxidative burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds
K Meitha1, D Konnerup1, TD Colmer1, CH Foyer2, CS Gordon3, JA Considine1, MJ. Considine1,3*
School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Centre of Plant Science, Research of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, University
of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
3
Department of Agriculture and Food WA, 3 Baron-Hay Crt, South Perth, WA, 6151, Australia
*Corresponding author: Tel:+ 61 8 6488 1783; Email [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The state of dormancy in perennial plants is an evolutionary trait that enables the plant to endure harsh winter
condition. This inherent state allows the survival of the bud meristem inside tight protective layers, with a slowed
metabolism, conserving energy during conditions unfavourable for growth. Once conditions become favourable,
the bud meristem will resume growth and differentiate into specialised tissues, reproduce and prepare for the
subsequent winter (Lavee and May 1997). Hence the seasonal cues that drive the activity state are vital to the
reproductive fate of grape vine as one of economically important temperate fruit species.
Production in climates and seasons outside the normal seasonal requirements is problematic, due to the influence
of climate on coordinated growth cycles (Shulman, Nir et al., 1983). This often requires intensive and expensive
intervention to achieve a viable crop. For example, the use of chemical agents to promote uniform bud burst in
warmer climates, which lack the normal, temperate, winter-spring transition.
Advanced knowledge of plant oxygen signalling in bud meristem development will be beneficial to future research
focussing on better bud burst management. In our study, we measured internal oxygen partial pressure (pO2)
and respiration, as the fundamental drive of metabolism, growth and adaptation in plants, and in situ detection of
reactive oxygen species (ROS) as vital signal in the processes (Tsukagoshi, Busch et al., 2010; Kelliher and Walbot
2012). The results are expected to lead innovation in managing seasonal production of grapevine in optimal and
stressed conditions.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 7
Internal pO2 and CO2 production were measured to determine whether low oxygen levels (hypoxia) and changes in
respiration rates play roles in bud burst regulation. To study hypoxia, internal pO2 in buds were measured at 3, 24,
and 72 h after removal from chilling (4°C) and kept in the dark and also after 24 and 72 h in 12/12 photoperiod (P)
condition, using the Oxygen MicroSensor system (Unisense, Aarhus). Measurements were also performed on buds
from which the outer scales had been removed 10min prior to measurement. Micro-electrodes (OX-25µm) were
gradually inserted into the buds in 25µm steps to a depth of 2000µm, which mostly were reaching the meristem
(Figure 1a). An extremely low pO2 was observed in almost all internal parts of 3h treated buds, which value was less
than 7kPa (Figure 1b). The pO2 increased gradually as dormancy in buds progressed to release after 24-72 hours
treatment, with a more rapid oxygenation when grown in a 12/12 P compared to complete darkness (Figures 1c-d).
It also showed that removing external scales of dormant buds resulted in marked oxygenation of the outer 50-80%
of the bud transect within three hours (Figure 1b).
Respiration rates were recorded as CO2 production. Prior to this, 4 buds per measurement were harvested from
dark (3, 24, 72 and 144h) and 12/12 P (24, 72 and 144h) treatments, weighed and placed onto thin agar on plates.
Sections of the agar, as buds bases, were removed from plate and then plus buds on it were placed in a portable
insect respiration chamber (6400-89, LI-COR, Nebraska) connected to a LI-6400XT portable gas exchange system.
Measurements were performed at 23°C, in air (380µmol. s-1 CO2) with 100µmol.s-1 air flow in darkness. The system
was allowed to stabilise for 10 minutes in the dark and then CO2 production rates were recorded. Increase in CO2
production rates was observed from 3, 24 to 72 hours buds with a steep decline occurred when buds were grown in
darkness for 144 hours (Figure 2).
7th International Table Grape Symposium
87
Figure 1.(a) Trace of micro-electrode insertion in bud is pointed by the black arrow, 2000µm depth; (b) Internal oxygen
partial pressure in 3 hours treated buds (green:complete buds in dark, blue:peeled buds); (c) 24 hours (green:kept in
darkness, black:in 12/12 photoperiod); (d) 72 hours (green:kept in darkness, black:in 12/12 photoperiod).
Figure 2. Respiration rates as CO2 production measured in the absence of light (green: kept in darkness, black: in 12/12
photoperiod). Means +/- SE, n≥4.
ORAL SESSION 7
Hypoxia is known to regulate ROS production, such as superoxide, to signal the break of dormancy. Superoxide
accumulation in dormant buds and prior to burst were analysed in situ by nitro bluetetrazolium (NBT) staining
method. This was adapted from experiment in pea nodule (Groten, Vanacker et al., 2005) with modification. In
this experiment, 0.2 mg.mL-1 NBT in phosphate buffer (10mM, pH 7.8) staining was used to all time points (0, 3, 24,
72 and 144h) treated in 12/12 P. The buds were receiving formaldehyde fixation and Steedman’s wax embedding
afterwards. Then, they were sectioned into 35µm thickness, dewaxed, cover-slipped and scanned at magnification
20X by Aperio Scanscope LX (Leica Biosystem) at The Center of Characterisation and Microscopy - UWA.
The results revealed that superoxide activity in the meristem tissue was only detected in 0h bud (Figure 4a), then
it disappeared after the bud was kept for 3h at 23°C. However, superoxide accumulation was still detected in
developing vascular tissues at 3 to 144h buds (Figures 4b-e).
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Figure 3. In situ localisation of superoxide via nitrobluetetrazolium in dormant grape bud and commencing burst. Stained
section from 0 (a), 3 (b), 24 (c), 72 (d), and 144 (e) hours after removal from cold storage/4°C and maintained at 23°C with
12/12 photoperiod treatment. The blue colouration indicates superoxide accumulation in the provascular tissues (PVT)
and meristem (M).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Low oxygen condition or hypoxia is known to play a role in promoting dormancy release in grapevine buds. Genes
expression analysis on non- and hydrogen cyanamide (HC) treated buds showed that pyruvate decarboxylase
(VvPDC), alcohol dehydrogenase (VvADH), sucrose synthase (VvSUSY) and NON-symbiotic haemoglobin (VvnsHB), which
are categorised as hypoxic related genes, were transiently up-regulated when the buds approached burst (Vergara,
Rubio et al., 2012). Furthermore, the regulation of a transcription factor related to dormancy release (Flowering Locus
T; VvFT) was also increased (Vergara, Rubio et al., 2012). While these research imply that there might be a hypoxic
condition prior to bud burst in grapevine, the application of oxygen-sensitive microelectrode in our study has
allowed us to directly determine oxygen partial pressure (pO2) within buds internal tissues, and yet to verify whether
it is hypoxic or not.
ORAL SESSION 7
Hypoxia was observed in almost all internal parts of the dormant buds after 3h treatment with pO2 was less than
a third of normal oxygen pressure in air. A sudden increase was recorded when the scales were removed from
buds after treated similarly, which indicates that the lignified external layer of scales are a major barrier to oxygen
diffusion. A marked oxygenation in buds kept in 12/12 P condition suggests that light influenced this process.
However, it does not indicate whether this process is entirely physical or physiological
Currently, there is very little understanding of respiration in grapevine buds, despite their importance in fruitfulness
and spatial variation in development in vineyards. Poor conditions for bud dormancy can result necrosis of the
inflorescence primordium, spatial variation in the vineyard, as determined by coordination of bud burst and
variable fruitfulness. A better understanding of respiratory control, will improve the knowledge and development of
improvement management of grape vine responses to environmental signals, such as changes in temperature and
photoperiod.
In our study, we showed increase in respiration rates as buds kept longer (3 - 72h) in warmer temperature that
may be a result of higher internal pO2. We also suspect buds disability to initiate sugar producing through
photosynthesis in those kept in darkness for 6 days has caused significant decreased in respiration rate.
Hypoxia is known to generate superoxide accumulation in dormant buds cells, which further activates antioxidant
defence system (Vergara, Parada et al., 2012). Previous molecular studies showed the elevation of antioxidant
defence genes such as Catalase (CAT) that reached its maximum peak prior to bud burst and decreased to a third
after that (Perez and Lira 2005). The suspension of catalase activity during bud recess period implies the importance
of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as dormancy release agent. In concurrence with hypoxia and antioxidant genes
expression, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity also increased and showed a similar pattern with CAT production
(Pacey-Miller, Scott et al., 2003). This enzyme helps hydrogen peroxide accumulation by enhancing its production
7th International Table Grape Symposium
89
from superoxide. While most researches focused on the analysis of molecular aspects, this experiment investigated
the accumulation and localisation of superoxide, as precursor of hydrogen peroxide, in the internal tissues of
dormant buds and commencing release by in situ staining.
The disappearance of blue-formazan from bud meristem area after they were kept at 23°C for 3 hours suggest
that temperature change is one of many factors influencing superoxide regulation. However, superoxide was still
detected in the developing vascular tissues in buds from all treatment (0-144h), which presumably supplies the
requirement of high H2O2 signal to precede bud burst.
In summary, there is a hypoxic condition in the internal tissues of dormant grapevine buds, which gradually become
more oxygenated as dormancy release progresses. The oxygenation process of internal tissues might increase
respiration rates prior to bud burst. Temperature change has helped superoxide regulation in bud meristem, which
may further regulate its development. This knowledge of how internal oxygen level and temperature change
influence other processes during dormancy release is fundamental to discover better methods in bud burst
management.
Acknowledgements
This work was in part supported by the Australian Research Council (Linkage Project LP0990355) with contributions
from the Department of Agriculture and Food of Western Australia and the Gascoyne Table Grape Growers
Association. Plus an Australia Awards Scholarship (2012 - 2016) and a Travel Grant from Grape and Wine Research
and Development Corporation (2013) to Karlia Meitha.
References
Groten K, Vanacker H, Dutilleul C, Bastian F, Bernard S, Carzaniga R and Foyer CH. 2005. The roles of redox processes
in pea nodule development and senesence. Plant, Cell and Environment 28: 1293-1304.
Kelliher T and Walbot V. 2012. Hypoxia Triggers Meiotic Fate Acquisition in Maize. Science 337: 345-348.
Lavee, S. and May P. (1997). Dormancy of grapevine buds - facts and speculation. Australian Journal of Grape and
Wine Research 3: 31-46.
Pacey-Miller T, Scott K, Ablett E, Tingey S, Ching A and Henry R. 2003. Genes associated with the end of dormancy in
grapes Received: Functional and Integrative Genomics 3: 144-152.
Perez FJ and Lira W. 2005. Possible role of catalase in post-dormancy bud break in grapevines.” Journal of Plant
Physiology 162: 301-308.
Shulman Y, Nir G, Farbenstein L and Lavee S. 1983. The effect of cyanamide on the release from dormancy of
grapevine buds. Scientia Horticulturae 19: 97-104.
Tsukagoshi H, Busch W and Benfey PN. 2010. Transcriptional regulation of ROS controls transition from proliferation
to differentiation in the root. Cell 143: 606-616.
ORAL SESSION 7
Vergara R, Parada F, Rubio S and Perez FJ. 2012. Hypoxia induces H2O2 production and activates antioxidant defence
system in grapevine buds through mediation of H2O2 and ethylene. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(11): 41234131.
Vergara R, Rubio S and Perez FJ. 2012. Hypoxia and hydrogen cyanamide induce bud-break and up-regulate hypoxic
responsive genes (HRG) and VvFT in grapevine-buds. Plant Molecular Biology 79: 171-178.
90
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Influence of external dormancy release forcing factors on grapevine bud dormancy and the concomitant changes in bud respiration
Y Velappan1, M.J. Considine1,2,*, JA Considine1 and CH Foyer 1,2
School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Centre for Plant Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 6488 1783, E-mail: [email protected],
1
2
Background and Aims
Temperate perennial plants like grapevine cycle between periods of growth and dormancy in synchrony with
the seasons. Dormancy is a critical to (i) protect the meristem from unfavourable conditions and (ii) set the state
of the meristem to enable rapid and sustainable resumption of growth when suitable conditions arise (Rohde
and Bhalerao, 2007). The cycling in and out of quiescence is orchestrated by various environmental, genetic and
metabolic factors. Temperature and photoperiod are considered to be key environmental signals controlling
or influencing bud dormancy (Li et al., 2003; Heide et al., 2005). During late summer, waning photoperiod and
temperature cause growth cessation followed by the initiation of apical buds which are held in an internally
governed quiescent state to protect the apical meristem. Exposure to adequate amounts of winter chilling is
required to release buds from endodormancy which is later followed by a period of ecodormancy, which lasts until
the temperature rises sufficiently before the resumption of growth. Though control of dormancy and uniform bud
burst are of prime importance in commercial grape production, our current knowledge about the factors governing
bud dormancy and burst is limited.
Managing bud dormancy is an enormous economic problem for perennial fruit industries. Hydrogen cyanamide
(H2CN2) is typically used to artificially break dormancy in the warm winter regions. Although it is effective and
relatively cheap, it imparts phytotoxicity if mismanaged. Further, the mechanism of action of cyanamide involved
has not been completely elucidated (Shulman et al., 1983; Perez et al., 2008; Walton et al., 2009). But from previous
studies, it has been postulated that following the application of HC, there is a perturbation in the activity of the
cytochrome pathway in the mitochondria resulting in respiratory and oxidative stress which temporarily triggers
the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in addition to downregulating the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and
the production of ATP, inducing anaerobic respiration. Simultaneously, the antioxidant machinery and the relevant
pathways are upregulated to cope with the increased ROS production (Nir and Lavee, 1993; Pe´rez et al., 2007;
Ophir et al., 2009; Vergara et al., 2012). All the above reprogramming under hypoxic conditions may activate the cell
cycle, relieving the dormant state and promoting resumption of growth (Sweetlove et al., 2002; Ophir et al., 2009).
However, the crosstalk between hypoxia, respiration, cell cycle regulation and oxidative signalling during dormancy
release has not been clearly understood.
ORAL SESSION 7
This study sought to determine the optimal time for application of hydrogen cyanamide for the Crimson Seedless
variety and understand the regulation of these factors mentioned above, especially respiration, in relation to
oxidative signaling during dormancy in grapevine buds. The effects of hydrogen cyanamide and/or chilling on
dormant grapevine buds were explored as a tool to investigate these processes.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The above aim was achieved by combining expertise in cell biology and whole-plant physiology with state of the art
molecular biology to study how 2.5% v/v commercial dose of Hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and cold treatments (4°C)
influenced respiration and bud burst kinetics at different stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L cv. Crimson Seedless)
bud dormancy. Buds collected from April to August with an interval of ~30 days was subjected to HC (2.5% v/v) and/
or 360h cold treatments. The bud burst kinetics was scored for 70 days for each treatment condition and respiration
(O2 and CO2) was measured in field conditions on the day of sampling and after 360h of 4°C chilling, using.LiCor (LI6400XT) CO2 analyzer and Unisense O2 micro-electrode.
It was observed that all the conditions used to force budburst had a negligible or negative effect on bud burst
response in May and June. There was a decline in the overall percentage of bud burst compared to the control
which showed progressive increase in overall percentage of bud burst from April to June. It could therefore be
inferred that the buds were not fully primed to withstand harsh environmental conditions and thus were sensitive
to the forcing conditions used in this study resulting in DNA or cell damage which might have delayed bud burst.
HC and cold treatment of the buds at certain stages of dormancy is expected to accelerate initiation of cell division
in the buds and hence the bud burst (Gai et al., 2013). Cold treatment was thus found to have a positive effect on
buds collected in July and August by inducing an earlier bud burst compared to the control.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
91
Respiration should increase linearly as the buds progress from endodormancy to ecodormancy and then increase
rapidly towards bud burst (Mc Pherson et al., 1997). In accordance to this, a gradual increase in oxygen consumption
was observed from April to August. However, the carbon dioxide produced showed an undulating pattern resulting
in a similar pattern of respiratory quotient. It was therefore estimated that respiratory quotient would increase after
August due to a shift towards anaerobic respiration as the buds progress towards the end of endodormancy.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Overall, the comparative analysis of the effect of commercial HC and/or cold treatment on bud burst response and
respiration of grapevine buds in relation to the time of sampling indicated a notable change in trend from July.
Continuing the study further until September will help in developing a better picture of the basic events that take
place throughout endodormancy and help in selecting the important time points that need to be explored further
in the context of cell cycle and respiration.
Bud dormancy is elementary to the study of developmental processes in temperate perennials and its regulation is
of great economic importance to fruit and horticultural industries. Respiration along with various other metabolic
processes is known to be highly regulated during dormancy. However, our current understanding of the factors
regulating dormancy is very limited and is based on various gene expression studies that are less precise and hence
cannot directly relate to spatial organization, activity or function. Moreover, no significant research has been done
on grapevine buds to study respiration. Hence this research will be the first to elucidate the role and regulation of
respiration during dormancy in grapevine buds.
References
Gai S, Zhang Y, Liu C, Zhang Y, Zheng G. 2013. Transcript Profiling of Paoenia ostii during Artificial Chilling Induced
Dormancy Release Identifies Activation of GA Pathway and Carbohydrate Metabolism. PLoS One 8: e55297.
Heide OM and Prestrud AK. 2005. Low temperature, but not photoperiod controls growth cessation and dormancy
induction and release in apple and pear. Tree Physiology 25:109-114.
Li C, Junttila O, Ernstsen A, Heino P, Palva ET. 2003. Photoperiodic control of growth, cold acclimation and dormancy
development in silver birch (Betula pendula) ecotypes. Physiologia Plantarum, 117:206-212.
Mc Pherson HG, Snelgar WP, Manson PJ, Snowball AM. 1997. Bud Respiration and Dormancy of Kiwifruit (Actinidia
deliciosa). Annals of Botany 80:411-418.
Nir G and Lavee S. 1993. Metabolic changes during cyanamide induced dormancy release in grapevines. Acta
Horticulturae 329:271-274.
Ophir R, Pang X, Halaly T, Venkateswari J, Lavee S, Galbraith D, Or E. 2009. Gene-expression profiling of grape bud
response to two alternative dormancy-release stimuli expose possible links between impaired mitochondrial
activity, hypoxia, ethylene-ABA interplay and cell enlargement. Plant Molecular Biology 71: 403-423.
Pérez F, Rubio S, Ormeno-Nu´nez, J. 2007, Is erratic bud-break in grapevines grown in warm winter areas related to
disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory capacity and oxidative metabolism? Function Plant Biology, 34: 624-632.
ORAL SESSION 7
Pérez F, Vergara R, Rubio S. 2008. H2O2 is involved in the dormancy-breaking effect of hydrogen cyanamide in
grapevine buds. Plant Growth Regulators 55: 149-155.
Rohde A and Bhalerao R P. 2007. Plant dormancy in the perennial context. Trends in Plant Science, 12: 217-223.
Shulman Y, Nir G, Fanberstein L, Lavee S. 1983. The effect of cyanamide on the release from dormancy of grapevine
buds. Scientia Horticulturae 19: 97-104.
Sweetlove, L. J., Heazlewood, J. L., Herald, V., Holtzapffel, R., Day, D. A., Leaver, C. J., & Millar, A. H. 2002. The impact of
oxidative stress on Arabidopsis mitochondria. The Plant Journal 32:891-904.
Vergara, R., Parada, F., Rubio, S., & Perez, F. J. (2012) Hypoxia induces H2O2production and activates antioxidant
defence system in grapevine buds through mediation of H2O2 and ethylene. Journal of Experimental Botany 63(11):
4123-4131.
Walton EF, Wu RM, Richardson AC, Davy M, Hellens RP, Thodey K, Schaffer R J. 2009. A rapid transcriptional activation
is induced by the dormancy-breaking chemical hydrogen cyanamide in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) buds. Journal of
Experimental Botany 60: 3835-3848.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Control of grape bud dormancy release
C Zheng, T Halaly and E Or*
Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Volcani center, ARO, Israel
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
In warm winter regions, where the table grape industry preferentially is located, artificial induction of bud dormancy
release is mandatory for coordinated, early production of economical grape yields. The single effective artificial
stimulus available for commercial use in vineyards is hydrogen cyanamide (HC). Unfortunately, its ability to induce
respiratory stress, which initiates a biochemical cascade that leads to effective dormancy release, is also responsible
for its toxicity, both to the vines and within the environment. The development of safe alternatives for artificial
induction of bud dormancy release is essential due to the initiative to ban its use in the near future. Such task
requires comprehensive understanding of the cascade of biochemical changes that is induced by the currently
available artificial stimuli of grape bud dormancy release.
Our genomic studies recently led to the development of a working model for such cascade. According to this model,
perturbation of the cytochrome pathway activity within the mitochondria leads to respiratory and oxidative stress,
expressed as an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species, decreased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle,
and decreased production of ATP. To address this energy crisis, the alternative oxidase pathway, glycolysis, pyruvate
metabolism and anaerobic respiration are induced, in an order that has yet to be defined. In parallel, the cellular
antioxidant machinery and related pathways are upregulated to cope with the oxidative burst. Changes in redox,
sugar, and Ca++ metabolism, resulting from the above reprogramming, under conditions that mimic hypoxia, may
be responsible for induction of ethylene biosynthesis. Such changes may then affect the interplay between ethylene
and abscisic acid (ABA) in a way that allows removal of ABA repression on meristem activity and induces changes
that lead to growth resumption.
Our post genomic studies, which have affirmed the predictive power of the model, support a central role for ethylene
and ABA in regulation of dormancy release and question the involvement of Gibberellins, will be described.
ORAL SESSION 7
7th International Table Grape Symposium
93
Oral Presentation Abstracts
FRIDAY 14 NOVEMBER 2014
Session 8. General Viticulture and Vine Physiology
Plastic rain covers affect canopy microclimate and fruit quality of table grapes
Matthew W. Fidelibus*1 and Stephen J. Vasquez2
Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5270 USA.
University of California Cooperative Extension, 1729 S. Maple Ave., Fresno, CA 93702 USA
*Corresponding author: Tel. 15596466510, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Table grapes are a labor and material intensive crop; annual operating expenses may exceed $9,000 per acre in
California (Peacock et al., 2007). Thus, it is critically important for growers to protect late season grapes from rain, as
exposure to precipitation in the weeks before harvest can stimulate the development of rots and molds that render
them unmarketable. Rain damage may be avoided by harvesting the fruit before 1 October, after which time the
chance of rain increases considerably, especially in the north-central San Joaquin Valley. However, the grapes of
some late maturing varieties may not have achieved optimal market quality by then and the price paid for grapes
often increases towards the end of the season, thus providing an incentive to harvest fruit as late as possible.
To help prevent precipitation from wetting the clusters of grapes, and thereby extend the potential harvest season,
growers may cover their vines with a sheet of polyethylene film (Novello and DePalma, 2008). The films, which
are generally about 1 mil thick and 100 inches wide, are typically deployed in late August or early September, and
installed in such a way that they form an uninterrupted cover along the entire length of the row (Gerawan and
Zweigle, 2005). The film is generally supported by the trellis and vine canopy, and is thus in direct contact with the
grapevines’ leaves. Films of different colour and transparency are commonly used, but whether those differences
may affect canopy microenvironment and fruit quality has not been determined. The aim of this study was to
determine how different plastic covers affect the canopy microclimate, and fruit quality, at harvest, and after
postharvest storage.
Experimental Procedure and Results
In late September, ‘Red Globe’ (in 2011) and
‘Autumn King’ (in 2012) table grape vines were
covered with green or white plastic films, or left
uncovered (Figure 1), and canopy microclimate,
rot incidence, and fruit yield and quality at
harvest, and after postharvest storage, were
evaluated.
ORAL SESSION 8
The green film was more transparent and less
reflective than the white. The films had little
effect on fruit zone temperatures, but the
daily maximum temperature in the top center
of the canopy of vines covered with green
film was consistently 5°C higher than that of
vines subjected to other treatments (Figure
2). Treatment effects on relative humidity
(RH) depended on location within the canopy
and time of day, but both films consistently
reduced evaporative potential under the
covers, though not in the fruit zones. Treatment
effects on condensation beneath the films were
inconsistent, but south facing surfaces generally
had less condensation than vertical or north
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Figure 1. Green (foreground) and white (midground) plastic rain
covers, with uncovered vines in the background.
facing surfaces. Approximately 1 inch of rain fell on 4 October 2011, but no rain occurred during the experimental
period in 2012. Green films slightly delayed fruit maturation in 2011, but not in 2012. Films did not affect the
number of boxes harvested, or postharvest fruit quality in 2011, but fruit from covered vines had less postharvest rot
in 2012 than fruit from non-covered vines, approximately 44% of the ‘Autumn King’ grape clusters from uncovered
vines had signs of rot compared to 18% for vines under either colour of film, even though significant rain occurred
in 2011 but not 2012.
Figure 2. Average diurnal temperatures in the top center of the canopy of Autumn King grapevines uncovered, or covered
with green or white plastic film September 25 through October 14, 2012.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The films had some consistently different effects on canopy microclimate, with the white films having less
undesirable effects than the green films. Both films appeared to reduce the incidence of postharvest rot, but
addition data are needed to determine whether effects on rot are consistent.
Acknowledgement
Support for this research was provided by the California Table Grape Commission.
References
Gerawan M and Zweigle D. 2004. Tie down for plastic grape canopy. United States Patent 6813859.
Novello V and DePalma L. 2008. Growing grapes under cover. Pages 353-362 in: Proc. ISHS on grape production and
processing. Eds.: P.G. Adsule et al., Acta Hort. 785, ISHS, 2008.
Peacock WL, Vasquez SJ, Hashim-Buckey JM, Klonsky KM and DeMoura RL. 2007. Sample costs to produce table
grapes: Crimson Seedless, San Joaquin Valley - South. University California Coop. Ext. Dept. Agr. Resource Econ.,
Davis.
ORAL SESSION 8
7th International Table Grape Symposium
95
Identification and characterisation of factors affecting development of size
diversity among berries in a clusters of cv. Early Sweet
E Or*, O Oren, P KoilKonda, C Zheng, T Halaly, O Crane and AK Achampong
Department of Fruit Tree Sciences, Volcani center, ARO, Israel
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Size diversity among berries in a cluster is a major quality concern in the seedless table-grapes industry. The
presence of very small berries (‘shot berry’) on clusters with normal-size berries depends on genetic background,
environmental conditions and horticultural practices. The high susceptibility of the leading early-ripening variety,
‘Early sweet’, to shot berry development under our growing regime is a major drawback for our growers, and thus
the central motivation for the below reported study.
Early application of GA is a known inducer of shot berry formation. It was earlier assumed that (1) GA-induced shot
berry development is mediated by induction of parthenocarpy (2) the parthenocarpic nature of the shot berries
is responsible for their inability to develop to the size of the stenopermocarpic berries on the same cluster, due to
complete lack of endogenous GA. Interestingly, GA application did not lead to significant increase in shot berry size
in such mixed clusters.
To test the above assumptions and further understand the cause of size diversity within the cluster, a research
system was established in the vineyards using gibberellin application at specific concentrations and time points to
induce shot berry formation. Using this system we studied the effects of (1) parthenocarpy; (2) flower-load on the
inflorescence; and (3) cluster load on the vine, on shot berry formation. The data, which agrees with some of the
former assumptions and contradicts with others, will be presented, and our current understanding regarding the
primary reason for size diversity will be discussed.
ORAL SESSION 8
96
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Irrigation strategy and vine performance of organic ‘Italia’ table grape grown
in Apulia region (Southern Italy)
Luigi Tarricone*, Giovanni Gentilesco, Domenico Di Gennaro and Antonio Maria Amendolagine
Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Viticulture and Enology in Southern
Italy, Via Casamassima, 148 -70010 Turi (BA) Italy
*Corresponding author: Tel: +39 080/8915711, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
In the world there is an increasing fresh consumption of organic table grapes but its cultivation is very delicate and
experience to advice organic growers is still quite lacking (Willer, 2011).
Table grapes vines (Vitis vinifera L.) are always grown with irrigation in arid climate regions, characterised by low
rainfall and high evaporative demand such as it occurs in Apulia region, Southern Italy (Tarricone et al., 2012). Water is
a natural and non-renewable resource and the world nowadays is facing the problem of water scarcity due to climate
change and the increase of world population, leading to increasing demand for food (Jones, 2007). Considering
that 70% of the total water is consumed in crops’ irrigation, great attention should be focused on good agriculture
irrigation management (Chaves et al., 2007). For these reasons there is a wide interest in deficit-irrigation of table
grape vines because global climate changes increases the probability that hot summers and long dry periods occur
(Ezzahouani and Williams, 2007).
The need to optimise water use in table grapes growing has become more important as consequence of the limited
water availability for agricultural use and of the increase in its cost. It’s known that limited water availability in the soil
results in a decrease of canopy development, reduction of leaf assimilation rate, inadequate vine capacity to ripen the
clusters, and consequently, decline of quantitative (number of clusters and berry size) and qualitative yield response.
In contrast, excessive irrigation can cause vigourous vegetative growth, leading to reduced sugar accumulation
in grapes and possible nitrate leaching to the groundwater by percolation.Therefore, the efficient application of
strategic irrigation technologies not only allows to save water but also can play a positive role in improving the
quality and profitability of table grapes.
Nevertheless, a mild water deficit, e.g., 60-80% of full evapotranspiration (ET) for cv. ‘Thompson Seedless’, has
improved marketable grape yield without penalising sugar accumulation and berry weight, and a 50% deficit
irrigation after véraison has proved to not penalise berry size (Williams et al., 2010). The most common vineyard
irrigation practice consists in the restitution of nearly full irrigation requirements during the early part of berry
development and in allowing a slight water deficit during the final phases of the crop cycle. An alternative strategy is
to adopt the water balance method (Allen et al., 1998) to estimate full irrigation requirements when crop coefficients
are well adjusted and the reference evapotranspiration information is available.
The present research evaluates the effect of two different water regimes on organic Italia table grape characteristics
grown according to organic EC rules, in Apulia region.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 8
The trial was carried out in the years 2010-11, at an experimental farm of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute in
Valenzano, (latitude 41°02’N, longitude 16°53 E, elevation 70m, Bari province) on organic Vitis vinifera cv Italia, grafted
onto Vitis berlandieri x Vitis Rupestris 1103 Paulsen rootstock, at a spacing of 2.30 x 2.30m apart (1.890 vines.ha-1),
trained to overhead tendone system (Apulia type), cane pruned (40 buds per vine), drip-irrigated and covered with
plastic film from véraison to delay harvest and to protect clusters from rain and hail.
Italia table grape is the main white-berry seeded cultivar grown in Apulia region, late-ripening (from September in
open field to December in vineyards covered with plastic film) and is characterised by high vine productivity, large
berry size, muscat flavour, moderate juice acidity and long shelf-life on cold storage.
The climate of the area is sub-arid Mediterranean (average maximum air temperature 33°C inAugust, average
minimum air temperature 3°C in January, and rainfall averages 500mm per year, mostly concentrated from
September to April) with high summer evaporation and low relative humidity. The 2010-2011 seasons were rainy
years with a average rainfall of 790mm but with only 270mm from budbreak (April) to harvest (first week of October).
Soil of the experimental vineyard is characterised by a medium chemical fertility and soil texture was clay-loam.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
97
Water content at field capacity and wilting point were 33 and 19g.100g-1 respectively and total available water was
12g.100g-1. Two watering volumes were applied: V1 (well irrigated vines) corresponding to 100% of estimated crop
evapotranspiration (Etc) and V2 (moderately stressed vines) with 80% of Etc restitution and irrigation started after
berry set (in June) to one week before harvesting (first week of October).Irrigation was provided through drip system
with a single irrigation line per row and pressure compensated emitters, with a discharge rate of 16 and 12 l h-1 for V1
and V2 treatments respectively. Irrigation was scheduled using the water balance method (Allen et al., 1998) based
on the soil water balance evaluation, by providing the restitution of the amount of water lost by evapotranspiration,
after effective rainfall.
Daily vine evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated by Penman-Monteith (FAO) method and using FAO crop
coefficients defined for table grape in Mediterranean region.The seasonal irrigation water volumes supplied through
drip irrigation at the end of irrigation season (from June to October), were 2.700, 2850 and 2.200, 2300m3.ha-1 for V1
and V2 treatments respectively in 2010 and 2011 years. On 15 vines per irrigation treatment bud load per vine, shoots
and clusters number per vine, bud fruitfulness, were assessed. Cluster number of vines was standardised one week
after berry set in order to retain an average of 31 bunches per vine in all treatments with manual cluster thinning.
To quantify vine water status, midday stem water potentials (Ψmds) were measured on 10 leaves of similar maturity
per treatment with a pressure chamber (3005F01, Soilmoisture Equipment Corp., Santa Barbara CA, USA).Leaf
stomatal conductance was determined on cloudless days during ‘midday’ period using a portable porometer (Model
SC-1, Decagon Devicess, Pullman, WA).
At the commercial harvest, on random samples of 45 clusters per treatment, bunch and berry mass, cluster length,
berry diameters and yield per vine were determined. On juice samples the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and
pH were also determined.
Besides, 50 berries per treatment were randomly sampled and their skin firmness, berry removal force and firmness
were determined using a digital penetrometer (Digital Fruit firmness tester, TR Turoni S.r.l., Forlì, Italy). On a sample
of 100 berries per treatment the berry skin colour parameters by use of colourimeter (Minolta Croma Meter CR 400)
L* (brightness), a* (measure of range colour from green (-) to red (+) and b* (measure of range colour from blue (-) to
yellow (+) were determined.
