10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. The Definition Of Interest To see the success of the process of teaching-learning, all factors relating to teachers and students should be considered. Students’ behavior when following the learning process will indicate the students’ interest in lessons. There are some definitions of interest described as follow; According to M. Alisuf Sabri’s, Interest is the tendency to always pay attention and remember things continually, this interest is closely related to feelings of pleasure, because it can be said that interest happens because of his love for something, people who are interested in something means that he is happy to something1. According to Ahmad D. Marimba, interest is the tendency of people to something because they feel there is an interest in something 2. According to Drs. Mahfudh Shalahuddin, Interest is a concern that contains elements of feeling. With such interest, it can motivate the students to be active in a job or their activity3. According to Crow and Crow, interest can be associated with the movement that encourages us feel attracted to people, objects, activities or experiences that can be effectively stimulated by the activity itself4. 1 M. Alisuf Sabri, Psikologi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Pedoman Ilmu Jaya, 1995), Cet. Ke-11, 84. Muhibbin Syah, Psykologi Pendidikan Dengan Pendekatan Baru, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2001), cet ke-6, 136 3 Mahfudh Shahuddin, Pengantar Psikologi Pendidikan, (Surabaya: Bina Ilmu, 1990), Cet. Ke-1, 95 2 10 11 From the explanations above, it can be concluded that somebody will be interested in an object if any intrinsic tendency or stimulus encourages him/her from outside. If a teacher wants to succeed in teaching and learning activities, he or she should be able to provide a stimulus to the students to make them interested in following the teaching-learning process. If students feel interested in learning, he will be able to understand easily. On the contrary if the students do not have interest in learning they will be forced to follow the lesson. B. Aspects of Learning Interests Hurlock said that interest is the result of experience or the learning process. He further argued that the interest has two aspects5. 1. Cognitive aspects This aspect is based on a concept developed by one of the fields related to interest. Concepts that build the cognitive aspect are based on the experience and what is learned from the environment. 2. Affective aspects Affective aspect of this is a concept that builds cognitive concepts and attitudes expressed in the activities or objects that create interest. This aspect has a major role in motivate one's actions. 4 5 Abd. Rachman Abror, Psykologi Pendidikan, (Yogyakarta: PT. Tiara Wacana, 1993), Cet. Ke-4, 112 Hurlock, Psikologi Perkembangan, (Jakarta: Erlangga, 1990), 422 12 Based on the description, interest of learning listening on the students is not innate, but interest is learned through the process of cognitive and affective assessment of students which is stated in their attitude. In other words, if the process of cognitive and affective assessments of one's object of interest is positive, it will generate a positive attitude and be able to create interest. C. Indicators of Learning Interests In Cambridge Advanced learner’s dictionary indicator is something that shows what a situation is like 6. Relation to student interest, the indicator is as a monitoring tool that can provide clues to the direction of interest. In general, student's interest in something will be expressed through activities related to his/her interest, to know the indicators of interest can be seen by analyzing the activities by individuals or a favorite object, because the interest is a learned pattern that encourages individuals active in a particular activity7. Thus to analyze interest in learning can be used several indicators of interest described as follows: According Sukartini as quoted by Nurhidayat analysis of interest can be made by the following matters: The desire to know or have something, objects or activities that are favored, types of activities to attain the desirable, efforts to realize the desire or pleasure in something8. The opinion is consistent with what is said by Slameto that interest can be expressed through statement indicating that the students like a thing than anything 6 Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 2008, third edition, Cambridge University Press. Nurhidayati, Skripsi: “Hubungan Antara Minat Dengan Prestasi Belajar Siswa Dalam Bidan Studi Sejarah Kebudayaan Islam” (Jakarta: UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 2006), 2 8 Nurhidayati, Skripsi: “Hubungan Antara Minat …2 7 13 else. Interest can also be manifested through participation in an activity. Students who have an interest in certain subjects tend to give greater attention to the subject 9. Both experts’ opinion can be concluded that the students’ interests in learning can be seen from how their interest in doing their activity or when they enjoy and participate in the process of learning. The indicators of interest as mentioned above can be used as references to understand the next students. Those interests include the desire to know something or new something, as like the activities they like, the effort to participate in those activities and so on10. D. Factors that Affect Interest in Learning One of sustaining factors to be successful in studying is interest, particularly someone who has high interest. Interest does not present itself, but there are many factors can affect interest. According D.P. Tampubolon those factors are students' interest in learning namely; motivation, learning, learning materials and teacher attitude, family, friend, environment, aspiration, talent, hobby, mass media, facilities 11. 1. Motivation Interest will be higher if students have higher motivation, whether from internal or external factors, such as students who want to master listening skill, of 9 Drs. Slameto Belajar dan Factor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhinya, (Jakarta, pt Rineka Cipta, 1995),180. ibid 11 D.P. Tampbolon, Mengembangkan Minat Membaca Pada Anak, (Bandung: Angkasa, 1993), Cet, Ke-1, 10 14 course they have to study listening, either by listening radio, tape recorders, watching movies and soon. 2. Learning Interest can be acquired through learning because students who initially do not like a particular subject, will ultimately like to learn that subject. So, interests will increase, and the students will be more active to learn the lesson. Interest will arise from what is known and we can find something because of learning12. 