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Page iii
th edition
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Page iv
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Page v
th edition
John R. Schermerhorn, Jr.
Ohio University
James G. Hunt
Texas Tech University
Richard N. Osborn
Wayne State University
Mary Uhl-Bien
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Page vi
George Hoffman
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Ingrao Associates
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Page vii
about the authors
Dr. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr. is the Charles G. O’Bleness Professor Emeritus of
Management in the College of Business at Ohio University where he teaches
undergraduate and MBA courses in management, organizational behavior, and
Asian business. He also serves the university as Director of the Center for Southeast
Asian Studies. He earned a Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Northwestern
University, after receiving an M.B.A. (with distinction) in management and international business from New York University, and a B.S. in business administration
from the State University of New York at Buffalo.
Dedicated to instructional excellence and serving the needs of practicing managers, Dr. Schermerhorn continually focuses on bridging the gap between the
theory and practice of management in both the classroom and in his textbooks. He
has won awards for teaching excellence at Tulane University, The University of
Vermont, and Ohio University, where he was named a University Professor, the university’s leading campus-wide award for undergraduate teaching. He also received
the excellence in leadership award for his service as Chair of the Management
Education and Development Division of the Academy of Management.
Dr. Schermerhorn’s international experience adds a unique global dimension to his teaching and textbooks. He holds an honorary doctorate from the
University of Pécs in Hungary, awarded for his international scholarly contributions to management research and education. He has also served as a Visiting
Professor of Management at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, as on-site
Coordinator of the Ohio University MBA and Executive MBA programs in
Malaysia, and as Kohei Miura visiting professor at the Chubu University of Japan.
Presently he is Adjunct Professor at the National University of Ireland at Galway,
a member of the graduate faculty at Bangkok University in Thailand, Permanent
Lecturer in the PhD program at the University of Pécs in Hungary, and advisor
to the Lao-American College in Vientiane, Laos.
An enthusiastic scholar, Dr. Schermerhorn is a member of the Academy of
Management, where he served as chairperson of the Management Education and
Development Division. Educators and students alike know him as author of
Management 10e (Wiley, 2010) and Exploring Management 2e (2010), and senior
co-author of Organizational Behavior 10/e (Wiley, 2009). His many books are
available in Chinese, Dutch, French, Indonesian, Portuguese, Russian, and
Spanish language editions. Dr. Schermerhorn’s published articles are found in
the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review Academy
of Management Executive, Organizational Dynamics, Journal of Management
Education, and the Journal of Management Development.
Dr. Schermerhorn is a popular guest speaker at colleges and universities. His
recent student and faculty workshop topics include innovations in business education, teaching the millennial generation, global perspectives in management
education, and textbook writing and scholarly manuscript development.
Dr. John R. Schermerhorn, Jr.
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Page viii
viii About the Authors
Dr. James G. (Jerry) Hunt
The late Dr. James G. ( Jerry) Hunt was the Paul Whitfield Horn Professor of
Management, Professor of Health Organization Management, Former Director,
Institute for Leadership Research, and former department chair of Management,
Texas Tech University. He received his PhD and master’s degrees from the
University of Illinois after completing a BS (with honors) at Michigan Technological
University. Dr. Hunt co-authored an organization theory text and Core Concepts of
Organizational Behavior (Wiley, 2004) and authored or co-authored three leadership monographs. He founded the Leadership Symposia Series and co-edited the
eight volumes based on the series. He was the former editor of the Journal of
Management and The Leadership Quarterly. He presented or published some 200
articles, papers, and book chapters, and among his better-known books are
Leadership: A New Synthesis, published by Sage, and Out-of-the-Box Leadership,
published by JAI. The former was a finalist for the Academy of Management’s 1993
Terry Distinguished Book Award. Dr. Hunt received the Distinguished Service
Award from the Academy of Management, the Sustained Outstanding Service
Award from the Southern Management Association, and the Barnie E. Rushing, Jr.
Distinguished Researcher Award from Texas Tech University for his long-term contributions to management research and scholarship. He also lived and taught in
England, Finland, and Thailand, and taught in China.
Dr. Richard N. Osborn
Dr. Richard N. Osborn is a Wayne State University Distinguished Professor,
Professor of Management Emeritus, and former Board of Governors Faculty
Fellow. He has received teaching awards at Southern Illinois University at
Carbondale and Wayne State University, and he has also taught at Arizona State
University, Monash University (Australia), Tulane University, University of Munich,
and the University of Washington. He received a DBA from Kent State University
after earning an MBA at Washington State University and a BS from Indiana
University. With over 200 presentations and publications, he is a charter member of
the Academy of Management Journals Hall of Fame. Dr. Osborn is a leading authority on international alliances in technology-intensive industries and is co-author of
an organization theory text as well as Basic Organizational Behavior ( John Wiley
& Sons, 1995, 1998). He has served as editor of international strategy for the Journal
of World Business and Special Issue Editor for The Academy of Management
Journal. He serves or has served as a member of the editorial boards for The
Academy of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, Journal of
High Technology Management, The Journal of Management, Leadership Quarterly,
and Technology Studies, among others. He is very active in the Academy of
Management, having served as divisional program chair and president, as well as
the Academy representative for the International Federation of Scholarly
Associations of Management. Dr. Osborn’s research has been sponsored by the
Department of Defense, Ford Motor Company, National Science Foundation,
Nissan, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, among others. In addition to
teaching, Dr. Osborn spent a number of years in private industry, including a position as a senior research scientist with the Battelle Memorial Institute in Seattle,
where he worked on improving the safety of commercial nuclear power.
