Volcano Build Your Own Lesson 6 Teacher Notes

Lesson 6
Build Your Own
Teacher Notes
Lesson Outline
One of the places that HMS Endurance will visit on its current deployment is Deception Island.
This island is a volcano which last erupted in 1970. The caldera has been flooded by the sea,
so ships are actually able to sail into the crater of an active volcano.
Pupils will use this context to investigate changes caused by heating and cooling and how
rocks such as granite and basalt are formed by volcanoes. They will create their own working
model volcanoes and use them to demonstrate how different types of volcano work.
The completed volcanoes are best 'erupted' outside as this can be a messy process.
This lesson is designed to follow on from Lesson 5 - Volcanoes. If your intention is to deliver
this lesson without having done Lesson 5 previously it may be necessary to go over some of
the material from that lesson as Lesson 6 - Build Your Own Volcano builds on this.
Learning Objectives
By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:
? Work effectively within a small group/team
? Discuss within a group/team
? Communicate effectively with others
? Develop their understanding that lava is molten rock and that it solidifies to form rocks
such as granite and basalt when it erupts from a volcano
? Consolidate their understanding that when a liquid is under pressure it may contain
dissolved gases and that when the pressure is released, these gases will escape.
? Use and develop practical skills and begin to understand their relevance to science
Age Group
Years 5 and 6.
This lesson should take approximately two hours to complete.
Teacher Notes
Curriculum Links
England (National Curriculum)
Key Stage 2 Science
? Sc3: 1d,e; 2b-d
England (QCA Schemes of Work)
? Unit 5D: Changing state
? Unit 6D: Reversible and irreversible changes
Scotland (5-14 National Guidelines)
Environmental Studies: Science
? Materials from Earth: Level A,B
? Changing Materials: Level A,B
Key Stage 2 Science
? Changing Materials: 2.1 - 2.4, 2.6
Northern Ireland
Key Stage 2 Science and Technology
? Materials: Properties a,b
? Materials: Changes c,e
The following is a list of keywords that will be used in this lesson:
? basalt - a dense rock formed when lava cools quickly outside a volcano.
? caldera - the large opening created when the top of a volcano collapses.
? eruption - the event where a volcano becomes active and lava flows out of it
? granite - a dense rock formed when magma cools slowly inside a volcano.
? igneous - a type of rock formed from cooled lava or magma. Granite and basalt are
common examples.
? lava - molten rock when it reaches the Earth’s surface.
? magma - molten rock before it reaches the Earth’s surface.
? pumice - a very light volcanic rock formed when lava full of gas cools quickly trapping
the gas in bubbles. Pumice stone floats in water.
? sedimentary - a type of rock formed from layers of sediment that have been squashed
together over millions of years.
- an opening in the Earth’s surface through which volcanic materials are released.
? viscosity - the thickness of a liquid or its ability to flow.
? volcanologist - a scientist who studies volcanoes.
Teacher Notes
Equipment & Materials
Teacher Resources
? A large globe and/or world map
? Pictures of HMS Endurance and the Antarctic either printed out or displaying on the
class whiteboard
? A map of Deception Island (available at http://www.deceptionisland.aq/map.php) for
displaying on the class whiteboard
Practical Activity Resources
This lesson is supported with resource sheets which show pupils how they can make their own
volcano. The materials used to make the body of the volcano can vary and will depend on
what is most convenient.
The list below shows what equipment and materials are required to build one volcano. A range
of alternatives are given for the volcano body, along with their pros and cons.
? A small plastic lemonade bottle - 0.5 litres or less, unopened (with lemonade still
? A piece of corrugated cardboard about 30 cm square for the volcano base. Plastic
corriflute (the material that estate agents’ signs are made from) is actually better suited
but may not be as easy to find as cardboard. Prior to the lesson you will need to cut a
hole in the centre of the base big enough for the lemonade bottle to fit through.
? A length of tinfoil big enough to wrap around the bottle and cover it from base to top
? A teaspoonful of red food colouring.
? Disposable plastic gloves - not essential but a good idea when handling the food
? Aprons - not essential but useful for protecting clothing from food colouring and if you
make your volcano bodies from papier mache.
? A tablespoon or two of wall paper paste.
? A packet of 'Minto' type mint sweets.
? A lollypop stick, sticky tape and a 1 metre length of string.
? Half a sheet of A4 paper.
? A copy of Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build Your Own Volcano.
The volcano body
Your pupils can make their volcano bodies from any of the following materials:
? Papier mache - easy to use and can be painted, but messy to mix up and will get soggy
when your volcano erupts. You will also need to leave it for a day or two to dry out,
before completing the activity.
? Modelling clay - easy and clean to use and you can really go to town sculpting the
shape of your volcano, but you will need a lot of it and it is difficult to paint.
? Air setting clay - easy and clean to use and you can really go to town sculpting the
shape of your volcano. You can also paint it when it is dry, but you will need a lot of it.
Teacher Notes
Lesson Structure
Recap the main points of Lesson 5 - Volcanoes by questioning the pupils to see how
much they have remembered.
