Document 382659

Stress Cycle
Effects of
 Stressor- a stimulus with the potential for triggering Fight or Flight
4 categories (Social, Environmental, Psychological, Philosophical)
 Stress reactivity- Body changes to meet demands (F or F response)
 Strains-Outcomes of stress reactivity and may be physical,
psychological, or behavioral. (tension headache, phobias, addictions)
 Stress- The wear and tear on the body when there is reactivity.
Combination of a stressor, stress reactivity, and strain.
 Homeostasis- The body’s balanced state
 Eustress- Good stress
 Distress- Bad Stress
 Duration/Degree Duration= the amount of time our body’s physiology varies
Degree=Condition or the amount of physiological variance
Walter Cannon- Harvard Medical School
 First to describe the effects of acute stress
 Termed this stress reaction as the fight-or-flight
 A primitive response that quickly increases heart rate,
respiration, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol
Acute Alarm Reaction
 Body prepares for fight or flight
 Time of emergency
 Heart pumps blood faster and with greater force
 Blood pressure elevates abruptly
 Lungs send more oxygen to muscles
 Faster blood clotting
Acute Alarm Reaction
 Widening of the pupils to admit more light in order to
heighten visual acuity and awareness
 Increase in breathing rate
 Endorphins released – decrease in body’s sensitivity to
 Elevated blood sugar levels
Hans Selye
 Studied the effects of long-term (chronic) stress
 Stress is- “The nonspecific response of the body to any
demand made upon it”
 Summarized his findings by proposing a three-phase
process called the general adaptation syndrome
 alarm reaction
 stage of resistance
 stage of exhaustion
Other Influential Researchers
 Simeons
 Psychosomatic disease
 Benson
 Relaxation response
 Vogt
 Autogenic training
 Jacobson
 Progressive relaxation
Stress Theory
 Several theories explain the causes of stress:
 Holmes and Rahe- Life events theory: stress occurs when
the situation requires more resources than are available
 Kobasa and colleagues- Hardiness theory: one’s attitude
toward the events determines stress, not the event.
 Social support theory: insufficient social support for
responding to event
Fight or flight response
Is the glass half full or half empty?
 A situation can be stressful or not -- it all depends on
your perception of the event
 A response to stress can be effective or not -- it
depends on your resources and coping strategies
 Refer to table 1.2 (p.13)
Relationship between stress and
Goals for Stress Management
 Do not eliminate all stress
 Use as a motivator for peak performance
 Stress can be useful, stimulating, and welcome
 Limit harmful effects
 Limit the harmful effects of stress while maintaining
life’s quality and vitality.