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Page ix
About the Authors ix
Dr. Mary Uhl-Bien is the Howard Hawks Chair in Business Ethics and Leadership
and associate Director of the Leadership Institute at the University of NebraskaLincoln. She earned her Ph.D. and MBA in organizational behavior at the
University of Cincinnati after completing an undergraduate degree in International
Business and Spanish. She teaches organizational behavior, leadership, and
ethics courses at the undergraduate and graduate (MBA and doctoral) levels,
and has been heavily involved in executive education, teaching to business
executives and physicians in the United States, China, Europe, and Saudi Arabia
and to the senior executive service of the U.S. government for The Brookings
Institute in Washington, D.C. She has been a visiting professor/scholar at Pablo
de Olavide University in Seville, Spain, the Universidade Nova de Lisboa/Catolica
Portuguesa in Lisbon Portugal, and University Lund in Sweden.
Dr. Uhl-Bien’s research interests are in leadership and followership. In
addition to her conceptual work on complexity and relational leadership, some
of the empirical projects she is currently involved in include investigations of
“Leadership and Adaptability in the Healthcare Industry” (a $300,000 grant from
Booz Allen Hamilton), “Adaptive Leadership and Innovation: A Focus on Idea
Generation and Flow” (at a major financial institution in the U.S.), and “Social
Constructions of Followership and Leading Up.” She has published in such journals as The Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Applied Psychology,
The Leadership Quarterly, the Journal of Management, and Human Relations.
She won the Best Paper Award in The Leadership Quarterly in 2001 for her
co-authored article on Complex Leadership. She is on the editorial boards of The
Academy of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, The
Leadership Quarterly, Leadership, and The International Journal of Complexity in
Leadership and Management, and is senior editor of the Leadership Horizons
series (Information Age Publishers). Dr. Uhl-Bien has consulted with Disney, the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, British Petroleum, and the General Accounting
Office, and served as the executive consultant for State Farm Insurance Co. from
1998–2004. She trained Russian business people for the American Russian Center
at the University of Alaska Anchorage from 1993–1996, worked on a USAID grant
at the Magadan Pedagogical Institute in Magadan, Russia from 1995–1996, and participated in a Fulbright-Hays grant to Mexico during the summer of 2003.
Dr. Mary Uhl-Bien
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Page x
Global warming, economic turmoil, terrorism, ethnic conflict, poverty, discrimination, unemployment, illiteracy . . . these are among the many issues and problems we face as citizens today. But how often do we stop and recognize our
responsibilities for problem solving and positive action in a global context? What
we do today will have a lasting impact on future generations. And whether we
are talking about families, communities, nations, or the organizations in which
we work and volunteer, the core question remains: How can we join together to
have a positive and lasting impact?
Look again at the cover. Think about people working together and collaborating in organizations around the world. Think about not just how grass grows,
but how organizations and their members grow, and how individuals can expand
the positive impact of society’s institutions as their ideas and talents come together
in supportive and nurturing work settings. And, think about the delicate balances
between work and family, between individuals and teams, and between organizations and society that must be mastered in the quest for future prosperity.
Yes, our students do have a lot to consider in the complex and ever-shifting
world of today. But, we believe in them; we believe they are up to the challenge;
and, we believe that courses in organizational behavior have strong roles to play
in building their capabilities to make good judgments and move organizational
performance forward in positive and responsible ways.
That message is a fitting place to begin Organizational Behavior, 11th
Edition. Everyone wants to have a useful and satisfying job and career; everyone
wants all the organizations of society—small and large businesses, hospitals,
schools, governments, nonprofits, and more—to perform well; everyone seeks a
healthy and sustainable environment. In this context the lessons of our discipline
are strong and applicable. Armed with an understanding of organizational behavior, great things are possible as people work, pursue careers, and contribute to
society through positive personal and organizational accomplishments.
Organizational behavior is a discipline rich with insights for career and life
skills. As educators, our job is to bring to the classroom and to students the great
power of knowledge, understanding, and inquiry that characterizes our discipline
and its commitment to understanding human behavior in organizations. What our
students do with their talents will not only shape how organizations of all types
contribute to society, but also fundamentally alter lives around the globe. We must
do our parts as educators to help them gain the understanding and confidence to
become leaders of tomorrow’s organizations.