3. Learning Materials and Teacher Attitudes Learning materials are one of the factors which may arouse and stimulate the students’ interest in learning. Learning materials that attract students’ interest will often be learned by the students. On the contrary, students will ignore the lesson because of unattractive learning materials13. Teachers are also one of the objects that can stimulate and arouse students' interest in learning. Teachers who successfully build a willingness to teach his students. It means that he has done the most important things to do to his students14. Students’ interest will increase because the teacher’ attitude. For example; if the teacher has a good attitude, friendly, smart, discipline, and the students like him so much, it is easier to make the students’ interest in one object because the 12 Singgih D.G. dan Ny. SDG, Psikologi Perawatan, (Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 1989), Cet. Ke-3, 68. Slameto, op.cit, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1991), Cet. Ke-2, 187. 14 Kurt Singer, Membina Hasrat Belajar di Sekolah, (Terj. Bergman Sitorus), (Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya, 1987), 93. 13 15 students may imitate his/her attitude. On the contrary, teacher who has a bad attitude and none of students like him will be difficult to stimulate the students’ interest and attention. 4. Family Parents are the closest in the family, so family is very influential in determining a students’ interest in the lesson. What their family given is very influential for childhood development. In the process of growing interest, the parents’ attention and guidance are needed to support the students’ interest. 5. Friends By making friends or socializing with others, students’ interest will be affected by them; this is because in social intercourse students do activities together to slacken off that happened to them. 6. Environment Environment plays a part in the students’ growth. Environment is a family that takes care to the students, school is education places, public is association places, and also places to play everyday. The size of the effect of the students’ growth depends on the situation of environment15. 7. Wish or Desire Every human being has a goal in his life, including the students. Aspiration also affects students' learning interests; even aspiration can also be regarded as a manifestation of one's interest in the prospect of future life. 15 M. Dalyono, Psikologi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1997), 130. 16 Aspiration is always pursued and fought for achieving their targets, even though the students get an obstacle, they still try to achieve it. 8. Talent Through talents, the students would have an interest. It can be described from this example: if students have a singing talent since childhood, they would indirectly have an interest in singing. If they are forced to like something else, probably they will hate it or it will be a burden to them. Therefore, in providing the school program the teacher should be consider with the students talents. 9. Hobby Hobby is one of the factors that cause the rise of students’ interest. For example, if students have a hobby in learning English, they will indirectly raise their interest to pursue English, the same thing with other hobbies. 10. Facilities A variety of facilities and infrastructure both located at home and at school provides positive and negative effects. For example, if the facilities supporting educational institution are complete, the students may study more to increase their interest. E. The Ways of Arousing Interest in Tasks There are some ways of arousing interest in tasks namely: clear goals, varied topic and tasks, visuals, tension and challenge game, entertainment, play-acting, information gap, personalization, open-ended cues16. 1. Clear goals 16 Marion William - Tony Wright, “A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory (Penny Ur), (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 280. 17 Learners should be aware of the objectives of the tasks-both languagelearning and content. For example, a guessing-game may have the languagelearning goal of practicing question, and the content goal of guessing answers. 2. Varied topics and tasks Topics and task should be selected carefully to be as interesting as possible; but few single types can interest every one, so there should be a wide range of different ones over time. 3. Visuals It is important for learners to have something to look at that is eyecatching and relevant to the task in hand. 4. Tension and challenge: games Game-like activities provide pleasurable tension and challenge through the process of attaining some ‘fun’ goal during the task. The introduction of such rules (an arbitrary time limit, for example) can add spice to almost any goaloriented task. 5. Entertainment Entertainment produces enjoyment; arouse motivation and self-confidence to learner. Entertainment can be teacher-produced (jokes, stories, perhaps songs, dramatic presentations) documentaries). 6. Play-acting or recorded (movies, video clips, television 18 Role play and simulation that use the imagination and take learners out of them can be excellent; though some people are inhibited and may find such activities intimidating at first. 7. Information gap A particularly interesting type of task is based on the need to understand of transmitted information, finding out what is in a partner’s picture, for example; a variation on this is the opinion gap where participants exchange views on a given issues. 8. Personalization Learners are more likely to e interested in tasks that have to do with their opinions, tastes, experiences, suggestions as well as others’. 9. Open-ended cues A cue which invites a number of possible responses is usually much more stimulating than one with only one right answer: participants’ contributions are unpredictable, and more likely to be interesting, original or laughable. F. The Definition of Listening Listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. This involves understanding a speaker's accent or pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, and grasping the meaning of what he listens. Furthermore, listening is one of the fundamental language skills. It is a medium in which children, young 19 people and adults obtain the knowledge, information and understanding a lot of thing such as human affairs, aspiration, life etc. 17. G. Three Stages of Listening Process We can divide listening process into three stages: 1. The pre-listening phase prepares students for both top-down and bottom-up processing through activities involving activating prior knowledge, making predictions, and reviewing key vocabulary. 