Lesson 6 Build Your Own Volcano 2008 1. Teacher Notes Lesson Outline One of the places that HMS Endurance will visit on its current deployment is Deception Island. This island is a volcano which last erupted in 1970. The caldera has been flooded by the sea, so ships are actually able to sail into the crater of an active volcano. Pupils will use this context to investigate changes caused by heating and cooling and how rocks such as granite and basalt are formed by volcanoes. They will create their own working model volcanoes and use them to demonstrate how different types of volcano work. The completed volcanoes are best 'erupted' outside as this can be a messy process. This lesson is designed to follow on from Lesson 5 - Volcanoes. If your intention is to deliver this lesson without having done Lesson 5 previously it may be necessary to go over some of the material from that lesson as Lesson 6 - Build Your Own Volcano builds on this. 2. Learning Objectives By the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to: ? Work effectively within a small group/team ? Discuss within a group/team ? Communicate effectively with others ? Develop their understanding that lava is molten rock and that it solidifies to form rocks such as granite and basalt when it erupts from a volcano ? Consolidate their understanding that when a liquid is under pressure it may contain dissolved gases and that when the pressure is released, these gases will escape. ? Use and develop practical skills and begin to understand their relevance to science 3. Age Group Years 5 and 6. 4. Timing This lesson should take approximately two hours to complete. Build Your Own Volcano 5. Teacher Notes Curriculum Links England (National Curriculum) Key Stage 2 Science ? Sc3: 1d,e; 2b-d England (QCA Schemes of Work) ? Unit 5D: Changing state ? Unit 6D: Reversible and irreversible changes Scotland (5-14 National Guidelines) Environmental Studies: Science ? Materials from Earth: Level A,B ? Changing Materials: Level A,B Wales Key Stage 2 Science ? Changing Materials: 2.1 - 2.4, 2.6 Northern Ireland Key Stage 2 Science and Technology ? Materials: Properties a,b ? Materials: Changes c,e 6. Keywords The following is a list of keywords that will be used in this lesson: ? basalt - a dense rock formed when lava cools quickly outside a volcano. ? caldera - the large opening created when the top of a volcano collapses. ? eruption - the event where a volcano becomes active and lava flows out of it ? granite - a dense rock formed when magma cools slowly inside a volcano. ? igneous - a type of rock formed from cooled lava or magma. Granite and basalt are common examples. ? lava - molten rock when it reaches the Earth’s surface. ? magma - molten rock before it reaches the Earth’s surface. ? pumice - a very light volcanic rock formed when lava full of gas cools quickly trapping the gas in bubbles. Pumice stone floats in water. ? sedimentary - a type of rock formed from layers of sediment that have been squashed together over millions of years. vent - an opening in the Earth’s surface through which volcanic materials are released. ? ? viscosity - the thickness of a liquid or its ability to flow. ? volcanologist - a scientist who studies volcanoes. 2 Build Your Own Volcano 7. Teacher Notes 3 Equipment & Materials Teacher Resources ? A large globe and/or world map ? Pictures of HMS Endurance and the Antarctic either printed out or displaying on the class whiteboard ? A map of Deception Island (available at http://www.deceptionisland.aq/map.php) for displaying on the class whiteboard Practical Activity Resources This lesson is supported with resource sheets which show pupils how they can make their own volcano. The materials used to make the body of the volcano can vary and will depend on what is most convenient. The list below shows what equipment and materials are required to build one volcano. A range of alternatives are given for the volcano body, along with their pros and cons. ? A small plastic lemonade bottle - 0.5 litres or less, unopened (with lemonade still inside). ? A piece of corrugated cardboard about 30 cm square for the volcano base. Plastic corriflute (the material that estate agents’ signs are made from) is actually better suited but may not be as easy to find as cardboard. Prior to the lesson you will need to cut a hole in the centre of the base big enough for the lemonade bottle to fit through. ? A length of tinfoil big enough to wrap around the bottle and cover it from base to top ? A teaspoonful of red food colouring. ? Disposable