John R. Schermerhorn Jr.
Ohio University
Richard N. Osborn
Wayne State University
Mary Uhl-Bien
University of Nebraska–Lincoln
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Page xi
about this book
Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition, brings to its readers the solid and complete content core of prior editions, an enriched and exciting “OB Skills
Workbook,” and many revisions, updates, and enhancements that reflect today’s
dynamic times.
The most significant change that past users will note is a rearrangement and
shortening of the table of contents, as well as enhancement of online modular
supplements. The book still covers the discipline in an orderly progression from
individuals to groups to influence processes and leadership to organizations. But,
it does so in an updated and more succinct fashion. Chapters are still written to
be used out of sequence at the instructor’s prerogative and to easily fit a variety
of course designs.
All chapters are updated to reflect new research findings and current applications
and issues. For this edition, and in response to feedback, we have also
rearranged chapters and adjusted both content and titles to best reflect developments and directions in the discipline as well as the realities of today’s workplaces and career challenges. The major changes were made to strengthen the
research component, expand and refocus the chapters dealing with individual
behavior and performance, and more fully treat the emerging directions in leadership research and thinking. Look for these and other content changes to the
11th edition: Chapter 2 Individual Differences, Values, and Diversity; Chapter 9
Decision Making and Creativity; Chapter 11 Communication and Collaboration;
Chapter 14 Leadership Challenges and Organizational Change; Chapter 15
Organizational Culture and Innovation; Chapter 17 Strategy, Technology, and
Organizational Design. Note as well that Chapter 9 Decision Making and
Creativity and Chapter 10 Conflict and Negotiation are now part of Part 3 on
Teams and Teamwork. In addition to the text chapters, a module on Research
Methods in OB has been placed online to offer easy ways to further enrich the
course experience.
Ethics Focus
To help students anticipate, understand, and confront the ethical challenges of
work and careers today we have continued our special feature in each chapter—Ethics in OB. This feature presents a situation or issue from an actual case
or news report and asks a question of the student reader that requires personal
reflection on the ethics and ethics implications. Examples include “Managers
lose public trust,” “Workers concerned about ethical workplace,” and “MBA
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xii About This Book
Research Focus
To better communicate the timely research foundations of OB, new content has
been added to the popular Research Insights found in each chapter. Each highlights an article from a respected journal such as the Academy of Management
Journal and the Journal of Applied Psychology. Sample topics include interactional
justice, racial bias, social loafing, demographic faultlines, and workplace identities. For those who want to give research a special focus in their course, we have
provided an online module on Research Methods in Organizational Behavior.
Leadership Focus
To remind students that there are many positive leadership role models from
alternative organizational contexts, the Leaders on Leadership feature offers short
examples of real leaders, their experiences and perspectives. Examples include
Patricia Karter of Dancing Deer Baking, Indra Nooyi of PepsiCo, Sarah Blakely
of Spanx, and Lorraine Moore of the Leadership Academy.
Applications Focus
To help students apply the insights of OB to real situations and problems,
Mastering Management boxes provide insights from real managers and organizations. Examples include “Managing emotions when times are tough,” “Six
points of human capital,” and “How to become a networker.” OB Savvy boxes
are also interspersed to summarize major findings and applications. Examples
include: “Seven steps to positive norms,” “How to create a high-performing
team,” and “Developing your emotional intelligence.”
As always, our primary goal is to create a textbook that appeals to the student
reader while still offering solid content. Through market research surveys and focus
groups with students and professors, we continue to learn what features worked
best from previous editions, what can be improved, and what can be added to
accomplish this goal both effectively and efficiently. Our response is a pedagogical
frame that combines popular elements from the last edition with new ones.
• Chapter Opening—a Chapter at a Glance section links Study Topics/
Learning Objectives with an end-of-chapter Summary, and a short opening
vignette leads the reader into chapter text.
• Inside the Chapter—a variety of thematic embedded boxes as previously
noted—Leaders on Leadership, Ethics in OB, Research Insight, OB Savvy, and
Mastering Management, highlight relevant, timely, and global themes and
situations that reinforce chapter content. Margin Photo Essays provide further
short examples highlighting events and issues. To assist with chapter study
and test preparation, each chapter has a running Margin Glossary and Margin
List Identifiers.
• End of Chapter—a Study Guide helps students review and test their mastery
of chapter content. Key components are Chapter Summary (keyed to opening
Chapter at a Glance topics). Key Terms, and a Self-Test (with multiple choice,
short response, and essay questions).