2. While-listening phase focuses on comprehension through exercises that require selective listening, gist listening, sequencing, etc. 3. The post-listening phase typically involves a response to comprehension and may require students to give opinions about a topic. This may involve microanalysis of sections of the text to enable students recognize such features as blends, reduced words, ellipsis, and other features of spoken discourse that they were unable to process or recognize18. H. Listening Principles There are several principles of teaching listening that should be considered by a teacher to facilitate the students in comprehending the listening texts described as follow19. Principle 1: Encourage students to listen as often and as much as possible The more students listen, the more they get at listening and the better they get at understanding the pronunciation and using it appropriately. Therefore, the teacher 17 Austin S. Speaking & Listening: A Contemporary Approach. (Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. USA. 1970), 22. 18 Robin, Wills: An Investigation of Factors Influencing English Listening Comprehension and Possible Measures for Improvement (Australia University of Tasmania 2008), 10. 19 Jeremy Harmer, “How To Teach English”, (UK: Person Longman, 2008), 99. 20 ask students to practice as much listening in class as possible, and to encourage students to listen as much English as they can (via the internet, podcast, CDs, tapes, etc.) Principle 2: Help students prepare to listen Students need to be made ready to listen. This means they will need to look at the pictures, discuss the topic, or read the questions first, for example, to be in position to predict what is coming; teacher will do their best to get students engaged with the topic and the task and really want to listen. Principle 3: Once may not be enough There are almost no occasions when the teacher will play an audio track only once. Students will want to hear it again to pick up the things they missed the first time – we may well want them to have a chance to study some of the language features on the tape. In the case of live listening, students should be encouraged to ask for repetition and clarification when they need it. The first listening to a text is often used just to give students an idea of what the speakers sound like, and what the general topic is, so that subsequent listenings are easy for them. For subsequent listening, we may stop the audio track at various points or only play extracts from it. However, we will have to ensure that we don’t go on and on working with the same audio track. Principle 4: Encourage students to respond to the content of a listening, not just to the language An important part of listening sequence is for teachers to draw out the meaning of what is being said, discern what is intended and find out what impression 21 it makes or the students. Questions such as, “Do you agree with what they say?” and “Did you find the listening interesting? Why?” are just important as questions like “What language did she use to invite him?”. However, any listening material is also useful for studying language use and range of pronunciation issues. Principle 5: Different listening stages demand different listening tasks Because there are different things we want to do with a listening text, we need to set different tasks for different listening stages. This means that, for a first listening, the task (s) may need to be fairly straightforward and general. That way, the students’ general understanding and response can be successful – and the stress associated with listening can be reduced. Later listenings, however, may focus on detailed information, language use on pronunciation etc. it will be the teacher’s job to help students to focus in on what they are listening for. Principle 6: Good teachers exploit listening text to the full If teachers ask students to invest time and emotional energy in a listening text - and if they themselves have spent time choosing and preparing the listening sequence - then it makes sense to use the audio track or live listening experience for as many different applications as possible. Thus, after an initial listening, the teacher can play a track again for various kinds of study before using the subject matter, situation or audio script for new activity. The listening then becomes an important event in a teaching sequence rather than just exercise by itself. I. Strategies of Teaching Listening 22 Listening strategies are techniques or activities that contribute directly to the comprehension and recall of listening input. Listening strategies can be classified by how the listener processes the input: 1. Bottom-up strategy Traditionally, listening had been treated as a receptive skill, similar to reading, as both require processing input. Hence models of listening followed the same strategies as reading, namely bottom-up and top-down strategies. In the 1950s listening was consisted of three separated points of the language that was the sounds, words and structures. They were a parts-to-whole approach according to Hedge where the listener combined sound, grammar and vocabulary to create meaning. In this case, the learner has to use knowledge of language and ability to process clues they listen in order to create meaning. She further said that someone has to “elucidate language into clear sounds and impose a structure which consists of words, phrases, clauses, sentences and intonation patterns.” Because someone can create meaning of what he or she listen and predict implied message of a text if he or she pays attention much to lexical references, stress of words or phrase intonation of text. 2. Top-down strategy Another strategy of listening which based on listeners’ background knowledge is top-down strategy. In this strategy, the listeners use his prior knowledge or background knowledge and contextual clues to interpret what they heard in listening. They have to create an appropriate interpretation by linking what is said with what is