Identify and Quantify Mission-Critical Factors (How to Perform a Critical Audit) Neil Maldeis , Energy Solutions Engineering Leader, Trane Learning Objectives • Benefits of a critical system audit • How to identify and quantify mission-critical factors • How to begin the journey to create a high performance building with a critical system audit • Tips to optimize your critical system audit Benefits of a Critical System Audit • Providing a safer, healthier, more comfortable environment • Operating reliably with minimum unscheduled downtime and fast recovery • Maintaining performance within acceptable tolerances throughout their lifespan • Enhancing organization and occupant performance, retaining/increasing in value and adding luster to the organization’s brand and reputation Steps for Performing a Critical System Audit • Assemble the right team of participants • Define program objectives • Understand mission-critical factors (identify and quantify) • Gather relevant data and make comparisons • Determine strategies and actions to meet objectives • Measure results and determine program effectiveness Conduct a Critical Building Systems Audit • Assemble a team • Define program objectives – Reduce operating costs – Increase operational performance – Improve occupant comfort and safety – Enhance employee productivity – Achieve environmental certification Build an energy management team with buy-in from key internal stakeholders, including owners, managers and department heads Identify and Quantify MissionCritical Factors Consider the cost of a building failure on operations and stakeholders Identify and Quantify MissionCritical Factors, cont’d. Example: School building Every building has unique factors to consider Gather Relevant Data and Make Comparisons • Determine the current level of performance of key building systems: HVAC, lighting, water, electrical, etc. • Gather 3-5 years of actual energy cost data • Use actual data to estimate annual cost of planned and unplanned maintenance • Compare actual costs against industry averages and best-in-class performance Gather Relevant Data and Make Comparisons, cont’d Gather Relevant Data and Make Comparisons, cont’d General Facility Equipment Information and Maintenance History Critical Area Equipment ID Maintenance Agreement(s) & Cost Critical Area Served Cooling System Equipment Type ID Tag Manufacturer Model Number Serial Number Age Current Maintenance Provider 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Heating System 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pumps and Motors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fans - Supply Air - Return air - Cooling tower etc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Air Handling Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cost Determine Strategies and Actions to Meet Objectives Major ECM Category ECM Type Controls General/Special Industrial Compressed Air Water Reduce Use Controls General/Special Controls General/Special Supply Side Management Manage Energy Supply Water Smart Metering Electrical Lighting Electrical Lighting Plant Boilers Supply Side Management Manage Energy Supply Architectural Envelope Electrical Lighting Electrical Lighting Electrical Lighting Plant Boilers HVAC (Building/ Non-Plant) Unit Upgrade HVAC (Building/ Non-Plant) Unit Upgrade Electrical Lighting Electrical Lighting Architectural RoofHeat Pump Water Source Plant Systems Plant Motors/Pumping Controls Resetting Controls Resetting Technology/ECM Name Upgrade to Direct Digital Control Implement Compressed Air Utility Management Install Low Flow/Use Fixtures Retro/Recommission Controls for Optimizing Savings Install Lab Hoods Control - Flow Safe Lab Hoods Change Regulated Utility Rate/Tariff Install Smart Meters & software -- for Billing & Accuracy Install Lighting Controls Replace T-8s for HiBays with T5s Install Tankless/Instantanious Water Heaters Change to Interruptible Rates and Use Electric Generators Install Weather-Stripping Upgrade Fluorescent Fixtures w/ T8 or T5 Lamps and Electronic Ballasts Retrofit Incandescent Lamps w/ Compact Fluorescent Lamps Replace Exit Sign w/new LED Fixture Adjust Burner as Regular Maintenance Convert CV to VAV Convert Dual Duct to VAV Replace HID HiBay fixtures with T5s or T8s Add LED night lights in halls New Construction with Green Roofs (Plants) Install Water Source Heat Pump System Install VFD/VSDs for Pumps Reduce Outdoor Air To Design Level CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Rating 100% 100% 96% 94% 94% 94% 94% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 88% 88% 86% 86% 85% 83% 81% 78% 78% Determine Strategies and Actions to Meet Objectives, cont’d “Re-commissioning” has become a mainstream concept • Many buildings fail to live up to standards their designers envisioned – even when new • Most buildings “drift” from original parameters and perform less efficiently as their functions change, equipment wears and controls strategies deviate from original design intentions A disciplined re-commissioning project typically yields 10 - 20% energy savings Determine Strategies and Actions to Meet Objectives, cont’d Top Control Strategy Improvements Air handling systems (HVAC) • Temperature setup/setback • Sensors that are out of calibration, especially OA sensors • Synchronizing the mechanical equipment with building occupancy • Economizers that haven’t been maintained • Discharge air reset • Static pressure reset • Demand Control Ventilation • Dirty condenser and evaporator coils and filters Determine Strategies and Actions to Meet Objectives, cont’d Top Control Strategy Improvements – cont. Chilled Water Systems • Chilled and condenser water reset • Optimal start/stop of major equipment • Cooling tower optimization • Fan and pump speed drives Heating Systems • Boiler hot water reset Measure Results and Determine Program Effectiveness Select improvement actions Lighting—implement solutions for maximum energy savings Typical savings 10–15 % Building Automation/Controls 5–15% HVAC 5–15% upgrade—replace aging equipment with state-of-the-art models Plant upgrade — replace chillers/boilers with higher efficiency models 5–15% Pumps and motors — replace with higher efficiency models Comprehensive energy savings projects — improvements in all of the 5–15% above areas. Lighting solutions may account for as much as half of the savings in a comprehensive project. 20–30% Building performance improvements offer solid return on investment Measure Results and Determine Program Effectiveness, cont’d Building performance improvements increase energy efficiency Keys to Success • Understand the mission, purpose and objectives of your organization and its buildings • Assemble the right team • Define your objectives • Identify gaps and key improvement opportunities • Create an improvement plan and take action • Measure the results for effectiveness Energy efficiency & environmental performance are critical Organizational performance and productivity drive value, ROI Effective service strategy maintains lifecycle performance QUESTIONS NEIL MALDEIS [email protected] APPENDIX CRITICAL AUDIT WORK SHEETS General Facility Equipment Information and Maintenance History Critical Area Equipment ID Maintenance Agreement(s) & Cost Critical Area Served Cooling System Equipment Type ID Tag Manufacturer Model Number Serial Number Age Current Maintenance Provider 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Heating System 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pumps and Motors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fans - Supply Air - Return air - Cooling tower etc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Air Handling Equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cost Available Building Documents General 1 Obtain Drawings Previous Audits or future system Planning 1Have critical areas and critical systems audits have been conducted previously? 2 Can I have a copy for our records? 3 Facility changes planned in near future? 4 Operational changes planned in near future? 5 Any equipment in need of repair, upgrade or replacement? 6 Any unplanned equipment outages/failures in past 12-mont Mechanical System Enter Yes, No or N/A Mechanical Cooling System (Various) 1 Are condenser pressures & temperatures correct vs specification? 2 Are evaporator pressures & temperatures correct vs Specification? 3 Are obvious refrigerant leaks and surging detected? 4 Are sensors installed correctly? 5 Have sensors been calibrated in past 12 months? 6 Are safeties, interlocks & alarms functioning correctly? 7 Any excessive compressor or motor noise, vibration heat emission observed Cooling Towers (As applicable) 1 Fan bearing any excessive noise, vibration heat emission observed 2 Fan Motor bearings any excessive noise, vibration or heat emission observed 3 Gearbox assessed any excessive noise, vibration or heat emission observed Condenser Water Pumps (As applicable) 1 Any excessive noise, vibration heat emission observed 2 Coupling alignment (as applicable) satisfactory - any excessive noise, vibration heat emission observed 3 Seal Condition (as applicable) any excessive water leaks 4 Bearing status, any noise or overheating observed Chilled Water Pumps (As applicable) 1 Any excessive noise, vibration heat emission observed 2 Coupling alignment (as applicable) satisfactory - any excessive noise, vibration heat emission observed 3 Seal Condition (as applicable) any excessive water leaks 4 Bearing status, any noise or overheating observed Electrical Control Panel, Starter or MCC Panel(s)* (Recommend to be completed by certified electrician) 1 Any excessive heat emission observed 2 3 4 Any Terminal corrosion observed Any excessive contactor or relay chatter observed Any excessive transformer hum or vibration detected and/or heat emission Enter Controls Systems Yes, No or N/A Conformance to Specification 1 Is Control system in your facility latest version Are areas with special HVAC requirements monitored in accordance with engineering design temp set points, alarm set 2 points etc. 3 As-built drawings, schematics and P&ID's up to date? 4 Spare parts on hand per recommendation? 5 Correct software and revision level? 6 Are there back up procedure for software and graphics? 7 Is eqiuipment commissioning up to date? Workstation & Building Controllers 1 Critical alarms monitored remotely? 2 Are all monitored data points in specification? 3 Are data points monitored remotely 4 Are system set point changes logged and reviewed at least weekly? 5 Programming matches sequence of operations? 6 Does system have electrical outage ride-through capability - is there UPS capability 7 Operation of control sensors and devices monitored 24/7/365 8 Software changes controlled, authorization codes used and logged? 