? what lava is.
? why there are different types of volcano and how this relates to the properties of
different types of lava.
Main Activity
Pupils can work in pairs to produce their own volcano. Instructions are provided on
Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build Your Own Volcano. If you are making the volcano body
from papier mache you will need to split the lesson to allow time for the paper to fully
dry out.
? The volcanoes can erupt in two different ways explosively like a composite or
strato volcano or more gently like a shield volcano. If you have time and
enough lemonade each pair can try both modes of eruption.
? Instructions for both modes of eruption are given on Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build
Your Own Volcano.
Summarise key points ie;
? When a solid turns to a liquid we call this melting and when a liquid turns to a
solid we call this solidifying.
? As a liquid cools to form a solid, it may form visible crystals.
? There are different types of lava, with different properties.
? The shape of a volcano will depend on the properties of the lava that erupts
from it.
? Gases can dissolve in a liquid and they can be released when the pressure is
? Adapt discussion sessions to suit ability and age group.
? Provide extra support during group activities for those pupils who require
Extension Work
? Pupils could film the different types of eruption with a video camera and make
their own 'volcano documentary'.
? Pupils could use modelling clay to sculpt a set of different types of volcanoes
these do not have to be erupting versions.
Teacher Notes
Risk assessment
Some safety advice is included in this lesson plan, however, it is the responsibility of the
supervising teacher to carry out all risk assessments with regard to this activity and to make
sure that any such risk assessment complies with the requirements of the particular institution
in which it is being conducted.
Find Out More
www.visitandlearn.co.uk and www.royalnavy.mod.uk
Lots of information about HMS Endurance and its work in Antarctica.
The Deception Island website containing maps and lots of information about the island.
Lots of information with animations of different types of volcanoes erupting.
Lots of information and film clips relating to volcanoes.
The Deception Island website containing maps and lots of information about the island
Simple descriptions of different types of lava and volcanic eruptions
Pupils can build their own animated volcanoes, finding out how the type of lava affects the
shape of the volcano.
Resource Sheet 6.1
Build Your Own
Real volcanoes are all well and good but they can be a bit
dangerous if you get too close, so have a go at making one you
can get a bit closer to!
Follow the instructions on this sheet and you can build your very own
erupting volcano. It's just like the real thing, just a bit smaller and not quite
so hot.
Here’s how to make your volcano:
Stand your lemonade
bottle in the hole in your
volcano base.
Loosely wrap a sheet of
tinfoil around the bottle
and tape it to the base.
Make sure the tinfoil doesn't
wrap around the top of the
bottle as you will need to be
able to get your fingers in here
to twist the top off.
Resource Sheet 6.1
Build Your Own
Now make the body of your volcano. You can do this with modelling
clay, air drying clay or papier mache.
If you make it with papier mache you will need to leave your volcano for a
few days before going on to Step 4 so that it dries out.
The best shape to
make is a nice cone.
As you build up your
cone make sure that you
can still remove your
bottle through the base.
Also make sure that the
crater at the top is big
enough so that you can
get your fingers in to twist
the lid off of your bottle.
The volcano body should be complete. If it is made from papier mache or air drying
clay you may want to paint it to get that real volcano look. Painting modelling clay
generally doesn't work very well.
ck fact about volcanoes
qu i
Did you know that the biggest volcano in the solar system is
called Olympus Mons and it can be found on Mars?
At 27 km (17 miles) high it actually pokes out of the top of
Mars' atmosphere and is nearly three times higher than
Mount Everest.
Resource Sheet 6.1
Build Your Own
Erupting Your Volcano Explosively
1. Make a short paper tube (about 3 cm long) that will fit snugly inside the top of your
bottle. Fasten it together with sticky tape. Then use a pair of scissors to make two
small cuts in the side of the tube.
2. Poke the end of your lolly stick through the cuts in the tube wall so that the lolly
stick blocks the tube.
3. Tape a piece of string to the end of the lolly stick. The string needs to be stuck
quite firmly as you will need to give it a
sharp tug.
Paper tube
4. Your lemonade bottle should be
inside your volcano. Twist the lid off
and add a teaspoonful of red food
5. Push your paper tube into the bottle
neck and put a 'Minto' sweet into the
tube so that the lolly stick stops it from
falling in.
Lolly stick
Use tissue paper to bung up any holes between your bottle and the volcano body.
6. Retreat to a safe distance and pull the string. The lolly stick should pull out of the
tube, letting the sweet fall into the lemonade and your volcano should erupt quite
Erupting Your Volcano More Gently
1. Put your lemonade bottle in a freezer until it is as cold as it can get without freezing.
2. Tip out about a quarter of the lemonade. Put a few teaspoons of wallpaper paste
into the bottle and a teaspoon of red food colouring then screw the top back on.
3. Give your bottle a good shake and put it back inside your volcano and use tissue
paper to bung up any holes between your bottle and the volcano body.
4. Now quickly remove the top of your bottle and step back from the danger zone.