After the harvest, six vines per treatment were completely defoliated and total leaf area per vine determined with
a leaf area meter (area-meter Li-3100, LI-COR, USA) and the leaf area/crop weight ratio was calculated (Kliewer and
Dokoozlian, 2005). During winter period vegetative growth was quantified by measuring cane mass at pruning and
the fruit to pruning weight ratio was calculated. Crop water productivity (kg of fresh fruit per m3 of water applied) was
also computed. Average data were statistically analysed using procedure of Systat 11 package (SYSTAT Software Inc.,
Richmond, California, USA).
Different irrigation volumes did not affect shoots and clusters number per vine, neither bud fruitfulness in the
following crop cycle (Table 1).
Table 1. Vegetative and productive characteristics of Italia vines (average 2010-11).
Treatment
ORAL SESSION 8
Buds per
vine
(n)
Shoots per
vine
(n)
Clusters per
vine
(n)
Clusters per
vine/Buds
per vine
Clusters per
vine/Shoots
per vine
V1
40 a
32.56 a
34.41a
0.86 a
1.06 a
V2
40 a
29.70 a
33.94 a
0.84 a
1.14 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
The vine water status showed clear differences between treatments. In V1, Ψmds varied at a little extent, ranging from
-0.49 to -0.64MPa, while in V2, it decreased along the season reaching the value of -0.95MPa at harvest (Table 2).
Differences in midday stem water potential were significant at pea-size, véraison and at harvest. V2 treatment had
more negative Ψmds by 22% and 33% respectively, suggesting that midday stem water potential is an appropriate
index of plant water status for table grape irrigation management.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
At pea-size, véraison and harvest, the lower vine water status likely affected the stomata aperture as indicated by the
reduction of stomata conductance (from 7 to 33%) in leaves of V2 treatment (Table 2). Compared to V1 treatment,
a yield decline of 14% was observed for V2 treatments respectively, due to a reduction in cluster weight (-13%) and
berry weight (-6%) considering the same clusters number retained per vine. The yield decline was due to a reduction
in bunch and berry weight considering the same clusters number per vine (Table 3). The application of different
irrigation volumes induced significant differences in total leaf area per vine. Leaf area of V1 (well-irrigated vines) was
quantitatively higher than that of the other treatment (moderately-stressed vines) (Table 3) and maximum berry
weight was obtained in V1 treatment which showed a leaf area (m2) per fresh yield (kg) ratio of 0.82 according to
the results shown by Kliewer and Dookzlian (2005). Crop water productivity (production per unit of water applied)
increased moderately from V1 (17.1kg.m-3) to V2 (18.1kg.m-3).
Table 2. Effects of the irrigation regime on midday stem water potential and stomata conductance on Italia vines (average
2010-11).
Midday stem water potential
(Ψmds, MPa)
Parameters
Stomata conductance
(mmol m-2s-1)
Fruit-set
Pea-size
Véraison
Harvest
Fruit-set
Pea-size
Véraison
Harvest
V1
-0.49 a
-0.47 a
-0.46 a
-0.64 a
291.51 a
343.58 a
256.52 a
410.82 a
V2
-0.50 a
-0.60 b
-0.54 b
-0.95 b
240.64 a
289.25 b
174.98 b
379.46 b
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
Table 3. Main quantitative and qualitative yield parameters of Italia table grape at harvest (average 2010-11).
Treatment
Bunch
weight
Berry
weight
(g)
(g)
Total
Titratable
soluble
acidity
solids
(g L-1)
(° Brix)
pH
Yield
Total leaf
area per
vine
(kg vine-1)
Crop water Leaf area/
productivity
yield
(m vine )
2
(kg m-3)
(m2 kg-1)
-1
V1
720.93 a
7.35 a
17.09 a
5.61 a
3.54 a
24.40 a
20.15 a
17.14 b
0.82 a
V2
629.32 b
6.90 b
16.41 b
5.62 a
3.51 a
20.87 b
17.79 b
18.15 a
0.85a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
In this research irrigation treatment did not affect the berry physical characteristics at harvest and skin colour berry
parameters (Table 4).
Table 4. Influence of water regimes on berry physical characteristics and skin berry colour of Italia tale grape (average 2010-11).
Treatment
Skin firmness
(g)
Berry removal force
(g)
Firmess
(g)
L*
(brightness)
a*
(greenness)
b*
(yellowness)
V1
106.72 a
222.24 a
898.72 a
34.41 a
-2.06 a
8.40 a
V2
100.33 a
214.97 a
862.96 a
33.90 a
-2.12 a
9.14 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
ORAL SESSION 8
Moderately vine water stress (80% of Etc) reduced significantly the vegetative growth as shown by the pruning and
the cane weight (Table 5).
Table 5. Effect of different watering volumes on the pruning weight of Italia table grape (average 2010-11).
Treatment
Pruning weight
(g)
Average cane weight
(g)
Ravaz Index
V1
3540 a
129.52 a
6.89 a
V2
2860 b
104.34 b
7.30 a
In column, means followed by different letters were significantly different at P=0.05 using SNK test.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
99
Discussion and Significance of the Study
According to the preliminary results of this study, the application of a high irrigation volume (V1) have favoured the
water status, the canopy development and induced an increase in vegetative and productive growth. ‘Italia’ wellirrigated vines (V1) took more advantage from the highest water supply, in such a way that their higher metabolic
activity determined a higher vegetative and productive development. However the irrigation at 80% of ETc appeared
to be sufficient to achieve a complete table grape vineyard development under the environmental condition of the
Apulia region. By comparing V2 (moderately stressed vines) and V1 (well irrigated vines) the best balance among
vegetative growth, grape yield, berry quality and water use in table grape production, was obtained in V2 vines, with
the possibility to reduce the irrigation water requirement.
In addition, from this study emerges the utility of midday stem water potential and stomata conductance as
interesting tools for qualitative evaluation of low deficit and normal irrigation on table grape vines.
Acknowledgements
The work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Policy (Bando Agricoltura biologica D.M
24327/7742/09 de 22/10/2009), Project “Tecniche biologiche di produzione e conservazione per la salubrita’ dell’uva da
tavola ”, acronimo SAL.U.TA; publication No. 3.
References
Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D and Smith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water
requirements. In: FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper. FAO (Roma): 15-27.
Chaves MM, Santos TP, Souza CR, Ortun MF, Rodrigues ML, Lopes CM, Maroco JP and Pereira JS. 2006. Deficit irrigation
in grapevine improves water-use efficiency while controlling vigour and production quality. Annals of Applied Biology
150(2): 237-252.
Chonè, X., Van Leeuwen, C., Dubordieu, D. and Gaudillere, J.P., 2001. Stem water potential is a sensitive indicator of
grapevine water status. Annals of Botany. 87: 477-483.
Ezzahouani, A. and Williams, L.E., 2007. Effect of irrigation amount and preharvest irrigation cutoff date on vine water
status and productivity of Danlas grapevines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 58(3):330-340.
Kliewer WM, and Dookzlian N K. 2005. Leaf area/crop weight ratios of grapevines: influence of fruit composition and
wine quality. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56: 170-181.
Jones G V. 2007. Climate change: observations, projections, and general implications for viticulture and wine
production. Proceedings of OIV Congress of Vine and Wine, Zaragoza, Spain April 10-14.
Tarricone L, Gentilesco G, Ciccarese A,Stellacci AM and Rubino P. (2012). Irrigation strategy affects quantitative and
qualitative vine performance of ‘Italia’ table grape. Acta Horticulturae 931: 203-209.
Williams, L.E., Grimes, D.W. and Phene, C.J. 2010. The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured
evapotranspiration on reproductive growth and water productivity of ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapevines. Irrig. Sci.
28(3):233-243.
Willer H. 2011. Organic agriculture worldwide, key results from the global survey on organic agriculture 2011. FiBL &
IFOAM, Survey 2011.
ORAL SESSION 8
100
7th International Table Grape Symposium
A study on the factors involved with russet stains in Thompson Seedless table
grapes
H Weksler*, T Kaplunov, Y Zutahy, A Daus and A Lichter
Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, POB 6, 50250, Bet Dagan, Israel.
*Corresponding Author: Tel: 972 2 9910781, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Sporadic events of russet stains in Thompson Seedless have for years been observed
in the Lachish region in Israel but it was not until 2010 and 2011 that this issue has
become a threat to Thompson growers with damages soaring up to 50% in some plots
in this region. The damage was mainly superficial and characterised by elongated
parallel and/or concentric brown stains which significantly reduced the value of
the fruit to below commercial value, even at the less demanding domestic market.
Viticulturists from various countries did not have conclusive idea as to the cause of the
symptoms but berry size, weather conditions and pesticides were noted as possible
factors. These severe damages triggered a study aimed at understanding the factors
involved with the development of those stains and at developing effective control
measures.
Experimental Procedures and Results
First symptoms were usually seen in early July after véraison and symptoms escalated during fruit ripening.
Microscopic observations revealed a micro-crack at the center of each blemish (i.e. a superficial crack that did
not transverse the flesh). This finding led to hypothesising that the formation of a micro-crack occurs first and is
conditional to the development of the rust stain.
A survey conducted at over 100 Thompson plots in the affected region showed correlation between the level of the
stains and poor air movement and/or light penetration throughout the plot. Another important observation was
that more damage was incurred in the back and bottom part of the cluster. This pattern led to the hypothesis that
rust stains were caused by foliar sprays which are slower to dry in the back part of the cluster and in vineyards with
slower air movement or light penetration.
Dipping berries off the vine in solutions of various commercial formulations of fungicides and insecticides showed
enhanced macro-cracking by some commercial compounds, suggesting that they have the potential to cause
damage to the peel upon prolonged exposure. Spraying clusters with various commercial formulations of pesticides
enhanced rust stain formation which was also caused, to a lower extent, by the water control.
Other results showed positive correlation of rust stains with berry firmness and TSS level. Berries with rust stains
suffered higher postharvest weight loss and finally, spatial distribution of stained clusters at the vineyard revealed a
non-random pattern.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
ORAL SESSION 8
The results suggest that some commercial formulations of pesticides applied between véraison and maturity,
may induce micro cracking and subsequently russet stains. Possible ways to reduce the risk may be reduction of
pesticide application at that time. This study reveals potential causes for a significant viticultural problem of table
grapes and suggests directions which may control it.
Acknowledgement
The research was funded by TALI GRAPES in Israel. We thank Mr Guy Rozenfeld from Moshav Lachish for his
initiatives and assistance. We also thank all the dedicated growers who contributed their vineyards to the study and
in particular to Udi Rosenfeld, Asaf Arad, Dani Barel and Mordechay Vaknin.
References
Fichette T. 2013. Primary cause of grape cracking still elusive. Western Farm Press Exclusive insight P.1
Lee CY and Jaworski AW. 1988. Phenolics and browning potential of white grapes in New York. American Journal of
Enology and Viticulture 39(4): 337-340.
Swift JG, May P and Lawton EA. 1974. Concentric cracking of table grapes. Vitis 13: 30-35.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
101
Causes and prevention of Thompson Seedless berry collapse
Peter Clingeleffer1,2,*, Davinder Singh2, Michael Treeby2,3 and Kristen Pitt4
CSIRO Agriculture, PMB 2 Glen Osmond, SA 5065
Formerly CSIRO Plant Industry, Merbein, Victoria 3505
3
Primary Industries Science and Research, New South Wales, Dareton, New South Wales 2717
4
DEPI, Macleod, Victoria. 3085
*Corresponding author: Tel: (08) 83038721, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
In Australia, Thompson Seedless is the most popular table grape variety on the domestic market and a significant
export variety. However, incidences of berry collapse in 3 seasons (1997-98, 2000-01 and 2007-08) resulted in
significant crop and financial losses to fresh grape producers. Berry collapse in Thompson Seedless becomes
visually obvious around véraison (berry softening). The visual symptoms in the severe seasons generally involve
development of striated necrotic (dead) tissue in the berry skin, berry discolouration and collapse, predominantly at
the distal end of the berry, with an apparent loss of moisture from the berry (Figure 1.)
Figure1. Bunch showing typical berry collapse at harvest (left). Berry showing striations associated with necrotic tissue
which occurs around véraison and is the first sign of a problem (right).
GA sprays and cincturing are used by the table grape industry to increase berry size of seedless varieties because
of consumer demand for larger berries. Interrogation of the historical weather data suggested that most of the
problem was associated with heat stress during the time when GA is applied for berry sizing. On average, maximum
temperatures were 5-10°C higher during late November in the 3 seasons when widespread berry collapse was
observed, compared to other seasons when there was no or very low incidences of berry collapse.
A series of studies and trials were conducted over three seasons to investigate the factors contributing to berry
collapse of Thompson Seedless and to develop management options to ameliorate the effect of such factors.
Experimental Procedure and Results
ORAL SESSION 8
Extensive microscopy of the affected tissue showed that berry collapse symptoms were the result of cell death
and loss of internal structure in the collapsed part of the berry (Figure 2). It was also noted that berries without any
collapse symptoms such as water berries (i.e. berries with a soft tip at the distal end) and berries with vertical brown
striations also showed internal cell death. Striated berries lost water at more than twice the rate of berries without
symptoms and had high total soluble solids (TSS or °Brix) suggesting that loss of water through the cracks in the
cuticle (Figure 3) is associated with berry cell death.
Figure 2. Microscopic symptoms of (a) healthy, (b) collapsed and (c) striated berries of Thompson Seedless stained with
fluorescein diacetate.
102
7th International Table Grape Symposium
e 2. Microscopic symptoms of (a) healthy, (b) collapsed and (c) striated berries of Thompson Seedless
ed with fluorescein diacetate.
A. Healthy berry
B. Collapsed berry
Top
Bottom
Figure 3. Scanning electron microscopy on the top and bottom half of a healthy berry (A) and a berry showing symptoms
of berry collapse (B) at X 80 magnification (200m). (C) The cracks in the cuticle (bottom half) of a collapsed berry are
e 3. Scanningshown
electron
microscopy
on the i.e
topX and
bottom half
of a healthy berry (A) and a berry showing
at higher
magnification
160 (200m)(far
right).
toms of berry collapse (B) at X 80 magnification (200m). (C) The cracks in the cuticle (bottom half) of a
studiesmagnification
with elevated i.e
temperatures
and water
stress treatments confirmed that the incidence of berry
psed berry areGlasshouse
shown at higher
X 160 (200m)(far
right).
collapse can be linked to GA treatment and high temperatures during early berry development and that the
shouse studiesproblem
with elevated
temperatures
and
water
stress
treatments
that the
incidence
of to maximum
is exacerbated
by water
stress.
The
results
suggestedconfirmed
that the ‘trigger
point’
with respect
between
35°Cand
andhigh
40°C.
collapse can temperature
be linked to isGA
treatment
temperatures during early berry development and that
roblem is exacerbated
by water stress. The results suggested that the ‘trigger point’ with respect to
Widespread occurrence of berry collapse in Thompson Seedless in the 2007-08 season provided an opportunity
mum temperature
is
between
35°C and
to identify ‘best practice’
that40°C.
may enable growers to minimise the incidence of berry collapse in future seasons.
Notable
of vineyard
management
on properties
where berry
collapse
was minimal
in that season included
spread occurrence
of features
berry collapse
in Thompson
Seedless
in the 2007-08
season
provided
an
complete coverage of ground surface by irrigation (e.g. with undervine sprinklers); careful attention to water
rtunity to identify ‘best practice’ that may enable growers to minimise the incidence of berry collapse in
management to minimise stress during shoot and berry development including a significant application in early
e seasons. Notable
vineyard
managementofonanproperties
where
collapse was
minimalcanopy
in
springfeatures
to fill theof
soil
profile; maintenance
established
coverberry
crop potentially
to reduce
temperatures
season included
complete
coverage
of
ground
surface
by
irrigation
(e.g.
with
undervine
sprinklers);
and reduce soil water evaporation losses; adoption of large, wide V trellises to reduce soil water evaporation losses
ul attention toand
water
management
to minimise
andabove
berry the
development
including
a temperatures and
lower
canopy temperature;
thestress
use ofduring
mistersshoot
situated
canopy to reduce
canopy
increase
humidity
highsoil
temperature
conditions, and
of cover
plasticcrop
vine covers above the vine canopy
icant application
in early
springunder
to fill the
profile; maintenance
of anpositioning
established
to ensure adequate air circulation and ventilation.
A number of products were tested to assess the potential to reduce the incidence of berry collapse in Thompson
Seedless. These included the plant hormones, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) which are involved in plant
defence mechanisms against pathogen attack and hence cell death; putrescine, a natural polyamino acid which has
been used to increase fruit size in a number of horticultural crops; and, a reflective, particle film product (Surround®)
which has been shown to reduce canopy temperatures and maintain leaf function of grapevines and other
horticultural crops under stress. Of these products Surround®, which reduced canopy temperature by 2-3°C, has
shown the most promise as it not only reduced early symptoms of berry collapse (i.e. brown striations associated
with water stress treatments), but also promoted early ripening associated with early véraison and increased berry
weight. The earlier ripening with the Surround treatment could be exploited by the table grape industry to market
fruit earlier in the season.
ORAL SESSION 8
Figure 3. Vine leaves sprayed with Surround®.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
103
Rootstock and irrigation management trials were also conducted in the 2008-09 season to determine any
interaction between rootstock, water stress and berry collapse. Although limited berry collapse occurred during
that season due to mild weather conditions, data collected suggest that vines on Schwarzmann rootstock had
significantly more berries with soft tip and brown striations as compared to Ramsey rootstock under water stress
conditions (Table 1). Cinctured vines on both rootstocks generally had higher incidence of berries that had soft tip
and brown striations as compared to uncinctured vines, suggesting a link between rapid growth of the berry and
the development of symptoms (Table 1).
Table 1. Field trial data showing the effect of rootstock, water stress and cincturing at the time of GA application for sizing
on the % of berries with soft tips and brown striations, twenty bunches per treatment were assessed at the time of harvest.
Superscripted letters indicate significant differences between the means within columns (P<0.001).
Rootstock
Ramsey
Schwarzmann
Irrigation
Cincture
% berries with
soft tip
% berries with brown
striations
Control
-
2.0a
7.5a
Control
+
6.8b
14.8b
Stress
-
4.5b
13.3b
Stress
+
14.2e
15.4b
Control
-
c
4.8
16.5c
Control
+
8.8d
38.8d
Stress
-
7.3c
19.8c
Stress
+
17.4f
17.7c
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Glasshouse trials and field studies have confirmed a link between berry collapse, GA application and high
temperature during the early stages of berry development. The problem is exacerbated by water stress, cincturing
and some rootstocks (e.g. Schwarzmann compared to Ramsey). Vineyard management practices have been
identified which should enable Thompson Seedless growers to minimise losses from berry collapse if high
temperatures occur during and subsequent to the period when GA is applied to enhance berry size. Attention
should be given to irrigation management to minimise water stress during the critical berry development period.
If high temperatures are forecast, growers should consider not cincturing and adjust the timing of GA sizing
sprays. Application of particle films such as Surround®, to reduce canopy and fruit temperature, shows promise as a
technique to reduce Thompson Seedless berry collapse.
Acknowledgments
The authors acknowledge the input of members of the Murray Valley Table Grape Growers’ Council, the Australian
Table Grape Growers’ Association (ATGA) and thank the participating growers in the conduct of field trials. The
project was supported by Horticulture Australia, CSIRO and DEPI-Victoria. Tori Nguyen, Joel Beloy and Patrick Ellis
provided valuable technical support.
References
Singh DP, Treeby M, Pitt K and Clingeleffer P. 2009. Thompson Seedless berry collapse. 12th Australian Table Grape
Technical Conference Proceedings. 16-17 September, 2009.
ORAL SESSION 8
Singh DP, Treeby M, Nguyen T, Beloy J and Clingeleffer P. 2009. Thompson Seedless berry collapse. The Vine, 5(3):
34-5.
Singh DP, Treeby M, Nguyen T, Pitt K and Clingeleffer P. 2008. Thompson Seedless berry collapse- symptoms and
causes. The Vine, 4(5): 20-1.
Treeby MT, Krstic MP, Mason H, Storey R and Clingeleffer PR. 2004. Thompson Seedless berry collapse: scoping study.
Final report, Horticulture Australia.
Pitt K, Krstic MP, Kourmouzis T, Clingeleffer PR, Storey R and Treeby MT. 2003. Table grape berry collapse. In:
Proceedings of the 6th Australian Table Grape Growers Technical Conference, Mildura, Vic : Murray Valley Table Grape
Growers Council. 2003, 91-5
Singh DP, Treeby M, Pitt K and Clingeleffer P. 2010. Causes and prevention of tablegrape berry collapse. Final report
to Horticulture Australia (TG04001).
104
7th International Table Grape Symposium
The use of autofluorescence and imaging for phenological analysis of table
grapes
A Lichter1*, T Kaplunov1, Y Zutchi1, A Daus1, I Maoz1, A Bahar2, E Raban3 and S Lurie1
Department of Postharvest Science, ARO, The Volcani Center, POB 6, 50250, Bet Dagan, Israel
Selcuk University, Silifke Tasucu Vocational School, Mersin, Turkey
3
Extension Service, The Ministry of Agriculture, Bet Dagan, Israel.
*Corresponding author: Tel: 972 3 9683684, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Table grapes are exposed to many manipulations which affect the quality of the berries, such as application of
plant growth regulators (PGRs) and pesticides, girdling and other innovative treatments. Subjective evaluation of
the effect of these treatments is common but is prone to inconsistencies. During ripening the chlorophyll content
decreases, there are changes in the flavonoid content of the berries as well as many other compounds. These
changes affect the spectral properties of the berries which are expressed in its autofluoresence emission.
Experimental Procedures and Results
The kinetics of ripening of ‘Thompson Seedless’ were followed by the autofluorescence profiles using the Multiplex
3 instrument (Force A, Orsay, France). This portable instrument uses four excitation sources and three emission
channels to calculate the ratios between different signals, thus nullifying the effect of the structural complexity of
the cluster. The red to far red emission (SFR_R), which relates to chlorophyll content, declined during ripening in
inverse correlation to (R2=0.97) to the increase in total soluble solids.
Application of the cytokinin CPPU during fruit set had a pronounced effect on the FLAV ratio which correlates to
flavonoid content of the berry. The tannin determination method of protein precipitation confirmed that the CPPU
treatment increased the content of soluble tannins which affect the astringency of the berries. The ANTH ratio which
correlates to anthocyanins was capable of quantifying the effect of ABA on the colour of ‘Flame’ and ‘Crimson’ grapes
in full agreement to the laborious chemical analysis. Rachis quality is another important parameter of table grapes
after storage which is not easy to measure.
By using image analysis and autofluoresence it was shown that cytokinin and gibberellin in concentrations which
are practiced in the vineyard (2 and 20 ppm, respectively) did not improve rachis quality in four major grape
cultivars (‘Mystery’, ‘Superior’, ‘Crimson’ and ‘Red Globe’). On the other hand, packaging which reduces water loss
had a significant effect on rachis quality. The kinetics of rachis browning before and after cold storage were used to
determine half-browning values which can assist in predicting the shelf life of table grapes.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results suggest that ripening can be efficiently followed by its autofluorescence properties and that horticultural
treatments that affect ripening can be robustly measured. It is shown for the first time that cytokinin can alter the
flavour of the berries by increasing their tannin content. It is also shown that unlike the common thinking PGRs do
not necessarily improve rachis appearance. This study demonstrates the value of objective means to phenotype
table grapes in the vineyard and after storage.
Acknowledgement
ORAL SESSION 8
The research was partly funded by the Chief Scientist – The Ministry of Agriculture, and by the Table Grape Board
– The Plant Council, Israel. We wish to thank Guy Rosenfeld from Moshav Lachis for his initiatives and assistance.
We thank grape growers which contributed their vineyards to the study and in particular to Yuval Sadan and Asaf
Arad. We also wish to thank Dr Victor Alchanatis and his group at the Agricultural Engineering of ARO for the image
analysis.
References
Bahar A, Kaplunov T, Zutahy Y, Daus A, Lurie S and Lichter A. 2012. Auto-fluorescence for analysis of ripening in
Thompson Seedless and colour in Crimson Seedless table grapes. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
18:353-9.
Raban E, Kaplunov T, Zutahy Y, Daus A, Alchanatis V, Ostrovsky V, Lurie S and Lichter A. 2013. Rachis browning in four
table grape cultivars as affected by growth regulators or packaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology 84: 88-95.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
105
Satellite-based assessments of irrigation water use by table grapes grown in
the Robinvale district of SE Australia
D Whitfield*, M Abuzar, A McAllister, M O’Connell, K Sheffield and L McClymont
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria, Ferguson Rd, Tatura, VIC 3616, Australia
Background and Aims
Farm/region scale assessments of irrigation water use efficiency have been undertaken by the Victorian Government
over several decades. Studies have included intensive farm-based appraisals focussed on irrigation methods, water
supply and crop yields, and an alternative satellite-based approach which targets the ability of irrigators to match
irrigation water supply to crop demand for water (Whitfield et al., 2011). The satellite approach employs measures of
irrigation water demand calculated from satellite measures of the area and vegetation cover (Normalised Difference
Vegetation Index; NDVI) of irrigated fields, crop information (from contemporary land use maps), and field/farm-specific estimates of crop/pasture water use (evapotranspiration; ET) based on values of the crop coefficient, Kc, that
relate crop evaporation rates to NDVI (Whitfield 2011), and surface measures of reference crop ET (ETr; Allen 2006)
derived from local SILO weather data. The satellite approach employs estimates of daily ET in soil water balance calculations to estimate the amounts of irrigation water needed to match crop water supply (irrigation + rainfall) and
crop water requirement during the irrigation season.
The major sources of supplementary water for irrigation in the Sunraysia district are provided by surface water supplies sourced from the River Murray. This paper compares satellite-based measures of the irrigation water requirement of table grape with official records of surface irrigation water supply (Victorian Water Register; www.waterregister.vic.gov.au) to farms in the Robinvale district of SE Australia in season 2011/12.
Experimental Procedure
The study addressed irrigation farms in the range of longitude, 142.563° to 143.147°, and latitude, 34.580°S to
34.788°S (Figure 1) for the period, July 1, 2011, - June 30, 2012. Field-scale irrigated land use data for the district were
acquired from SunRise21 (www.sunrise21.org.au). An ASTER satellite image, acquired on 6 Jan 2012, was analysed
for field-scale measures of NDVI and field area.
ORAL SESSION 8
Figure 1: Location of irrigated table grape farms in the Robinvale district of northern Victoria.
Satellite-based estimates of irrigation water requirement
Water use analyses were confined to mono-cultural farms engaged exclusively in the production of table grapes in
order to minimise complexities in the interpretation of data associated with a mix of crops on farms.
Farm water supply and irrigation demand were described in terms of supply and demand hydrographs, respectively.
Supply hydrographs described cumulative irrigation water supply (Victorian Water Register) associated with water
use licenses (wul’s) in the period, 1 July, 2011 to 30 June, 2012. Demand hydrographs described cumulative farm
demand for irrigation water as determined by weather and the number and area of irrigated table grapes grown on
a farm.
Farm-scale irrigation demand hydrographs were formulated on the basis of the area of each field, and associated
field-scale estimates of irrigation water requirement (IWR).
106
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Field-specific estimates of IWR calculated using satellite-dependent crop coefficients (Kc) derived from the following
equation (DPI 2010, 2011):
Kc = 1.33 NDVI + 0.167
; 0.1 < NDVI < 0.63
(1)
Kc estimates were subject to the condition, 0.05 ≤ Kc ≤ 1.0. Eq. 1 was derived from satellite-based estimates of crop
ET made using the METRIC algorithm (Allen et al 2007; Whitfield et al 2011).
Estimates of the irrigation water requirement of each field were made by standard soil water balance estimates
of the amounts of water needed to maintain root zone soil water content in an ideal, stress-free condition. It was
assumed that optimal growth and irrigation conditions were provided by pressurised irrigation systems operated
at a root zone soil water deficit of 25 mm. Soil water balance estimates of crop- and field-specific irrigation water
requirement were calculated on the basis of daily NDVI-dependent crop evapotranspiration estimates made using
“tall” crop reference ET (ETr):
ET = Kc ETr
(2)
Here, ETr was ‘tall’ crop reference ET, computed using SILO ‘patched point’ meteorological data for Robinvale
(https://www.longpaddock.qld.gov.au/silo) by standardised methods described by Allen (2006).
Thus, irrigation was applied in weather and crop-dependent applications of approximately 25mm whenever ET
activity by crops combined with lack of rainfall to generate a root zone soil water deficit of 25mm. Excess effective
rainfall that exceeded the root zone soil water storage capacity (25mm) resulted in rainfall losses as run off and/or
deep drainage.
Results
87 district farms were devoted solely to table grape production in the study area. Figure 2 shows a large variation in
the overall seasonal farm water supply: crop demand ratio, which ranged from < 1.0 on approximately 10% of farms
to a median value of approximately 1.75, and to a maximum of approximately 12 on two farms.
Figure 2: Frequency distribution of the ratio of farm-scale seasonal irrigation water supply to irrigation water requirement
for table grape farms in the Robinvale district, 2011/12.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ORAL SESSION 8
Figure 3 shows that the temporal irrigation regime of several irrigators closely approximated trends in farm-scale
satellite-based irrigation water requirement, whereas temporal trends in irrigators where water supply exceeded
crop water requirements to be strongly correlated with seasonal crop needs, but irrigation supply strongly diverged
from crop water requirements by varying mounts depending on farm (Figure 4).
107
(a)
(b)
Figure 3: Water supply hydrograph (•--•) and irrigation water requirement (•--•) of table grapes on example farms where
water supply approximated irrigation water demand. Solid lines describe the upper (−−) and lower (−−) bounds on
irrigation water requirement subject to assumptions that all crops on a farm were described by maximum and minimum
observed table grape values of NDVI seen in the Robinvale district.
(b)
(a)
Figure 4: Water supply hydrograph (•--•) and irrigation water requirement (•--•) of table grapes grown on example farms
where water supply digressed from irrigation water demand. Solid lines describe the upper (−−) and lower (−−) bounds on
irrigation water requirement subject to assumptions that all crops on a farm were described by maximum and minimum
observed table grape values of NDVI seen in the Robinvale district.
Discussion and Significance of Study
Analyses showed that irrigation water use in table grapes commonly exceeded farm-specific irrigation water
requirements. Time trends in farm-scale water use on farms were generally consistent with satellite-based water
balance estimates of irrigation water requirement. Irrigators consequently appeared to apply more irrigation than
was required for crop purposes. An undersupply of irrigation water was seen in a minority of cases. The analysis
therefore suggests that irrigators intentionally used more irrigation water than needed to meet crop water
requirements, potentially as a means of evaporative cooling for premium product quality.
Although further investigations are needed to quantify and satisfy the cooling needs of table grape crops in the
Robinvale district, these data suggest that satellites potentially provide an important affordable comprehensive data
source for the management and appraisal of irrigation water use for table grapes grown in SE Australia.
Acknowledgements
ORAL SESSION 8
The authors acknowledge support for the foundation project “Satellite-based measurement, monitoring and
reporting systems for improved irrigation water management in SE Australia”, provided by the Raising National Water
Standards program of the National Water Commission, Australia, and the support of the Department of Environment
and Primary Industries in the present study.
References
Allen RG, Pruit WO, Wright, JL, Howell TA, Ventura F, Snyder R, Itenfisu D, Steduto P, Berengena J, Baselga Yrisarry J,
Smith M, Pereira LS, Raes D, Perrier A, Alves I, Walter I and Elliott R. 2006. A recommendation on standardized surface
resistance for hourly calculation of reference ETo by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith method. Agricultural Water
Management 81:1-21.
Allen RG, Tasumi M and Trezza R. 2007. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with
internalized calibration (METRIC) – model. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 133: 380-394.
DPI (2010) Final report: Measurement, Monitoring and Reporting Systems for Improved Management of Farm and Regional
Water Resources in Australia. FFSR Res. Div. DPI, Vic.
DPI. 2011. Technical Report: Water use of irrigated crops in the Sunraysia Irrigation Region. FFSR Res. Div. DPI, Vic.
Whitfield DM, O’Connell MG, McAllister A, McClymont L, Abuzar M and Sheffield K. 2011. SEBAL-METRIC Estimates Of
Crop Water Requirement In Horticultural Crops Grown In SE Australia. Acta Horticulturae 922:141-148.
108
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Session 9. Postharvest technologies
Sulfur dioxide in the berry: metabolism, inducible defences and insights
MJ Considine*1,2,3, CS Gordon2 and CH Foyer1,3
School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, M084/35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 3 Baron-Hay Crt, South Perth, WA, 6151
3
Centre for Plant Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK, LS2 9JT
*Corresponding author: Tel. +618 6488 1783, Email. [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Elemental sulfur (S0) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are ubiquitous in the grape and wine industries. They are cheap and
effective against the battery of mites and pathogens that infect or otherwise damage berry quality. Nonetheless,
industry remains aware that environmental and health concerns will eventually prompt further restrictions or a
complete ban, forcing adoption of more costly or less effective alternatives.