9 Is there a written procedure for addressing alarm logs? 10 Are all manual overrides reviewed at least weekly by the supervisor? Programmable and Configurable Controllers 1 Unit graphics and custom reports functional? 2 Programming matches sequence of operations? 3 Are all manual overrides reviewed at least weekly by the supervisor? 4 Sensor readings are within tolerance? 5 Operation of control sensors and devices monitored 24/7/365 6 Are standalone control devices calibrated? 7 Are trends set up and reviewed periodically? 8 Are all set points routinely verified? Unit Controllers (as applicable) 1 Is the alarm log routinely investigated? 2 Are unit graphics and custom reports functional? 3 Are all manual overrides reviewed at least weekly by the supervisor? 4 Are sensor readings are within tolerance? 5 Are operation of control sensors and devices inspected at least quarterly? 6 Are the procedures for calibration of standalone control devices routinely monitored? 7 Are trends set up reviewed periodically? 8 Are test points verified? Maintenance Practices Enter Yes, No or N/A Areas with Special HVAC Requirements 1 HVAC filters properly installed and maintained to prevent air leakages and dust overloads? 2 HEPA filter units checked? If Applicable 3 Clean area performance verified by appropriate particle testing? 4 Back up / emergency power HVAC available to sustain systems operation? 5 Areas with special ventilation, filtration, or pressurization requirements monitored? 6 Air duct flow outputs measured to ensure proper function? 7 Are air duct grills scheduled for cleaning during unoccupied times? Fresh Air Intakes 1 Fresh air intakes monitored for bird nesting or standing water etc.? 2 Bird screens in good repair? Outside Air Dampers 1 Are OAD operation acceptable? Filters 1 Are correct filters installed compared to design specifications? 2 Are the pressure drops across filters OK? (Compared to manufacturer's recommendations.)? 3 No detrimental =contaminants visible? Humidifiers (if applicable) 1 Nozzles appear clean and functional? 2 Are the pans clean with no visible overflow? 3 Are the drains properly trapped? 4 Is the biocide treatment working properly? Cooling Coils 1 Is there sufficient inspection access? 2 Do the Cooling coils appear to be clean? Condensate drip pans 1 No indication of condensation problems? 2 No visible growth (e.g., slime)? 3 Drains and traps clear, working? Mist Eliminators (if applicable) 1 Clean, straight, no carryover? Supply fans 1 Fan blades appear to be clean? 2 Belt guards appear to be properly installed? 3 Belt tension appears to be correct? 4 Motor and Fan vibration levels seem normal? 5 There appear to be no corrosion problems? Heating Coil 1 There is clear unobstructed inspection access? 2 Hearing coils appear Clean? Room partitions 1 Airflow within air partitions appears to be OK? Return fans 1 Fan blades appear to be clean? 2 Belt guards appear to be properly installed? 3 Belt tension appears to be correct? 4 Motor and Fan vibration levels seem normal? 5 There appear to be no corrosion problems? Preventive maintenance 1 Are there sufficient Spare parts inventoried? 2 Are there sufficient and proper spare air filters? 3 Are control drawing posted? 4 Are utility Management Plan, Preventive Maintenance program up to date? Boilers (if applicable) 1 Are Flues airtight? 2 Is the purge cycle working properly? 3 Do door gaskets appear to be tight? 4 Is the fuel system tight, no leaks? Cooling Towers 1 Is the tower sump clean? 2 Are any leaks or overflows evident? 3 Are eliminators working, no carryover? 4 Is there any slime or algae apparent? 5 Is the biocide treatment properly functional? Chillers 1 2 Are chiller condenser approach temperatures correct vs chiller specification? Are chiller evaporator approach temperatures correct vs chiller Specification? 3 Are there any observed refrigerant leaks? 4 Does the purge cycle operate normally? Enter Utility Diversity, Risk & Redundancy (Data Center Example) HVAC Equipment Utility Supply Diversity Is there redundancy designed into the cooling system, with redundant isolation valves or airside dampers? 1 Power is supplied to cooling system including all motors pumps and fans from two separately derived electrical sources? 2 Power is supplied to redundant / parallel air handling units from two separately derived electrical sources/ 3 4 Controllers / BCU's on UPS with redundant electrical sources? 5 Primary / Standby AHU motors have separately derived electrical sources ? Air flows, pressure, temperature and humidity relationships are considered in designing diversity in normal, stand by and emergency power? 6 Yes, No or N/A Enter Equipment & System Vulnerability Risk Safety Yes, No or N/A Risk mitigation 1 Can critical areas be served from other units if major system is disabled? 2 Is the air supply to critical areas compartmentalized? 3 Are there emergency shut down & start up procedures 4 Are the emergency start up procedures maintained & current 5 Is facility staff fully trained in these procedures Enter Redundancy Yes, No or N/A HVAC Equipment Redundancy 1 Critical area air handling units have fan redundancy? 2 Quality of drain pan under air handling units satisfactory? 3 Is there sufficient Space heating redundancy? 4 Cooling towers have at minimum redundancy? 5 Chillers have at least N+1 redundancy? 6 Condenser water pumps have N+1 redundancy? 7 Chilled water pump have N+1 redundancy?
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