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Page xiii
About This Book xiii
The OB Skills Workbook
The end-of-text OB Skills Workbook has become a hallmark feature of the textbook, and it has been updated and expanded for the new edition. This edition
features the Learning Style Inventory and Kouzes/Posner Student Leadership
Practices Inventory. Both fit well in an OB course as opportunities for substantial student reflection and course enhancement. The five sections in the new
updated workbook that offer many ways to extend the OB learning experience
in creative and helpful ways are:
Learning Style Inventory
Student Leadership Practices Inventory
Self-Assessment Portfolio
Team and Experiential Exercises
Cases for Critical Thinking
New Student and Instructor Support
Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition, is supported by a comprehensive learning package that assists the instructor in creating a motivating and enthusiastic
Instructor’s Resource Guide The Instructor’s Resource Guide written by Molly
Pepper, Gonzaga University offers helpful teaching ideas, advice on course development, sample assignments, and chapter-by-chapter text highlights, learning objectives, lecture outlines, class exercises, lecture notes, answers to end-of-chapter
material, and tips on using cases.
Test Bank This comprehensive Test Bank written by Patricia Buhler, GoldeyBeacom College is available on the instructor portion of the Web site and consists of over 200 questions per chapter. Each chapter has true/false, multiple
choice, and short answer questions. The questions are designed to vary in degree
of difficulty to challenge your OB students.
The Computerized Test Bank is for use on a PC running Windows. It contains content from the Test Bank provided within a test-generating program that
allows instructors to customize their exams.
PowerPoint This robust set of lecture/interactive PowerPoints prepared by
Victoria Weise, Lewis University is provided for each chapter to enhance your
students’ overall experience in the OB classroom. The PowerPoint slides can be
accessed on the instructor portion of the Web site and include lecture notes to
accompany each slide.
Web Quizzes This online study guide with online quizzes varies in level of
difficulty and is designed to help your students evaluate their individual progress
through a chapter. Web quizzes are available on the student portion of the Web
site. Here students will have the ability to test themselves with 15–25 questions per
chapter and include true-false and multiple choice questions.
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Page xiv
xiv About This Book
Pre- and Post-Lecture Quizzes Included in WileyPLUS, the Pre- and PostLecture Quizzes written by Patricia Buhler, Goldey-Beacom College consist of
10–15 questions (multiple choice and true/false) per chapter. Varying in level of
detail and difficulty, they focus on the key terms and concepts within each chapter so that professors can evaluate their students’ progress from before the lecture to after it.
Personal Response System The Personal Response System questions (PRS
or “Clickers”) for each chapter of Organizational Behavior 11th edition is
designed to spark discussion/debate in the OB classroom. For more information
on PRS, please contact your local Wiley sales representative.
Companion Web site The text’s Web site at
schermerhorn contains myriad tools and links to aid both teaching and learning,
including nearly all of the student and instructor resources.
Business Extra Select Online Courseware System
college/bxs. Wiley has launched this program that provides an instructor with
millions of content resources from an extensive database of cases, journals, periodicals, newspapers, and supplemental readings. This courseware system lends
itself extremely well to the integration of real-world content and allows instructors to convey the relevance of the course content to their students.
Lecture Launcher: Short video clips tied to the major topics in organizational
behavior are available. These clips, available in WileyPLUS or on DVD, provide an
excellent starting point for lectures or for general class discussion. Teaching notes
for using the video clips written by Kasey Sheehan Madara are available on the
Instructor’s portion of the Web site.
Art Imitates Life: Using Movies and Music in Organizational Behavior Prepared
by Robert L. Holbrook, Ohio University. Interested in integrating pop culture into
your OB course? Looking for ways of integrating the humanities (movies and
music) into your classroom? Dr. Holbrook provides innovative teaching ideas for
integrating these ideas into your classroom experience. This instructor’s supplement is available exclusively for adopters.
Please contact your local Wiley sales representative for additional information on the OB Video Program.
WileyPLUS provides an integrated suite of teaching and learning resources, along
with a complete online version of the text, in one easy-to-use Web site.
WileyPLUS will help you create class presentations, create assignments, and
automate the assigning and grading of homework or quizzes, track your students’
progress, and administer your course. Also includes mp3 downloads of the key
chapter topics, providing students with audio module overviews, team evaluation
tools, experiential exercises, student self-assessments, flashcards of key terms, and
more! For more information, go to
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Page xv
Cases for Critical Thinking
Barry R. Armandi, State University of New York, David S. Chappell, Ohio
University, Bernardo M. Ferdman, Alliant International University, Placido L.
Gallegos, Southwest Communications Resources, Inc. and the Kaleel Jamison
Consulting Group. Inc., Carol Harvey, Assumption College, Ellen Ernst Kossek,
Michigan State University, Barbara McCain, Oklahoma City University, Mary
McGarry, Empire State College, Marc Osborn, R&R Partners Phoenix, AZ, Franklin
Ramsoomair, Wilfrid Laurier University, Hal Babson and John Bowen of
Columbus State Community College.