In the vineyard, S0 is chemically equivalent to SO2, as it will rapidly oxidise. SO2 (+ sulfites HSO3-/ SO32- in solution) are
the active forms against pathogens, disrupting the membrane integrity of pathogens and binding and disrupting
protein and enzyme function (Avis et al., 2007). Industry perspective centres on SO2/ sulfite residues on the berry,
which may provoke respiratory conditions in consumers or affect sensory quality (more-so in winemaking). While it
remains commonly assumed that SO2/ sulfites cannot penetrate the cuticle of the berry, our data shows otherwise,
and the metabolic consequences may be quite major, and yet perhaps beneficial.
Our earlier studies showed that SO2, as commercially applied to table grapes in storage, induces marked changes
in antioxidant properties of the fruit (Considine et al., 2009). Further investigation showed that these effects were
driven by massive transcriptional reprogramming within the berry during exposure in 21 days’ storage (Giraud et al.,
2012). The transcriptional patterns showed broad perturbation to oxidative defences, consistent with a substantial
abiotic stress. Not surprisingly, components of the sulfur metabolic pathway were induced, as well as sequestration
and detoxification components, for example several members of the Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) family of genes.
The current investigation extends these studies to further metabolic investigation, particularly in relation to sulfur
metabolism and functions associated with GSTs, including anthocyanin transport and storage, which is highly
relevant to the grape and wine industries. These studies are designed to improve the awareness of inducible
defences in the grape berry in order to guide future research into suitable safe alternatives. It will also give
perspective to sulfite exposure during the grape crush process of winemaking.
At the time of this submission, data were still in process, so herein we outline the initial observations and
implications for the composition, quality and vitality of grape berries. All data will be presented at the 7ITGS
symposium, and authors can be contacted to access a copy once presented.
Experimental Procedure and Results
All reagents and chemicals were purchased from Sigma, Australia, unless otherwise stated. Table grapes (var.
Crimson Seedless) were harvested at commercial maturity from a vineyard in the Swan Valley of WA and
immediately transported to the laboratory for packaging. Ten 1kg lots of intact bunches, with any damaged fruit
discarded, were packaged into cherry boxes, and transferred to 4°C storage overnight, prior to subjecting them to
treatments. To 5 1kg boxes, a 1kg-equivalent strip of SO2-pad was applied (Uvasys, Grapetek, South Africa), while
the remaining 5 boxes were left untreated. All fruit remained at 4°C storage for 21 days, thereafter individual berries
were randomly selected from each replicate box.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ORAL SESSION 9
Four intact berries (minus pedicel) were pooled per replicate and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C
until required. The skin of a further four berries (minus pedicel) per replicate was carefully peeled with the use of a
scalpel, while the berry was held in nitrogen vapour to prevent oxygen exposure, and pooled, snap-frozen in liquid
nitrogen and stored at -80°C until required. The corresponding four skinless berries were pooled per replicate, snap
frozen and stored at -80°C until required. Additional intact berries were allowed to equilibrate to room temperature
before assaying respiration rates using a LiCOR 6400XT infrared gas analyser, equipped with an Insect Rd chamber,
according to manufacturers’ instructions.
109
Total glutathione (reduced GSH) was quantified in skin and skinless berries by HPLC after derivatisation with
monobromobimane (MBB) as previously reported, with minor modifications (Queval and Noctor, 2007). In brief,
for each biological replicate, frozen samples were homogenised in a mortar and pestle under liquid nitrogen, from
which a subsample of c. 50mg (known FW) was taken to a clean mortar and pestle containing liquid nitrogen and
2mL 0.2N HCl. After homogenisation, the sample was allowed to liquefy, transferred to a 1.5mL microfuge tube
and centrifuged at 12,000g, 1min, 4°C. A 100mL aliquot of supernatant was diluted 1:1 with 0.2N HCl, 114L sodium
borate pH9.5 and 20L 10mM dithiothreitol were added, vortexed and allowed to incubate at room temperature
for 30 min. Twenty microlitres 30mM MBB was added, vortexed and incubated at room temperature for 15 min
Zoe, having trouble with this graph. Can you please change the legend so it reads
in the dark. Finally, 660L 10% (v/v) acetic acid was added, vortexed and placed on the carousel for HPLC analysis
� Flesh SO
as reported (Queval 2and Noctor, 2007). Quantification was done with an authentic standard. Amino acids were
� onFlesh
Control
analysed
the same
extract as for total glutathione but using an AccQ-Tag Ultra Derivatization Kit (Waters,
� according
Skin SO2 to manufacturers’ instructions. Anthocyanins were quantified on separate acid extracts exactly
Australia),
� Skin
Control (Bondonno et al., 2012).
as reported
previously
Also need to put labels on graph A, B, C, D, E
!"#$%#&'()"#*+#,"-.,/*01234*
Trends in the data indicate quantitative and qualitative effects of SO2 on the amino acid concentration in both
and and
a titleskin
for (Figure
the X axis
should say
Amino
acid of change were similar between the two tissues. There
berries
1).which
The direction
and
magnitude
wereand
noplace
exceptional
effects
on
the
thiol-containing
acids,
andbe
cysteine, although the latter was
an asterix in the CYS column in graph C amino
where the
barsmethionine
would normally
indetectable.
A
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Flesh SO2
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!".#
Skin SO2
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Amino acid
Amino acid
E
Amino acid
Figure 1. Amino acid concentrations in flesh and skin of SO2-treated or untreated controls after 21 days’ storage at
-1
untreatedburst
controls
after mg.kg
21 days’
Figure
1. berries
Amino acid
and skin pad,
of SOproviding
2-treated or
2-4°C.
Intact
wereconcentrations
treated with a in
SOflesh
-generating
a transient
of >100
SO2 followed by
2
-1
-generating
pad,
providing
a
transient
burst
of
storage
at
2-4°C.
Intact
berries
were
treated
with
a
SO
2
sustained release of 2-3mg.kg . Amino acids are plotted according to biosynthetic group: A. Glutamate>100
family (including
-1 SO followed by sustained release of 2-3mg.kg-1. Amino acids are plotted according to biosynthetic
mg.kgwhich
2 was not resolvable from Glutamine); B. Aspartate family; C. Serine family (including Asparagine, which
Histidine,
group:
A.
Glutamate
(including
Histidine,
which
not resolvable
fromstatistical
Glutamine);
B. Aspartate
was not resolvable from family
Serine);
D. Aromatic
family,
and;was
E. GABA
and NH3. No
comparisons
had been made at
family;
C.
Serine
family
(including
Asparagine,
which
was
not
resolvable
from
Serine);
D.
Aromatic
the time of submission. Data represent 5 biological replicates per treatment condition. * Cysteine wasfamily,
not detectable.
ORAL SESSION 9
and; E. GABA and NH3. No statistical comparisons had been made at the time of submission. Data represent
5
biological replicates
per treatment
condition.
* Cysteine
waswith
not detectable.
Total glutathione
was expected
to increase
under
treatment
SO2, and we were unable to resolve the relative
oxidised and reduced fractions. Although trends indicate that total glutathione is moderately increased under SO2
treatment, the effect is unlikely to be statistically significant (Figure 2).
110
111
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Flesh
Skin
Figure 2. Total reduced glutathione (GSH) of flesh and skin of SO2-treated or untreated control grape berries after 21
days’ storage at 2-4°C. No statistical comparisons had been made at the time of submission. Data represent 5 biological
replicates per treatment condition.
Data assessing the effects of SO2 treatment on anthocyanins and flavonoids were not complete at the time of
submission, but will be presented at the conference. In addition, transcript data will be re-interpreted from Girault et
al. (2012) for the presentation.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The widespread reliance on elemental sulfur, sulfur dioxide and other sulfurous compounds in grape and wine
industries warrants research into the metabolic effects in planta, even beyond the context of food safety. Previous
research shows that sulfur dioxide not only enters grape berries but vastly alters gene expression. This study sought
to extend that insight with metabolic data, to bridge the gap in knowledge between food safety and food quality,
and beyond the speculations that may be made from gene expression data alone. This discussion will review our
group’s progress towards this, particularly with respect to polyphenols, thiols and amino acids. It will also present
a re-interpretation of published gene expression data. Further discussion will elaborate two perspectives: (i) the
opportunity to learn from these insights to develop modified practices or alternatives to SO2, and; (ii) the case for
investigating the pathways of elemental sulfur to SO2/ sulfites and subsequent effects on berry and wine quality.
Acknowledgements
This research was partially supported by an ARC Linkage Project to MC and CG (LP0990355). In addition we are very
grateful for the contributions by Ellie-Rose Rogers, Shenton College, Perth, (respiration), Greg Cawthray, UWA Plant
Biology (GSH) and Catherine Bondonno, UWA Medicine and Pharmacology (anthocyanins).
References
Avis TJ, Michaud M, Tweddell RJ. 2007. Role of lipid composition and lipid peroxidation in the sensitivity of fungal
plant pathogens to aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 28202824.
Bondonno CP, Yang X, Croft KD, Considine MJ, Ward NC, Rich L, Puddey IB, Swinny E, Mubarak A, Hodgson JM. 2012.
Flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augment nitric oxide status and improve endothelial function in
healthy men and women: a randomised controlled trial. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 52: 95-102.
ORAL SESSION 9
Considine MJ, Gordon C, Ching S, Croft KD. 2009. Salicylic acid overrides the effect of methyl jasmonate on the total
antioxidant capacity in table grapes. Acta Horticulturae 841: 495-495.
Giraud E, Ivanova A, Gordon CS, Whelan J, Considine MJ. 2012. Sulphur dioxide evokes a large scale reprogramming
of the grape berry transcriptome associated with oxidative signalling and biotic defence responses. Plant, Cell &
Environment 35: 405-417.
Queval G, Noctor G. 2007. A plate reader method for the measurement of NAD, NADP, glutathione, and ascorbate in
tissue extracts: Application to redox profiling during Arabidopsis rosette development. Analytical Biochemistry 363:
58-69.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
111
VapormateTM application in a commercial chamber for controlling table
grapes pests
Swaminathan Thalavaisundaram* and Angelo Deltondo
Linde Crop Sciences, 10 Julius Avenue, North Ryde NSW 2122 Australia
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 0061 401718590 Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Australia produces about 120,000 tonne of table grapes each year covering 10,500 hectares of land (ATGA, 2010). The
major table grape growing regions in Australia are found in the Sunraysia region and the Murray Valley, close to the
Murray River in Victoria; the Riverina in New South Wales; and the south-eastern Queensland. Other growing regions
include Carnarvon, the Swan valley and South West of Western Australia, central New South Wales, the Riverland
in South Australia and central Northern Territory. The four most popular varieties grown in Australia are Thompson
Seedless, Menindee Seedless, Crimson Seedless and Red Globe.
Australia exports a significant amount of table grapes to Asian countries each year and this is continuing to grow.
However export is affected by the presence of field pests. A fumigant to control field pests without damaging the fruit
would be valuable for table grape exports.
Studies conducted by the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia (DAFWA) in collaboration with the
Australian Table Grape Association and Horticulture Australia have shown that VapormateTM (16.7%wt ethyl formate
in carbon dioxide) is very effective in controlling table grape pests whilst not impacting on fruit quality or presenting
any major environmental or health risks (De Lima, 2009). Based on this background, a trial was conducted to develop
an application method using a commercial fumigation chamber.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Fumigation was conducted in a commercial chamber at the site of Palm Vineyard Merbein West Victoria to reflect
the current practice followed by the producer. The internal volume of the chamber was 90m3.The chamber had preinstalled fumigation application injection line through which VapormateTM was applied. The chamber also had preinstalled gas sampling line and VapormateTM was sampled during treatment. Seven polystyrene cartons containing
table grapes (variety Red Globe) were used for the trial. The volume of each carton was 20 litres. The cartons were
placed in trolley and kept inside the chamber. The table grapes used for the trial was collected straight from the field.
Temperature of the chamber was measured during treatment and it was above 15°C.
Field collected table grape pests were used for the trial. They were long tailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus),
western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), two spotted mites (Tetranychus urticae), light brown apple moth
(Epiphyas postvittana) and grapevine moth caterpillar (Phalaenoides). The target pests were kept in plastic tubs
covered with a sieve lid to prevent insect escape during the trial. The plastic tubs were placed at different locations
inside the chamber. After the fumigation treatment, the plastic tubs were collected and checked for live and dead
insects. Only adult insects were checked in this study.
A full cylinder of liquid VapormateTM was placed on a calibrated weigh scale to record the weight during dosing. The
cylinder was connected to an electrically heated vaporiser and the outlet from the vaporiser was connected to the
pre-installed distribution pipe work into the chamber. The vaporiser has the capacity to deliver @ 500g per minute. A
dose rate of 240g.m-3 for 4 hours was used. This dose rate is registered with Australian Pesticide Veterinary Medicine
Authority (APVMA) for table grape pests. A total of 21.60kg of VapormateTM was applied into the chamber. It took ~ 45
minutes to deliver the required dose into the chamber.
ORAL SESSION 9
The chamber had two sampling lines (top and middle). The middle sampling line was used to collect the gas from the
chamber and the top sampling line was used to recirculate the gas back into the chamber. A G450 Multigas monitor
was used to measure ethyl formate and carbon dioxide. It can accommodate up to four sensors for monitoring four
different types of gases. The detection limits for ethyl formate are between 0.01% and 5% (by volume) and carbon
dioxide 0.01% to 28% (by volume) (accuracy ± 0.1%). The monitor has a powerful diaphragm pump which can draw
the gas samples from the container. The VapormateTM dose rate used for this trial was 240g.m-3 which is ~1.24 % by
volume of ethyl formate.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Ethyl formate and carbon dioxide levels were monitored after application. Both the levels achieved the
recommended dose rate (240g.m-3) hence treatment period commenced immediately after application. There was
only a slight decline in ethyl formate and carbon dioxide during 4 hours treatment period (Figure 1). This shows
that the chamber was well sealed and suited for VapormateTM fumigation. After the end of the treatment period,
the chamber doors were opened and the fan was used to ventilate the product. It took 30 minutes to completely
ventilate the VapormateTM from the chamber. The safety level was checked using the monitor which indicated that it
was safe to enter into the chamber after 30 minutes to collect the table grapes and insects.
C oncentration (% by volume)
12
10
8
ETF
6
CO2
4
2
0
12:00 PM
1:00 PM
3:00 PM
4:00 PM
4:30 PM
T re a tme nt time
Figure 1. Ethyl formate and carbon dioxide concentration inside the chamber during 4 hours treatment period.
The producer assessed the phytotoxic effects of VapormateTM on the treated table grapes for a number of weeks and
found no adverse effects on fruit quality. Target pests mortality assessment was conducted immediately at the end
of the ventilation period. All the target pests were killed immediately after treatment (Table 1) which is similar to
previous VapormateTM trials conducted in a 6m (20 ft) shipping container (De Lima, 2009).
Table 1. Mortality of table grapes pests after VapormateTM treatment at 240g.m-3 for 4 hours.
Target pests
Treatment mortality
Number of live
adult insects
Number of dead
adult insects
Mortality (in %)
Long tailed mealy bug
0
6
100
Western flower thrips
0
4
100
Two spotted mites
0
4
100
Grapevine moth caterpillar
0
4
100
Light brown apple moth
0
4
100
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The study shows that VapormateTM can be used in a commercial fumigation chamber as a potential biosecurity
treatment for table grapes exported to Asian countries.
Acknowledgements
We thank the table grape grower John Argiro Palm vineyards for providing his fumigation facility and doing
phytotoxic assessment.
ORAL SESSION 9
References:
ATGA, 2010. Australian Grapes: Varieties and Regions, Australian Table Grape Association Inc., viewed 30 September
2013 http://www.atga.com.au/varieties-and-regions/
De Lima, F. 2009 Fumigation of table grapes using ethyl formate+ carbon dioxide as a quarantine treatment. Department
of Agriculture and Food Western Australia Table Grapes Report 53p.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
113
New techniques of postharvest application of SO2 on table grapes
Eduardo Maldonado Araneda1,*, Katerina Maldonado Cortes1 and Christopher Dixon2
Insumos Frutìcolas INFRUTA SA, Juan de la Fuente 534, Lampa, Santiago, Chile
Rìo Blanco Limitada
*Corresponding author: Tel: 569 8233 5048, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Control of Botrytis cinérea Pers and other postharvest illnesses of table grapes is seldom a trivial issue for most
growers and exporters. The use of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the form of fumigation in chambers or SO2 generating pads
have been a standard practices for many years.
Since the invention of the SO2 pads by Dr. Nelson in the late 60’s mostly incremental changes have been made
in the design and usage of these devices. The grape industry has seen innovations in terms of materials and
manufacturing techniques but very few other alternatives have been explored. SO2 pads have evolved from the very
traditional ‘paper pad’ to more sophisticated pads built with different materials and dosages of active ingredient
with longer and more stable emissions.
The increase of Botrytis, on the other hand, is a recognised phenomenon in some countries. In Chile for example, the
increase of Botrytis has forced growers and exporters to expand and diversified phytosanitary measures both pre
and postharvest.
Four years ago we heard from Don Luvisi at the Symposium in Davis, California referring to the postharvest
treatment of table grapes for long storage/transit: “We don’t see alternatives to SO2 in the foreseeable future”. We
took note of that and got to work looking for better and more effective ways to deliver SO2 and control Botrytis in
table grapes. As we looked into incremental improvements we go back and again to Dr. Nelson teachings. In one
of his best works The Grape he describes the use of dual release pads and explains that the two stages of the theses
type of pads can be used “one above and one underneath the fruit”. The first part of the pad is what we call a ‘Top’
pad, and the second part is what we call a ‘Bottom’ pad.
We then set out to evaluate performance and efficacy of different sizes and types of SO2 pads (cell versus laminated)
in top position combined with different sizes and types of pads in bottom position, including laminated single
release in different sizes and dual release pads with the fast release impregnated. The main hypothesis to be tested
in the study is that in order to improve efficacy, SO2 inside the box must be better distributed in order to control
Botrytis while at the same time avoiding bleaching damage and limiting sulfites residues. The specific aim of this
study was to determine which combinations of Top/Bottom SO2 pads could deliver better results.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Given two of the characteristics of the SO2 gas (heavier than air and hydrophilic) it is quite clear that the greater
distance between the SO2 pad and the fruit, less SO2 and more decay (gray mold) will tend to develop. We measured
the effect of distance in terms of SO2 using only Top SO2 pads and with both Top and Bottom pads (Figure 1).
ORAL SESSION 9
Figure 1. SO2 concentration and distribution in the box using only Top SO2 pads and with both Top and Bottom pads.
The results are absolutely clear, the combination of Top and Bottom pads brings much better distribution of SO2
across the box.
Extrapolating the results of Top/Bottom pads, we also have found that SO2 pads of larger size that provide better
coverage (percentage of the top or bottom surface) also help to improve the SO2 distribution inside the box,
particularly by reaching the corners.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Clearly, the ideal distribution is exactly the same amount of SO2 in every location inside the box. With this idea in
mind, we have worked in the last few years in designing and testing new Top/Bottom and pad size combinations of
pads that should provide more effective distribution of SO2 across the box and as a result better control of Botrytis
while at the same time limiting the possibilities of bleaching.
This study includes Unidirectional Cell and Laminated pads. Cell based SO2 pads are made of sodium metabisulfite
‘sandwiched’ in the middle of two or three sheets of paper or plastic using heat sealing to create little cells (or
sachets). Laminated pads are made by laminating (enclosing or sealing together) two or three sheets of paper and
plastic using adhesive and then sprinkling sodium metabisulfite uniformly between the layers. In this study we also
use ‘impregnation’ as an alternative to adhere the active ingredient to one of the sheets.
The following experiment consists of comparing efficacy and performance with the following combinations of SO2
pads in boxes of red globe table grapes:
Table 1. Experimental treatments and position of SO2 pads.
On Top of grapes
At the Bottom of the Box
T0
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 26x46
None
T1
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 26x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 26x46cm
T2
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 26x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 33x46cm
T3
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 26x46
Impregnated Pad Dual Release 26x46cm
T4
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 33x46
None
T5
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 33x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 26x46cm
T6
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 33x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 33x46cm
T7
PP Cell Pad Dual Release 33x46
Impregnated Pad Dual Release 26x46cm
T8
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 26x46
None
T9
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 26x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 26x46cm
T10
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 26x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 33x46cm
T11
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 26x46
Impregnated Pad Dual Release 26x46cm
T12
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 33x46
None
T13
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 33x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 26x46cm
T14
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 33x46
Laminated Pad Single Release 33x46cm
T15
PP UK Laminated Pad Dual Release 33x46
Impregnated Pad Single Release 26x46cm
The size of the box is 50x40x12cm is made of wood and contains 8.2 kilograms of Red Globe table grapes. All
treatments use 1% ventilation liner. Three boxes per case were prepared and tested.
Treatments T0, T4, T8 and T12 correspond to boxes using only Top SO2 pads for Cell and Laminated pads in different
sizes (26x46 versus 33x46).
Treatments T1, T2, T5, T6, T9, T10, T13 and T14 correspond to boxes using different combinations of Top and Bottom
pads for Cell and Laminated pads with different sizes (26x46 versus 33x46).
Treatments T3, T7, T11 and T15 correspond to boxes using on Top Cell and Laminated pads in different sizes and
Bottom pad that is impregnated.
Concentration of SO2 in the Box
ORAL SESSION 9
In terms of SO2 concentration, the results shown on this graphic form indicate that the absence of bottom pad is
very detrimental to the amount of SO2 that reaches the lower part of the box: almost no SO2 is found at the lower
side of the box when no bottom pad is available. The situation is even worse when using laminated pads, since
this type of pads tend to generate less SO2 than cell pads. Another clear observation is that cell pads generate
substantially more SO2 than laminated pads.
Although with some variations, the main conclusion is that the amount of SO2 in the upper and lower and is much
closer than with the absence of bottom pads. In other words, the combination of top and bottom pads improves
distribution of SO2 along the entire box.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
115
Concentration of SO2 was measured after 100 days of packing. SO2 concentration are shown in yellow for the upper
side of the box and green for the lower side in parts per million (ppm)
Concentration of SO2
Figure 2. Concentration of SO2 in the box with sulphur pad position.
Control of Botrytis cinerea
In terms of controlling Botrytis the results indicate clearly that bottom pads help. Boxes without bottom pads show
always the worst results in terms of Botrytis. Cell and laminated show similar results in controlling Botrytis but a
larger size of the pad improves the performance. Larger pads with better coverage of the box, top and bottom,
provide better results in terms of controlling Botrytis. We also see performance improvement when using the
impregnation of bottom pads. Three of the four treatments of the series show better results with impregnated
bottom pads.
Botrytis (red) is measured in terms of number of berries in the box after 100 days.
Figure 3. Control of Botrytis cinera with sulphur pad position.
Bleaching
The results also indicate clearly that bottom pads do not have incidence in bleaching. Directly related with the
results of SO2 concentration. Laminated pads produce less bleaching than Cell pads in all categories.
Bleaching (blue) is measured in terms of number of berries in the box after 100 days.
ORAL SESSION 9
Figure 4. Incidence of bleaching with sulphur pad position.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Discussion and Significance of the Study
All the pad treatments in the study were still releasing SO2 on day 100th. The implication is that these combinations
of top and bottom pads can be used for long term storage, with no fruit damage and effective control of Botrytis.
The best combination of top/bottom pads to control Botrytis without bleaching is a larger pad (at least 80% surface
coverage) on the internal surface (top or bottom of the box) using a liner with 1% ventilation. The use of bottom
pads is highly effective in combination with top pads and do not have major impact on bleaching, which make
them attractive for long term storage, particularly in those regions with high occurrence of Botrytis cinerea.
We hope that this study and its results will help the table grape industry to improve control of Botrytis and deliver
better fruit.
Acknowledgements
This study was fully supported and financed by INFRUTA S.A., a manufacturer of SO2 pads, and Río Blanco Ltda.
the largest exporter of table grapes from Chile. We would like to acknowledge specially the contributions from Mr.
Christopher Dixon, Quality Control Manager from Río Blanco Ltda.
References
Nelson, KE. Extracts from The Grape. No date availble.
Luvisi, DA. 2010.California’s Table Grape Industry: A Historical Perspective, Oral presentation at the 6th International
Table Grape Symposium, University of California, UC Davis, California 2010.
ORAL SESSION 9
7th International Table Grape Symposium
117
Alternative fumigation and cold treatment disinfestation methods
A Jessup1*, J Golding1 and F DeLima2
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Gosford, NSW, Australia
Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, South Perth, WA, Australia
*Corresponding author: Tel: +61 2 43481965, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
In order to achieve importer approval to export our fresh horticultural products we have to convince importers that
our product is free from certain pests and diseases that are regulated by the importing country. There is a number of
postharvest disinfestation treatments used internationally to provide quarantine security against pest fruit flies and
other arthropod pests such as light brown apple moth, scale insects and spiders. Some of these treatments take many
days to complete and some may cause damage to the product rendering it unsalable or subject to price reduction
impacting adversely on future exports. Recently some popular disinfestation options, and the fumigant methyl
bromide, have been banned (dimethoate and fenthion), or restricted in use (methyl bromide), due to public health
and environment concerns. These issues have eroded Australia’s capability to export fresh table grapes, among other
fresh horticultural products, both domestically and internationally.
Researchers in NSW Department of Primary Industries and Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia
have been developing workable postharvest treatment options for table grapes where fruit flies and other pests are
of quarantine concern to the importer. We have been looking at streamlining cold storage treatments and improving
the efficacy of ethyl formate fumigations for the pest fruit flies, Mediterranean fruit fly and Queensland fruit fly as well
as light brown apple moth (this last carried out by DAFWA).
In addition to the above work there have been developments in Australia on other postharvest treatments such as
irradiation, low dose fumigation and low pressure disinfestation.
Experimental Procedure
In all experiments carried out to develop new quarantine treatments against pests such as Queensland fruit fly
(Bactrocera tryoni, Froggatt), Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Wiedemann) and light brown apple moth
(Epiphyas postvittana, Walker) scientists must follow strict research guidelines. These guidelines differ from market to
market. Commonly, the most stringent market requirements are chosen to follow if more than one market is to be
addressed by disinfestation research. Typically, the Japanese minimum requirements are followed. This practice has
seen market acceptance of our research on a number of fresh horticultural products by Japan as well as others such
as New Zealand, Taiwan, Korea, the USA, Thailand, the Philippines, etc based on single batches of research. However
we generally need to carry out research on each and every commodity we wish to export separately.
There is currently an international call for disinfestation researchers to amalgamate their research on different
commodities and pest species into generic postharvest disinfestation approaches for cold storage and heat
treatment. A generic approach to irradiation as a quarantine treatment currently exists.
The experimental protocol used for market access submissions to Japan and other jurisdictions always follow the
process outlined below. If the protocol can not be followed precisely then scientifically valid and authenticated (by
research) reasons must be supplied.
Results and Discussion
Our research (De Lima et al., 2011) has led to international approval for decreased number of days in cold
temperatures for table grapes against Queensland fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly from the commonly accepted
US Department of Agriculture Treatment Manual. Promising progress has been made on fumigation with ethyl
formate and carbon dioxide (Vapormate®) against a range of quarantine insect pests in table grapes including light
brown apple moth (LBAM) (De Lima, 2010) and cherries and persimmons.
ORAL SESSION 9
A submission for approval by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) for the irradiation of table grapes as
a quarantine treatment is currently under review by FSANZ (call for public submission due by 9 October 2014). Low
concentration experiments are currently being tested by researchers in Queensland Department of Agriculture,
Forestry and Fisheries) in stone fruit. These researchers are also evaluating comparative cold storage responses for a
range of other pest fruit fly species present in Australia. Researchers in NSW DPI are commencing new work on testing
low pressure (hypobaric) as multi-benefit treatments (disinfestation, retardation of storage rots, improvement of
shelf life) for fresh vegetables. USDA researchers have just completed studies on fumigating cherries with high purity
phosphine using the Horn Diluphos® System with considerable success (no data received yet).
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Table 1. Basic experimental protocol to support new schedules for export to desirable markets.
Step
Activity
Approx. time
frame (week)
1
Complete description of research facilities.
1
2
Complete description of insect colony and its maintenance.
1
3
Description of research protocol set up and agreed on by Commonwealth Department
of Agriculture and, sometimes, but not often, by the desired importing country.
4
4
Study the development of the insect in each fruit type/ fruit cultivar desired to be
exported – so that the maturation span of each immature life stage can be ascertained.
3 to 5
5
Each immature life stage is tested against a range of sub-lethal and lethal doses of the
target treatment. The most treatment tolerant life stage is ascertained as well as the
optimum lethal dose.
6 to 12
6
A large scale trial, replicated three times on the most treatment tolerant life stage at the
optimal lethal dose is carried out.
6 to 12
7
An export submission is compiled with all information including raw data and
detailed temperature records/ fumigation concentrations over time. This submission
is sent to the Commonwealth Department of Agriculture for review and tabled at the
appropriate Bilateral Quarantine Trade Talks for the desired importing country.
12 to 26
8
If approved by the importing country a verification trial is set up where a semicommercial shipment is treated with test infested fruit in the presence of officials from
the desired importing country.
26 to 52
9
Approval and gazettal by both the importing country and Australia.
10
Market access.
1
Table 2. Disinfestation treatments for table grapes.
Disinfestation treatment
Approval status
Cold storage
QFF -12d/1°C, 14d/2°C, 14d/3°C (also covers Lesser
Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera neohumeralis)
(Lindhout and Cruickshank, 2010)
Medfly -16d/1°C, 18d/2°C, 20d/3°C
Complete
Fumigation Vapormate®
(Ethyl formate + CO2)
LBAM, red back spider -2h/240g.m3/20°C
Mealybugs, thrips – 2h/120g.m3/20°C
Also worked at 10°C and 15°C at higher doses
Continuing
Irradiation
Fruit flies -150Gray
All other arthropods (except Lepidopteran pupae
and adults) -400Gy
Insecticidal efficacy –
international approval achieved.
But we need FSANZ approval for
use in Australia and New Zealand
– currently under review
Acknowledgements
We thank the many Technical Assistanmts and Technical Officers who have helped us set up and carry out our
experiments in NSWDPI and DAFWA as well as Horticulture Australia Ltd, Australian Table Grape Growers, NSWDPI
and DAFWA.
References
ORAL SESSION 9
De Lima, CPF. 2010. Ethyl Formate + C02 Fumigation of Table Grapes for Light Brown Apple Moth. Proceedings of the
Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, Orlando, Florida,
USA, November 2 to 5, 2010.
De Lima, CPF, Jessup AJ, Mansfield ER and Daniels D. 2011. Cold treatment of table grapes infested with
Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) Diptera:
Tephritidae. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 39(2):95-105.
Lindhout K and Cruickshank DJ. 2010. Comparative study to determine the relative cold tolerance of Queensland
fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and Lesser Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera neohumeralis) eggs and larvae undergoing cold
disinfestation in table grapes. Report To Horticulture Australia on funded project.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
119
Predicting rachis browning and quality loss in Vitis vinifera L cv ‘Thompson
Seedless’ during cool storage
John Lopresti*, Oscar Villalta, Bruce Tomkins and Debra Partington
Department of Environment & Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia
AgriBio Centre, 5 Ring Road, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC. 3083
Background and Aims
Table grapes, Vitis Vinifera L. cv ‘Thompson Seedless’, are an important export crop with cool storage period lasting
up to ten weeks. Grape bunch visual quality can be significantly reduced by rachis browning, berry shrivel and berry
shatter (Crisosto et al., 2001). Browning of the rachis can be the first symptom that limits bunch marketability due to
a high susceptibility to water loss (Carvajal-Millan et al., 2001). The cause of variation in the rate of rachis browning
between bunches is yet to be determined but rachis morphology has been implicated as a potential factor (Balic
et al., 2012). Differences in rachis lateral thickness and pedicel diameter resulting from vineyard practices such as
application of Gibberellic acid (GA) and bunch thinning, can alter incidence of berry shatter (Zoffoli et al., 2008),
while larger, more lignified and less hydrated rachis may be less susceptible to browning (Gardea et al., 1994).
This study investigated rachis browning development in grape bunches during cool storage with and without
sodium metabisulphide treatment, as influenced by rachis lateral thickness measured using pedicel diameter.
Experimental Procedure and Results
‘Thompson Seedless’ grapes were harvested from six vineyards in the Sunraysia district in Australia. Pedicel diameter
was measured on five pedicels randomly chosen over the length of each bunch using a digital caliper, and fruit
stored at 0°C and >85% RH for up to 12 weeks. The storage trial was a randomised complete block design with
vineyard, storage period and pedicel diameter as factors randomised within each of five replicates of 5 bunches
each. Bunches were removed from storage and assessed for rachis browning using visual scoring where: 1=green,
2=pedicel browning, 3=secondary lateral browning, 4=primary and secondary lateral browning and 5=rachis
completely brown. In a second trial bunches were treated with sodium metabisulphide (Uvasys® pads - 970g.
kg-1 Na2S2O5, dual release), and browning development compared to untreated bunches. Treatment effects and
interactions were determined using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means separation based on least
significant difference tests (LSD; α=0.05).
A strong positive correlation was found between rachis lateral thickness and pedicel diameter (not shown) and thus
pedicel diameter was a good measure of rachis development. Rachis browning score was not significantly different
between grape bunches with large and small pedicel diameters after 21 days of cool storage (Figure1). However
bunches with larger pedicels had a significantly lower mean rachis browning score after 42 and 63 days of storage at
0°C.
