Harvard Referencing Harvard referencing 07/11/2014

Harvard referencing
Harvard Referencing
The referencing system used at UCS is UCS Harvard and is
based on the advice in this book:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite
them right: the essential referencing
guide. 9th ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave
Copies are available in the PC Suite shelved at 808.027
Harvard is often referred to as an Name Date system
What is referencing?
Referencing is the process of acknowledging the sources you
have used in your essay or assignment.
Why reference?
To show off
• By providing evidence to support your arguments.
• By showing how much reading and research you have done.
It helps your tutors to check the sources you have used as
quickly and easily as possible.
You should reference direct quotes or any material you have
summarised or paraphrased.
To cover your back
• By helping the reader easily locate your references.
• By avoiding accusations of plagiarism.
• By not losing unnecessary marks.
TIP! Good referencing can help you achieve a better grade as much as 5-10% of the total.
Referencing glossary
Making reference to another work.
Taking other peoples' thoughts, ideas or writings and using
them as your own.
In-text citation
Gives the brief (abbreviated) details of the work that you are
quoting from, paraphrasing or referring to in your text. It links
from your essay to the full reference in the reference list at the
end of your work.
Referencing glossary
Reference list
The full list of references (sources) you have either cited
from, paraphrased or referred to within your work. It should
be included at the end of your work in alphabetical order
(by author’s surname).
Items that you have used in your background reading, but
not cited, may be included in the bibliography, after the
reference list.
Acknowledging your sources
Recording your sources
A-Z Notebook – record your entries
alphabetically in a simple notebook
You should acknowledge your sources in two different
Index cards – record entries alphabetically
Within the main body of your essay as an in-text
citation (included in your word count).
In the reference list at the end of your essay in
alphabetical order (not included in your word count).
Word document – keep a word document of
your references
RefWorks – referencing management system
Get into the habit of recording your sources as you use them –
it will save you time in the long run.
In-text citation styles
In-text citations - authors
There are two ways to do an in-text citation:
Up to three authors/editors may be mentioned in the in-text
citation. If there are four or more you should cite the first name
listed in the source followed by et al.
1. Author starts the sentence e.g.
Pears and Shields (2013, p.4) look at how…
2. The work is referred to within the sentence or at the end
of the sentence e.g.
…this explains why referencing is important (Pears and
Shields, 2013, p. 4)
Tip! You do not need to add ed. after editor in an in-text citation.
Tip! Do not use et al. in your reference list – all authors are
Three authors: (Black, Smith and Robinson, 2014, p.14)
Four authors: (Morton et al., 2014)
Referencing FAQ
Do I need to add page number(s) to my in-text citations?
Answer – YES!
The page number is important, as one of the key functions of
referencing is to enable your reader to quickly locate the
information you have used and to verify the conclusions you
have drawn.
What is a bibliography?
A bibliography is a list of sources which you have used or
consulted for background reading but which you have
not referred to, paraphrased or cited in your work.
A bibliography is usually separate from a reference list
and there should be no duplication between the two.
“If your citation refers to a complete work or ideas that run
through an entire work, your citation would simply use the
author and date details” (Pears, 2013, p. 4).
Book or e-book – citation order
Book or e-book - examples
Author’s surname, followed by initial(s) e.g. Smith, N.P. If
editor(s), add (ed.) or (eds) e.g. Smith , N.P. (ed.)
Browne, J.P. (2010) Eating healthily. London: Nelson.
Date of that edition (in brackets) e.g. (2013)
White, N. (ed.) (2010) Healthy diets. London: Nelson.
Title of the book, italicised, and followed by a full stop. If there is
a subtitle, separate this from the main title by a colon.
Smith, N. and White, R. (2014) Healthy eating. 3rd ed.
London: Sage.
Edition of the book if given (other than the 1st), followed by a full
stop e.g. 2nd edn.
The place of publication followed by a colon e.g. York:
Wilson, N., Dove, L. and Price, G.S. (eds) (2013) Nutritious
diets. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone.
The publisher’s name followed by a full stop e.g. Sage.