Experiential Exercises and Self-Assessment Inventories
Barry R. Armandi, State University of New York, Old Westbury, Ariel Fishman, The
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Barbara K. Goza, University of
California, Santa Cruz, D.T. Hall, Boston University, F.S. Hall, University of New
Hampshire, Lady Hanson, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Conrad
N. Jackson, MPC, Inc., Mary Khalili, Oklahoma City University, Robert Ledman,
Morehouse College, Paul Lyons, Frostburg State University, J. Marcus Maier,
Chapman University, Michael R. Manning, New Mexico State University, Barbara
McCain, Oklahoma City University, Annie McKee, The Wharton School, University
of Pennsylvania, Bonnie McNeely, Murray State University, W. Alan Randolph,
University of Baltimore, Joseph Raelin, Boston College, Paula J. Schmidt, New
Mexico State University, Susan Schor, Pace University, Timothy T. Serey, Northern
Kentucky University, Barbara Walker, Diversity Consultant, Paula S. Weber, New
Mexico Highlands University, Susan Rawson Zacur, University of Baltimore.
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Page xvi
Organizational Behavior, 11th Edition, benefits from insights provided by a dedicated group of management educators from around the globe who carefully read
and critiqued draft chapters of this edition. We are pleased to express our appreciation to the following colleagues for their contributions to this new edition.
Richard Vaughn, University of St. Francis
Victoria Weise, Lewis University
Stacy Ball-Elias, Southwest Minnesota State University
Rita Bristol, Midland Lutheran College
Ed Tomlinson, John Carroll University
Larry McDaniel, Alabama A & M University
W. Randy Evans, University of Arkansas, Little Rock
Patricia M. Buhler, Goldey-Beacom College
Uzoamaka P. Anakwe, Pace University
Susan P. Eisner, Ramapo College of New Jersey
Gesilda R. Tolotta, West Chester University
We also thank those reviewers who contributed to the success of previous editions.
Merle Ace
Chi Anyansi-Archibong
Terry Armstrong
Leanne Atwater
Forrest Aven
Steve Axley
Abdul Aziz
Richard Babcock
David Baldridge
Michael Banutu-Gomez
Robert Barbato
Richard Barrett
Nancy Bartell
Anna Bavetta
Robb Bay
Hrach Bedrosian
Bonnie Betters-Reed
Gerald Biberman
Melinda Blackman
Lisa Bleich
Mauritz Blonder
Dale Blount
G. B. Bohn
William Bommer
H. Michal Boyd
Pat Buhler
Gene E. Burton
Roosevelt Butler
Ken Butterfield
Joseph F. Byrnes
Michal Cakrt
Tom Callahan
Daniel R. Cillis
Nina Cole
Paul Collins
Ann Cowden
Deborah Crown
Roger A. Dean
Robert Delprino
Emmeline De Pillis
Pam Dobies
Delf Dodge
Dennis Duchon
Michael Dumler
Ken Eastman
Norb Elbert
Theresa Feener
Janice M. Feldbauer
Claudia Ferrante
Mark Fichman
Dalmar Fisher
J. Benjamin Forbes
Dean Frear
Cynthia V. Fukami
Normandie Gaitley
Daniel Ganster
Joe Garcia
Virginia Geurin
Robert Giambatista
Manton Gibbs
Eugene Gomolka
Barbara Goodman
Stephen Gourlay
Frederick Greene
Richard Grover
Bengt Gustafsson
Peter Gustavson
Lady Alice Hanson
Don Hantula
Kristi Harrison
William Hart
Nell Hartley
Neil J. Humphreys
David Hunt
Eugene Hunt
Howard Kahn
Harriet Kandelman
Paul N. Keaton
Andrew Klein
Leslie Korb
Peter Kreiner
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Page xvii
Acknowledgments xvii
Eric Lamm
Donald Lantham
Jim Lessner
Les Lewchuk
Kristi M. Lewis
Robert Liden
Beverly Linnell
Kathy Lippert
Michael London
Michael Lounsbury
Carol Lucchesi
David Luther
Lorna Martin
Tom Mayes
Daniel McAllister
Douglas McCabe
James McFillen
Jeanne McNett
Charles Milton
Herff L. Moore
David Morand
David Morean
Sandra Morgan
Paula Morrow
Richard Mowday
Christopher Neck
Linda Neider
Judy C. Nixon
Regina O’Neill
Dennis Pappas
Edward B. Parks
Robert F. Pearse
Lawrence Peters
Prudence Pollard
Joseph Porac
Samuel Rabinowitz
Franklin Ramsoomair
Clint Relyea
Bobby Remington
Charles L. Roegiers
Steven Ross
Joel Rudin
Michael Rush
Robert Salitore
Terri Scandura
Mel Schnake
Holly Schroth
L. David Schuelke
Richard J. Sebastian
Anson Seers
William Sharbrough
R. Murray Sharp
Ted Shore
Allen N. Shub
Sidney Siegal
Dayle Smith
Mary Alice Smith
Walter W. Smock
Pat Sniderman
Ritch L. Sorenson
Shanthi Srinivas
Paul L. Starkey
Robert Steel
Ronni Stephens
Ron Stone
Tom Thompson
Ed Tomlinson
Sharon Tucker
Nicholas Twigg
Tony Urban
Ted Valvoda
Joyce Vincelette
David Vollrath
Andy Wagstaff
W. Fran Waller
Charles Wankel
Edward Ward
Fred A. Ware, Jr.