ORAL SESSION 9
Figure 1. Effect of pedicel diameter and storage period on mean rachis browning score in grape bunches from six
vineyards stored at 0°C. Means followed by different letters are significantly different at P≤0.05.
A logistic model fitted to rachis browning scores over the storage period, with pedicel diameter at harvest as an
explanatory factor, explained 91% of variation in browning score (Figure 2). It was determined that ten pedicel
diameter measurements in ten bunches randomly selected from within a vineyard block will provide a relatively
accurate indication of the average pedicel diameter in bunches within that block.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
5.0
6 days
19 days
34 days
49 days
69 days
91 days
Mean rachis browning score
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
Rachis pedicel diameter at harvest (mm)
Figure 2. Logistic model fitted to pedicel diameter at harvest and storage period at 0°C to explain rate of rachis browning
(r2=91%, P<0.001, n=48; rachis browning = A + C/[1 + e-B(X – M)]). Each data point represents the mean score of 8 bunches
from each of 6 vineyards.
Bunches treated with sodium metabisulphide had significantly lower rachis browning scores than untreated fruit
after 30, 42 and 58 days of storage at 0°C (Figure 3). Differences in browning score between treated and untreated
bunches was only significant at 42 days of cool storage when pedicel diameter was accounted for as a covariate.
This result suggests that thicker rachis laterals may have a similar effect in reducing the rate of rachis browning as
treatment with sodium metabisulphide.
Figure 3. Effect of sodium bimetasulphide treatment and storage period on rachis browning in grape bunches stored
at 0°C (left). Effect of treatment after rachis browning score was adjusted for differences in pedicel diameter between
bunches (right). Browning score adjusted for pedicel diameter using analysis of covariance (CANOVA). Means followed by
different letters are significantly different at P≤0.05.
ORAL SESSION 9
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Grape bunches with thicker rachises as measured by larger pedicel diameter had significantly lower browning
scores beyond 21 days of cool storage, indicating that vineyard practices that increase lateral thickness may improve
bunch visual quality during cool storage or export. Bunch treatment with sulphur dioxide (SO2) significantly reduced
rachis browning during storage. But the rate of browning was usually equivalent between treated and untreated
bunches when adjusted for pedicel diameter, suggesting that rachises with thicker laterals remain similarly greener
during storage both with and without SO2 treatment.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
121
The effect of storage period and pedicel diameter (ie. lateral thickness) on the rate of rachis browning in grapes
during cool storage has been modelled for the first time, and potentially enables prediction of rachis browning
during commercial storage and export. This may enable growers and exporters to determine the likelihood of
postharvest rachis browning and establish the risk of commercially-significant bunch quality loss for a particular
shipment prior to storage or export.
References
Balic I, Moreno A, Sanhueza D, Huerta C, Orellana A and Defilippi BG. 2012. Molecular and physiological study of
postharvest rachis browning of table grape cv Red Globe. Postharvest Biology and Technology 72: 47-56.
Carvajal-Millan, E, Carvallo T, Orozco J A, Martinez MA, Tapia I, Guerrero VM, Rascon-Chu A, Llamas J and Gardea AA.
2001. Polyphenol oxidase activity, colour changes, and dehydration in table grape rachis during development and
storage as affected by N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 946-951.
Crisosto C, Smilanick J and Dokoozlian N. 2001. Table grapes suffer water loss, stem browning during cooling delays.
California Agriculture 55: 39-42.
Gardea, AA, Martinez-Tellez MA, Sanchez Α, Baez M, Siller JH, Gonzalez G, Baez R, Crisosto CH and Criddle RS. 1994.
Postharvest weight loss of Flame Seedless clusters. In J. A. Rantz (ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on
Table Grape Production, June 28–29, 1994: 203–206.
Zoffoli JP, Latorre BA and Naranjo P. 2008. Hairline, a postharvest cracking disorder in table grapes induced by sulfur
dioxide. Postharvest Biology and Technology 47: 90-97
ORAL SESSION 9
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Poster Presentations Abstracts
THURSDAY 13 NOVEMBER 2014
ID
1
Changes in the table grape industry – challenges for a sulphur dioxide pad
manufacturer
Caroline Adams* and Alwyn van Jaarsveld
Tedmark, Grapetek (Pty) Ltd, 129 Industrial Park, 18 Kinghall Avenue, Epping, Cape Town, South Africa 7460
Background and Aims
Postharvest grapes are susceptible to fungal infection even when stored at the optimal temperature of -0.5°C.
The most important pathogen of stored Table Grapes is ‘Gray Mould’, commonly referred to as ‘Botrytis’, which is
caused by Botrytis cinerea. Sulphur dioxide generating pads were thus developed to facilitate the transportation
and postharvest storage of table grapes. Because of concern about sulphite residues, there is ongoing research to
find alternatives. However the responsible use of sulphur dioxide remains the only commercially viable method of
storing and transporting table grapes.
The table grape industry has undergone major changes since the use of sulphur dioxide pads became
commonplace, particularly in the last 10 years. We would like to discuss how these changes have influenced and
changed our company (Tedmark) and product (Uvasys).
Experimental Procedure and Results
The key changes that have occurred within the table grape industry which have influenced the use of sulphur
dioxide include:
•
•
•
•
The development of different sulphur dioxide pads. The original pads were sachets of sodium
metabisulphite, more recent products have this active component encapsulated in a polymeric matrix.
Geographical changes in table grape producing countries.
Changes in cultivars. 10 years ago the big movement was from seeded to seedless cultivars. We are now
seeing the industry moving towards further cultivar developments, particularly those with thinner skins
and more turgidity.
Changes in packing and packaging
• Field packing
• The use of punnets
• Loose packaging
• Different liners
• Demands of supermarkets
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The last decade has also seen an increasing consumer move towards organic produce and demands for
transparency when additives are used. In addition consumers are increasingly expecting year around supply of
fresh produce. Regulatory legislation on Sulphite MRLs and food safe products has thus increased worldwide.
Accreditations with the appropriate authorities are now being requested.
In the poster we will show how complex the industry has become and our research, both completed and in
progress, on some of the above topics.
Acknowledgements
We acknowledge assistance from Johan Fourie and Sybrand van Zyl, Experico, PO Box 422, Idas Valley, Stellenbosch,
7609, South Africa.
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
2
Timorex Gold - a new natural bio-fungicide for the control of sour rot complex
and grey mould in table grapes
JC Arroyo1,*, A Langer2, V Valdivieso2, P Quiroz3 and JL Henriquez4
Stockton Israel Ltd. 17 Ha’Mefalsim St, Petach Tikva 4951447, Israel
Viticultura y Fruticultura Asociados. Carmen Sylva 2331 Dpt 404, Providencia, Santiago, Chile
3
Consulting Agronomy Ing. S.A.C, Jr. General Varela 548 Dpt. 505, Breña, Lima, Perú
4
Fac. Cs. Agronómicas, Universidad De Chile, Santa Rosa 11.315, Casilla 1004, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile
*
Corresponding author: Tel: + 56 9 8900 3042, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Pre and postharvest diseases can limit table grape production (Vitis vinifera L.). Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is
considered to be the most important disease that impacts on fruit quality at the postharvest stage. In addition, the
sour rot complex associated with Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer
and Acetobacter sp. may also cause problems. Both diseases generate loss in quality and reduce the shelf life of table
grapes, so use of fungicides in an appropriate way is critical to achieve a high quality table grape product. However,
issues of residues and concerns with the loss of efficacy due their specific site of action, reported for most of the
specific fungicides for the control of berry rots, must also be considered. As a consequence, there is a need for the
introduction of new fungicides with different modes of action and a lower risk of resistance development.
Timorex Gold (TG) is a new natural bio-fungicide based on the extract of Melaleuca alternifolia which contains 23.8%
of the active ingredient. It has a new and unique mode of action against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi
due to their multisite activity. TG has been found to be effective against different disease complexes in various crops.
For table grapes it has been evaluated against grey mould and the sour rot complex.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Trials performed in Chile and Peru from 2011 until 2014 revealed that spraying TG at application rates of 1.5 - 2.0L.
ha-1 controlled grey mould and the sour rot complex on berries, and was as effective as chemical and biological
fungicides when applied at 7-14 days intervals. The higher dose of 2.0L.ha-1 reduced activity on post-infection
lesions on the table grape berries.
The first two trials in Chile were performed in Los Andes, Valparaiso in 2011-2012 with Thompson Seedless (Table 1)
and Red Globe (Table 2) using standard fungicides and TG. Both trials were conducted in a completely randomized
design (CRD) with 5 and 4 treatments respectively and 9 replications per treatment (9 clusters). Two applications at
14 days interval were sprayed with a water volume equivalent to 500L.ha-1. Severity (percentage of rotten berries per
cluster) was assessed before harvest.
Table 1. Severity (percentage of rotten berries per cluster) and % of Control observed in table grapes cv. Thompson
Seedless at harvest. Los Andes, Valparaiso, Chile 2011-2012.
Treatments
Grey Mould Severity (%)
Control (%)
6.9 b
63.1
Pyrimethanil 40% 1.0L.ha
8.8 a
52.9
Pyraclostrobin 25% 750mL.ha-1
1.6 b
91.4
9.2 b
50.8
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
-1
X
-1
Difenoconazole 25% 200mL.ha
-1
Untreated Control
18.7 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Tukey (α < 0.05)
X
Table 2. Severity (percentage of rotten berries per cluster) and % of Control observed in table grapes cv. Red Globe at
harvest. Los Andes, Valparaiso, Chile 2013-2014.
Treatments
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha
-1
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
-1
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Cyprodinil + Fludioxonil 900g ha
-1
Grey Mould Severity (%)
Control (%)
0.59 b
70.5
X
0.58 b
71.0
0.34 b
83.0
Untreated Control
2.00 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Fisher (α < 0.05)
X
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 3. Incidence (percentage of rotten clusters per plant) and Severity (Percentage of rotten berries per cluster) observed
in table grapes cv. Red globe at harvest. Los Andes, Valparaiso, Chile 2013-2014.
Treatments
Grey Mould Incidence (%)
Grey Mould Severity (%)
Timorex Gold 1.0L.ha
40.00 ab
2.24 b
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha
13.33 bc
0.13 b
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
26.67 bc
0.41 b
Commercial Standard
0.00 c
0.00 b
X
-1
-1
-1
Untreated Control
60.00 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Fisher (α < 0.05)
4.85 a
X
able 4. Severity (percentage of rotten berries per cluster) observed in table grapes cv. Autumn Royal at harvest. Llay-Llay,
Valparaiso, Chile 2013-2014.
Treatments
Sour Rot Severity (%)
Grey Mould Severity (%)
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha-1
5.9 bc X
2.1 b
-1
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
4.2 c
2.4 b
-1
Citrus Extract 1.5L.ha
6.9 b
4.2 ab
Untreated Control
9.6 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Tukey (α < 0.05)
10.4 a
X
A third trial performed during 2012-2013 in Requinoa, Rancagua with Crimson Seedless, was conducted in a
completely randomized block design (CRBD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications (10 plants per plot with 2 clusters
per plant). Seven applications at 7 day intervals with an average spray volume of 800L.ha-1 were sprayed from fruit
set up to véraison. Incidence (percentage of rotten clusters per treatment) and severity (percentage of rotten berries
per cluster) were evaluated 32 days after harvest and cold storage without using SO2 pads.
TDuring 2013-2014 two trials were performed, one in Llay-Llay, Valparaiso, with Autumn Royal and the other in
Buin, Santiago with Red Globe. The first trial was conducted in a CRD with 4 treatments and 4 replications (10
plants per plot with 2 clusters per plant). Two applications at 7 days intervals with a water volume of 800L.ha-1 were
sprayed on bunches at 18° Brix and 80% of colour on the berries. Before the applications the berries were artificially
damaged to ensure the development of the sour rot complex. Severity (percentage of rotten berries per cluster) was
evaluated 7 days after the last application (Table 4). The second trial was conducted in a CRBD with 6 treatments and
4 replications (75 cluster per replication). Three consecutive applications at 14 day intervals with a water volume of
1,000L.ha-1 were sprayed from bunch closure to pre-harvest. Incidence (percentage of rotten clusters per treatment)
was evaluated at 14 days after last application (Table 5).
Table 5. Incidence (percentage of rotten cluster per treatment) and % of Control observed in table grapes cv. Red Globe at
harvest. Buin, Santiago, Chile 2013-2014.
Treatments
Sour Rot Severity (%)
Control (%)
Timorex Gold 1.0L.ha
12.0 ab
58.6
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha
11.0 b
62.1
11.0 b
62.1
13.0 ab
55.2
-1
-1
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
-1
Bacillus subtillis 6.0L.ha
-1
X
X
Untreated Control
29.0 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Fisher (α < 0.05)
In Peru two experimental trials were performed during 2013 with Red Globe, located in Villacuri, Ica using a
complete randomized block design (CRBD) with 2 applications at 7 days interval from full colour berries and preharvest. There were 5 treatments and 4 replications using a spray volume of 600L.ha-1. Disease severity (percentage
of rotten berries per cluster was assessed before application and 7 and 14 days after last application (Table 6).
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 6. Severity (Percentage of rotten berries per cluster) observed in table grapes cv. Red Globe at harvest. Villacuri, Ica
Peru 2013.
Treatments
Timorex Gold 1.2L.ha
-1
Timorex Gold 1.5L.ha-1
Sour Rot Severity (%)
Grey Mould Severity (%)
2.50 b
1.19 b X
X
1.50 bc
0.28 c
Timorex Gold 1.75L.ha
0.50 cd
0.26 c
Timorex Gold 2.0L.ha
0.00 d
0.38 c
-1
-1
Untreated Control
31.25 a
Means follow by same letter are not different according Duncan (α < 0.05)
3.60 a
X
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Spraying TG at 1.5 and 2.0L.ha-1 as a preventative treatment effectively controlled grey mould, had curative effect on
the sour rot complex and suppressed the development of existing lesions and formation of colonies of various fungi
complexes. TG at 2.0L.ha-1 also reduced sporulation of the fungal complex in infected tissue.
TG as a natural bio-fungicide does not harm beneficial insects and bees, has no residue limitations (is exempt of
MRLs) and may complement biological and synthetic fungicides used in table grape production. It shows promise as
an attractive tool for use in anti-resistance programs.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
126
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
3
Agronomic and qualitative performances of some table grape Dalmasso
crosses (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in Piedmont (NW of Italy)
Antonio Carlomagno, Alessandra Ferrandino, Olga Kedrina and Vittorino Novello*
Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali ed Alimentari, Università di Torino, Largo P. Braccini 2, I-10095 Grugliasco
(TO), Italy
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +39011 670 8758, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Table grape cultivation in Italy covers an area of 37,305 hectares (Istat, 2010) with an average farm size of 2ha.
Global production of table grapes is over 20.7 million tons (OIV, 2008). Asian countries are the major producers and
China is the world leader with 4.6 million tons. Italy produces 1.3 million tons of which 0.8 million tons is for internal
consumption.
In Europe, Italy is the main producer and exporter of table grapes (Lamacchia, 2013). Production is concentrated
in Southern Italy, mainly in the Apulia and Sicily regions, where the climate conditions are most favourable. The
varieties most widely grown and consumed are Victoria (white) and Black Magic in the early part of the season
and Italia (white) and Red Globe in the later part of the season. In Italy, seeded varieties are more widespread than
seedless varieties as the commercially available seedless varieties (e.g. Sugraone and Crimson Seedless) require
different approaches to in agronomic management. Specific management practices required for seedless varieties
include long pruning systems (6-7 canes with at least 30 buds per vine), high planting distances, polyethylene film
covering, fertigation and the use of growth regulators to produce a satisfactory product. In Italy the consumers
prefer the traditional and local varieties with seeds, whereas the foreign consumers prefer to eat seedless varieties,
especially in Northern Europe. To satisfy these markets, several new seedless varieties have been introduced by
Italian growers (such as Apulia, Summer Royal, Midnight Beauty, Sophia Seedless, etc.).
The Piedmont region, located in Northwest Italy, is famous for the production of several premium wines and wine
viticulture is widespread, especially in the hilly areas. However, in these areas, there is only minimal production of
table grapes which are used for family consumption and grown in association with other tree fruits rather than in
specialised vineyards. Usually, local consumers buy table grapes imported from Southern Italy or other countries
(e.g. Chile, Argentina, South Africa, etc.) at the fruit and vegetable markets.
Apples, pears, peaches, plums and kiwifruit are widely cultivated in the plains at the foot of the Alps. However
in recent years, growers have been forced to eradicate their kiwifruit orchards because of a major outbreak of
the pathogen, Actinidia bacteriosis (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae). Table grape growing may provide an
alternative crop for these growers and also reuse the kiwifruit orchard trellis structure.
In order to promote the development of the local table grape market, diversify the growers’ source of income
and offer an alternative to the production of kiwifruit, a recovery and enhancement program of some table grape
Dalmasso crosses produced by Prof. Dalmasso has begun. He commenced a program of crossbreeding in 1950 with
the aim to select table genotypes suited to cultivation in North Italy which were improvements on some existing
table grape varieties, such as Bicane which is a female variety and Muscat Hamburg which has irregular ripening of
berries inside the same bunch. Moreover, these crosses represent a reservoir of biodiversity which has not been fully
characterised.
In this paper, we discuss agronomic and qualitative performances of some table grape Dalmasso crosses (ID) of
potential interest for the cultivation in Piedmont region.
Experimental Procedure and Results
7th International Table Grape Symposium
127
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
The data collection was carried out in a vineyard located at Chieri (Turin Province, 45°1‘0“N 7°49‘0“E, 350m a.s.l.).
The vines, grafted onto Kober 5BB, were planted in 1975 (NW-SE row orientation with NE exposure) in a clay soil at
a spacing of 2.0 × 1.0m and trained to the vertical shoot positioned system with arched cane pruning. Each variety
or selection was planted in two plots with two plants in each plot. In 2013 agronomic features and qualitative
parameters of grapes were evaluated. The different harvest period for each cross was identified according to the
Pulliat’s rank (I period: contemporary ripening with ‘Chasselas dorée’; II p.: 15 days after I period; III p.: 15 days after
II p.; IV p.: 15 days after III p.). The following genotypes have been evaluated: Teresita B. (Moscato d’Amburgo N.×
[Bicane B. × (Regina B. × Terra Promessa B.)]), ID IV/60 N.(under parental SSR investigation), VI/6 B.(Bicane B. × Regina
B.) and XI/20 N.(Moscato d’Amburgo N. × Regina B.).
The genotypes have been evaluated in terms of fruit characteristics and agronomic performance. Furthermore,
we have evaluated the production quality through the assessment of technological maturity (total soluble solids,
titratable acidity, pH), total anthocyanins and flavonoids (Di Stefano and Cravero, 1991), antioxidant activity (Re et
al., 1999) and varietal volatile compounds (Ferrandino et al., 2012). Statistical analysis was carried out by the SPSS
Statistics software (IBM).
Teresita (II/III period of harvest), is a white variety with medium vigour, low fertility in basal buds and a production
of 8.75t/ha. In unfavourable years it has problems with low fruit-set. The berry is globose with medium skin firmness
and muscat-like flavour with a predominance of linalool and geraniol (Figure1). During 2013 season, black ID
IV/60 showed abundant production (47.50t.ha-1), high Ravaz index (i.e. the yield to pruning weight ratio of 11.44)
and high titratable acidity (9.34g.L-1 tartaric acid). It has big and attractive cluster with intense blue-violet globose
berries (6.13g), with an amount of total skin anthocyanins of 479.40mg.kg-1 of berries. Furthermore, it showed a
good resistance against downy mildew and grey mould. White ID VI/6 (II period) has good productivity (22.50t.ha-1)
with big, compact and attractive clusters (538.50g) and large globose or deformed berries (9.40g). Both its very
high vigour with a low Ravaz index (2.20) and low basal bud fertility suggest that the adoption of expanse training
system (e.g. pergola) with long pruning system is required. ID XI/20 was characterized by high yield (37.50t.ha-1), big
bunch (468.75g) and globose berries (6.84g) with low total skin anthocyanins content (152.76mg.kg-1 of berries).
In the 2013 season, all table grape genotypes produced good compositional characteristics, in particular their
total soluble solids (TSS) were greater than the reference minimum value for table grapes (12° Brix, OIV 2010).
Teresita reached the highest TSS content (21.20° Brix). ID IV/60 showed quite high levels of titratable acidity, an
indication that growers should pay particular attention to canopy management with this selection. It also produced
compact clusters requiring fruitlet removal after fruit-set to minimize problems in wet seasons. IV/60, VI/6 and
XI/20 genotypes showed good resistance against Plasmopora viticola and Botrytis cinerea, suggesting a good
adaptability in cool climate growing conditions like the Piedmont’ areas. The highest antioxidant activity was found
in the seeds (Table 1). This feature is very important, because it suggests that the seeds could be used in non-food
industries, such as in cosmetics. The study of skin and pulp antioxidant activity is important for their human health
implications. The results of antioxidant activity for these genotypes highlight the importance of all phenolic classes,
not just colour in determining this activity (Table 1). In this regard, C6 compounds (especially hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal,
(E)-2-hexenal and hexanol) and Sesquiterpenes are very important in non-aromatic genotypes. Teresita, produced
an interesting muscat-like flavour, related to the predominance of monoterpenes (Figure 1b). The monoterpene
profiles indicate that ID VI/6 had a molecule belonging to the menthol-family (29%). ID IV/60 had detectable levels
of (E)-geranylacetone as monoterpenes whereas (E)-geranylacetone dominated the XI/20 genotype.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
In Italy the main table regions are in the South, for climatic reasons. However, the results obtained in this study
indicate strong potential to spread the growing of table grapes into North Italy, including the Piedmont’ area.
Furthermore, some Dalmasso crosses show significant improvement over their corresponding parents, e.g. VI/6
compared to Bicane does not show flower abnormality. Moreover, although the consumers (especially in Northern
Europe) prefer seedless varieties, the Dalmasso crosses offer potential for Northern Italian regions because of
their adaptability to cool climate growing conditions, ability to meet satisfactory quality standards, the interesting
nutraceutical characteristics of berries and the bond between growing area and origins of the genotypes.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Figure 1. Free varietal volatiles profile (a) and monoterpenes profile (b) of table grape Dalmasso crosses (Stir Bar Sorptive
Extraction technique).
Table1. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of skin, pulp and seeds of table grape Dalmasso crosses (ABTS radical cation
decolourisation assay).
Antioxidant activity (µmol Trolox g-1 fresh weight)
skin
pulp
seeds
average
± st err
average
± st err
average
± st err
Teresita B
235.38ab
4.51
0.46c
0.05
863.43b
45.26
ID IV/60 n
266.71a
49.63
2.20b
0.43
1088.23ab
121.61
ID VI/6b
143.55b
10.12
1.23c
0.22
1385.89a
104.06
ID XI/20 n
180.72ab
14.13
3.45a
0.11
1062.35ab
88.47
Test Tukey-b
a=0.05
a=0.05
a=0.05
Acknowledgements
AGER Italian Vitis Database project for financial support, and technical staff of experimental farm ‘Tetti Grondana’,
Chieri (Turin Province).
References
Di Stefano R and Cravero MC. 1991. Metodi per lo studio dei polifenoli dell’uva. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 2:
37-45.
Ferrandino A, Carlomagno A, Baldassarre S, Schubert A. 2012. Varietal and pre-fermentative volatiles during ripening
of Vitis vinifera cv Nebbiolo berries from three growing areas. Food Chemistry 135: 2340-2349.
Lamacchia G. 2013. Uva da tavola tra crisi economica ed andamento climatico negativo. L’Informatore Agrario 47:
VI-IX.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved
ABTS radical cation decolourization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26: 1231–1237.
129
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ID
4
Inconsistent yielding between years is a threat to the sub-tropical table grape
industry in Queensland
Kishor C Dahal1,*, SP Bhattarai1, KB Walsh1, DJ Midmore1 and DR Oag2
School of Medical and Applied Sciences, CQ University, Bld 361, Rockhampton Queensland 4702
Applethorpe Research Station, DAFF. PO Box 501, Stanthorpe Queensland 4380
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +61 7 4930 9419, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The sub-tropical table grape industry in Australia is of high economic importance as the seasonally early harvest
time coincides with a favourable market price. However, the average yield of grapes grown in sub-tropical areas is
low compared to the average in Australia (3.94 vs. 11.2t ha-1, 2011/12 data, ABS, 2013). The poor yield in sub-tropical
table grape varieties is further compounded by a high level of inconsistency of yield across years.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The analysis of the long-term yield of three popular table grape varieties (Menindee Seedless, Flame Seedless and
Red Globe) presented in Figure 1 shows that yields for one property using standard production practices in the subtropics of Queensland fluctuated wildly between years. Furthermore, not all varieties show the same direction of
yield fluctuation (increase or decrease) in the same year.
18
18
Menindee S eedles s (12932)
F lame S eedles s (4347)
R ed G lobe (2511)
16
4
4
2
2
0
0
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
13
6
12
6
11
8
10
8
09
10
08
10
07
12
06
12
05
14
04
14
03
Marketable yield (t/ha)
16
S uc c es s ive year
Figure 1. Variation in Yield of Table Grapes Varieties in Sub-tropical Climate of Australia.
[Note: Value in parenthesis represent the total number of vines counted in each year to calculate average marketable
yield]
The extent of variation in yield of Menindee Seedless over an 11 year period (2003-2013) varied almost 7 fold
(from the lowest in 2011 to highest in 2005), with a year on year yield fluctuation of >30% in 6 out of 10 years.
Annual variation in yield of 30% has been reported for vines in a temperate environment (Boss et al., 2003) while
inconsistent yield patterns of up to 75-80% have been reported for table grape vines in a subtropical environment
(Considine, 2010; Gordon, 2012).
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Amongst the three varieties, Flame Seedless shows less variation, but had the lowest overall yield. A fourth variety
grown at the same site, Muscat Hamburg, had much less between-year yield variation and had greater fruitfulness,
than the other three varieties. However, it is a seeded variety and not produced in commercial quantities by the
grower because of lower consumer demand.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Due to the extreme irregularity in yield between seasons, the sub-tropical table grape industry faces annual
marketing uncertainty in addition to low yields in some years. Our research aims to overcome some of these
limitations to the industry. It is known the level of vine carbohydrate reserves (starch and sugar) in the grape vine
is abruptly depleted within a short period of time from bud-burst to flowering and reaches its lowest level during
flowering (Holzapfel et al., 2009). Over one half of the reserves are stored in the roots (Holzapfel et al., 2009). The
stored carbohydrates in this short period are mobilised to different sinks particularly to support root growth, bud
burst, shoot growth, flowering and next season bud differentiation immediately after the winter season. Past
research in temperate climates has indicated an association between carbohydrate level during the period from bud
burst to flowering on bud fruitfulness in the next season, bud necrosis, current season yields and vegetative growth
of the vine (Rawnsley and Collins 2005; Holzapfel, 2009; Vasudevan et al., 1998). Sub-tropical areas are typically
characterised by a short, mild winter and a short growing season from budburst to harvest (Oag, 1999). This short
growth period may influence carbohydrate synthesis, storage and mobilization, which in turn may impact on bud
fruitfulness and fruit set (determinants of yield). Gibberellins are also believed to trigger current season fruit set and
next season bud-fruitfulness (Hashim, 2010).
We propose to investigate carbohydrate reserve levels, rootstock contributions, and timing of gibberellin
applications and their possible linkages with bud-fruitfulness and inconsistent yield patterns. The goal is to improve
management of vine fruitfulness to achieve consistent and predictable yields across years.
Acknowledgements
Kishor Dahal is supported by an Australia Award (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade) scholarship under a
CQUni PhD program.
References
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013). Agricultural commodities, Australia, 2011-2012 (Cat. No. 71210).
Canberra, Australia: ABS. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/7121.0201112?OpenDocument
Boss PK, Buckeridge EJ, Poole A, Thomas MR. 2003. New insights into grapevine flowering. Functional Plant Biology
30: 593-606.
Considine M. 2010. New project to target environmental triggers in the tropics. The Vine 6(5): 8-9.
Gordon, C. 2012. High prices for early season Western Australia table grapes. The Vine (8)1: 18.
Hashim JM. 2010. Influence of gibberellic acid applied at bloom and berry set on fruit quality of ‘Scarlet Royal’ and
‘Sweet Scarlet’ table grapes. Table grape plant growth regulator workshop, Visalia convention center, June 29, 2010,
University of California Cooperative Extension. 1-4 pp.
Holzapfel B, Smith J, Rogiers S, Quirk L. 2009. Management of carbohydrate reserve accumulation as a tool for
regulating vine productivity and fruit quality. Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation, final report,
project number: CSU 05/01. National Wine and Grape Industry Centre (NWGIC). 83p.
Oag DR. 1999. Overview of the Queensland table grape industry: 1999. In: ‘5th Australian Table Gape Technical
Conference’, 6th and 7th October 1999, Murray Valley Table Grape Growers Council, Mildura.
Rawnsley B and Collins C. 2005. Improving vineyard productivity through assessment of bud fruitfulness and bud
necrosis. Grape and wine research and development corporation, final report, project number: SRI 02/05. South
Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI). 100 p.
Vasudevan L, Wolf TK, Welbaumand GG and Wisniewski ME. 1998. Reductions in bud carbohydrates are associated
with grapevine bud necrosis. Vitis 37(4): 189-190.
131
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ID
5
Performance of table grape JD 874 grafted onto different rootstocks in two
regions of São state, Brazil
Mara Fernandes Moura*1, Marco Antonio Tecchio2, Erivaldo José Scaloppi Júnior3, Maurilo Monteiro Terra1 and
Erasmo José Paioli Pires1
Centro APTA de Frutas. Instituto Agronômico - IAC. Av. Luiz Pereira dos Santos. 1500. Zip Code 13214-820. Jundiaí.
SP. Brasil
2
Departamento de Horticultura. Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas (FCA). Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP).
Rua José Barbosa de Barros. n. 1780. Zip Code 18610-307. Botucatu. SP. Brasil
3
Pólo Regional do Noroeste Paulista, Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios - APTA. Rodovia Péricles Belini, km 121. Caixa Postal 61. Zip Code 15500-970. Votuporanga/SP. Brazil
*
Corresponding author: Tel: + 55 11- 4582 7284, Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
The Instituto Agronômico (IAC) has been doing work with different cultivars of table grapes, aiming to provide
alternatives for diversification in grape production. Among the cultivars that have potential, there is the ‘JD 874’.
The hybrid ‘JD 874’, was developed by the researcher Júlio Inglez Seabra de Sousa in Jundiaí, São Paulo from a
cross between ‘Seyve Villard 5276’ and ‘Muscat Hamburg’. The variety is a red seeded grape, with medium size,
semi-crunchy, slightly muscatel flavoured berries with a medium length growth cycle (Sousa and Martins, 2002).
Evaluation work of this variety JD 874 is being conducted in order to verify the affinity when grafted onto different
rootstocks and their performance in two regions of the State of São Paulo.
Experimental Procedure and Results
We evaluated the productivity and physic-chemical characteristics of clusters, berries and stems of the variety
grafted onto different rootstocks at Jundiaí and Votuporanga, State of São Paulo.
The experiments were conducted in the experimental area of Centro APTA de Frutas, located in Jundiaí, and in
the Pólo Regional do Noroeste Paulista, located in Votuporanga, SP. In both study areas, the treatments were a
combination of the variety grafted onto rootstocks IAC 313 ‘Tropical’, IAC 766 ‘Campinas’, IAC 572’ Jales and IAC 571-6
‘Jundiaí’. In the experiment conducted in Jundiaí, the rootstock ‘Golia’ was also used.
The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications in Jundiaí and six replicates in Votuporanga.
The training system was a cordon with three catch wires. The plants were spaced at 2.0 x 1.0m in Jundiaí and 2.0 x
1.5m in the Votuporanga region. Evaluations in each experimental area in a production cycle included the following
variables: average number of clusters per plant; yield in kg plant-1; weight, length and width of the clusters, rachis,
berries and stems; total soluble solids; pH and titratable acidity. The data from in each region were was analysis
using ANOVA. Significant differences between treatment means were verified by Tukey test at 5% probability.
In Jundiaí, rootstocks influenced fresh mass of clusters, berries, berry length, fresh weight of rachis, rachis width
and average yield per plant. The JD 874 variety grafted onto rootstock IAC 571-6 showed highest mean for average
yield per plant although the width and fresh weight of berry stems did not differ statistically from the rootstock IAC
572. The hybrid grafted onto rootstock IAC 572 had the highest mean fresh weight of cluster, fresh berry and berry
length. Thus, the rootstock IAC 572 and IAC 571-6 positively influenced the production and physical characteristics
of the fruits in the eastern region of São Paulo State. For the chemical characteristics of the juice there was no
difference between the rootstocks.
In Votuporanga, rootstocks influenced the average number of clusters per plant, the average yield per plant, fresh
weight of the clusters, fresh weight of berries, berry length, width of berries, fresh weight of stems, length of rachis
and rachis width. For the mass of the cluster, the highest average was obtained by hybrid grafted onto the rootstock
IAC 572, but there was not a statistical difference from the rootstock IAC 766. For production traits best results were
obtained using the rootstock IAC 766, which provided the highest average for number of clusters per plant and yield
per plant. Similar results were found by SATO et al., (2009) who found higher productivity of Isabel variety grafted
onto rootstock IAC 766. The rootstock IAC 572 had the highest average for fresh weight, length and width of cluster
and rachis. There was no influence of rootstock on the chemical characteristics of the variety in Votuporanga.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Discussion and Significance of the Study
We conclude that for Jundiaí, best productive performance was obtained with the rootstock IAC 571-6. In
Votuporanga was the rootstock IAC 766 which provided greater productivity for the variety, but did not differ from
the rootstock IAC 572 which provided better physical characteristics of clusters, berries and stems.