Book or e-book - example
Reference list:
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential
referencing guide. 9th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
In-text citation styles:
A recently published work (Pears and Shields, 2013, p. 23)
looks at how…
Referencing FAQ
The date, edition and publication details are so confusing! How
do I work out what is correct?
Look at the title page or the back of title page for this information.
Ignore reprinting dates – just use the original date that relates to
the actual edition.
If there are multiple places of publication, use the UK one.
According to Pears and Shields (2013, p. 23) there are a
number of reasons why…
Referencing FAQ
What is a DOI and do I need to include it in my reference?
A DOI is a digital object identifier - a numbered tag used to
identify digital (online) sources e.g. e-books and e-journal
You only need to use the DOI if it is given. Often it is not given so
you do not need to include it.
Check the entry on Summon for guidance.
Chapter in edited work - citation order
You must include details of the chapter and the book it comes
• Author of the chapter
• Year of publication (in round brackets) e.g. (2014)
• Title of chapter, - in ‘single’ quotation marks, followed by
comma e.g. ‘Healthy eating’,
• in plus author/editor of book e.g. in Smith, S.M. (ed.)
• Title of the book in italics
• Place of publication followed by a colon e.g. London:
• Publisher
• Page numbers for the chapter e.g. pp. 83-94.
Chapter in edited work - example
Reference list
Kelly, C., Roberts, T. and Lawrence, C. (2012) ‘Skin and lip
cancer’, in Symonds, P., Deehan, C., Mills, J.A. and Meredith, C.
(eds) Walter and Miller’s text book of radiotherapy: radiation
physics, therapy and oncology. 7th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill
Livingstone, pp. 317-340.
In-text citation styles:
The view proposed by Kelly, Roberts and Lawrence (2012,
In a recent article (Kelly, Roberts and Lawrence, 2012, p.319) …
Journal or e-journal article - example
Reference list:
Jervis, A. (2011) ‘Why are nurse mentors failing to fail student
nurses who do not meet clinical performance’, British Journal of
Nursing, 33 (3), pp. 323-326.
In-text citation styles:
This is illustrated in a recent article (Jervis, 2011, p.323) which
discusses how…
Journal or e-journal article: citation order
Author – surname, initial(s) e.g. Jones, K.A.
Year of publication (in brackets) e.g. (2013)
Title of article (use lower case except for capitalising the first letter
of the first word) in ‘single’ quotation marks, followed by a comma.
Title of the journal italicised - capitalise the first letter of each
significant word in the title and follow with a comma. Do not
abbreviate the title e.g. Int J of Rad Res
Volume number followed by a space and part/issue number in round
brackets followed by a comma e.g. 12 (1), or (May/June)
Page numbers followed by a full stop e.g. p. 10. or pp. 10-21.
Referencing FAQ
An article I need to reference has over 20 authors! Do I really
have to include all of them in the reference?
Answer – YES!
ALL authors must be included in the reference list in the order in
which they are listed – do not re-order alphabetically.
However, only the first 3 authors need be mentioned in the intext citation. Use et al. if there are four or more e.g. Smith et al.
Jervis (2011, p. 323) states that it is wrong to…
Gov. pub. (print) - citation order
Gov. pub. (print) - example
Name of government department (note - the author may be the
same as the publisher) e.g. Department of Health
Reference list:
Health and Safety Commission (1999) Work with ionising
radiation: ionising regulations 1999: approved code of practice
and guidance. Sudbury: HSE Books (L121).
Year of publication (in round brackets) e.g. (2013)
Title of report in italics followed by a full stop.
Place of publication: Publisher - followed by a full stop (unless
followed by a series) e.g. London: Department of Health.
Series - if applicable (in round brackets) e.g. (Cm 4516).
followed with a full stop.
In-text citation:
A recently published work (Health and Safety Commission,
1999, p. 75) looks at how…
According to the Health and Safety Commission (1999, p. 753)
there are a number of reasons why…
Gov. pub.(online) – citation order
Gov. pub. (online) - example
Reference list
Name of government department e.g. Department of Health
Year of publication (in round brackets) e.g. (2013)
Department of Health (2005) Delivering choosing health: making
healthy choices easier. Available at:
http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/.pdf (Accessed:
28 February 2014).
Title of report (in italics) followed by a full stop.