Andrea F. Warfield
Harry Waters, Jr.
Joseph W. Weiss
Deborah Wells
Robert Whitcomb
Donald White
Bobbie Williams
Barry L. Wisdom
Wayne Wormley
Barry Wright
Kimberly Young
Raymond Zammuto
We are grateful for all the hard work of the supplements authors, who worked to
develop the comprehensive ancillary package described above. We thank Molly
Pepper for preparing the Instructor’s Resource Guide, Patricia Buhler for creating
the Test Bank, Patricia Buhler for creating the web quizzes, Victoria Weise for developing the PowerPoint Presentations, Patricia Buhler for developing the Pre- and
Post-Lecture quizzes, and Kasey Sheehan Madara for writing the scripts for the mp3
summaries. We’d also like to thank Robert (Lenie) Holbrook of Ohio University for
his insightful creativity in putting together the Art Imitates Life guide.
As always, the support staff at John Wiley & Sons was most helpful in the various stages of developing and producing this edition. We would especially like to
thank Lisé Johnson (Acquisitions Editor), George Hoffman (Publisher), Susan
McLaughlin (Development Editor), Carissa Marker Doshi (Associate Editor), and
Sarah Vernon (Senior Editorial Assistant) for their extraordinary efforts in support
of this project. They took OB to heart and did their very best to build a highperformance team in support of this book. We thank everyone at Wiley for maintaining the quest for quality and timeliness in all aspects of the book’s content and
design. Special gratitude goes to Maddy Lesure as the creative force behind the new
design. We also thank Sandra Dumas, and Ingrao Associates for their excellent production and design assistance, Allie Morris for overseeing the media development,
and Amy Scholz for leading the marketing campaign. Thank you everyone!!
10:25 PM
Page xviii
brief contents
Behavior Today
1 Introducing Organizational Behavior 2
Behavior and Performance
2 Individual Differences, Values, and Diversity 26
3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction 60
4 Perception, Attribution, and Learning 82
5 Motivation Theories 108
6 Motivation and Performance 128
Teams and
Processes and Leadership
7 Teams in Organizations 154
8 Teamwork and Team Performance 178
9 Decision Making and Creativity 204
10 Conflict and Negotiation 230
11 Communication and Collaboration 254
12 Power and Politics 276
13 Leadership Essentials 304
14 Leadership Challenges and Organizational Change 330
Organizational 15 Organizational Culture and Innovation
16 Organizational Goals and Structures 388
17 Strategy, Technology, and Organizational Design 414
OB Skills Workbook
Learning Style Inventory W-9
Student Leadership Practices Inventory W-13
Self-Assessment Portfolio W-33
Team and Experiential Exercises W-55
Cases for Critical Thinking W-99
OB Module Online
Research Methods in OB
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Page xix
Part 1 Organizational Behavior Today
1Introducing Organizational Behavior
Sources of Values 41
Types of Values 41
Values across National Cultures
Introducing Organizational Behavior
Importance of Organizational Behavior 4
Scientific Foundations of Organizational Behavior 4
Shifting Paradigms of Organizational Behavior 7
Organizations as Work Settings
Organizational Purpose, Mission, and Strategy 8
Organizational Environments and Stakeholders 10
Organizational Cultures 12
Diversity and Multiculturalism 13
Organizational Behavior and Management
The Management Process 14
Managerial Activities, Roles, and Networks
Managerial Skills and Competencies 16
Moral Management 17
Learning about Organizational Behavior
Part 2 Individual Behavior and Performance
2 Individual Differences, Values,
and Diversity 26
Self-Awareness and Awareness of Others
Components of Self 28
Development of Self 29
Big Five Personality Traits 31
Social Traits 32
Personal Conception Traits 34
Emotional Adjustment Traits 36
Sources of Stress 37
Outcomes of Stress 38
Managing Stress 39
Importance of Diversity 45
Types of Diversity 46
Valuing and Supporting Diversity
Chapter 2 Study Guide
3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction
Foundations of Emotions and Moods
Emotions 62
Emotional Intelligence 62
Types of Emotions 63
Moods 65
Emotion and Mood Contagion 66
Emotional Labor 66
Emotions and Moods across Cultures 68
Emotions and Moods as Affective Events 68
Functions of Emotions and Moods 68
Components of Attitudes 70
Attitudes and Behavior 71
Attitudes and Cognitive Consistency
Types of Job Attitudes 71
Job Satisfaction
Individual Differences
Personality and Stress
Emotions and Moods in Organizations
Learning and Experience 19
Learning Styles 19
Learning Guide to Organizational Behavior 11/E
Chapter 1 Study Guide
Components of Job Satisfaction 73
Job Satisfaction Findings 73
Job Satisfaction and Behavior 73