References
Sato AJ; Silva BJ Da; Bertolucci R; Carielo M; Guiraud MC; Fonseca ICB; Roberto SR. 2009. Evolução da maturação e
características fisico-químicas de uvas da cultivar Isabel sobre diferentes porta-enxertos na Região Norte do Paraná.
Ciências Agrárias, Londrina. 30(1):11-20.
Souza, JSI de and Martins FP. 2002.Viticultura brasileira: principais variedades e suas características. Piracicaba: FEALQ,
368p.
133
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ID
6
Ethephon and abscisic acid for improving colour of ‘Crimson Seedless’ table
grape in the Vale do São Francisco, Northeastern of Brazil in 2012 growing
season
PC de S Leão*, MAC Lima, JP Dias and DC. da Trindade
Embrapa Semiárido, BR 428, Km 152, PO Box 23, Zip Code: 56302-970,Petrolina, PE, Brazil
Corresponding author: Tel: 055873866-3668. Email: [email protected]
1
*
Background and Aims
The Vale do São Francisco, in the Northeast region of Brazil, is one of the most important tropical grape growing
regions in the world. In this region there are 11,000ha of cultivated table grapes. This region is also responsible for
99% of Brazilian exports of table grapes. ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes growing in these tropical conditions generally
exhibit clusters with a poor and uneven red colouring, especially when they are harvested in October, in the hottest
period of the year. Crop practices, such as thinning, leaf removal, topping and tying are undertaken by growers to
minimise shading but is insufficient to solve the problem of poor colour development. For that reason, some plant
growth regulators (PGRs) have been adopted.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different concentrations and time periods of application of ABA
and ethephon, on the properties of colour and quality of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes produced in the Vale do São
Francisco. This study, undertaken in the 2012 season, aimed to improve the colour of grape cv. Crimson Seedless
through the application of plant growth regulators.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The study was conducted over a single season in 2012 in Petrolina, PE (9° 23’S, 40° 39’ W, 394m Alt.). Eight-year-old
commercial Vitis vinifera L. cv. ‘Crimson Seedless’ vineyard grafted on IAC 313 rootstock were trained to bilateral
cordons, supported by an overhead trellis system, and cane (10-12 buds) pruned. The vines were spaced 4.0m within
rows and 5.0m between rows. The vineyard was drip irrigated and vineyard management and fertilisation was
similar to the practices recommended in that region.
A randomised complete-block design was used with a single vine per treatment replicate with two adjacent vines
in-row, between replicates, used as buffer vines. There were ten treatments and four replications. Treatments
consisted of Ethephon and Abscisic Acid (ABA) or the combination of both PGRs, applied at two phenological
phases: first one in berry softening or véraison and second one was carried out about 15 before harvest. The
treatments were as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(T1) control (no treatment)
(T2) Ethephon
(T3) ABA, 400mg.L-1 at 117 days after pruning (DAP)
(T4) ABA, 200 + 200mg.L-1 at 97 and 117 DAP
(T5) ABA, 400mg.L-1 at 97 DAP
(T6) ABA, 600mg.L-1 at 117 DAP
(T7) ABA, 300 + 300mg.L-1 at 97 and 117 DAP
(T8) ABA, 600mg.L-1 at 97 DAP
(T9) Ethephon + ABA, 200mg.L-1 both of them applied at 97 DAP
(T10) Ethephon + ABA , 300mg.L-1 at 97 DAP
Pruning was held on 13/07/2012, the first application of ethephon and ABA on 18/10/2012, the 2nd application on
07/11/2012 with harvest on 21/11/2012. The Commercial products were Ethrel® 720 (1mL.L-1), and VBC 30101 (ProTone®)
provided by ValentBiosciences®, USA, containing 100g of abscisic acid (S-ABA) per litre, the latter still not registered in
Brazil. A non-ionic wetter/spreader surfactant (0.5mL.L-1) was added to the solution for all treatments. The PGRs were
applied directly to the clusters with a handheld sprayer until runoff, the total volume of solution used was 1.0L per
plant or 500L.ha-1.
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Clusters from each vine were harvested after most of the fruits were considered to have exceeded the minimum
market requirements of 16.5% total soluble solids (TSS), and 20:1 total soluble solids:titratable acidity ratio. Only
commercially acceptable clusters were harvested. The grape yield components and physicochemical characteristics
of all treatments were assessed by determining the yield (kg) and number of clusters in classes of colour (Class 1:
0 - 25% of uniform red colour of berries; Class 2: 26 - 60%; Class 3 : 61- 90% and class 4: 91 - 100% of red berries and
uniform colour); mass of cluster (g); length and diameter of berry (mm); firmness and elasticity of berry; soluble solids;
titratable acidity; anthocyanins content. The surface colour of berries in each sample were measured with a reflectance
colourimeter to obtain the colour index of red grapes (CIRG) calculated as CIRG = (180− h°)/(C*+L*), where L* is the
lightness and corresponds to a black-white scale (0, black; 100, white), h° is the hue angle on the colour wheel, and C*
is the chroma, a measure of the intensity of colour, which begins at zero (achromatic) and increases in intensity. Data
were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test ( P < 0.05 ).
The results showed that there was an increase of 39% in yield when ethephon + ABA 300mg.L-1 were applied compared
to the treatment ABA 400mg.L-1 at 97 DAP. Those effects were observed as a consequence of an increasing in mass of
clusters. On the other hand, the other treatments were not significantly different from each other, which do not allow
associating those effects in increasing the mass of cluster and the yield per plant with use of PGRs.
In regard to the colour coverage and colour intensity of ‘Crimson Seedless’ berries, significant differences were
observed only in the number of clusters in classes 1 and 4. A larger number of clusters in class 1 were observed in
control, but did not differ from treatments with ABA, independent of the dose, number and timing of application. On
the other hand, the fewer clusters in class 1 were observed in the following treatments: ethephon + ABA 300mg.L-1,
ethephon + ABA 200mg.L-1 and ethephon alone, respectively with 9 (8.9%), 14 (13%) and 17 (16 %) of clusters per
plant. The best responses to improve colour of ‘ Crimson Seedless’ berries was shown in class 4, where larger number of
clusters were obtained in the treatments combining ethephon and ABA (200 or 300mg.L-1) These treatments differed
significantly from all the other treatments.
All components of the colour were affected by treatments, the lightness of surface of berries increased in control,
ethephon, ABA 400 mg.L-1 applied at 117 DAP or 97 DAP and ABA in two applications of 200mg.L-1 at 97 and 117
DAP. The higher colour intensity (chroma) was observed in berries treated with ABA 600mg.L-1 at 97 DAP. However,
treatments combining ethephon and ABA at 200mg.L-1 and ABA 600mg.L-1 at 117 DAP showed similar responses. The
values ​​of hue angle (h°), indicated closest tones of red (low values ​​of h°) were observed in the berries that received
ethephon alone or combined with ABA. As a consequence of the integration of the values of
​​ attributes mentioned in
particular the direct relationship with h°, the highest values ​​of CIRG were observed in berries treated with ethephon
alone, ethephon combined with ABA (200 or 300mg.L-1), ABA applied twice (200 or 300mg.L-1) and ABA 400mg.L-1 at 97
DAP.
The anthocyanin contents were higher in the surface of grapes treated with ethephon + ABA 200mg.L-1 but that effect
did not differ from the ethephon + ABA 300mg.L-1 and ABA 300mg.L-1 applied twice at 97 and 117 DAP.
The berry size, total soluble solids and titratable acidity were not affected by PGR treatments. Other studies have
also showed similar results indicating that ABA increases the synthesis of anthocyanins without changing the size of
clusters, size of berries and flavour.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results obtained under tropical conditions of Vale do São Francisco showed that combination of growth regulators
ethephon and ABA (200 or 300mg.L-1) and ABA applied twice at 300mg.L-1 improve the level of anthocyanins and
colour of berries in ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. However there was no treatment effect on soluble solids, titratable
acidity, size of berry and yield. The decision to adopt ABA and/or ethephon can be guided by the costs involved in the
application, presence of residues in fruit and acceptance of products by certification systems for safe and sustainable
production.
135
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ID
7
Moving in on mealybugs in Western Australian table grape vineyards
Stewart Learmonth* and Helen Collie
Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, Manjimup, Western Australia, 6258
*
Corresponding Author: Tel: +61 8 9777 0167, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Table grapes are a high value fresh fruit horticultural crop grown in coastal regions of Western Australia, from
Carnarvon in the sub tropics to Busselton in the temperate south west. Mealybugs are present in all areas of
production and represent a threat to the marketability of produce. The presence of live mealybugs in bunches
results in rejection of fruit at harvest.
Figure 1. Obscure mealybug (left) and longtailed mealybug adults differ where the spines on the end of the body are
shorter than the body and much longer, respectively.
Two species of mealybugs are present in WA table grape vineyards – longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus
and obscure mealybug, P. viburni (Figure 1). Longtailed mealybug is more prevalent, especially in vineyards in the
Swan Valley. Obscure mealybug occurs in greater numbers in lower south west vineyards. Longtailed mealybug has
been recorded in WA since the late 1800’s, while obscure mealybug has been recorded only for about the past 40
years.
With the suite of insect pests that occur in WA table grape vineyards and the low tolerance level for insect presence
by the market, growers rely on insecticide use to attempt to provide insect pest free produce. The reliance on
insecticides is further necessitated by the relative paucity of natural enemies of mealybugs. This is evident after
harvest in situations where mealybug numbers are sometimes very high and few natural control agents are
observed.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Research, commencing in 2012 to improve reliability of control of mealybugs in WA table grapes involved:
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
136
•
Getting baseline data on the abundance, seasonality and species of mealybugs in WA table grape
vineyards. For this, leaves and mature bunches were monitored from spring to senescence and dormant
vines in selected blocks in ten commercial table grape vineyards in the southern growing regions of WA.
Sticky traps using synthetic pheromone lures for each of the mealybug species were placed at three of
these vineyards during each season.
•
Comparing the effectiveness of the main currently registered insecticides for mealybug control during the
2013/14 growing season.
•
Examining the effectiveness of post-harvest applications of the same insecticides plus two other products
applied during dormancy on mealybug abundance the following season.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Baseline data
Monitoring for mealybug in Western Australian table grape vineyards from the Swan Valley to Busselton showed
that for both seasons there was a wide range in abundance levels. The abundance of mealybug varied from virtually
absent to high levels with consequent levels of threat to producing quality table grapes free of live mealybugs.
This indicates that improvements in management practices can be made. In those vineyards where the pest is
either present at low levels or virtually absent, leaf monitoring in spring would be beneficial in terms of treating
for the pest only if it became sufficiently abundant to warrant insecticide application. In vineyards heavily infested
with mealybug, early action such as use of the soil applied systemic insecticide could be considered in addition to
monitoring during the growing season.
However the range in abundance of mealybug across WA’s table grape growing regions in the south-west also
reflects a lack of understanding of factors that drive their populations. This may include the possibility that
insecticide use may be removing natural control agents or subtle vineyard management practices may make some
vineyards less suitable as breeding sites for mealybug populations.
Because the mealybug infestation level on leaves near the end of the growing season was reflective of the level of
infestation on whole vines, leaf sampling at this time would appear to be sufficient to define the risk of damaging
mealybug populations for the following season and so avoid the more time consuming monitoring of dormant
vines. This information would help in deciding the appropriate management strategy for the following season.
Sticky traps using synthetic pheromone lures
Results of the pheromone trapping, observations within vineyards and examining microscope slides of field
collected adult mealybugs confirmed the presence of tuber mealybug in at least three table grape vineyards in
the lower south west of WA. Whether this has implications in relation to mealybug pest management needs to be
taken into account. Also, the pheromone traps showed adult males were least abundant during the main part of the
growing season and most abundant during late summer to autumn.
Effectiveness of the main currently registered insecticides
The insecticide trial that compared a range of treatments on controlling mealybug during the season showed that
the most effective treatment was the older organophosphate chemical Tokuthion®. Given the duration of use of this
insecticide in the Swan Valley, it indicates that longtailed mealybug, the dominant species in the Swan Valley, has
not developed insecticide resistance to this product.
With the exception of the clothianidin (Samurai®) drench treatment, all other insecticide treatments demonstrated
activity against the mealybug. Even though there was no untreated treatment in this trial, the higher occurrence of
mealybug in the Samurai® drench treatment showed that insecticide activity occurred for the other treatments.
The lack of efficacy of the Samurai® drench treatment indicates that there may be some limitations in the way this
insecticide was applied in this trial. Although irrigation was used at the time of application, rainfall was very low
either side of the time of application which may have resulted in poor movement of the insecticide into the root
zone to allow uptake.
The reasonably consistent presence of mealybugs over the trial period and beyond up to harvest suggests
survival of mealybugs on the cordon, crowns and trunks of vines. This is supported to some extent by the lack of
significant difference in mealybug numbers on the wood across the treatments despite differences in earlier leaf
infestation levels. This fact highlights a lack of knowledge on the biology of the mealybug in table grapes. A better
understanding of the timing of occurrence of mealybugs and their location on vines during the season would assist
in designing effective management strategies to better control the insect.
Effectiveness of postharvest applications
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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While the trial that involves insecticide applications post-harvest and during vine dormancy has yet to be
completed, early results show good levels of control of post-harvest leaf feeding populations of mealybugs and
is reflected in counts both on leaves and later on vine wood. Assessments of mealybug on foliage in spring will
confirm whether these treatments are beneficial compared with control only during the growing season.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Two species of mealybugs are known to occur in Western Australian table grape vineyards. The more common is
longtailed mealybug and at much lower prevalence is obscure mealybug. These insects are a problem even at low
density as cosmetic pests in harvested grapes. Although mealybugs are vectors of viruses that affect vine health in
Western Australia, this aspect of the pest status of mealybugs is less important. The low pest density threshhold for
mealybugs and paucity of natural enemies leads to the reliance on insecticides for the management of this pest in
table grape vineyards. Research has been conducted on the biology of the pest in relation to the use of registered
insecticides seeking to maximise their efficiency.
Key aspects to mealybug control are well timed insecticide applications during infestation of the canopy soon after
budburst in spring. Control during the season is confounded by the presence of a proportion of the population
under the bark of vines. Also, monitoring mealybug populations after harvest shows that breeding activity
continues through to senescence. The value of postharvest control of mealybugs to protect the next crop of table
grapes is a major aim of current research. Another aspect of the research is the use of pheromone traps to help
understand the role of male mealybugs in seasonal population dynamics.
Further studies are recommended to:
•
Build confidence in monitoring systems to base decisions on the need for and timing and type of
insecticide applications to control mealybugs.
•
Develop appropriate insecticide use strategies to protect tablegrape vineyards for the entire season;
•
Clarify the proportion of mealybugs that belong to either species
•
Improve our understanding of the role of adult males in the seasonal cycle of mealybugs and from this,
investigate whether pheromone traps can assist in monitoring and in the future to consider whether
mating disruption could be implemented.
•
Clarify the abundance and identity of natural enemies with an emphasis on the wasp parasitoids with a
view to the possibility of making introductions to WA.
References
Daane KM., Almeida RPP, Bell VA, Walker JTS, Botton M, Fallahzadeh M, Mani M, Miano JL, Sforza R, Walton VM,
Zaviezo T. 2012. Chapter 12 Biology and Management of Mealybugs, pp 271-307. In N.J. Bostanian et al., (eds.),
Arthropod Management in Vineyards: Pests, Approaches, and Future Directions, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-4032-7_12,
Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Learmonth, SE and Collie HM. 2014. Insecticide management of mealybugs in WA table grapes 2013/14. Department
of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. Trial Report.
Walton VM, Dalton DT, Daane KM, Kaiser C, Hilton RJ. 2013. Seasonal Phenology of Pseudococcus maritimus
(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Pheromone-Baited Trap Survey of Four Important Mealybug Species in Three
Wine Grape Growing Regions of Oregon. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 106(4): 471-478.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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ID
8
Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table
grape packages during fumigation
JG Leesch1, JL Smilanick1,*, JS Muhareb2, JS Tebbets3, JM Hurley2 and TM Jones2
Retired, USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648
USA
2
DFA of California, 1855 South Van Ness Avenue, Fresno, CA 93721 USA
3
USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Avenue, Parlier, CA 93648 USA
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 559 859 3547, Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur
dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine
concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with methyl bromide (MB), and to enable
adequate diffusion of the fumigant into the packages they specify the liners must be perforated. The percentage of
the area of the liner that is perforated, formerly stipulated to be not less than 0.3%, was recently increased to be not
less than 0.9%. In the present study MB diffusion was characterized in three low density polyethylene SO2-releasing
liners (‘Smartpac’, Quimas S.A., Santiago, Chile, model PTCAM016, 40x50cm, 0.05mm in thickness, 7g sodium
metabisulfite, http://www.quimas.cl): 1) 0.3% vent area (0.6cm round holes spaced 10cm apart); 2) 0.6% vent area
(0.8cm round holes spaced 10cm apart); and 3) 0.9% vent area (1.0cm round holes spaced 10cm apart).
SO2, emitted by paper SO2 generating sheets or in this case an SO2 releasing package liner, inhibits the growth
of decay pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea and extends the storage life of table grapes. Activated to release SO2
by moisture when the grapes are packaged, the SO2 releasing liner is composed of a three layer laminate of lowdensity polyethylene films; an outer layer relatively impervious to SO2 diffusion, and middle layer containing sodium
metabisulfite crystals, and an inner layer that permits SO2 diffusion into the liner contents. In addition, standard, highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) liners (95 x 60cm, 0.01mm in thickness) with 0.3 or 0.9% vented areas and a commercial
dual release SO2 pad (Fresca Dual Release, Quimetal Industrial SA, Santiago, Chile) were also characterized in some
tests. This is the standard packaging used by the Chilean Industry and similar to that used by grape exporters
worldwide.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Two MB fumigation schedules specified for control of the Chilean mite, Brevipalpus chilensis, were applied to grape
packages with a high-density polyethylene liners with perforated areas of 0.9% or with a SO2-releasing liners with
perforated areas of 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9%. Package and chamber concentrations were measured repeatedly for up to three
hours during MB fumigation at 4.4 or 6.0°C with a dosage 64mg.L-1 or at 26.7°C with a dosage 56mg.L-1. Diffusion
was similar and rapid into the packages among all perforated areas. MB concentrations inside the packages were
not less than 95% of those of the chamber atmosphere within 15 minutes. Calculated concentration x time products
increased slightly but significantly when the vent area increased, but these were probably a result of small differences
in MB concentrations among the chambers.
After fumigation with an MB dosage 64mg.L-1 at 4.4°C and subsequent storage at 2.0°C, mean MB residue content
in grapes from most packages 48h after MB fumigation was below the limit of quantitation of 0.002mg.kg-1. After
fumigation with an MB dosage 56mg.L-1 at 26.7°C and subsequent storage at 2.0 °C, mean MB residue content in
grapes from most packages 24h after MB fumigation was below the limit of quantitation.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
MB diffusion into grape packages occurred promptly and the influence of the composition of the liner or the
perforated vent area within the range we examined was very small, and observed only in the first few minutes of
fumigation. These results indicate MB diffusion into table grape packages with perforated polyethylene liners will
be adequate to control pests of quarantine concern. MB residues declined very rapidly after fumigation (data not
shown).
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 1. Methyl bromide (MB) exposures expressed as concentration times time products (CxT products) after fumigation
for 2 h after an initial MB dosage of 64mg.L-1 at 6.0°C determined from the MB concentration of the chamber atmosphere
(air) and from inside the center-most bag of packaged ‘Thompson Seedless’ table grapes. The packages had high-density
polyethylene (HDPE) liner with a vented area of 0.9% of the liner surface area or an SO2-releasing plastic liner with
perforations that comprised a vented area (VA) of 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9% of the liner surface area.
CxT product (MB mg h L-1; ± SD)z
Liner
VA%
Chamber atmosphere
Inside package
SO2-releasing
0.3
113.7 (±0.6) ab
106.9 (±0.6) a
SO2-releasing
0.6
110.9 (±0.8) a
106.6 (±1.7) a
SO2-releasing
0.9
115.1 (±2.0) b
110.8 (±2.6) b
HDPE
0.9
120.5 (±1.7) c
118.0 (±5.0) c
Values followed by unlike letters are significantly different according to Fisher’s LSD (P = 0.05).
z
MB concentrations in our experiments met the minimum chamber concentrations after 30 or 180 minutes of
fumigation to control of Brevipalpus chilensis (USDA-APHIS 2013). We collected and report empirical measurements
of MB gas concentration into table grape packages; further study into this subject should include modelling MB
diffusion, particularly under commercial conditions.
To model MB diffusion into packages, effusion of the gas through the perforations and mass transfer of the gas
through the intact liner plastic itself should be determined, since it is conceivable a substantial portion of the MB
present in the packages diffused through the liner rather than through the perforations. Almost all package liners
used in produce packaging are composed of low-density polyethylene films. MB diffusion through the sulfur dioxide
releasing, three-layer laminate of low-density polyethylene film included in the present study is unknown.
With few exceptions, both high and low-density polyethylene films were highly permeable to MB (Gamliel, et al.,
1998; Qian, et al., 2011). Most reached a 90% equilibrium in MB concentration very rapidly, usually in less than one
hour at 20°C when used as barrier films in chamber studies (Gamliel, et al, 1998). Another variable is the influence of
the number of exposed perforations, since presumably some would be occluded by the fruit or pressed against the
interior walls of the box. Other influences include MB diffusion include sorption into fruit and packaging components,
bulk gas movement, chamber leakage, and the effect of package palletisation on diffusion. In an alternative
approach to characterize MB diffusion under commercial conditions, Walse et al., (2014) stated that determination
of the relative contributions of fruit and packaging to overall MB sorption during fumigation, which would vary
markedly in commercial fruit operations, is neither practical nor necessary. By simply quantifying the extent of MB
sorption, measured directly as the loss of MB from the chamber headspace, the collective contribution of fruit and
its packaging to sorption can be estimated, and the MB doses applied adjusted to meet minimum CxT product
thresholds to control insects.
Acknowledgements
We thank Thomas Hanke of Quimas, Ltd Santiago, Chile for donation of materials, technical information about liners,
and financial support of a portion of the research conducted at DFA of California. We thank Jane Tebbets for critical
review of the manuscript.
References
Gamliel A, Grinstein A, Beniches M, Katan J, Fritsch J, Ducom P. 1998. Permeability of plastic films to methyl bromide: a
comparative laboratory study. Pesticide Science 55: 141-148.
Qian Y, Kamel A, Stafford C, Nguyen T, Chism WJ, Dawson J, Smith CW. 2011. Evaluation of the permeability of
agricultural films to various fumigants. Environmental Science and Technology 45: 9711–9718.
U.S. Department of Agriculture – Animal Plant Health Inspection Service. 2013. Treatment manual. Code of Federal
Regulations. Title 7 Agriculture, Chapter III, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Part 319. http://www.aphis.
usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/treatment.pdf
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Walse SS, Myers SW, Liu Y-B., Bellamy DE, Obenland D, Simmons GS, Tebbets S. 2013. Postharvest treatment of fresh
fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of
Economic Entomology 106: 1155-63.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
9
Postharvest conservation of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes as influenced by
ethephon and abscisic acid application on field
Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima1,*, Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão1, Danielly Cristina Gomes da Trindade1 and
Marcella Setúval Valentim2
Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid, PO Box 23, 56302-970, Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil,
University of Pernambuco/Embrapa Tropical Semi-Arid
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 55 87 3866-3612 Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) at véraison has been applied to improve colour in red grape cultivars,
especially those grown in high temperature regions. However, the use of ethephon can result in faster loss of
berry firmness and lower post-harvest conservation. Furthermore, there is a risk of residue in the berries. Hence,
it is important to study other techniques to promote the beneficial effects of ethephon. As an alternative, the
application of abscisic acid (ABA) during the phase of grape maturation has been studied.
In the São Francisco River Valley, the most important area of table grape production in Brazil, Crimson Seedless is
one of the main cultivars. This cultivar demands techniques to give uniform and intensify the colour of the berries.
However, the use of plant growth regulators has resulted in non-reproductive responses when the productive cycle
is carried out during the second semester of the year, characterised by high temperatures. The aim of this study was
to evaluate the effect of different concentrations and time periods of application of ABA, in comparison to ethephon
and to the control, on postharvest conservation of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes produced in the São Francisco River
Valley.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The study was conducted in a ten-year-old commercial vineyard in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, in São Francisco
River Valley, Brazil. The vineyard was grafted on IAC 313 rootstock, trained in an overhead trellis system, with a
spacing of 4.0m x 5.0m and drip irrigation. The management included fertilisation, diseases and pest control and
other practices, recommended for the region. Pruning for production were carried out on 13 July 2012 and harvest
periods began on 21 November 2012.
Treatments consisted of two factors: ethephon (Ethrel® 720, 1 mL.L-1) and ABA (VBC 30101, ProTone®, 100g.L-1)
applied pre-harvest and a time of storage. They included: control - no treatment; Ethephon; ABA, 400mg.L-1 at 14
days before harvest or 117 days after pruning (DAP); ABA, 200 + 200mg.L-1 at véraison or 97 DAP and 117 DAP; ABA,
400mg.L-1 at 97 DAP; ABA, 600mg.L-1 at 117 DAP; ABA, 300 + 300 mg.L-1 at 97 and 117 DAP; ABA, 600mg.L-1 at 97
DAP; Ethephon + ABA, 200mg.L-1 both of them applied at 97 DAP and Ethephon + ABA, 300mg.L-1 at 97 DAP. The
treatments where ABA and ethephon were combined, two mixtures were prepared and applied, one for each of the
products. The products were applied by manual spraying.
After harvest, bunches in cardboard boxes were stored at 0.5ºC and 85% RH. The storage time evaluated was 0, 20,
27, 30 and 33 days. A randomised block experimental design, in a 10 x 5 factorial arrangement with four replications
was used. Each plot had three bunches. The variables analysed were: weight loss; berry shrivelling; coverage and
intensity of the red colour, according to a scale of notes where 1= 0%-25%; 2= 26%-60%; 3= 61%-90% and 4= 91%100%; pulp firmness; skin elasticity; soluble solids and sugars content; and titratable acidity.
The berries were harvested when they attained commercial quality levels of total soluble solids, i.e. a minimum
of 18° Brix in this study. The average value of titratable acidity was 0.44% as tartaric acid. During the storage time,
weight loss, a light softening and an increase in titratable acidity were observed. Colour of berries was maintained
during the study period.
Ethephon and ABA pre-harvest application did not affect soluble solids and sugars content. But they influenced
another characteristics related to the quality and postharvest conservation of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. The weight
loss was lower in bunches from treatments with ethephon combined with ABA or with the highest doses of ABA
applied at véraison. On the other hand, the weight loss was doubled in the control and the ethephon treated
berries. Some shrivelling was observed in berries at two applications of ABA 300mg.L-1 treatments.
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Pulp firmness was lightly reduced during the storage. The comparison of treatments showed that berries of the
control were firmer than berries of ethephon treatments, with or without ABA treatments. In general, skin elasticity
had a gradual reduction. However, an abrupt change was observed after 30th days with the ethephon combined
with ABA treatments. Finally, the higher coverage and intensity of the red colour was noticed at ethephon
combined or not with ABA treatments and with the ABA 600mg.L-1 applied in a single dose.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
In conclusion, ethephon combined with ABA application had an effect on reducing the weight loss and promoting
colour development of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. This result can influence positively the quality and postharvest
conservation of the grapes. However, other aspects need to be determined, including the data repeatability in
other productive cycles, the legal permission to apply ABA in national viticulture and the commercial acceptance
of the product.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
142
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
10
Effects of Kelpak® Ecklonia maxima seaweed product on quality and yield of
red globe table grape in Sicily, Italy
Adriaan F Lourens1 and Giuseppe Tornello2,*
Kelp Products International (Pty) Ltd., Box 325, Simon’s Town 7995, SOUTH AFRICA
Coragro srl, Via R, Failla, 34-95042, Grammichele (CT), ITALY
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +390933942770, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The synthetic growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid and cytokinins and natural biostimulants such
as seaweed extract are commercially used to improve the quality and yields of table grapes. Kelpak®, an auxin-like
seaweed product extracted from Ecklonia maxima, has been used with great success in improving table grape yields
and quality in Australia, California, Chile, Egypt, Spain and South Africa. A field trial was conducted on Red Globe in
Sicily, Italy to evaluate these positive effects in another important table grape producing region in Europe.
Experimental Procedure
The trial was conducted in 2012 using a Red Globe vineyard with plant spacing 2.8 x 2.8m in Licodia Eubea, Sicily,
Italy. Kelpak® was applied as three treatments at different rates in 600 L water/ha, different timings and number of
applications delivering a total of 12 L/ha for each treatment. The Kelpak® treatments were compared to an untreated
control, as well as a positive control where GA was applied twice (BBCH 71 and 73) as per standard practice (Table 1).
All Kelpak treatments received the GA treatment as well. Trial plots were 9 plants per replicate and each treatment
were replicated six times in a randomized block design. Berry diameter, firmness, weight, colour, soluble solid
content and bunch weight and cracking of berries were evaluated using standard procedures. Data were analysed
for statistically significant differences (p=0.05, Student-Newman-Keuls).
Table 1. Effect of Kelpak applications on quality and yield of Red Globe table grapes, Sicily 2012.
Measurement
GA x 2
71, 73
GA x 2
71, 73
**
6L.ha-1 x2
75, 77
GA x 2
71, 73
**
4 L.ha-1 x3
71, 73, 75
GA x 2
71, 73
**
3 L.ha-1 x4
71,73,75,77
Untreated
control
Berry size (mm)
26.8c
27.5b
27.0c
28.0a
23.4d
Berry weight (g)
10.2c
10.8ab
10.5b
11.0a
8.5d
Berry firmness
2.0c
2.5b
2.6ab
2.7a
1.8d
Soluble solids (ºBrix)
14.8d
15.5b
15.1c
16.1a
15.4b
Colour
(lower value = best)
2.6a
1.8b
1.8bc
1.6cd
1.6d
1282b
1307b
1295b
1408a
1134c
*
Bunch weight (g)
*
**
*
BBCH scale for application stages of GA
Rate and BBCH scale for application stages of Kelpak®
Values with different letters differ significantly at the 95% confidence level
*
**
Results and Discussion
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Kelpak foliar spray at 3L in 600L water/ha applied at BBCH 71, 73, 75 and 77 was the best treatment, with significant
improvement in berry size, firmness, weight and sugar content, bunch colour and weight compared to the GA
control (Table 1). The second best treatment was Kelpak at 6L.ha-1, applied after GA applications at BBCH 75 and 77.
It was significantly better than the GA control in berry size, firmness, weight, sugar content and bunch colour. Kelpak
at 4L.ha-1 applied at BBCH 71, 73 and 75 was still better than the GA control in berry firmness, weight, sugar content
and bunch colour and similar in berry diameter and bunch weight.
The GA control was better than the untreated control in all variables except sugar content and colour, where the
untreated control had better values. Compared to the GA control, the combined benefits from the use of the
Kelpak 3L X 4 treatment were a 10% improvement in total yield, an increase in berry size and bunch colour and, as a
consequence, a higher proportion of the fruit meeting export class standards with increased value per box. None of
the treatments showed any visual signs of phytotoxicity and berry cracking was absent in all treatments.
Significance of the Study
The data obtained in this trial is a confirmation of previous reports describing improved table grape yields and
quality from Kelpak trials in California (Bauer, 2001; Keathley, 2002), Chile (Orellana, 2007) and South Africa
(Lombard, 2007) and provides evidence that Kelpak can be a useful tool to improve returns in table grapes grown in
a major production area in Italy.
References
Bauer B. 2001. Kelpak for yield and growth enhancement of Ruby Seedless table grape. Research report, 5 pages.
Two Bees Agricultural Research, 20592 Ayres Ave, Escalon, California.
Keathley JP. 2002. Grape yield increases following application of Kelpak sprays. Research report, 9 pages. Caltec
Research and Development Company, 1420 F St, Modesto, California.
Lombard PJ and Lourens AF. 2007. The use of Kelpak, a natural liquid seaweed extract as a tool for improving table
grape quality in South Africa. Poster presentation, 5th International Table Grape Symposium, Somerset West, South
Africa.