known and then inferring, or interpreting, the message as 23 well as what will come next. As a result, they may have good comprehension about what they heard by combining previous knowledge and experience which result in new input. So the listeners have to use three sources of knowledge for top down strategy that are needed: schematic or background knowledge, context and systemic knowledge. Top-down strategy is a strategy from meaning to language which emphasizes on context. Hedge recommends the following strategies for top-down listening: a. Listeners will work out the purpose of the message by considering contextual clues, the content and the setting. b. Listeners will activate schematic knowledge and bring knowledge of scripts into play in order to make sense of content c. Listeners will try to match their perception of meaning with the speaker’s intended meaning, and this will depend on many different factors involved in listening, both top-down and bottom-up. 3. Interactive strategy Hedge thinks that if someone tends to the only one strategy will be less interesting and boring. He may not always depend on background knowledge and contextual clues and neglect the text, the words, grammar and intonation/stress. Therefore, he has to use both bottom up strategy and top down one to make teaching process in the class lively. Hedge said that both strategies are mutually 24 dependent each other simultaneously. This strategy is called interactive strategy which combines the use of bottom up and top down strategies independently 20. There are two strategies of listening in which students can improve their listening skill; 1. Extensive Listening Extensive listening is the strategy where a teacher motivates students to choose for themselves the materials for their listening class and they can enjoy listening during the class. The materials of listening can be obtained from many sources such as cassettes, CDs, etc. so that they can provide the different sources of listening individually or in group, be more active in good competition to better at listening class one another. The teacher in this strategy will be a monitor or observer for whoever is active, passive, and even distractive during the class. Furthermore, we can have students make and perform their own tasks and let them to answer and solve the problems they find in their listening sources. 2. Intensive Listening This is the strategy where a teacher talks to the students in the class, it means that this strategy will encourage the students to practice face-to-face interactions and use some formulaic expressions such as (Sorry? What was that? I 20 Abd. Ghofur, Thesis: “Strategies of Teaching Listening at English Education Department of IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya” (Surabaya: IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya 2010), 23 25 didn’t quite catch that, etc.), rising intonation such as (She didn’t like the…?), rephrasing such as (You mean she said she didn’t know anything?) Intensive listening can take the following forms: I. Reading aloud The teacher will read aloud to class as the students will listen a clear spoken of written text, to make them more enjoyable, the teacher has to read with expressions and conviction. Perhaps, he has to use Total Physical Response or act out the written text to make them know him well that the teacher is able to act in different settings. II. Story-telling In this activity, the teacher will be a story-teller, he will tell stories to the students, as the consequence, they have to predict what will come next of the story, describe the character in the story, and give a comment on it. III. Interviews One of the most motivating listening activities is the live interview, particularly where the students determine the questions for them rather than imitate other people’s questions. IV. Conversations If we can ask a colleague to come to the class, we can make conversations with them about English or any other subject 21. J. Previous Study 21 Harmer, Jeremy, The Practice of English Language Teaching (Fourth Edition, UK Pearson Longman, 1998), 86 26 To prove the originality of this study, the writer wants to present the previous researches dealing with the listening comprehension in general. There has been other researcher who studied about teaching listening. It has been done by Abdul Ghofur (2010) in her paper “strategies of teaching listening at English education department of IAIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya”. In Abdul Ghofur’s research, he focus on strategies of teaching listening, the difficulties encountered by teacher in teaching listening, and the responses of students in teaching listening strategies. In this research, the researcher takes two points of Ghofur’s research questions (the responses of students in teaching listening) which is dealing with the researcher question the researcher has (the students’ interest in learning English listening), and (the strategies of teaching listening) which is dealing with (the teacher strategies to enhance the student’s interest in learning listening). The next research is done by Agus Mawardani (2000) in his research, entitled “The Implementation of Teaching listening At the Third Year Student of SMU Negeri 1 Surakarta”. He described teaching learning process in the classroom especially about the implementation of teaching listening to the third year student of SMU Negeri 1 Surakarta. The result of the research is that the implementation of teaching listening at the third year student of SMU Negeri 1 Surakarta is divided in four main sections. First, the teacher’s activities consist of all preparation of the teacher in teaching listening. Second, student’s activity concerns with what the students do in pre- listening, while listening and post- listening. Meanwhile, the problem of teaching listening is that the mechanical devices can influence teaching 27 learning process. While from the students have problems in vocabulary and the level of difficulty in listening. The next research is conducted by Diah Novia Sari (2003) entitled “A case study of the seventh semester students of English Department FKIP UMS. She investigates the strategies of a group of the seventh semester students. The result of her study shows that most of the seventh semester 5 students find their own ways to expose themselves on the four language skills. So, they are categorized as autonomous learners.
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