Job Satisfaction and Performance 76
Chapter 3 Study Guide
4 Perception, Attribution, and Learning
The Perception Process
Factors Influencing Perception 84
Stages of the Perception Process 86
Perception and Impression Management
Social Networks 89
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xx Contents
Common Perceptual Distortions
6 Motivation and Performance
Stereotypes 90
Halo Effects 91
Selective Perception 91
Projection 92
Contrast Effects 92
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 92
Perception and Attribution
Integrated Model of Motivation 130
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards 131
Pay for Performance 132
Pay for Skills 134
Performance Management
Essentials of Performance Management
Performance Appraisal Methods 136
Performance Appraisal Errors 139
Importance of Attributions
Attribution Errors 94
Attributions across Cultures 95
Attribution and Social Learning 95
Scientific Management 140
Job Enlargement and Job Rotation
Job Enrichment 142
Job Characteristics Model 142
Classical and Operant Conditioning 98
Law of Effect 99
Positive Reinforcement 99
Negative Reinforcement 101
Punishment 101
Extinction 102
Reinforcement Pros and Cons 102
5 Motivation Theories
Job-Design Alternatives
Learning by Reinforcement
Chapter 4 Study Guide
Motivation and Rewards
Alternative Work Schedules
Compressed Work Weeks 146
Flexible Working Hours 146
Job Sharing 147
Telecommuting 148
Part-Time Work 148
Chapter 6 Study Guide
What Is Motivation?
Motivation Defined 110
Types of Motivation Theories 110
Motivation across Cultures 110
Needs Theories of Motivation
Part 3 Teams and Teamwork
7 Teams in Organizations
Teams in Organizations
Teams and Teamwork 156
What Teams Do 157
Organizations as Networks of Teams 157
Cross-Functional and Problem-Solving Teams
Virtual Teams 160
Self-Managing Teams 161
Hierarchy of Needs Theory 111
ERG Theory 112
Acquired Needs Theory 112
Two-Factor Theory 114
Equity Theory of Motivation
Equity and Social Comparisons 115
Equity Theory Predictions 116
Equity Theory and Organizational Justice
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
Expectancy Terms and Concepts 118
Expectancy Theory Predictions 119
Expectancy Implications and Research 120
Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation
Motivational Properties of Goals 121
Goal-Setting Guidelines 121
Goal Setting and the Management
Process 123
Chapter 5 Study Guide
Team Effectiveness
Criteria of an Effective Team 162
Synergy and Team Benefits 163
Social Loafing and Team Problems
Stages of Team Development
Forming Stage 166
Storming Stage 166
Norming Stage 167
Performing Stage 167
Adjourning Stage 168
Foundations of Team Performance
Team Inputs
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Contents xxi
Diversity and Team Performance
Team Processes 173
Chapter 7 Study Guide
Creativity in Decision Making
Stages of Creative Thinking 222
Personal Creativity Drivers 223
Team Creativity Drivers 224
8 Teamwork and Team Performance
Chapter 9 Study Guide
High Performance Teams
Characteristics of High-Performance Teams
The Team-Building Process 181
Team-Building Alternatives 182
Improving Team Processes
Entry of New Members 183
Task and Maintenance Leadership 184
Roles and Role Dynamics 185
Team Norms 186
Team Cohesiveness 188
Inter-Team Dynamics 190
Improving Team Communications
Communication Networks 192
Proxemics and Use of Space 194
Communication Technologies 194
Improving Team Decisions
Ways Teams Make Decisions 195
Assets and Liabilities of Team Decisions 197
Groupthink Symptoms and Remedies 198
Team Decision Techniques 199
Chapter 8 Study Guide
9 Decision Making and Creativity
10 Conflict and Negotiation
Conflict in Organizations
Types of Conflict 232
Levels of Conflict 232
Functional and Dysfunctional Conflict
Culture and Conflict 235
Conflict Management
Stages of Conflict 236
Causes of Conflict 237
Indirect Conflict Management Strategies 238
Direct Conflict Management Strategies 240
Negotiation Goals and Outcomes 242
Ethical Aspects of Negotiation 242
Organizational Settings for Negotiation 243
Culture and Negotiation 244
Negotiation Strategies
Distributive Negotiation 244
Integrative Negotiation 246
How to Gain Integrative Agreements 246
Common Negotiation Pitfalls 247
Third-Party Roles in Negotiation 249
Chapter 10 Study Guide
The Decision-Making Process
Steps in Decision Making 206
Ethical Reasoning and Decision Making 207
Types of Decisions 210
Decision Environments 211
Risk Management in Decision Making 212
Decision-Making Models
Classical Decision Model 213
Behavioral Decision Model 213
Garbage Can Decision Model 214
Intuitive Decision Model 215
Decision-Making Traps and Issues
Judgmental Heuristics 215
Decision Biases 216
Knowing When to Decide 217
Knowing Who to Involve 217
Knowing When to Quit 220