Orellana J. 2007. Effects of an auxin based product extracted from the seaweed Ecklonia maxima on berry quality
and post-harvest behavior in table grapes in Chile. Oral presentation, 5th International Table Grape Symposium,
Somerset West, South Africa.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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ID
11
Policy assessment for the table grape production in southern Italy
Umberto Medicamento1,*, Arturo Casieri1 and Michele Fioretti2
Department of Agricultural & Environmental Science, University of Bari – Aldo Moro, via Amendola 165/A, Bari, ZIP
CODE: 70126 – Italy
2
Agriproject Group srl. Via delle Orchidee, 20 - 70018 Rutigliano (BA), Italy
*
Corresponding author: Tel. +39.080.544.2968, Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
Table grape production is very important in the Southern Italian food sector. The Puglia region is a major contributor
with production mainly located in the province of Bari. Although farmers living in this area have a long tradition in
table grape cultivation, there is a strong need for public intervention and private initiative in order to set up a new
organizational framework which is able to enhance competitiveness of the table grape industry. There is a striking
need for both technical innovation and adoption of new varieties to cover a wide range of situations. This must take
into account the new, 2014-20, European Agricultural Policy. In this paper we focus over local public intervention
simulating scenarios and their effects on farmers’ income. To accomplish this objective we use the RFM methodology
explained below.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The method used to measure the policies’ impacts on table grape cultivation is based upon the definition of
the Representative Farm Models (RFM) characterized for having different allocation of production factors and
technological levels. RFM provides a very useful platform to evaluate the relationship between technical innovation,
profit level, and consequent policy impact. Data were collected by directly interviewing a panel of experts selected
upon their reputation and long-term experience in table grape cultivation. Results offer interesting insights for both
policy makers and private organizations (e.g. farmers’ associations, lobbyists).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Results show that interventions from policy makers should be ‘tailored’ to take into account data from RFM studies as
alternative to ‘one-fit-all’ interventions. Also, policy makers should foster organizational innovation to reach efficiency
through flexible coordination of a wide set of activities between farmers and other stakeholders.
Acknowledgments
The authors are thankful to the Province of Bari, namely the Office for Agricultural Resources, for providing support to
the research development.
References
Casieri A; Roma R; Cimino O. 2010. Measuring effect of a demand shift on the sustainability of table grape production
in Apulia Paper prepared for presentation at the 119th EAAE Seminar ‘Sustainability in the Food Sector: Rethinking
the Relationship between the Agro-Food System and the Natural, Social, Economic and Institutional Environments’,
Capri, Italy, June, 30th – July, 2nd, 2010.
Casieri A, De Gennaro B, Medicamento U. 2008. Framework of economic institutions and governance of relationship
inside a territorial supply chain: The case of organic olive oil in the Sierra de Segura (Andalusia) Cahiers Agricultures n°
17.
De Benedictis M, Cosentino V. 1979. Economia dell’Azienda Agraria. Il Mulino. Bologna.
Marenco G. 2005. Lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi Agricoli Locali: Strumenti di analisi delle Politiche. ESI. Napoli.
Nelson RR and Winter SG. 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. The Belknap Press of Harvard University
Press. Cambridge, Massachussetts, and London, England.
Simon HA. 1972. From Substantive to Procedural Rationality. In C.B. McGuire and R.R. Radner, Decision and
Organization, Amsterdam, North-Holland.
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
12
Effect of rootstock on growth and nutritional status of Thompson Seedless
grown under soils with different air content
Michelle Morales1,*, Raúl Ferreyra2, Manuel Pinto1 and Gabriel Sellés2
1
Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF), Rengo, Chile,
2
Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), Santiago, Chile
*
Corresponding author: E-mail: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Table grapes are grown in a wide range of soil types, thus, often are cultivated under an inappropriate water to
air ratio in soil, limiting productivity and fruit quality (Selles et al., 2012). Almost 22% of total Chilean table grapes
are growing in soils with less than 15% of air capacity (AC), (Ferreyra, 2009). It has been reported that both vigour,
production and fruit quality in scion are strongly affected by rootstock variety used (Dalbó et al., 2011).
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of rootstock on growth and nutritional state of Thompson
Seedless (TS) grown under soils with different air content.
Experimental Procedure and Results
This work was undertaken during the 2008-2010 seasons. The study were carry out in 150L pots, filled with sandy
loam (Fa) and silty loam (Fl) soils to generate different air capacity (AC); AC= 15% in sandy loam and AC= 10% in silty
loam.
We used Thompson Seedless variety grafted on five rootstocks (110 Richter, Harmony, Freedom, Ramsey, 1616
Couderc) and a control (Thompson S. ungrafted), planted during the 2007/08 season. The pruning weight, chlorophyll
content and mineral nutrient status were evaluated. To determine mineral nutrient status (N as NO3, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn,
Cu, Zn), grapevine petioles from each experiment (three replicates) were used.
The results showed an interaction between soil air contents and rootstocks. In soils with low aeration, control plants
had lower pruning weight than grafted plants, and plants grafted on 110 Richter and Freedom rootstocks had more
growth. The chlorophyll content decreased with low aeration of soil and was correlated with low nitrogen content in
the petioles.
Plants grafted on Harmony and Freedom rootstocks had 30% higher levels of potassium content in petiole than
control plants. The interaction between rootstocks and soil air contents showed than 110 Richter had 56% higher
nitrogen content in petioles of plants grown with low soil aeration, while plants grafted on Ramsey had higher
nitrogen in soils with good aeration.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The roostocks had an effect on grafted Thompson Seedless and there was an interaction with soil aeration.
Rootstocks improved the plant growth compared with ungrafted plants. On the other hand, in soils with aeration
restriction (fine textures), the nitrogen content decreased in plants grafted with Ramsey and ungrafted (control).
These combinations had more nitrogen content than Richter 110 in soil with fine textures. This could be associated
with higher growth. In conclusion, the use rootstocks for Thompson Seedless improves growth and nutrient status of
plants in soils with low air content. Moreover, fertilizer regimes should be adjusted according to the rootstock used,
especially in regard to fertilization with nitrogen and potassium to improve Thomson Seedless quality and determine
appropriate standards for the variety.
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgments: Grant N° 05CR11PAT-11, INNOVA- CORFO.
References
Dalbó MA, Schuck E, Basso C. 2011. Influence of rootstock on nutrient content in grape petioles. Revista Brasileira de
Fruticultura 33: 941-947.
Ferreyra BR. 2009. Caracterización de las propiedades físicas de suelo en el cultivo de la uva de mesa en la V Región de
Chile. Facultad de Cs. Agronómicas. Tesis Ing. Agronomo, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, p. 42.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Selles G, Ferreyra R, Ruiz R, Ferreyra BR, Ahumada, R. 2012. Compactación de suelo y su control: Estudio de casos en
el Valle de Aconcagua. In: Selles, G., Ferreyra, R. (Eds.), Boletín INIA N° 234. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias
INIA-La Platina, Santiago, Chile, p. 54 p.
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ID
13
Use of ABA to improve the colour of Red Globe table grapes in the San Juan
region, Argentina
MF Mujica1,*, F Montenegro2 and MB Pugliese1
INTA E.E.A. San Juan. Argentina. Calle 11 y Vidart. Villa Aberastain. Pocito. San Juan. Argentina
Facultad de Ingeniería - Universidad Nacional de San Juan. Argentina
*
Corresponding author: Tel: +54 264 4921079 E-mail: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
In Argentina there are 217,750ha cultivated with vines, of which 12,179ha are used for table grapes. The province
of San Juan is a national leader in the production of fresh grapes for both external and internal markets, producing
about 82% of the grapes exported from the country with Red Globe the most popular variety. One of the most
important parameters in terms of quality is the colour intensity of Red Globe. In the Valley of Tulum, located in the
province of San Juan, environmental constraints influence the colour synthesis (the colour desired in most cases is
not obtained due to climatic factors), despite the excellent levels of other quality attributes achieved in each season
in terms of soluble solids concentration and size for this variety.
The application of growth regulators is used as a management practice to achieve increases in the intensity of
colour of red varieties. Ethephon, which is widely used on red varieties, is known to be a promoter of senescence,
leading to risks associated with negative effects on quality as it may induce fruit drop and produce berry softening
at maturity and during storage. Also, current treatments of 0.7ppm ethephon appear to be becoming less effective,
resulting in the need to find alternatives for obtaining higher colour in grapes.
More recently Abscisic Acid (ABA) has been used to promote colour development in red grape varieties. ABA has
been shown to control stomatal closure, reduce vegetative growth and induce the synthesis of phenolic compounds
in berries. During berry development, ABA levels in the skins increases markedly, suggesting a possible role of ABA
in the control of berry development.
With this background, trials of a commercial ABA product, ProToneR, applications were conducted at different times
and at different concentrations with the aim to improve the colour of Red Globe grapes produced in the province
of San Juan. These tests were conducted for three seasons to obtain information to register ProToneR for used in
Argentina.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Experiments were conducted on different farms with varying agro-climatic characteristics in the 2011-2012 season
(3 farms) and the 2012-2013 season (5 farms). Treatments were applied in a randomised design.
ABA treatments included applications of 400ppm of ProToneR, or 200ppm of ProToneR three weeks after véraison
(50% softened berries) plus an application of 200ppm of ProToneR or 400ppm of ProToneR, 10 days before harvest;
standard ethephon only treatment or an untreated control.
The use of ABA did improve berry colour (purple red hue) of the Red Globe variety. In particular, the treatment
with two applications of 400ppm ABA produced significant differences with earlier colour development and hues
tending to red-purple, regardless of the agro-climatic zone. Because the visual aspect is a feature that strongly
influences the marketing of Red Globe, ABA provides a promising alternative product to assist growers to optimise
berry colour and the commercial value of the product from the variety. However, it should be noted that berries
from control vines had higher luminosity (L), measured as greater brightness and chroma (more vivid colours). In
regard to berry firmness at harvest it was observed that applications at véraison reduced firmness more than other
dates of application. Applications made ​​10 days before harvest had the least effect. The highest concentration
of ABA at 400ppm reduced firmness more than Ethephon or the lower concentrations of ABA. Other quality
parameters such berry size (polar and equatorial diameter of the berries), titratable acidity, fresh bunch weight and
berry weight were not altered with the application of ABA, while the soluble solids content was affected slightly.
Results from the third season are being processed in order to finish the first stage of experimentation to provide
information to register ProToneR for commercial use in Argentina.
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Acknowledgements
The work was financially supported by INTA and Valent Biosciences. The authors appreciate the cooperation of the
growers in whose vineyards the trials sites were located.
References
Baigorri H, Antolin C, De Luis I, Geny L, Broquedis M, Aguirrezábal F, Sánchez-Díaz, M. 2001. Influence of training
system on the reproductive development and hormonal levels of Vitis vinífera L. cv. Tempranillo. American Journal of
Enology and Viticulture 52: 357-363
Ban T, Ishimaru M, Kobayashi S, Shiozaki S, Goto-Yamamoto N and Horiuchi S. 2003. Abscisic acid and
2,4-dichlorohenoxyacetic acid effect the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes in ‘Kyoho’ grape
berries. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 78: 586-589.
Bergqvist J, Dokoozlian N, Ebisuda N. 2001. Sunlight exposure and temperature effects on berry growth and
composition of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache in the Central San Joaquin Valley of California. American Journal
of Enology and Viticulture 52:1-7.
Blommaert KL, Hanskom A, Steenkamp N. 1975. Improved colour development of Barlinka grapes with ethephon.
The Deciduous Fruit Grower 25: 297-299.
Blommaert KL and Steenkamp J. 1977. Growth regulators: More applications for table grapes. Deciduous Fruit Grower
27: 350-352.
Boneh U, Bitona I, Schwartzb A, Ben-Aria, G. 2012. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis
vinífera. Plant Science 187: 89–96.
Boo O, Saito T, Tomitaka Y. 1997. Effect of plant growth regulators on the anthocyanin synthesis of Perilla ocymoides
L. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology 38, 9-14.
Callejas, R. 2005. Incremento del colour de variedades rojas. Centro de estudios de la vid. Universidad Nacional de
Chile. [En línea] [http://www.cevid.uchile.cl/articulos/ColourdeCubrimientoVarRojas.pdf ], [Consulta: 10 de enero
2012].
Cantín C, Fidelibus M, Crisosto C. 2007. Application of abscisic acid (ABA) at veraison advanced red colour
development and maintained postharvest quality of “Crimson seedless” grapes. Postharvest Biology and Technology
46: 237-241.
Fidelibus, MW. 2005. Use of ABA to improve the colour of table grapes. Department of Viticulture and Enology,
University of California, Davis.
Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW, Dokoozlian NK. 2006. Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness,
pigmentation, and colour of ‘Flame Seedless’ grapes. HortScience 41: 1440-1445.
Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW, Dokoozlian NK. 2007. Application timing and concentration of abscisic acid affect the
quality of ‘Redglobe’ grapes. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 82: 304-310.
Peppi PorfirI H. 2000. Manejo productivo de la uva de mesa y su efecto sobre la calidad- Análisis crítico. En: Calidad
y condición de llegada a los mercados extranjeros de la uva de mesa de exportación chilena. Pontificia Universidad
Católica de Chile. Chile. p.17-28.
Peppi MC and Dokoozlian NK. 2003. Influence of chemical treatments at véraison on the pigment content and
composition of table grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 53: 259A.
Peppi MC and Fidelibus MW. 2008. Application, timing and concentration of abscisic acid or ethephon and their
effects on colour of Crimson seedless table grapes. Acta Horticulturae 774: 173-177.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
14
Potential to enhance fruit quality of table grapes with potassium sorbate and
cincturing
David R Oag* and Allan D McWaters
Horticulture and Forestry Science, Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, Applethorpe, Queensland,
4380, Australia
*
Corresponding author: Tel. +61 7 4681 6147, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
A new black seedless grape variety, M1301 , which was developed in Australia, is being grown in most production
regions. Fruit meeting quality specifications is marketed as Magic Seedless®. It is recognised for its black berry with
a crisp texture and naturally good colour development in subtropical growing conditions. In some seasons, the fruit
will struggle to ripen to more desirable sugar concentrations (i.e. >16°Brix) sought in the Australian market. Gabler et
al., (2010) reported four applications of potassium sorbate during berry growth significantly increased soluble solids
of Red Globe berries in a temperate environment.
A pilot study was undertaken (2010) in a table grape vineyard at Emerald to ascertain the potential for foliar
applications of potassium sorbate to increase the soluble solids and enhance fruit quality (colour, berry firmness) of
Magic Seedless®. Cincturing at véraison is the recommended practice for enhancing ripening of the variety and was
included in the study.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The trial consisted of three replicate plots per treatment with four vines per plot and data collected from the middle
two vines. Treatments were (1) untreated Control; (2) 2mm cincture at véraison; (3) potassium sorbate – two sprays
before véraison (Early); (4) potassium sorbate – two sprays after véraison (Late) and (5) potassium sorbate – four
sprays (Early & Late). Potassium sorbate (Sigma–Aldrich) sprays were applied to the bunch zone (bunches and
leaves) at the equivalent of 1.3gL-1 potassium per vine. Bunches were sprayed to runoff using a knapsack sprayer.
Applications were at approximately 12 day intervals starting (13 October) approximately 3 weeks before véraison.
Fruit yield per vine (weight and bunch number) was recorded at harvest (1st December) and a berry sample collected
per replicate for quality assessment – soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity. Twenty berries per replicate were
individually analysed for berry firmness (Instron 5543, 3mm diameter probe, 500N load cell), berry weight and berry
colour (Konica Minolta CR400 colourimeter).
Table 1. Influence of cincturing and bunch-directed potassium sorbate sprays on fruit quality of Magic Seedless®.
Treatment
Soluble solids (°Brix)
Sugar yield (kg/vine)
Berry firmness (Newtons)1
Control
13.7
1.035
0.860
Cincture
14.8
1.128
1.147
Early
13.8
0.920
0.868
Late
14.5
1.026
1.059
0.758
0.790
Early & Late
14.1
Berry firmness = maximum compressive load
1
Cincturing and postassium sorbate applied after véraison increased the soluble solids of Magic Seedless® berries
(Table 1). In the case of cincturing the increase was 8% over the control. The important fruit quality parameter
of berry firmness was also increased by cincturing or potassium sorbate applied after véraison. Cincturing and
potassium sorbate applied during ripening produced slightly darker berries (L*) than the control (Table 2). All
potassium sorbate treatments appear to produce marginally deeper blue colour (b*).
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 2. Skin colour of Magic Seedless® berries following potassium sorbate sprays and cincturing.
Treatment
L*
a*
b*
Control
27.226
1.835
0.224
Cincture
26.482
1.590
0.237
Early
27.147
1.786
0.198
Late
26.928
1.645
0.189
Early & Late
27.063
1.836
0.208
L* indicates the lightness of colour (0 = black; 100 = white)
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The positive effect of the recommended practice to cincture vines at véraison to improve Magic Seedless® fruit
quality was confirmed. Applications of potassium sorbate from véraison indicated the potential to enhance
ripening and fruit quality. A more detailed study is required to refine the most effective application times and rates
of potassium sorbate, as well as the effectiveness relative to cincturing. The shorter period between véraison and
harvest in a subtropical environment may limit the time available for the full affect of foliar applied potassium
sorbate to occur.
Cincturing is a labour intensive operation. Foliar sprays are easy to apply and may provide cost savings whilst
enhancing fruit quality.
Acknowledgements
The cooperation of Mr Joe Cordoma, Cordoma Farms, Emerald, with the field trial is greatly appreciated.
References
Gabler FM, Margosan DA, Smilanick JL, Hashim-Buckey J. 2010. Influence of cluster-directed applications of
potassium before harvest on the quality of table grapes. 6th International Table Grape Symposium, 24-26 June 2010,
University of California, pp 46-49.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
150
7th International Table Grape Symposium
ID
15
Temperature and light regimes under different plastic rain covers
David R. Oag*
Horticulture and Forestry Science, Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, Applethorpe, Queensland,
4380, Australia. Tel. +61 7 4681 6147, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Plastic vine covers are used to protect fruit from rain damage during the ripening period. The use of plastic vine
covers is becoming increasingly common in the early-ripening table grape industry in Queensland. All the plastic
covers commercially available in Australia are opaque and consequently create a level of shading of the vine canopy.
In Queensland, the plastic covers are installed for a period of 3-4 weeks, coinciding with the relatively short ripening
period.
Following the introduction of plastic vine covers, anecdotal reports emerged of delayed harvest time, reduced
colour development in red varieties, leaf scorch and condensation beneath the plastic. Reduced fruitfulness the
following season has also been speculated to be a consequence of the use of plastic covers. This is highly unlikely
in Queensland as the period of floral initiation occurs much earlier in the season (Oag, 2001) and long before plastic
vine covers are installed. A delay in harvest time could arise from the impact on photosynthesis of the change in
temperature environment and light levels beneath the plastic.
Data detailing the impact of plastic covers on the climate within the vine canopy is not available. An opportunity
arose in the 2010/11 season to quantify temperature and light levels below three plastic covers of different light
transmission.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Three types of plastic vine cover were examined in a field trial at St George, Queensland. Vines were grown on a large
Y-trellis and each type of plastic was installed over a single row of vines. The plastic was supported above the vine
canopy by a wire (Figure 1) and attached to a foliage wire at the side of the canopy. Temperature beneath the plastic
was recorded continuously using temperature dataloggers (Tinytag, Hastings Dataloggers) hung immediately below
the plastic (ie ‘roof’) and from the cordon wire (Figure 1).
The plastic covers were of different translucency. Two commercially available opaque, white plastic covers (Grape
Cover and Aperio Grape Cover Plus) were rated at 50% and 60% shade, respectively, whereas a new ‘clear’ plastic was
rated at 80% light transmission. Light levels measured as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were recorded
using a ceptometer (DeltaT, USA). The ceptometer was positioned immediately beneath the plastic cover, avoiding
any shading from the vine canopy, and above the canopy between vine rows where total incoming light (PAR) was
measured.
Figure 1. Temperature sensors positioned immediately below the plastic cover ie ‘roof’ (left) and at the cordon height.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
The opaque white plastic covers considerably reduced the amount of light (PAR) reaching the vine canopy (Table
1). The relatively low light levels could have an impact upon the rate of photosynthesis at a time when the vine is
ripening fruit. At 75-80% light transmission through the ‘clear’ plastic it could be expected photosynthesis would
continue largely unaffected. A further study to collect harvest data is required to determine how the different plastics
affect harvest time and sugar concentration.
Table 1. Incoming total PAR measured above the vine canopy and PAR measured below each type of plastic expressed as
percent transmission. Light (PAR) measured immediately before harvest.
Light measurements 15/12/2010
Plastic type
Total PAR (µmol.m-2.s-1)
Transmission (%)
Grape Cover
1752
35.2
Aperio Grape Cover Plus
1796
45.2
new “clear” plastic
1863
73.3
Figure 2. Air temperature beneath the Aperio Grape Cover Plus. Positions of temperature sensors were immediately below
the plastic ie ‘roof’ (blue, 359592), cordon (green, 359585) and open (black, 55912).
Figure 3. Air temperature in the ‘roof’ beneath the Grape Cover (346533, black) and Aperio Grape Cover Plus (359592, blue)
compared to out in the open (green, 55912).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The ‘clear’ plastic cover has two potential advantages over the opaque white plastics, namely greater light
transmission and less extreme temperatures below the plastic cover. Shading by the opaque plastics is likely to
dramatically impact photosynthesis during the important ripening period.
Acknowledgements
The cooperation of Peter Haslem, Sandilands Vineyard, St George with the field trial is gratefully acknowledged.
References
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Oag DR and Shaw RG. 2001. Characterising floral initiation and developing management strategies to maximise bud
fruitfulness in subtropical table grape vines. Final report, FR01002. Horticulture Australia Ltd.19 pp.
152
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16
Flame Seedless cluster quality according to bud position
M Cecilia Peppi*, R Callejas, E Kania and JL Henriquez
Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 56-2-2978 5727 Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Table grape quality includes cluster size, shape, uniformity and size of berries. Most pruning choices are established
to account for differences in the bud fertility along the mature, dormant shoot without consideration of the potential
impact of bud position on cluster quality. Some previous work in northern regions of Chile (Benavente et al., in press;
Callejas et al., 2013) has shown differences in cluster shape and berry size depending on bud position and cultivar.
Berry size is strongly related to berry number and flower number per cluster, and these factors can contribute to final
quality (May, 2000). Spherical, conical or cylindrical clusters have different potential quality, with cylindrical clusters
having fewer berries per cluster, smaller berry size and therefore lower yields. The aim of the present study was to
determine the cluster quality of Flame Seedless according exclusively to bud position with equal bud numbers
retained per plant.
Experimental Procedures and Results
The trial was established during 2011-2012 in a commercial vineyard in Buin, Región Metropolitana, Chile. There were
3 treatments, which consisted of retention of shoots arising from 2 buds/cane (pruning element) but at different
positions of origin along the cane. To establish the different treatments, immediately after bud break shoots on
basal buds were discarded and only shoots arising from the two distal buds on each pruning element were retained.
The treatments were T1, which used only buds 5 and 6 on the cane, T2 which used buds 3 and 4 and T3 which used
buds 1 and 2. Five elements of each treatment were randomly selected on each vine. Common cultural practices for
the Flame Seedless cultivar were applied to all treatments. These included cluster berry thinning and applications
of plant growth regulators. The statistical design was a completely randomized block, with 10 replicates. The block
corresponded to a vine, and the 5 pruning elements per treatment were the experimental unit.
During the season, bud break, cluster shape immediately after fruit set, berry weight and berry diameter were
evaluated. All clusters were harvested at commercial maturity. Results were analysed by ANOVA. Significant
differences were separated using.LSD (5%).
The results showed that there were no significant differences in cluster number per shoot between treatments.
Clusters from buds 5 or 6 (T1) were longer than clusters from the base of the cane (T3) when measured before berry
thinning, when berries were approximately 14 mm in diameter. T1 (buds 5 and 6) had less cylindrical clusters than
T2 and T3. Berry diameter in this trial was similar between treatments, but berry weight from distal buds was slightly
higher. Soluble solids were the same regardless of cluster origin, but basal positions had higher acidity.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Buds closer to the base of pruning elements may have less potential to produce quality fruit. However, in this study
differences in fruit quality from varying bud positions were minimal in terms of fruit marketability, as also reported
previously with Flame Seedless (Callejas et al., 2013). Furthermore, pruning to longer elements where they must be
tied to the trellis is more expensive and may not justify the small gains from a higher price obtained for fruit with
bigger or heavier berries. Location and vineyard status can under some circumstances show quality differences
related to bud position, but the main distinction between different pruning strategies should be the ability to choose
better clusters in terms of shape, berry number, berry size and potential total yield.
Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge funding by Conicyt, through the Programa de Atracción e Inserción de Capital Humano
Avanzado, project 79100012.
References
Benavente M, Callejas R, Reginato G, Peppi,C. Effect of crop load and cluster thinning according to its shape on cluster
weight and yield on ‘Thompson Seedless’ table grapes. Acta Horticulturae (in press).
May, P. 2000. From bud to berry, with special reference to inflorescense and bunch morphology in Vitis vinifera L.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 6:82-98.
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Callejas R, Benavente M, Toro B, Peppi, C. 2013. Adaptación de la poda y ajuste de carga para maximizar los
rendimientos de uva de mesa. Rev. FCA UNCUYO 45(2): 129-139.
ID
17
Development of ProtoneTM SL (10% s-ABA) for colouration of red seedless table
grapes in Europe
Michael Schröder*, Roy McCormick, David Parron Ojeda and Robert Fritts Jr
Valent BioSciences Corporation, 870 Technology Way, Libertyville, IL 60048, USA
*
Corresponding author, Tel: +49 7584 922949, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Hot climates are most suitable for the production of high quality table grapes but when colouring conditions
are unfavourable due for example to high temperatures, red grape cultivars have difficulties to develop colour
(Fukushima et al., 1990; Cantin et al., 2007). Lack in colour is generally leading to significant price reductions and
higher harvest costs for the grower.
Abscisic acid (s-ABA) is a relatively small sized 15-carbon weak acid that occurs naturally in plants and in some fungi
(Cutler and Krochko, 1999). Since the 1970s it has been known to increase red colour development by accelerating
anthocyanin accumulation in the skin of maturing red grape berries (Ban et al., 2000). Valent BioSciences Corporation
(VBC) conducted first development studies with s-ABA for grape colouring in the USA in 2003. Early studies used
s-ABA as a technical active substance (a.s.) and tested various formulations in small plot trials. From 2008, a 20% s-ABA
water soluble granule (SG) formulation was registered under the trade name ProTone in California and three years
of large-scale commercial studies followed. Eleven years later ProTone is now registered for grape colouring in Chile,
Egypt and Peru as a 10% soluble concentrate (SL) formulation and in Australia, Israel, Lebanon, Mexico, South Africa
and the USA for the SG formulation.
In the majority of the table grape studies undertaken outside of Europe, s-ABA was most effective when applied
at or shortly after véraison using dose rates of ~ 40g a.s.hL-1 (Peppi and Fidelibus, 2008). Under difficult colouring
conditions more than one application of s-ABA was required. The application method had to provide good coverage
of the grape clusters as s-ABA is not translocated to any extent within the plant (Gu et al., 2011). Despite a good
understanding of the use recommendations of ProTone the existing data base was not sufficient for justifying
either the optimum number of applications or spray intervals which is a regulatory requirement in Europe (EU).
Consequently, additional efficacy studies had to be conducted to be able to obtain commercial registrations. In the
meantime, s-ABA was included under Annex I and IV listings during 2014, thus it is the intention of VBC to support
zonal registrations within the EU in the near future.
Experimental Procedure
Between 2010 and 2013, 27 efficacy and crop safety studies were undertaken with ProTone (SL, 10% s-ABA) on
commercially grown ‘Crimson Seedless’ or ‘Red Globe’ table grapes in Greece, Italy and Spain. Studies were designed
as either ‘dose justification’ (DJ) studies or ‘timing’ (T) studies. The majority of studies in Spain included ethephon as a
comparison treatment. All vines were selected for homogenous growth and crop load.
In the DJ studies ProTone was applied once at dose rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 or 80g a.s.hL-1 to determine the most
effective dose for grape berry colouring. The applications were conducted at véraison when 90% of the berries were
soft and ~20-30% began to develop colour. The T studies determined the most effective application timing and
application number. T studies tested ProTone at a dose rate of 40g a.s.hL-1 applied one to three times as described in
the tables below. The 80 g a.s.hL-1 dose rate was applied three times and was tested for crop safety purposes only.
All studies used spray water volumes of 800-1,000L.ha-1 using hand held sprayers designed to simulate commercial
spray applications.
Plots were harvested by hand. Picking dates were based on two quality parameters (1) berry colour as aimed by
these efficacy studies and (2) total soluble solids (TSS). Grape cluster colour was determined in the studies using a
colour chart with 1 to 4 colour classes. ‘Marketable’ yield was defined as clusters harvested with a colour from 1 to 3
while meeting minimum TSS content (17º Brix according to in-country market requirements). ‘Unmarketable’ yield
included clusters that never developed colour and also partly coloured clusters which could be sold as a class II or
III product but at a considerably lower price. The quality parameters acidity (g tartaric acid/L) or berry firmness (N)
were additionally measured. Yield in the year following the application was determined as number of fully developed
clusters/vine.
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Results and Discussion
One application of ProTone at the 40g a.s.hL-1 dose rate showed excellent efficacy on berry colouring and
consequently on marketable yield (Table 1). The 40g a.s./hL dose rate doubled the mean total marketable yield per
vine and increased the mean amount of fruit per vine in the first pick by 7.6kg when compared to the untreated
control (UTC). Lower concentrations of ProTone were clearly less effective. If more berry colour is required an
application strategy based on multiple applications should be considered as shown for the T studies below.
Table 1: Yield parameters in the DJ studies after one application of ProTone.
Yield parameter
UTC
ProTone (g a.s.hL-1)
10
20
30
40
10.6
14.7
17.1
18.9
22.9
Total yield (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5-8)
39.1
41.8
38.6
36.4
39.1
Marketable* yield (% of total yield)
Mean value (n=5-8)
27%
35%
44%
52%
59%
Marketable* yield in the 1st pick (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5-8)
1.0
2.0
5.1
6.6
8.6
Marketable* yield (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5-8)
Marketable yield based on grading clusters into colour classes 1-4 while meeting a minimum TSS content.
*
Based on the T studies, the efficacy increased with the number of applications reaching 82% mean marketable yield
of the total yield at three applications (Table 2). One application at the early timing A (when 5% or less berries began
softening) was less effective for berry colouring when compared to the application at veraison (B). Differences
between application timing A or B disappeared if multiple applications were conducted.
Table 2: Yield parameters in the T studies*.
Yield parameter
UTC
ProTone (40g a.s.hL-1)
A
B
AB
BC
ABC
BCD
Marketable yield in kg/vine
Mean value (n=4-8)
12.0
20.4
25.1
30.9
29.2
33.0
27.2
Total yield (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=4-8)
38.3
47.4
43.0
48.7
37.4
40.3
33.2
Marketable** yield (% of total yield)
Mean value (n=4-8)
31%
43%
58%
64%
78%
82%
82%
Marketable** yield in the 1st pick (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=4-8)
1.9
4.9
9.1
13.0
5.0
5.8
4.8
**
Application timings: A: When 5% or less berries began softening; B: At véraison: when 20-30% of berries began to develop
colour; C: 2 weeks after application B; D: 2 weeks after application C.
**
Marketable yield based on grading clusters into colour classes 1-4 while meeting a minimum TSS content.
*
One application of ProTone at the 40g a.s.hL-1 dose rate showed superior efficacy in the mean total marketable yield
and the mean marketable yield at first pick when compared to one application of ethephon at 60g a.s.hL-1 (Table
3). Differences between both treatments were not always statistically significant in each study. However, ethephon
applications are limited in Europe due to Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). MRLs do not exist for ProTone and would
allow multiple applications leading to even greater efficacy differences between both products.
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Table 3: Yield comparison between single ProTone and ethephon treatments in Spain.
Yield parameter
UTC
Ethephon
60g a.s.hL-1
ProTone
40g a.s.hL-1
Marketable* yield (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5)
12.0
23.5
27.2
Total yield (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5)
52.6
51.9
52.0
Marketable* yield (% of total yield)
Mean value (n=5)
23%
45%
52%
Marketable* yield in the 1st pick (kg/vine)
Mean value (n=5)
1.4
7.6
11.2
Marketable yield based on grading clusters into colour classes 1-4 while meeting a minimum TSS content.
*
There were no negative effects of ProTone on fruit quality (TSS, fruit firmness, cluster weight and acidity), total yield
or the yield in the year following the application (Table 4 and 5). There was no phytotoxicity recorded at any rate
or timing. Also multi-year applications (up to three years) on the same vines showed no negative effects on berry
quality or yield even when applied three times per year at the 80g a.s.hL-1 dose rate (data not shown).
Table 4: Effects on quality parameters (apart from colour) and return bloom in the DJ studies.
Parameter
Efficacy (treatment values as % UTC, where UTC = 100%)
UTC
(absolute
values)
Ethephon
60g
a.s.hL-1
ProTone
10g
a.s.hL-1
20g
a.s.hL-1
30g
a.s.hL-1
40g
a.s.hL-1
80g
a.s.hL-1
695
114
110
112
108
115
112
17.9
103
100
102
101
103
103
3.9
99
101
100
102
100
100
20.3
101
103
104
99
95
105
101
102
Cluster weight (g/cluster)
Mean value (n=5-8*)
TSS (°Brix)
Mean value (n=5-22*)
Acidity (g tartaric acid/L)
Mean value (n=5-13*)
Berry Firmness (N)
Mean value (n=5-13*)
Return bloom / yield in the year following the application (# fully developed clusters/vine)
Mean value (n=5-6)
40.5
102
102
100
99
Cluster weight determined at-harvest, means for the other parameters include pre-harvest determinations.
*
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 5: Effects on quality parameters (apart from colour) and return bloom in the T studies*.