In-text citation
Available at: URL (do not underline)
According to the Department of Heath (2005)
(Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 28 February 2014).
Web page – citation order
New guidance shows (Department of Health, 2005)
Web page with author - example
Author/editor of the page (this may be the name of an
Reference list
Year that the site was published or last updated (in round
brackets). If there is no year use the date you accessed the site
e.g. (2014)
National Health Service (2010) Check your symptoms.
Available at: http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/checksymptoms
(Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Title of web page (in italics) followed by a full stop.
Available at: URL (do not underline) e.g. Available at:
In-text citation
After identifying symptoms (National Health Service, 2010) …
(Accessed: date) e.g. (Accessed: 11 February 2014).
Web page with no author - example
Image in book – citation order
Reference list
Author – surname, followed by initial(s) e.g. Smith, N.P. If editor(s),
add (ed.) or (eds) e.g. Smith, N.P. (ed.)
Healthy eating for children diet sheet (2009) Available at:
http://www/healthy eating for children_index.htm
(Accessed: 23 July 2012).
Date of that edition (in brackets) e.g. (2013)
Title of the book italicised, and followed by a full stop. If there is a
subtitle, separate this from the main title by a colon.
In-text citation
Edition of the book if given (other than the 1st), followed by a full stop
e.g. 2nd edn.
Healthy eating tips for children can be found online in
(Healthy eating for children diet sheet, 2009).
The place of publication: publisher’s name e.g. York: Sage
Page reference of image e.g. p. 10.
Type of image (illus. fig. table. logo)
Image in book - example
Reference list:
Joiner, M. and Van der Kogel, A. (2009) Basic clinical
radiobiology. 4th edn. London: Hodder Education,
p. 221, fig 20.3.
Medical image – citation order
• Image title (in italics)
• Year (in round brackets)
• Medium [in square brackets]
In-text citation style:
According to Joiner and Van der Kogel (2009, p. 221)
• Available at: URL
• (Accessed/Downloaded: date)
Medical image reference - example
Reference List:
The spine (2013) [X-ray and MRI scan]. Available at:
http://www.anatomy.tv/new_home.aspx (Accessed: 28 July
In-text Citation style:
Secondary referencing
This is when you need to cite the work of one author which
has been cited in the work of another author.
If you cannot access the original work you can only cite the
work which refers to it.
You must not directly cite books that you have not actually
read yourself.
The X-ray and scan (2013) clearly showed…
Secondary referencing
Referencing FAQ
Direct Quote
“The suggestion that all humans may be cloned is rejected by all
health professionals” (Burnard, 2009, cited in Murray, 2013,
p. 82).
I have made one major mistake throughout my entire
referencing list! Have I blown it?
Murray’s conclusion (2013, p.82) supports the views of Burnard
(2009, cited in Murray, 2013, p.82) on human cloning.
Answer – No!
The key to referencing is consistency. It is better to be
consistently wrong, rather than random and careless.
Reference List
The book by Murray, must be included in the reference list
because this is the book you have actually read. Do not include
the work by Burnard because you have not actually read it.
Consistency demonstrates attention to detail and is likely to lose
you less marks than lots of different mistakes.
Tip! Consistent mistakes are less likely to be spotted!
General tips
Minimise the number of direct quotes and try to paraphrase and
use your own words as much as possible.
RefWorks is a referencing management system which enables
you to import, store and organise citations and links to articles.
Do not include images unless they are really necessary and add
something new to your work.
You can import and store references from Summon or from
any online database e.g. Cinahl.
Direct quotes are normally included in your word count as are intext citations. The reference list is not normally included.
You can set up folders for each piece of work.
If there is no author, use the title of the work instead, followed by
the date (in brackets).
You can create reference lists from each folder in the correct
UCS Harvard style.
TIP! You need to understand how to reference before using
RefWorks as it does not do all the work for you.