Part 4 Influence Processes and Leadership
11Communication and Collaboration
The Nature of Communication
The Communication Process 256
Feedback and Communication 257
Nonverbal Communication 258
Interpersonal Communication
Communication Barriers 259
Active Listening 260
Cross-Cultural Communication
Organizational Communication
Communication Channels 264
Communication Flows 266
Status Effects 268
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Page xxii
xxii Contents
Collaborative Work Environments
Chapter 11 Study Guide
12 Power and Politics
Issues in Charismatic and Transformational
Leadership 325
Collaboration Technologies 269
Interactional Transparency 270
Supportive Communication Principles
Power and Influence
Moral Leadership
Interdependence, Legitimacy, and Power
Obedience 280
Acceptance of Authority and the Zone
of Indifference 280
Position Power 282
Personal Power 285
Power and Influence Capacity
Relational Influence 288
Shared Leadership in Work Teams 336
Shared Leadership and Self-Leadership 337
Leadership across Cultures
The GLOBE Perspective 338
Leadership Aspects and Culture 340
Culturally Endorsed Leadership Matches 341
Universally Endorsed Aspects of Leadership 342
Keys to Empowerment 290
Power as an Expanding Pie 290
From Empowerment to Valuing People
Organizational Politics
Chapter 12 Study Guide
13 Leadership Essentials
Top Management Teams 343
Multiple-Level Leadership 343
Leadership Tensions and Complexity 345
Contexts for Leadership Action 347
Leaders as Change Agents 352
Phases of Planned Change 354
Planned Change Strategies 355
Resistance to Change 357
Managers versus Leaders 306
Trait Leadership Perspectives 306
Behavioral Leadership Perspectives 307
Chapter 14 Study Guide
Situational Contingency Leadership
Fiedler’s Leadership Contingency View 310
House’s Path-Goal View of Leadership 313
Hersey and Blanchard Situational
Leadership Model 315
Graen’s Leader-Member Exchange Theory 316
Substitutes for Leadership 318
Leadership as Attribution 319
Leadership Prototypes 320
Inspirational Leadership Perspectives
Strategic Leadership
Leading Organizational Change
Implicit Leadership
Authentic Leadership 332
Spiritual Leadership 332
Servant Leadership 333
Ethical Leadership 334
Shared Leadership
Traditions of Organizational Politics
Politics of Self-Protection 295
Politics and Governance 296
14 Leadership Challenges and Organizational
Change 330
Sources of Power and Influence
Chapter 13 Study Guide
Part 5 Organizational Context
15 Organizational Culture and Innovation
Organizational Culture
Functions of Organizational Culture 366
Subcultures and Countercultures 368
National Culture and Corporate Culture 369
Understanding Organizational Cultures
Charismatic Leadership 321
Transactional and Transformational Leadership 324
Transformational Leadership Dimensions 324
Layers of Cultural Analysis 371
Stories, Rites, Rituals, and Symbols 372
Cultural Rules and Roles 373
Shared Values, Meanings, and Organizational
Myths 373
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Contents xxiii
Innovation in Organizations
Strategy and Organizational Design
The Process of Innovation 376
Product and Process Innovations 377
Balancing Exploration and Exploitation 378
Organizational Design and Strategic Decisions
Organizational Design and Co-Evolution 420
Organizational Design and Growth 421
Managing Organizational Culture
and Innovation 380
Technology and Organizational Design
Management Philosophy and Strategy 381
Building, Reinforcing, and Changing Culture 381
Tensions Between Cultural Stability and Innovation 383
Chapter 15 Study Guide
Organizational Goals
OB Skills Workbook
Hierarchy and Control
Organizations as Hierarchies 393
Controls Are a Basic Feature 397
Centralization and Decentralization 399
Organizing and Coordinating Work
Traditional Types of Departments
Coordination 404
Bureaucracy and Beyond
Mechanistic Structures and the Machine
Bureaucracy 407
Organic Structures and the Professional
Bureaucracy 408
Hybrid Structures 408
Chapter 16 Study Guide
Learning Style Inventory
Strategy 416
Organizational Learning 416
Linking Strategy and Organizational Learning 419
Student Leadership Practices Inventory
Self-Assessment Portfolio
Team and Experiential Exercises
Cases for Critical Thinking
Self-Test Answers
Photo Credits
Strategy and Organizational Learning
17 Strategy, Technology, and Organizational
Design 414
Environmental Complexity 431
Using Networks and Alliances 432
Chapter 17 Study Guide
Societal Goals 390
Output Goals 391
Systems Goals 392
Operations Technology and Organizational
Design 424
Adhocracy as a Design Option for Innovation
and Learning 426
Information Technology 426
Environment and Organizational Design
16 Organizational Goals and Structures
Organizations Index
Name Index
Subject Index