Efficacy (treatment values as % UTC, where UTC = 100%)
Parameter
UTC
(absolute
values)
Ethephon
60g a.s.hL-1
753
ProTone (40g a.s.hL-1)
A
B
AB
BC
ABC
BCD
102
101
102
102
107
106
110
17.7
101
99
99
98
99
97
102
4.3
94
98
99
97
101
94
94
19.9
98
99
98
97
99
101
96
95
103
Cluster weight (g/cluster)
Mean value (n=4-8**)
TSS (°Brix)
Mean value (n=15-26**)
Acidity (g tartaric acid/L)
Mean value (n=11-15)
Berry Firmness (N)
Mean value (n=11-15)
Return bloom / yield in the year following the application (# fully developed clusters/vine)
Mean value (n=4-6)
41.2
93
96
96
94
98
Application timings: A: When 5% or less berries began softening; B: At véraison: when 20-30% of berries began to develop
colour; C: 2 weeks after application B; D: 2 weeks after application C.
**
Cluster weight determined at-harvest, means for the other parameters include pre-harvest determinations.
*
Our findings are in strong agreement with earlier studies that s-ABA can be an effective additional tool to improve
colour development in red table grapes. The commercial development of ProTone (SL, 10% s-ABA) will provide table
grape growers in the EU with an effective and safe user and consumer friendly alternative to ethephon.
Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by VBC and undertaken using independent GEP (Good Experimental Practice)
certificated field research co-operators in Greece, Italy and Spain.
References
Ban T, Shiozaki S, Ogata T, Horiuchi S. 2000. Effects of abscisic acid and shading treatments on the levels of
anthocyanin and resveratrol in skin of ‘Kyoho’ grape berry. Acta Horticulturae 514:83-89.
Cantin CM, Fidelibus MW and Crisosto CH. 2007. Application of abscisic acid (ABA) at véraison advanced red colour
development and maintained postharvest quality of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. Postharvest biology and technology
46:327-241.
Cutler AJ and Krochko JE. 1999. Formation and breakdown of ABA. Trends in Plant Science 4:472-478.
Fukushima M, Iwasaki N, Gemma H and Oogaki,C. 1990. Effect of night cooling at high temperature season on vine
growth and berry ripening of grape ‘Kyoho’ (Vitis Vinifera x V. Labrusca L.). Acta Horticulturae 279:321-326.
Gu S, Jacobs S. Du G. 2011. Efficacy, rate and timing of applications of abscisic acid to enhance fruit anthocyanin
contents in ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapes. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 86:505-510.
Peppi MC and Fidelibus MW. 2008. Application, timing and concentration of abscisic acid or ethephon and their
effects on colour of ‘Crimson Seedless’ table grapes. Acta Horticulturae 774:173-178.
157
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ID
18
Inheritence of terpenoids in F1 population of ‘Jingxiu’ and ‘Xiangfei’ grape
L Sun1, BQ Zhu2, XR Sun1, GJ Zhang1, AL Yan1 and HY Xu1*
Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, A-12, Ruiwangfen, Xiangshan, Beijing, 100093, P.R. China
2
Beijing Forestry University, 35#, East Qinghua Road, 100083, P.R. China
*
Corresponding Author: Tel: 8610-82592156, Email:[email protected]
1
Background and Aims
Flavour and aroma are one of the most important characters for the selection of new table grape cultivars. It
is generally acknowledged that terpenes are responsible for the Muscat flavour (Mateo and Jimenez, 2000).
Understanding the inheritance of terpenes is very important in our breeding program which aims to develop new
varieties. In our previous studies, a range of volatile compounds have been identified, including esters, alcohols,
carbonyl,C6 and terpenes, but only 5-10 terpenes have been identified for the inheritance research in grape as
linalool, geraniol, α-terpineol showed continuous variation and did not segregate in the F1 population. In contrast
(Z)-linalool oxide, nerol oxide, nerol, neral, geranial and geranic acid segregated in different ratios and exhibited
as qualitative character (Wu et al., 2013). In this work, we will identify more terpenes by means of GC-MS-AMDIS
method and study the heredity of these terpenes to enhance the understanding of genetic mechanisms and
improve breeding efficiencies.
Experimental Procedure and Results
All ripen berries from the plants of ‘Jingxiu’, ‘Xiangfei’ and 47 F1 progenies were collected in 2010 and quickly frozen
by liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃. Peduncles and seeds were removed from the berries and a 50g sample was
crushed by blender. After maceration for 40 min, the flesh was centrifuged at 8000rpm at 4℃ for 10 min. Then 5ml of
supernatant, 1g NaCl and 30ul of 4-Methyl-2-pentanol (2g.L-1) were put into a 15ml vial for application of headspace
solid-phrase micro-extraction methods.
An agilent 7890GC and 5975MS were employed to separate and identify the aromatic volatiles using a 60m
×0.25mm HP-INNOWAX capillary column with 0.25um film thickness. The carrier gas was helium at a flow rate of 1
ml/min. Samples were injected by placing the SPME fibre at the GC inlet for 25 min in the splitless mode. The oven’s
starting temperature was 50°C, which was held for 1 min, then raised to 220°C at a rate of 3°C. min-1 and held at
220°C or 5 min. The mass spectrometer in the electron impact mode (MS/EI) at 70eV was scanned in the range of
m/z 20–450. The mass spectrometer was operated in the full scan mode with the selective ion mode (SIM) under
auto-tune conditions at the same time. Terpenoids were identified by standard NIST 05 library and retention index
reported in the literature. Quantification was carried out by using internal standards.
For the compounds that showed continuous variation, the CV was calculated by (Standard Deviation/ mean
progeny value) x 100% while for the compounds that segregated in the progenies, the ratio of presence or absence
in the progenies was calculated. The X2 test was performed by SPSS and a histogram map developed using R
software.
A total of 56 terpenes, including some in trace amounts, were detected of which 44 can be identified. Thirteen
terpenes showed continuous variation (Table 1), including cis-rose-oxide, trans-rose-oxide, linalool, menthol,
ethanol-3, 3-dimethylcyclohexylidene, p-myene, geranial, γ-geraniol, nerol, ß-damascenone, geraniol,
geranylacetone and ß -ionone, among which linalool, nerol, geranial, geraniol and γ-geraniol were the predominant
terpenes and accounted for 81.46% of the total terpenes. The content of linalool varied significantly among the
progenies, ranging from 6.35-1221.65 ug.kg-1 with distribution towards low values. The mean value of geraniol,
geranyl-acetone, and ß-ionone were higher than the mid-parent value, indicating transgressive inheritance. The
coefficient of variance of γ-geraniol and p-myene were 1.79% and 1.96% respectively, suggesting stable inheriting
capability for these two compounds, while for linalool, geraniol and ethanol-3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene, they
were 144.41%, 168.08% and 113.10%, indicating good potential for selecting high contents of these compounds.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 1. Analysis of the 13 terpenes which showed quantitative inheritance.
Terpenoid
Jingxiu
Xiangfei
MPV
M
Range
CV
(ug.kg-1)
(ug.kg-1)
(ug.kg-1)
(ug.kg-1)
cis-rose oxide
1.70
2.53
2.12
1.62
0.0001-3.00
47.97
trans-rose oxide
1.70
1.94
1.82
1.40
0.0001-1.96
52.13
linalool
6.50
3034.69
1520.60
228.98
6.35-1221.65
144.41
menthol
0.28
0.58
0.43
0.31
0.20-0.54
21.44
Ethanol 2-3 3-dimethyl
hylcyclohexylidene-Z-
0.26
54.32
27.29
4.13
0.24-32.17
168.08
P-cymene
16.92
19.02
17.97
17.12
12.74-18.56
1.96
geranial
10.65
18.28
14.46
13.70
10.00-25.51
34.19
γ-geraniol
55.06
55.71
55.38
55.69
54.97-60.13
1.79
nerol
35.21
62.60
48.90
49.05
35.13-129.38
40.36
β-damascenone
4.90
9.51
7.21
6.73
2.85-10.67
28.01
geraniol
59.80
168.24
114.02
159.36
55.78-994.78
113.10
Geranylacetone & piperonyl_acetone
1.61
1.78
1.69
1.76
1.18-3.28
29.48
β-ionone
5.36
7.72
6.54
6.49
5.27-28.33
8.3
MPV: mid- parent value, M: mean progeny value, CV: coefficient of variance
Another 27 terpenes including α-terpinene, ß-citronellol, ß-myrcene, ß-phellandrene, limonene, (E)-β-ocimene,
(Z)-β-ocimene, alloocimene, (E,Z)alloocimene, 2,6-Dimethyl-1,3,5,7-octatetraene, cis-furan linalool oxide, trans-furan
linalool oxide, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, nerol oxide, camphor, α-terpinenol, hotrienol, carvomenthenal, neral, lilac
alcohol, trans-pyran linalool oxide, cis-pyran linalool oxide, geranyl acetate, 2,6-Dimethyl-3,7-octadiene-2,6-diol,
Z-nerolidol, E-nerolidol, 2,6-Dimethyl-1,7-octadiene-3,6-diol segregated into presence or absence in the progenies.
Through χ2 test, some compounds showed 1:1, 1:3, 1:15 ratio, which indicating they were qualitative traits,
controlled by one or several genes (Table 2).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
No terpenes were detected in the maternal parent cultivar Jingxiu, while only 17 terpenes were detected in the
paternal parent Xiangfei in a previous study (Yang, 2009). However, using automatic mass spectral deconvolution
and identification system (AMDIS), we identified 40 terpenes in Jingxiu and 44 terpenes in Xiangfei. There have
been research in which Muscat flavour was reported to be controlled by five dominant genes and a modifier gene
(Wanger, 1967). Several QTL studies involving terpenes have also been conducted (Doligez, 2006).
In this research, inheritance pattern of terpene was investigated. The results indicate that several important
terpenes contributing to Muscat flavour seem to be controlled by polygenes as terpene contents showed wide
range of variance in the progeny plants. Some progenies with higher terpene levels than Xiangfei were found in the
population, indicating promising potential in breeding for aroma and flavour in table grapes.
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Table 2 Analysis of the 13 terpenes which showed qualitative inheritance.
Terpenoid
Jingxiu
(ug.kg-1)
Xiangfei
(ug.kg-1)
M (ug.kg-1)
P
A
χ2 test
hotrienol
6.10
85.54
12.64
45
2
15:1
carvomenthenal
9.90
10.50
7.55
36
11
3:1
neral
9.99
11.05
8.72
39
8
3:1
Lilac alcohol C
6.10
6.75
3.04
7
40
1:3
cis-pyran linalool oxide
6.10
32.07
6.56
33
14
3:1
β-citronellol
1.63
7.46
3.02
43
14
3:1
Geranyl acetate
3.40
3.40
1.83
9
38
1:3
3 7-Octadiene-2 6-diol 2 6-dimethyl-
6.90
14.89
5.61
31
16
3:1
Z-nerolidol
6.70
6.70
3.12
2
45
1:15
E-nerolidol
6.90
6.90
3.72
4
43
1:15
1 7-Octadiene-3 6-diol 2 6-dimethyl-
6.90
9.70
4.64
18
29
1:1
terpinolene
2.40
12.90
3.31
44
3
15:1
β-myrcene
0.72
65.66
11.56
44
3
15:1
α-terpinene
2.40
4.43
2.35
29
18
3:1
β-Phellandrene
2.40
8.85
2.67
36
11
3:1
limonene
8.50
40.87
10.34
34
13
3:1
E-β-ocimene Z
0.60
11.99
2.70
38
9
3:1
E-β-ocimene E
0.60
22.33
5.27
39
8
3:1
p-cymene
16.92
19.02
16.86
7
40
1:3
alloocimene
0.60
8.39
1.90
45
2
15:1
E_Z-alloocimene
0.60
3.89
1.02
45
2
15:1
2 6-Dimethyl-1 3 5 7-octatetraene E E-
0.60
1.19
0.57
26
21
1:1
cis-furan linalool oxide
0.00
159.74
12.78
41
6
15:1
5-hepten-2-ol 6-methyl-
54.90
56.768
53.51
44
3
15:1
trans-furan linalool oxide
0.00
129.835
3.62
37
10
3:1
Nerol oxide
9.90
10.277
7.71
32
15
3:1
camphor
9.90
10.26
9.24
25
22
1:1
4-terpinenol
0.20
0.66
0.21
36
11
3:1
M: mean progeny value, P: presence, A: absence
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
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7th International Table Grape Symposium
Acknowledgements
This work was supported by China Agriculture Research System (CARS-30-yz-3), we thank the technical assistance of
X.Q. Xu and D.Wang.
References
Doligez A, Audiot E, Baumes R, This P. 2006. QTLs for muscat flavour and monoterpenic odorant content in grapevine
(Vitis vinifera L.). Molecular Breeding 18:109-125.
Mateo JJ and Jime´nez M. 2000.Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines. Journal of Chromatography A 881:557-567.
Wagner R,1967. Etude de quelques disjonctions dans des descendances de Chasselas, Muscat Ottonel et Muscat a`
petits grains. Vitis 6:353-363.
Wu BH, Yang CX, Liang ZC, Liu W, Wang YY, Liu CY and Li SH. 2013. Inheritance of berry volatile compounds in two
half-sib grape (Vitis vinifera) populations. Euphytica 189: 351-364.
Yang CX, Wang YJ, Liang ZC, Fan PG, Wu BH, Yang.L, Wang YN, Li SH. 2009. Volatiles of grape berries evaluated at the
germplasm level by headspace-SPME with GC–MS. Food Chemistry 114:1106-1114.
161
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ID
19
Making decisions in table grape production with benchmarking data
Garth Swinburn
Sun World Australasia Pty Ltd, PO Box 1446 Mildura, VIC 3502, Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Most successful primary industries use data to help them manage production systems and steer their way in
the global markets. Indices, growth trends, market feedback and benchmarks allow industries to identify where
improvements can be made to strengthen their collective competitive advantage.
Table grape industries in each region around the world need to know where they sit against their competitors, not
only in the cost of production arena, but increasingly and more importantly in other aspects in the supply chain. For
example, quality attributes of grapes drive sales and build markets; food safety issues in some market sectors can
provide opportunities for product differentiation; and supply chain reliability is becoming more important in many
markets as global supply becomes increasingly seamless. Although the data and market intelligence gathered is
not strictly scientific in nature, the process of comparing and benchmarking production regions is very much about
objective analysis, ratios and analysing trends to determine where an industry should be allocating its resources to
build national competitiveness.
On a more ‘grass-roots’ production level, such signals also provide valuable information for individual grape
businesses to identify drivers of productivity and profitability. Table grape businesses need to know about
profit margins, returns, cost of production and where their proprietary resources should be allocated to ensure
productivity is maximised, year-in, year-out. With the increasing number of new varieties becoming available to
table grape growers, there are many questions that must be answered before old varieties are removed and before
investment is made in new infrastructure and plant material. The answers can be largely addressed with simple
benchmarks that provide guidance to growers on cropping performance and market returns.
Decisions made with information in isolation can be misleading to growers wanting to move to new varieties. For
example, if market returns appear to be low for a new variety (compared to an established public variety), then
clearly changes are unlikely to occur. However if a grower is provided with seasonal weighted average returns
for a particular variety and this is benchmarked not only with other growers producing the same variety but
benchmarked with other varieties in the same time slot, then a fair comparison can be made.
Sun World is developing the concept of benchmarking with its licensed growers by providing simple summaries of
weighted average data so they can make their own comparisons with other existing or new varieties. If this is done
over a number of seasons, then a grower’s decision to remove a variety and replace with a higher performing variety
is based on objective information. The premise of this work is that growers find it difficult to improve productivity
in isolation; they need to be placed in context of other growers in a similar region and other varieties in the same
harvest time.
Experimental Procedures and Results
Seasonal data for crop yields and market returns are collected for a group of growers. Planted areas (hectares) vine
age and growing region are known. Data is collated and simple benchmarks are calculated.
Some examples of benchmarks are:
•
•
•
Yield per hectare or per vine – this highlights the variety’s fertility and productivity in the vineyard but does
not take into account the cost and effort in getting the fruit into a packed box for market.
Gross return per hectare – this combines yield and average price per kilo and indicates a relative return per
unit of land farmed.
Net return per hectare can be calculated by using an estimated cost per hectare or vine for a specific
variety. Growers can of course use their own actual costs. Highly productive varieties can sometimes be
costly to grow, thus negating the yield benefits.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
The seasonal data are collected and collated in to simple benchmarks, which are then presented to growers in
graphical form. Each grower is allocated a grower code to provide anonymity and retain confidentiality within the
grower group (Figure 1).
162
7th International Table Grape Symposium
4.5
160
2013-14 Season
140
4.0
3.5
120
3.0
100
$/vine
RETURNS
$/ vine
80
2.5
YIELD
ctn/ vine
2.0
10kg ctn/vine
60
1.5
40
1.0
20
0.5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
Grower Code
Figure 1: Returns and Yield for Midnight Beauty®.
Note: the light bars indicate early season cropping areas, such as Queensland. Some of the very low yields could be
attributed to young vines or adverse weather damaging the crop.
There are also other less objective benchmarks or evaluation indices that can be used to add to the decision making
process, if a grower is considering removing an existing variety and planting a new variety.
A simple evaluation sheet can be set up to score alternative varieties.
Table 1. Comparison of two possible grape varieties.
Variety A
Production Indices
Variety B
Score 1-9
Weight
Final Score
Score 1-9
Weight
Final Score
Crop Yield
6
50%
3
8
50%
4
Tree & Fruit Health
6
20%
1.2
7
20%
1.4
Cost of Production
7
20%
1.4
8
20%
1.6
Fits with existing varieties
9
10%
0.9
4
10%
0.4
100%
6.5
100%
7.4
Score 1-9
Weight
Final Score
Score 1-9
Weight
Final Score
Returns $/kg
8
40%
3.2
8
40%
3.2
Shelf Life
6
10%
0.6
8
10%
0.8
Appearance or Eye Appeal
7
10%
0.7
7
10%
0.7
Eating Experience
7
10%
0.7
7
10%
0.7
Product Placement
6
20%
1.2
7
20%
1.4
Crop Volume
3
10%
0.3
7
10%
0.7
100%
6.7
100%
7.5
out of 18
13.2
out of 18
14.9
Market Indices
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163
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Each index is rated on a 1-9 score where 1 is unfavourable and 9 is very favourable. Each index has a weighting to
reflect the importance to the success of the new variety within the individual business - this percentage can be
determined by the grower. When the two figures are multiplied together and added up, a total score provides a
weighted indicator of the best likely variety for a particular situation.
In Table 1, Variety B has achieved a higher total score (14.9) than Variety A (13.2) based on weighted indices.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
Table grape growers need to have access to decision making tools to assist them in determining how a variety
is performing year-in, year-out and this can be provided in the form of basic benchmarking. They also need a
mechanism to help them decide on whether to replace an existing variety with a new variety and this can be
achieved with simple evaluation models.
Figure 1 provides growers of Midnight Beauty® grapes information that indicates their placement and helps them
analyse their performance in the context of 44 other growers, from both early and main season regions. This
provides a simple but valuable tool in deciding:
•
How to increase the performance of their Midnight Beauty® through better irrigation, nutrition and bunch
management.
•
Whether to keep the variety and increase plantings or,
•
Whether to remove the variety and find something more productive and profitable.
It would be prudent to undertake this analysis over a number of seasons before any major decisions were taken to
plant or replace a variety. Seasonal variances in production and pricing can change the picture markedly and indeed
the fact that there are large variations in the annual performance of a specific variety should certainly count against
it.
Table 1 is an example of how a grower who is looking to remove Variety A and replace it with Variety B can proceed
with a degree of confidence that the decision was based on weighted indices rather than pieces of isolated,
disconnected information. There is no doubt that yields are the main driver of profitability in most horticultural
crops. However, other aspects of table grape varieties are important to consider, for example how much wastage
does the supermarket endure (shelf life); what are the supply conditions (volumes) for a variety; does the variety
require high input costs to get it into the box? The importance of these other factors can be assessed, weighted and
used in a simple evaluation table in determining the potential of a new variety.
With the evolution of new varieties from a range of grape breeding programmes, there are elements of confusion
and misperception about the value of these varieties. Net returns per hectare, over a number of seasons for a
specific variety, is an excellent indicator of value to a grower because it encompasses, yields, returns and costs.
Objective benchmarks therefore allow growers to make informed decisions about removing and replacing existing
varieties. Other factors relating to market attractiveness of the variety can also be assessed and used in this decision
making with simple evaluation tools.
Acknowledgement
Sun World acknowledges the licensed growers in embracing this concept and supporting the development of a
more comprehensive mechanism to assist them in decision making. We thank the licensed marketers for their role in
supporting this feedback to growers to help them lift productivity.
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20
Prospecting for fungicide activity on wild mushrooms extracts against gray
and blue mould of table grapes
P Ugalde and JL Henríquez*
Fac. Cs. Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santa Rosa 11.315, Casilla 1004, La Pintana, Santiago Chile *Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Background and Aims
Postharvest rots of table grapes are a constant problem for the industry with Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex F. and
Penicillium expansum Link. as the most important pathogens causing grey and blue mould, respectively. Restrictions
on the maximum amount of pesticide residues allowed on the fruit, and the limited number of fungicides registered
in the markets have prompted the look for alternatives to traditional chemical fungicides, focusing mainly on
natural products, which are environmentally friendly and free from residue restrictions.
Most research has been focused on the use of plant extracts and biocontrol agents, and actually some commercial
fungicides obtained from plant extracts (citric extract, tea tree oil), or biocontrol agents (Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg)
Cohn) are being used for the control of pre-harvest table and wine grape rots. Mushroom extracts have been mainly
screened for activity against human pathogens, with few studies on plant pathogens. Nevertheless, the strobilurin
fungicides were originally obtained from a wild mushroom. This study aimed to evaluate the activity of 15 extracts
of wild mushrooms in the control of both grape pathogens.
Experimental Procedure and Results
The mushrooms were collected from their natural sources, oven dried, grounded and macerated in ethanol 95 %
v/v within 48 hours, following the procedure reported by Stadnik et al., (2003). The extracts were tested in a dilute
solution of ethanol 10 % v/v, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Potato dextrose agar media was amended with
the ethanol extracts at a rate of 1%, for the in vitro tests, where the inhibition of the growth of the mycelia or the
germination of the conidia of the pathogens was measured. The extracts of the five mushrooms that showed the
greatest in vitro activity were in vivo assayed on Red Globe berries that were surface disinfected with NaOCl (0.5 %)
or not disinfected at all. The berries were wound inoculated with a spore suspension (1x105 conidia.mL-1) of each
pathogen 1 or 24 hours after the extracts treatments, incubated at 20°C for 5 days and assessed for disease.
All the mushroom extracts tested inhibited the growth of the mycelium and the germination of conidia of B. cinerea
(Table 1). The effect on the mycelium of B. cinerea was greater than the effect on the conidia of this pathogen, with
four extracts inhibiting more than 60% of the mycelium growth, reaching up to a 92.8 % for the extract of Suillus
luteus (Table 1). The unidentified species of Agaricacea (Agarical sp.) showed a high activity both on the mycelium
and the conidia of B. cinerea.
Eleven mushroom extracts showed some inhibitory response on the growth of the mycelium of P. expansum, but
unlike the activity against B. cinerea, the levels of inhibition were lower reaching up to a 35.3 % for the extract of
Agarical sp. (Table 2). Higher levels of inhibition were observed for the germination of the conidia of P. expansum,
compared both with the inhibition of the mycelium of this pathogen and compared with the inhibition of the
germination of conidia of B. cinerea. The extracts of Agarical sp., Suillus luteus and Agaricus arvensis gave the highest
levels of inhibition on the development of both pathogens.
Only the extract of Amanita sp. inhibited the development of grey and blue mould on Red Globe grapes, when it
was applied 24 hours before the inoculation with the pathogens. None of the other extracts affected the in vivo
development of the pathogens (data not shown).
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Table 1. Inhibition (%) of the mycelial growth and germination of conidia of Botrytis cinerea by the ethanolic extracts of
wild mushrooms.
Mushroom species
Inhibition (%)
Mycelial growth
Germination of conidia
Suillus luteus
92.8 aX
5.4 cX
Agarical sp.
71.0 a b
54.6 a
Amanita sp.
69.4 a b
-Y
Agaricus arvensis
63.7 b
7.0 c
Calvatia cyathiformis
46.2 b
17.0 b
Tricholoma scalpturatum
29.4 c
9.4 b c
Suillus granulatus
29.0 c
-
Bjerkandera adusta
23.4 c d
10.0 b
Tricholomatacea sp.
19.4 d
7.8 b c
Laetiporus sulphureus
18.6 d
6.2 c
Agaricus xanthodermus
17.8 d
5.6 c
Macrolepiota rhacodes
16.6 d e
28.8 a
Agaricus sp.
12.1 d e
6.4 c
Paxillus panuoides
10.6 e
13.0 b
Russula nothofaginea
5.6 e
-
Means followed by the same letter in each column are not different according to Fisher´s LSD (p≤0.05).
Not tested for the inhibition of the germination of conidia.
X
Y
Table 2. Inhibition (%) of the mycelial growth and germination of conidia of Penicillium expansum by the ethanolic
extracts of wild mushrooms.
Mushroom species
Inhibition (%)
Mycelial growth
Germination of conidia
Agarical sp.
35.3 aX
4.4 d
Agaricus arvensis
34.5 a
87.0 a
Suillus luteus
29.9 b
46.6 b c
Calvatia cyathiformis
28.3 b c
5.6 d
Laetiporus sulphureus
26.1 c
71.0 a b
25.7 c d
3.0 e
23.3 d
25.2 c
Macrolepiota rhacodes
18.9 e
2.8 e
Tricholoma scalpturatum
17.7 e f
0.8 f
Agaricus sp.
13.0 f
57.6 b
Bjerkandera adusta
12.9 f
4.4 d
Paxillus panuoides
4.9 g
3.2 e
Suillus granulatus
0.0 h
-Y
Amanita sp.
0.0 h
-
Russula nothofaginea
0.0 h
-
Tricholomatacea sp.
Agaricus xanthodermus
Means followed by the same letter in each column are not different according to Fisher´s LSD (p≤0.05).
Not tested for the inhibition of the germination of conidia.
X
Y
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Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results obtained showed that most of the mushroom studied had some inhibitory effect on the development of
the grape pathogens studied, confirming results obtained in similar studies (Domínguez, 2013; Ngai, 2003; Türkoğlu
et al., 2011). The effects are dependent on the pathogen and indicate that there is a variety of compounds that
are acting with high levels of specificity on the different pathogens. There is a high potential for the development
of both natural fungicides as well as the discovery of new molecules that could be synthesized and used in the
development of new synthetic fungicides.
References
Domínguez V. 2013. Evaluación de extractos de macrohongos con acción inhibitoria de patógenos de importancia
agrícola. Santiago. Chile. Tesis Magister en Ciencias Agronómicas e Ingeniero Agrónomo mención Sanidad Vegetal,
Universidad de Chile. 46p.
Ngai P. 2003. Lentin, a novel and potent antifungal protein from shitake mushroom with inhibitory effects on activity
of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and proliferation of leukemia cells. Life Sciences 73: 33633374.
Stadnik M, Bettiol W, Saito M. 2003. Bioprospecting for plant and fungus extracts with systemic effect to control the
cucumber powdery mildew. Journal of Plant Disease and Protection 110(4): 383-393.
Türkoglu A, Guler P, Araz A, Kutluery F, Kunduz I. 2011. Antifungical effects of Clitocybe odora (Bull. Fr) Kum. against
the plant pathogens, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium moniliforme. Hacettepe The Journal of Biological Chemistry
39(1): 5-60.
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21
The effects of elevated CO2 and a rise in air temperature on commercially
grown grapevines
Dale J. Unwin1, Everard J. Edwards3, Karl J. Sommer1, Mahabubur Mollah2 and Rachel L. Kilmister1*
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Mildura, Australia
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Horsham, Australia
3
CSIRO Plant Industry, Adelaide, Australia
*
Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
The report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007 states that the largest driver of
temperature elevation is atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Carter et al., 2007). CO2 in the atmosphere
is currently 401ppm and it is predicted that it will reach 550 ppm by 2050. The IPCC predicts global average
temperature to rise to between 1.1°C and 6.4°C by the end of the century (Solomon et al., 2007).
Data collected over multiple vintages indicate warming of viticultural regions is occurring in both the Northern and
Southern Hemispheres (Jones et al., 2005, Webb et al., 2011). In Australia this has had an effect on the phenology of
grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) with harvest dates advancing by approximately eight days per decade over the last 30
years in Australia (Webb et al., 2011). Consequently, vineyard management techniques with regard to yield, water
use efficiency, phenology, and pest and disease incidence are likely to be impacted by a future climate.
Field based studies of the effects of elevated CO2 on grapevines have been conducted in the past (Bindi et al., 2001,
Mountinho-Pereira 2009, Goncalves et al., 2009) but have been limited in scope and have not previously been
combined with the control of air temperature. Recent studies have examined the effects of elevated temperature
on mature grapevine performance using open top chambers with active heating facilities (Sommer et al., 2012).
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined impacts of elevated CO2 and temperature on grapevine
phenology, vine growth, carbohydrate status, canopy physiology, nutrition and productivity. Preliminary results of
leaf conductance, photosynthesis, sap flow and carbohydrate reserves will be reported in the poster.
Experimental Procedure and Results
A field experiment was established using open top chambers in a Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyard in the Sunraysia
region of Victoria in July 2013. The experiment consisted of five treatments: elevated CO2 > 550ppm at ambient
temperature (eCO2); ambient CO2 at elevated temperature > ambient + 2°C (eT); combined elevated CO2 > 550ppm
and elevated temperature > ambient + 2°C (eCO2eT); ambient CO2 at ambient temperature in an open top chamber
(OTC); and an ambient CO2 at ambient temperature with no chamber (Control) replicated four times in a randomised
complete block design.
Each open top chamber was 2.4m high and enclosed three mature commercially grown Shiraz vines and a ducted
air-unit which directed high-volume low-velocity air below the grapevines. The elevated temperature treatments
incorporated a series of finned heating elements added to the air-unit, heating the air before it was expelled
through 100 mm ducts facing the ground. The elevated CO2 was introduced into the open top chambers using
two horizontal fumigation tubes spaced at 800mm within the canopy at a height of 1.3m. A CO2 sensor at 1.7m
controlled the amount of CO2 gas within the open top chambers.
Results from year 1 of this study found that an approximate 2°C increase in temperature accelerated cap fall by
5 – 9 days and véraison by 7 – 12 days. However, while the phenology shifted due to eT, there was no change in
leaf conductance (Figure 1). These results confirm previous work on the effects of eT on a white grape variety and
two red grape varieties (Sommer et. al. 2012). The addition of elevated CO2 at ambient temperature reduced leaf
conductance (Figure 1), which may lead to improved water use efficiency (Ziska and Bunce 2006). The effect of
elevated CO2 and elevated temperature on leaf conductance was inconsistent (Figure 1).
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Figure 1. The effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2), elevated air temperature (eT) and the combination of elevated CO2 and air
temperature (eTeCO2) on leaf conductance of Shiraz vines at pre-véraison (16/12/2013) and veraison (2/01/2014). Error
bars represent the standard error.
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results shown here suggest that although elevated CO2 decreased leaf conductance there is the potential for an
increase in carbohydrate reserves. However, the results are only preliminary and it is uncertain how higher CO2 levels
will affect grapevine productivity and grape and wine quality. Without such knowledge it is difficult for the industry
to put in place adaptive strategies to enhance positive or overcome potentially negative impacts. This study will
continue and identify any changes in vegetative growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate storage, yield, grape and
wine quality over multiple seasons.
Acknowledgements
Department of Environment and Primary Industries, CSIRO and the Australian Grape and Wine Authority (previously
Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation).
References
Bindi M, Fibbi L, Miglietta F. 2001. Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): II.Growth and quality
of grape and wine in response to elevated CO2 concentrations. European Journal of Agronomy 14: 145-155.
Carter TR, Jones RN, Lu X, Bhadwal S, Conde C, Mearns LO, O’Neill BC, Rounsevell MDA, Zurek MB. 2007. ML Parry,
OF Canziani, JP Palutikof, PJ van der Linden, CE Hanson eds. New assessment methods and the characterisation of
future conditions. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability’. Contribution of Working Group II
to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Cambridge University Press:
Cambridge, UK) pp.133 -171.
Gonçalves B, Falco F, Moutinho-Pereira H, Bacelar E, Peixoto F, Correia C. 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 on grapevine
(Vitis vinifera L.): volatile composition, phenolic content, and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wine. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 265-273.
Jones GV, White, MA, Cooper RO, Storchmann K. 2005. Climate Change and Global Wine Quality, Climate Change 73
319-343.
Moutinho-Pereira J, Gonçalves B, Bacelar E, Cunha JB, Coutinho J, Correia CM. 2009. Effects of elevated CO2 on
grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): Physiological and yield attributes. Vitis 48, pp. 159–165.
Sommer KJ, Edwards EJ, Unwin DJ, Mazza M and Downey MO. 2012. Strategies to maintain productivity and quality
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Alley RB, Berntsen T, Bindoff NL, Chen Z, Chidthaisong A, Gregory JM, Hegerl GC,
Heimann M, Hewitson B, Hoskins BJ, Joos F, Jouzel J, Kattsov V, Lohmann U, Matsuno T, Molina M, Nicholls N,
Overpeck J, Raga G, Ramaswamy V, Ren J, Rusticucci M, Somerville R, Stocker TF, Whetton P, Wood RA, Wratt D. 2007.
