The Partition of Africa Section 2 Gina Pike Group 5 3-2-11, 2nd hr. Africa! Known as the “dark continent” Little was known about Africa. Large continent, 4x the size of the US. Diverse cultures and languages. The Regions of Africa South Africa North Africa Fertile land along Mediterranean Africa in turmoil in 1800s From the 1400s much of the area was ruled by Ottoman Empire. Shaka united Zulu nation Zulus conquest: migration, wars, chaos 1800s- Ottoman Empire began to weaken East Africa Major religion of Islam 1830s- Zulus also battling Boers (from Cape Colony) West Africa New Muslim states created (based on trade, farming, etc) Port cities= setbacks when Portuguese arrived (Mombasa, Kilwa, early 1500s) Leaders (Usman dan Fodio) preached jihad (holy struggle) to purify Islam. The Asante Kingdom rose in forest region3 East Africa kept sending trading ships to Persian Gulf and the Red Sea • Trades with Europeans and Muslims • Trading ships= slaves • Ivory and copper traded for Indian cloth and firearms • o Had limited power Controlled smaller states Felt no loyalty to central gov Leaders wanted to overthrow controlling gov. Summary of Regions North Africa: Ruled by Ottoman Empire, started to decline South Africa: Shaka united Zulu Nation, migration, wars, chaos, Zulus in a war with the Boers East Africa: Islam! Ships exported copper and ivory for Indian cloth and firearms, slaves were exported. West Africa: New Muslim states, jihad (Usman dan Fodio), Asante kingdom (trade with Europeans and Muslims, limited power, controlled smaller states,), wanted independence European Contacts Increase • 1500s and 1600s- Europeans traded along the coast of Africa • No one traveled far into Africa (Malaria and sleeping sickness) • Medical breakthroughs and river steamships changed this • Early 1800s- slavery slowly became outlawed • 1787- British organized colony for freed slaves (Sierra Leone, West Africa) • 1847- Liberia (right next to Sierra Leone) gained independence • Slave trade continues (Arab and African slave traders) well into 1800s • Demand for slaves remained • Missionaries began to travel to Africa, set up schools, hospitals, and churches, hated slavery, thought Africans needed guidance The Great Scramble Begins King Leopold of Belgium hired Stanley- explore Congo River basin, arrange trade treaties with African leaders Leopold wanted of conquest and profit. Leopold’s activities in the Congo resulted in other countries wanting claims of Africa: Britain, France, Germany The Berlin Conference 1884- International powers met In Berlin, Germany- discuss matter before bloodshed, no representation of natives present. No European power could claim land unless they set up a gov office there Accepted Leopold’s previous claims, insisted on free trade on the rivers 20 years later- almost all of Africa divided up Only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent The Boer War 1806- British won Cape Colony from the Dutch Boers (Dutch farmers) hated Britsih rule • Migrated North to create their own republic Late 1800s- gold and diamonds discovered in Boer Republics Boer War began (1899 to 1902) British won 1910-British united Cape Colony and former Boer Republics into Union of South Africa New constitution- gov run by whites, laid foundation for racial segregation Algerians battled France Africans Fight Back!! Samori Toure-attempted to build own empire, fought French in W. Africa British battles Zulus in Southern Africa and in the Asante Kingdom (W. Africa) Asante put themselves under Yaa Asantewaa’s rule (queen) • Led fight against British in last Asante War Nehanda- of Shona in Zimbabewe • Women military leader, • Captured and executed • Inspired other generations to fight for freedom Germans fought Yao in East Africa • Dominated during the Maji-Maji Rebellion of 1905 Ethiopia Survives! Divided between a bunch of rival princes Late 1800s-Menelik II began to modernize his counrty Planned roads, bridges, and schools Imported weapons, military officers who trained his army 18960 Italy invaded Ethiopia Battle of Adowa- Manelik’s forces crushed Italian invaders Main Idea: Ethiopia crushes Italian forces, remains independent Some Africans rejected their traditional culture for western ways Others valued their traditional culture By early 1900s- African leaders pursuing independence Impact and Results :) Western-educated elite class emerged North Africa: Ruled by Ottoman Empire, started to decline Important Ideas/Events South Africa: Shaka united Zulu Nation, migration, wars, chaos, Zulus in a war with the Boers East Africa: Islam! Ships exported copper and ivory for Indian cloth and firearms, slaves were exported. West Africa: New Muslim states, jihad (Usman dan Fodio), Asante kingdom (trade with Europeans and Muslims, limited power, controlled smaller states,), wanted independence Not many traveled into Africa’s interior due to illnesses and such 1787- British organized colony for freed slaves (Sierra Leone, West Africa) Missionaries came to Africa, built schools, hospitals, churches 1847- Liberia gained independence Leopold’s activities in the Congo resulted in other countries wanting claims of Africa: Britain, France, Germany 1884- Berlin Conference- Result: Africa divided up Ethiopia and Liberia- only independent countries in Africa! Boer War began (1899 to 1902), British won. result- Cape Colony + former Boer Republics=the Union of South Africa Algerians battled France British battles Zulus Important Ideas/Events Germans fought Yao in East Africa Samori Toure-attempted to build own empire, fought French in W. Africa Nehanda- of Shona in Zimbabwe, women military leader Yaa Asantewaa- Queen of the Asante Kingdom, led her people through the Last Asante War to defeat the British Ethiopia crushes Italian forces in Battle of Adowa, remains independent Menelik II- ruler of Ethiopia, began to modernize his country (late 1800s) Western-educated elite class emerged Some Africans rejected traditional culture and accepted the western ways More countries wanted independence!
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