S Solomon D Qin, M Manning, Z Chen, M Marquis, KB Averyt, M Tignor and HL Miller eds. Climate Change 2007: The
Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Technical Summary.
in a changing environment-Impacts of global warming on grape and wine production. Final Report, Department of
Primary Industries, Irymple, Victoria, http://research.agwa.net.au/completed_projects/strategies-to-manage-theimpacts-of-global-warming-on-winegrape-production/
Ziska LH, and Bunce AB. 2006. JIL Morison and MD Morecroft eds. Plant responses to rising atmospheric carbon
dioxide. Plant Growth and Climate Change (Blackwell Publishing.Ltd: Oxford, UK) pp. 24.
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22
Effect of NAA on the sucrose metabolism and expression of some related
genes in grape fruit
Xicheng Wang*, Weimin Wu, Minzhen Zhao, Yaming Qian and Zhuangwei Wang
Institute of Horticulture, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 50 Zhongling street, Nanjing, 210014, P. R. China
Background and Aims
The effects of the plant growth regulator Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on total soluble sugars and spatiotemporal
expression of related genes in the grape variety ‘Qinlongdasui’ were investigated in this study.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) solutions of 0, 50, 100 and 200mg/L were applied ton ‘Qinlongdasui’ grape fruit at
véraison, when berry colour was changing. The result showed that glucose and fructose were the main components
of the soluble sugar in ‘Qinlongdasui’ grape. Content of glucose and fructose increased from véraison until harvest.
Accumulation of the soluble solids and total sugar was inhibited, and the maturity period delayed by the use of
NAA although the treatment had little effect on berry weight. It was found that the expression of neutral invertase
gene (NI), sucrose synthase gene (SS) and sucrose phosphate synthase gene (SPS) was inhibited by NAA to varying
extents. The inhibitory effect of NAA on the related gene expression of sucrose metabolism was more noticeable
with increasing NAA concentration, but it has little effect on the expression of fructokinase gene (FRK).
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results of the study indicate that NAA might be involved in the regulation of ripening and sucrose metabolism
in grape, and inhibited the synthesis and accumulation of sugar. NAA shows promise as a tool for growers to delay
ripening and extend the harvest season.
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23
Effects of natural auxin-based Ecklonia maxima seaweed product on reduction
of postharvest berry drop in table grape cv. Thompson Seedless
Victor Giancaspero1 and Pedro Larrain2*
Prokambium Consultancies & Research, Av. Manuel Montt 1680, Providencia, Santiago, Chile
Kelp Products International (Pty) Ltd – Latin America. Av. El Golf de Manquehue 9755-13 Lo Barnechea, Santiago, Chile
*
Corresponding author: Tel: 56 993252638, Email: [email protected]
1
2
Background and Aims
Postharvest berry drop is a serious problem in many table grapes. Thompson Seedless is one of the most sensitive,
causing marketing problems that can significantly reduce grower income.
One known reason for berry drop is GA3 treatments applied to achieve the required berry weight (Retamales, et al.,
1995). Application of CPPU, mainly in a mix with GA3 for berry size-weight reported an increase of berry drop, possibly
due to a reduction of the pedicel flexibility (Navarro et al., 2001).
Many products are tested to reduce postharvest berry drop without consistent results or negative collateral effects.
Application of the synthetic auxin 4-CPA significantly reduced berry drop but delayed ripening (Ben-Tal, 1990).
Treatment with the seaweed product Kelpak®, could possibly help reduce berry drop, as it is seen as an auxin-dominant
product (Crouch and Van Staden, 1991).
The objective on this study was to validate the berry drop reduction reported in previous reports on Kelpak® applied
for berry sizing. These reports indicated that significant reduction of postharvest berry drop can achieved with a very
early spray of Kelpak® at 2-3mm berry size stage.
Experimental procedures
Trials over seasons 2010-11 and 2011-12 were conducted in Viluco, Metropolitan Region, Chile on table grape cv.
Thompson Seedless with Kelpak® a natural auxin-based seaweed product extracted from the seaweed species Ecklonia
maxima.
Season 2010-11: Control (T0) was the standard farming practice with four GA3 applications, 20ppm @ 2-3mm
berry size, 30ppm @ 4, 6 and 8mm, plus a CPPU spray at 2g.ha-1 applied together with GA3 at 6mm berry size. The
Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed product Goëmar Calibra® at 3L.ha-1 was also applied at 6mm separate from the tank
mix of GA3 and CPPU. Kelpak treatment 1 (T1) was 3 sprays of 7L.ha-1 at 4, 6 and 8mm and treatment 2 (T2) was 4 sprays
of 4.5L.ha-1 at 2-3mm, 4, 6 and 8mm. Kelpak sprays were done as a tank mix with GA3 and CPPU same rates as Control.
Season 2011-12: Two controls were tested, control 1 with GA3 20ppm @ 2-3mm, 30ppm @ 4mm, 40ppm @ 6 and 8mm.
Control 2 was the same as control 2, but with Goëmar Calibra® at 3L.ha-1 at 6 and 12mm. The Kelpak treatments were
one spray of 4.5L.ha-1 at 2-3mm and three sprays of 7L.ha-1 at 2-3, 4 and 8mm.
All treatments were done with an electrostatic machine (ESS) with 70L of water per hectare.
The blocks in which the trials were conducted had a history of high postharvest berry drop. The trial design was
completely randomised with 4 replicates of 8 vines of which the middle 6 vines were used for measurements.
Number of shot berries per bunch, berry size, weight, colour and firmness (FirmTech®) were recorded at harvest.
Postharvest berry drop were recorded after packing as percentage by weight of berries without pedicels in the export
8.2kg boxes (USA standard).
Results and Discussion
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
In the first year the Kelpak 4x4.5L.ha-1 treatment had a significant reduction of postharvest berry drop, 2.3% vs 4.2% of
the control. The Kelpak 3x7L.ha-1 showed a similar trend with 3.4% berry drop, but was not statistically different to the
control (Table 1). The increase of internal brush length had a high correlation with the berry drop, recording 1.2mm
over the control (12.7 vs. 13.9mm) with the treatment of Kelpak 4x4.5L.ha-1. Kelpak 3x7L.ha-1 had no effect on brush
length, the tendency to less berry drop was probably caused by an increase in flexibility of the rachis and pedicels
flexibilities from this treatment. With these results we can predict that the most effective spray to reduce the berry
drop is the 1st early spray at 2-3mm berry size.
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Table 1. Effects of seaweed products on postharvest berry drop, season 1 (2010-11).
Treatment
Berry Drop (%) Brush length (mm)
Control (GA3+CPPU+Calibra®)
4.2 a
12.7 b
Kelpak 3x7L.ha
3.4 ab
12.7 b
Kelpak 4x4.5L.ha-1
2.3 b
13.9 a
-1
Values with same letters do not differ statistically significant at the 95% confidence level
Due to the results of 1st year, it was decided to have controls with and without the Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed
product (Calibra®) and a treatment with only one Kelpak spray (4.5L.ha-1) at 2-3 mm in the second season. Kelpak
1x4.5L.ha-1 at 2-3mm showed a similar reduction on berry drop to Kelpak 3x7L.ha-1 with the first spray starting at 2-3
mm (Table 2). Calibra® showed a tendency to increase the berry drop against control and significantly higher than
the Kelpak treatments.
Table 2. Effects of seaweed product on postharvest berry drop, season 2 (2011-12).
Treatment
Berry Drop (%)
Control (GA3+CPPU)
6.0 bc
Control (GA3+CPPU+Calibra )
6.8 c
Kelpak 1x4.5L.ha
3.5 a
Kelpak 3x7L.ha
3.8 ab
®
-1
-1
Values with same letters do not differ statistically significant at the 95% confidence level
Conclusion
The results show that Kelpak application at the early stage of 2-3mm berry size can be an effective tool to reduce
the incidence of postharvest berry drop in certain table grape varieties without any collateral effect as: reduction on
quality, harvest delay or postharvest condition.
Acknowledgements
We thank the technical assistant of Maria Alejandra Carreno and Agricola Los Acacios Ltda for all their help to
successfully conduct this research.
References
Ben-Tal Y. 1990. Effects of Gibberellin treatments on ripening and berry drop from Thompson Seedless grapes
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 41(2): 142-146.
Crouch IJ and Van Staden J. 1991. Evidence for rooting factors in a seaweed prepared from Ecklonia maxima. Journal
of Plant Physiology 137: 319-322.
Navarro M, Retamales J and Defilippi B. 2001. Efecto del arreglo de racimo y aplicación de CPPU en la calidad de uva
de mesa Sultanina tratada con dos fuentes de giberelinas. Agricultura Técnica 61(1): 15-25.
Retamales J, Cooper T, Bangerth F and Callejas R. 1995. Effects of CPPU and GA3 on fruit quality of Sultanina table
grapes. Acta Horticulturae 394: 149-157.
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24
Abscisic acid (S-ABA) and sucrose effects on skin colour, anthocyanin content
and antioxidant activity of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grape berries
Giuseppe Ferrara1*, Andrea Mazzeo1, Angela Maria Stella Matarrese1, Andrea Pacifico1, Cesare Lasorella2, Rossana
Punzi1, Antonio Trani1 and Giuseppe Gambacorta1
Dipartimento di Scienze del Suolo, della Pianta e degli Alimenti - University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, via Amendola 165/A
- 70126 Bari (Italy)
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Agro Ambientali e Territoriali - University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, via Amendola 165/A - 70126
Bari (Italy)
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
1
Background and Aims
‘Crimson Seedless’ is a table grape cultivar grown in several countries, which some years does not reach an adequate
and commercially valuable red colour, probably as consequence of high temperatures in summer which negatively
affect the synthesis of anthocyanins (Spayd et al., 2002). Cultural practices influence the colour of the berry skin,
such as pruning, fertilisation, girdling, irrigation (Dokoozlian et al., 1995). Abscisic acid (S-ABA) is a plant growth
regulator which has showed to be useful to overcome skin colour problems of ‘Crimson Seedless’ (and other
cultivars) in various pedo-climatic conditions when applied from véraison onward (Peppi et al., 2007; Ferrara et al.,
2013). Sucrose seemed to play an important role in the pathway of anthocyanins in grape cell suspensions and
tissue cultures (Larronde et al., 1998; Hiratsuka et al., 2001), but probably with different mechanisms than S-ABA. The
objective of this study was to verify the applications of S-ABA and sucrose, either alone or in combination, on the
skin colour and the overall quality of ‘Crimson Seedless’ table grape.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Five-year-old ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapevines grafted onto 1103 P (V. berlandieri × V. rupestris) of similar vigour and
crop load were used in the study. The experiment was carried out in the year 2012 in a commercial table grape
vineyard located in the territory of Rutigliano (Puglia, Italy). A randomised block design was used with three blocks
and six treatments (Table 1), and each treatment in the block consisted of three grapevines selected with a uniform
number of bunches. Abscisic acid (400mg.L-1), as a commercial formulation of S-ABA (ProTone®), and sucrose (10%)
were tested in two different times of application (at the beginning of véraison and one week later). At harvest, the
following parameters were determined: commercially harvestable bunches (%), skin colour, chemical characteristics,
S-ABA concentration either in the skin or the pulp of the berry, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity.
Table 1. Treatments and time of application.
Treatment
Véraison
T1
Control
T2
400 mg.L-1 S-ABA
T3
T4
400mg.L-1 S-ABA
400mg.L-1 S-ABA + 10% sucrose
T5
T6
Véraison + 1 week
400mg.L-1 S-ABA + 10% sucrose
10% sucrose
At first harvest, 60-80% of bunches were picked up from T2 up to T6, whereas only 30% from control. Better
coloured bunches were obtained after treatments T2 and T4. Visual data were confirmed also by the colour meter
measurements, with the h° lowest values (more red colour) for T2 and T4. Both treatments with S-ABA and sucrose
did not influence the berry firmness at harvest. °Brix values did not show differences among treatments and at
harvest ranged from 14.2 (T1) to 15.0 (T6). Titratable acidity and pH presented similar values among the treatments.
S-ABA concentration was higher in skin than in pulp, as expected, with higher values in treated bunches but always
below 1,000 ng/g f.w. of skin. S-ABA seemed to have also positive effects on the antioxidant activity of the berry and
significantly increased the anthocyanin content, in particular the peonidin forms.
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Discussion and Significance of the Study
The application of S-ABA and sucrose improved the colour of the berries and increased the amount of harvestable
bunches at the first pick. Ripening parameters (°Brix, pH, titratable acidity) were not affected either by S-ABA or
sucrose application, so the advanced harvest was due to colour improvement. Some bunches treated with sucrose
(10%) resulted a little sticky, but this was probably a problem of the handheld sprayer and with the normal sprayers
used in the vineyard this problem should be overcome. The results of this experiment seemed to confirm that
applications of S-ABA at the right physiological stage (beginning of véraison) positively affected the skin colour of
the berry. The effects of sucrose indicated its role in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, but probably influencing a
pathway different from the one involving S-ABA.
In conclusion, S-ABA and sucrose improved the colour of the berry skin, with better results obtained when S-ABA
was applied alone at the beginning of véraison. Positive effects were also measured for antioxidant activity and
anthocyanin content.
Acknowledgements
The natural isomer of S-ABA used in these experiments was obtained from Valent BioSciences USA.
The authors wish also to thank the Agriproject Group (Rutigliano) for its technical support in the field.
References
Dokoozlian NK, Luvisi DA, Schrader PL and Moriyama MM. 1995. Influence of trunk girdle timing and ethephon on
the quality of Crimson Seedless table grapes. California Agriculture 49: 36-40.
Ferrara G, Mazzeo A, Matarrese AMS, Pacucci C, Pacifico A, Gambacorta G, Faccia M, Trani A, Gallo V, Cafagna I
and Mastrorilli P. 2013. Application of abscisic acid (S-ABA) to ‘Crimson Seedless’ grape berries in a Mediterranean
climate: effects on colour, chemical characteristics, metabolic profile, and S-ABA concentration. Journal of Plant
Growth Regulators 32:491-505
Hiratsuka S, Onodera H, Kawai Y, Kubo T, Itoh H and Wada R. 2001. ABA and sugar effects on anthocyanin formation
in grape berry cultured in vitro. Scientia Horticulturae 90: 121-130.
Larronde F, Krisa S, Decendit A, Cheze C and Merillon JM. 1998. Regulation of polyphenol production in Vitis vinifera
cell suspension cultures by sugars. Plant Cell Reports 17: 946–950.
Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW and Dokoozlian N. 2007. Timing and concentration of abscisic acid affect the quality of
‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. International Journal of Fruit Science 7: 71-83.
Spayd SE, Tarara JM, Mee DL and Ferguson JC. 2002. Separation of sunlight and temperature effects on the
composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot berries. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 53: 171-182.
175
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Author unable to attend
Fumigation and cold treatment disinfestation methods
CPF DeLima1,2
AgHort Analytics, 84 Queenscliffe Rd. Doubleview WA 6018, Australia. Tel. (+618) 63369516
Email: [email protected]
2
Formerly: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia
1
Background and Aims
To access to high value overseas markets it is necessary to disinfest table grapes against quarantine pests. Cold
treatments were researched over a number of years to find effective temperature x time combinations against fruit
flies acceptable to overseas quarantine authorities and suitable for Australian industry. Because cold treatments
were not effective against other quarantine pests, fumigation methods were developed using ethyl formate +
carbon dioxide.
Experimental Procedure and Results
Test fruits: Red Globe (RG), Thompson Seedless (TS) and Crimson Seedless (CS) grapes were sourced from vineyards
in NSW, VIC, SA and WA.
Test insects: Mediterranean fruit fly (MFF), Queensland fruit fly (QFF), light brown apple moth (LBAM), red back
spiders (RBS), long-tailed mealybug (LMB), two spotted spider mite (TSM), plague thrips (PT), and western flower
thrips (WFT).
Bioassay procedures were used to estimate doses and time exposure periods required for >99.9% effectiveness of
cold treatments and fumigation. The selected doses were tested in semi-commercial trials. Assessments of toxicity
of fumigant and cold treatment bioassay data were made by probit analysis (Finney 1971) using the GenStat
package (GenStat 2008) with a generalised linear procedure. In large scale trials the upper 95% confidence limits for
survival in the reefer tests were estimated using the methods of Couey and Chew (1986) in the cumulative Poisson
distribution.
Cold treatments: Trials were conducted on QFF and MFF at 1, 2 and 3°C against MFF and QFF. 90,000 grapes were
infested for testing for cold exposure periods from 1 to 20 days to estimate LD50 and LD99 at each temperature to
determine the most tolerant stage for each species.
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Figure 1. Results of large scale disinfestation of Mediterranean and Queensland fruit flies at 1°C, 2°C and 3°C in Red Globe
(RG), Thompson Seedless (TS) and Crimson Seedless (CS) grapes. There were no survivors in more than 100,000 treated
insects at each temperature.
176
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Large scale cold trials to prove efficacy at probit 9 (LD99.99683) were conducted to assess the most tolerant species.
MFF disinfestation required 16 days at 1°C, 18 days at 2°C and 20 days at 3°C; whereas for QFF 12 days at 1°C and 14
days at both 2°C and 3°C were sufficient. MFF was found to be more tolerant to cold treatment than QFF as shown
in tests required to achieve complete mortality in >100,000 insects (Figure. 1). The required temperatures for cold
disinfestation were effectively maintained for 16, 18 and 20d at 1, 2 and 3°C respectively for large scale trials (De
Lima et al., 2011) proving efficacy at probit 9.
Verification trials using slightly higher temperatures requested by Japanese quarantine authorities to provide
additional security were conducted from March to October 2012 and proved effective at 1.2, 2.2 and 3.2°C (Table 1)
giving confidence in the methods and resulted in approval by Japan (February 2014) for import of Australian table
grapes.
Table 1. Number of pupae in treated and control fruits obtained in verification trials (March to September 2012) for cold
disinfestation of Red Globe table grapes against Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at 1, 2 and 3°C.
Actual average
temperature of trial
No. of fruits
infested
Total No. of
pupae in control
fruits
Total No. of
pupae in treated
fruits
Estimated %
mortality
(95% C.L.)
1.2 °C
1,600
28,295
0
99.9894
2.2 °C
1,600
28,173
0
99.9893
3.2 °C
1,600
31,001
0
99.9903
1.4°C
1,600
33,154
0
99.9909
2.2°C
1,600
21,296
0
99.9859
Cardboard cartons
Polystyrene cartons
Fumigation treatments: Laboratory fumigations were conducted to evaluate the relative tolerance of the stages
of LBAM, TSM, WFT, PT, LMB and RBS likely to be found in exported grapes (De Lima, C.P.F. 2010). Tests were done
in individually calibrated 6.5 to 7.1 litre glass desiccators fitted with magnetic stirrer bars at 10 and 15°C using at
least 9 doses of ethyl formate + 10% CO2 to provide data on relative tolerance of selected stages. The temperatures
in the cool chain considered most suitable for fumigation of grapes were 10 and 15°C. The LD50 and LD99 estimates
provided the basis for dosages subsequently used in large scale tests. The decision on dose and time required for
large scale trials was made by taking the LD99 upper 95% confidence level and increasing both by 25%. The large
scale fumigation trial was conducted in a 40ft/12m (68m3) ISO refrigerated shipping container using Vapormate® in
pressurised cylinders (16.7% EF + 83.3% CO2 BOC Gases Ltd.).
Plastic or glass tubes (2cm diameter 5 - 15cm long fitted with plastic caps with 0.5cm vent hole sealed with filter
paper) containing live insects were placed throughout the fruit held in open top cartons before fumigation. The
insect tubes were retrieved after venting and reared to assess mortality. Fumigations were successful when final
concentration was approximately 50% of the applied treatment dose. The refrigerated container satisfied the
tests for gas tightness (De Lima 1994) with drop of applied pressure from 200 to 100 Pascals >15 seconds and
was suitable for fumigation with Vapormate®. Comparison of LD50 and LD99 of the stages most likely to be found in
exported produce provides an assessment of the relative toxicity of fumigation treatments (Table 2).
In LD50 estimates, the LABM 1st - 3rd instars had about the same tolerance as RBS 1st - 3rd instars; both species were
approximately 5-9x more tolerant than LMB, 3-4x WFT and PT, and 2x times TSM; but at LD99 TSM required the
highest EF dose. The 15°C LD99 upper CL95% doses (g/m3) required were: RBS 32.35, LBAM 34.8, LMB 11.42, TSM
39.55, WFT 14.13, and PT 13.58. LMB crawlers were the least resistant spp. and stage and an assessment of relative
toxicity of the other spp. showed that at 15°C LABM was x3.05, RBS x2.83, TSM x3.46, WFT x1.24 and PT x1.19 more
resistant than LMB to the treatment. At 20°C, generally less EF was required to kill arthropods than at 15°C, but this
was not the case for RBS where tolerance was slightly higher at 20°C than at 15°C due perhaps to indifference of RBS
to the 15-20°C temperature range.
177
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Table 2. Toxicity of ethyl formate + carbon dioxide to insects and spiders fumigated in the laboratory at 15 and 20°C for 2h
at the stages likely to be present in table grapes. Relative toxicity ratios are given with respect to the doses required to kill
LTMB at the LD99 upper 95% CL. Species and stages tested were: RBS 1st - 3rd instars; LBAM 1st - 3rd instars; LTMB crawlers;
TSM adults; WFT adults; PT adults.
Test
species
LBAM
RBS
LTMB
TSM
WFT
PT
Test °C
No.
tested
Slope ±SE
LD50 (g.m-3) ±95% CL
LD99 (g.m-3) ±95% CL
15°C
15,492
10.05±1.99
18.25 (16.91 - 19.42)
32.16 (30.17 - 34.80)
20°C
12,842
4.34±1.46
15.80 (14.41 - 16.90)
24.51 (22.79 - 27.15)
15°C
2,400
8.42±1.76
18.54 (17.38 - 19.57)
29.95 (28.16 - 32.35)
20°C
2,384
8.44±1.75
17.64 (16.40 - 18.74)
31.04 (29.11 - 33.58)
15°C
11,295
4.91±0.71
3.75 (3.44 - 4.05)
10.17 (9.23 - 11.42)
20°C
15,148
5.55±0.98
1.80 (1.52 - 2.05)
4.85 (4.28 - 5.68)
15°C
11,065
2.55±0.55
9.30 (8.15 - 10.41)
33.99 (29.96 - 39.55)
20°C
12,723
3.19±0.59
10.59 (9.37 - 11.76)
31.93 (28.20 - 37.21)
15°C
19,224
4.81±0.74
5.38 (4.95 - 5.79)
12.75 (11.70 - 14.13)
20°C
24,226
5.73±0.91
4.83 (4.39 - 5.25)
11.36 (10.34 - 12.73)
15°C
19,825
4.84±0.75
5.42 (5.00 - 5.83)
12.26 (11.25 - 13.58)
20°C
24,935
5.27±0.83
4.58 (4.11 - 5.01)
9.69 (8.77 - 10.99)
Since adult TSM were the most tolerant species and stage present in the export simulation it was decided to use
40g.m-3 EF for 2h at 15°C as a basis for the large scale test and increase both dose and time by 25%, thus requiring
50g.m-3 EF for 2.5h fumigation at 15°C. The applied dose was 36kg Vapormate® introduced as 2 lots of 18kg (nominal
dose 88.4g.m-3 EF) in a 68m3 reefer intended to obtain 50g.m-3 EF (about 56% of initial applied dose) in free space
after sorption. The treatment time was 2.5h and total time was 240 minutes including equilibration time of 60min
and venting time of 30min. The loading was 432 x20 litre cartons each containing 10kg grapes giving 12.7% by
volume and 63.5kg.m-3 by weight in 68m3. The applied Vapormate® temperature was volatilised to 142°C at the
entry point into the reefer. The average amount of fumigant in air was 52.6g.m-3 EF and 21.6% CO2 and the final
concentration was 26.8g.m-3 EF and 17.5% CO2 giving a cumulative dose of 687.17g.h.m-3. The treatment was
conducted during the cool chain simulation cooling from 20°C to 15°C. Average initial temperatures were: air
18.1°C and fruit 21.8°C; final temperatures were: air 14.5°C and fruit 16.2°C. All insects were killed (Table 3) and the
estimated mortality at 95% CL was > 99.91%.
Table 3. Large scale fumigation of table grapes. Test fruit in cartons containing insects and spiders at the stages likely to
be present in table grapes were fumigated with Vapormate® in a refrigerated shipping container (68m3) for 2.5h starting
at 20°C and cooling to 15°C. The applied dose was 52.6g.m-3 EF + 21.6% CO2.Treatment time was 2.5h plus 1h equilibration
and 0.5h venting (cumulative dose 687.17 g.h.m-3).
Species
Stages
Number
Treated
Number
Surviving
Estimated
% mortality
(95% C.L.)
Red back spiders
1st - 3rd instars
3,739
0
99.92
Light brown apple moth
1 - 3 instars
4,124
0
99.93
crawlers
3,682
0
99.92
Two spotted mite
adults
5,163
0
99.94
Western flower thrips
adults
3,506
0
99.91
Plague thrips
adults
3,771
0
99.92
Long tailed mealybug
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
178
7th International Table Grape Symposium
st
rd
Discussion and Significance of the Study
The results show that quarantine pests in harvested grapes can be killed without disrupting the cool chain process
and that optimum quality can be maintained. The results provide new information on quarantine application of
EF+CO2 and cold disinfestation for access of Australian table grapes to overseas markets.
Acknowledgements
The technical assistance of Emma Mansfield, Phillip Jackson, Tracey Liebregts, Caroline Lee, Simon Linacre, Mirjana
Banovic and Jenny Lynch is gratefully acknowledged. Statistical advice was provided by Ms Jane Speijers. This
project was funded by the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, the Australian Table Grapes
Association, Horticulture Australia Limited, and the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry Australia.
References
Couey HM and Chew V. 1986. Confidence limits and sample size in quarantine research. Journal of Economic
Entomology 79: 887-890.
De Lima CPF. 1994. Improved procedures for fumigation of oaten hay in shipping containers. In: Highley, E., Wright,
E.J., Banks, H.J., and Champ, B.R. (Eds.). Proc. 6th Int. Wkg. Conf. Stored Prod. Prot., Canberra, Australia, vol. 1: 71-77.
De Lima CPF. 2010. Fumigation of table grapes for export. Final project report TG04003. ©Horticulture Australia
Limited. 52p.
De Lima CPF, Jessup AJ, Mansfield ER, Daniels D. 2011. Cold treatment of table grapes infested with Mediterranean
fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) Diptera: Tephritidae. New
Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science 39:2 95-105.
Finney DJ. 1971. Probit analysis. 3rd Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
GenStat 2008. Release 11.1 VSN International Ltd. Rothamsted, UK.
179
POSTER PRESENTATIONS
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Author Index
A
Daus, A 47, 101, 105
H
Abuzar, M 106
Davies, C 68
Halaly, T 93, 96
Achampong, AK 96
Degani, O 47
Hamacek, Edward L 65
Acucci, C 74
DeLima, F 118,176
Hashim-Maguire, Jennifer 56
Adams, Caroline 123
Deltondo, Angelo 112
Henriquez, JL 62, 124, 153, 165
Amendolagine,
Antonio Maria 28, 97
De Tommaso, Bartolomeo 43
Hopkins, Rick 82
Dias, JP 134
Arroyo, JC 62, 124
Hurley, JM 139
Di Gennaro, Domenico 28, 97
Di Lorenzo, Rosario 24, 43
J
Dixon, Christopher 114
Bahar, A 105
Jessup, A 118
Domingos, Sara 70
Bennett, Richard 20
Jones, Gregory V 17
Dry, Ian B 35
Jones, TM 139
Bhattarai, SP 130
E
K
Boss, P 68
Edwards, Everard J. 168
Kania, E 153
Böttcher, C 68
Espindola, Rodrigo 53
Kaplunov, T 47, 101, 105
B
Berkowitz, Oliver 85
Bustos, Lisando 53
C
F
Kilmister, Rachel L. 168
Feechan, Angela 35
Callejas, R 153
KoilKonda, P 96
Fernandes Moura, Mara 132
Cameron, Ian 39
Konnerup, D 87
Ferrandino, Alessandra 127
Cardoso, Vânia 70
Ferrara, G 26, 74, 174
L
Carlomagno, Antonio 127
Ferreyra, Raúl 146
Langer, A 124
Carreño, I 37
Fidelibus, Matthew W 56, 94
Larrain, P 172
Carreño, Juan 37
Fioretti, Michele 145
La Sorella, Cesare 26, 43
Casanova, Francisco 80
F Lourens, Adriaan 143
Learmonth, Stewart 136
Casieri, Arturo 145
Foyer, CH 87, 91, 109
Leesch, JG 139
Cecilia Peppi, M 153
Fracchiolla, M 26
Leitão, António E. 70
Clark, John R 48
Fritts Jr, Robert 80, 82, 154
Lichter, A 47, 101, 105
Clingeleffer, Peter 39, 102
Coêlho de Lima,
Maria Auxiliadora 141
Coelho de Souza Leão,
Patricia 84, 134, 141
Collie, Helen 136
Colmer, TD 87
Considine, JA 85, 87, 91
Considine, Michael 85, 87, 91, 109
Corena, Pat 35
Crane, O 96
D
Dahal, Kishor C 130
Da Trindade, DC 134
180
Kedrina, Olga 127
7th International Table Grape Symposium
G
Lima, MAC 134
Lopresti, John 120
Gallo, V 74
Lourens, Adriaan F 143
Gambino, C 24
Lurie, S 105
Gentilesco, Giovanni 28, 97
Luvisi, Donald A. 56
Gil, Pedro 53
Gispert, Carmen 33, 60
M
Golding, J 118
Mackenzie, Don 35
Gomes da Trindade,
Danielly Cristina 141
Maldonado Araneda, Eduardo 114
Gordon, Colin 39, 87, 109
Goulao, Luis F. 70
Maldonado Cortes, Katerina 114
Maoz, I 47, 105
Masi, Gianvito 28
Mastropirro, A 26
Matarrese, AMS 74
Maturana, Gonzalo 80
Mazzeo, A 26, 74
Q
U
McAllister, A 106
Qian, Yaming 171
Ugalde, P 165
McCarthy, Belinda 39
Quiroz, P 124
Unwin, Dale J 168
McConchie, Cameron 39
R
V
McCormick, Roy 154
Raban, E 47, 105
Valdivieso, V 124
McWaters, Allan D 149
Racsko, Jozsef 80, 82
Valentim, Marcella Setúval 141
Medicamento, Umberto 145
Ramalho, José C. 70
Van Jaarsveld, Alwyn 123
Meitha, K 87
Reuveni, M 62
Vasquez, Stephen J. 94
Midmore, DJ 130
Reynolds, Schalk 80, 82
Vega Mayor, Sergio 53
Missenden, Brendan P 65
Rolshausen, Philippe E. 60
Velappan, Y 91
McClymont, L 106
Mollah, Mahabubur 168
Villalta, Oscar 120
Montemurro, P 26
S
Montenegro, F 147
Scafidi, Pietro 24, 43
W
Morales, Michelle 146
Scaloppi Júnior, Erivaldo José 132
Walker, Rob 39
Muhareb, JS 139
Schröder, Michael 154
Walsh, KB 130
Mujica, MF 147
Sellés, Gabriel 146
Wang, Xicheng 171
Mundaca, Sergio 53
Sheffield, K 106
Wang, Zhuangwei 171
Singh, Davinder 102
Weksler, Hovav 51, 101
N
Smilanick, Joseph L 33, 139
Whitfield, D 106
Nóbrega, Hugo 70
Somma, Stefano 43
Wu, Weimin 171
Novello, Vittorino 127
Sommer, Karl J. 168
O
Sosnowski, Mark R. 59
X
Strydom, Janéne 76
Xu, HY 158
Oag, David R 39, 65, 130, 149, 151
Sun, L 158
O’Connell, M 106
Sun, XR 158
Y
Oliveira, Cristina M. 70
Swinburn, Garth 162
Yan, AL 158
T
Z
Tarricone, L 28
Zhang, GJ 158
Tarricone, Luigi 97
Zhao, Minzhen 171
Pacucci, C 74
Tebbets, JS 139
Zheng, C 93, 96
Paioli Pires, Erasmo José 132
Tecchio, Marco Antonio 132
Zhu, BQ 158
Parron Ojeda, David 154
Terra, Maurilo Monteiro 132
Zutahy, Y 47, 101
Partington, Debra 120
Zutchi, Y 105
Peacock, William L 33
Thalavaisundaram,
Swaminathan 112
Perl, A 47
Thomas, Mark R 35
Pienaar, Johan 80, 82
Tomkins, Bruce 120
Pinto, Manuel 146
Tornello, Giuseppe 143
Pitt, Kristen 102
Tornel, M 37
Pugliese, Franco 53
Treeby, Michael 102
Or, E 93, 96
Oren, O 96
P
Pugliese, María Beatriz 53, 147
7th International Table Grape Symposium
181
Notes
182
7th International Table Grape Symposium
Notes
7th International Table Grape Symposium
183
Notes
184
7th International Table Grape Symposium
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