plastic gloves - not essential but a good idea when handling the food colouring. ? Aprons - not essential but useful for protecting clothing from food colouring and if you make your volcano bodies from papier mache. ? A tablespoon or two of wall paper paste. ? A packet of 'Minto' type mint sweets. ? A lollypop stick, sticky tape and a 1 metre length of string. ? Half a sheet of A4 paper. ? A copy of Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build Your Own Volcano. The volcano body Your pupils can make their volcano bodies from any of the following materials: ? Papier mache - easy to use and can be painted, but messy to mix up and will get soggy when your volcano erupts. You will also need to leave it for a day or two to dry out, before completing the activity. ? Modelling clay - easy and clean to use and you can really go to town sculpting the shape of your volcano, but you will need a lot of it and it is difficult to paint. ? Air setting clay - easy and clean to use and you can really go to town sculpting the shape of your volcano. You can also paint it when it is dry, but you will need a lot of it. Build Your Own Teacher Notes Volcano 8. Lesson Structure Introduction I. Recap the main points of Lesson 5 - Volcanoes by questioning the pupils to see how much they have remembered. ? what lava is. ? why there are different types of volcano and how this relates to the properties of different types of lava. Main Activity I. Pupils can work in pairs to produce their own volcano. Instructions are provided on Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build Your Own Volcano. If you are making the volcano body from papier mache you will need to split the lesson to allow time for the paper to fully dry out. ? The volcanoes can erupt in two different ways explosively like a composite or strato volcano or more gently like a shield volcano. If you have time and enough lemonade each pair can try both modes of eruption. ? Instructions for both modes of eruption are given on Resource Sheet 6.1 - Build Your Own Volcano. Conclusion Summarise key points ie; ? When a solid turns to a liquid we call this melting and when a liquid turns to a solid we call this solidifying. ? As a liquid cools to form a solid, it may form visible crystals. ? There are different types of lava, with different properties. ? The shape of a volcano will depend on the properties of the lava that erupts from it. ? Gases can dissolve in a liquid and they can be released when the pressure is reduced. 9. Differentiation ? Adapt discussion sessions to suit ability and age group. ? Provide extra support during group activities for those pupils who require it. 10. Extension Work ? Pupils could film the different types of eruption with a video camera and make their own 'volcano documentary'. ? Pupils could use modelling clay to sculpt a set of different types of volcanoes these do not have to be erupting versions. 4 Build Your Own Volcano 11. Teacher Notes Risk assessment Some safety advice is included in this lesson plan, however, it is the responsibility of the supervising teacher to carry out all risk assessments with regard to this activity and to make sure that any such risk assessment complies with the requirements of the particular institution in which it is being conducted. 12. Find Out More Teachers www.visitandlearn.co.uk and www.royalnavy.mod.uk Lots of information about HMS Endurance and its work in Antarctica. www.deceptionisland.aq/ The Deception Island website containing maps and lots of information about the island. www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/volcanoes/vtypesvolcan1.html Lots of information with animations of different types of volcanoes erupting. Pupils http://volcano.und.edu/ Lots of information and film clips relating to volcanoes. www.deceptionisland.aq/ The Deception Island website containing maps and lots of information about the island http://library.thinkquest.org/J001393/volcanoes/lava.htm Simple descriptions of different types of lava and volcanic eruptions www.nhm.ac.uk/kids-only/fun-games/volcano/about-volcanoes.html Pupils can build their own animated volcanoes, finding out how the type of lava affects the shape of the volcano. 5 Build Your Own Resource Sheet 6.1 Volcano Build Your Own Volcano Real volcanoes are all well and good but they can be a bit dangerous if you get too close, so have a go at making one you can get a bit closer to! Follow the instructions on this sheet and you can build your very own erupting volcano. It's just like the real thing, just a bit smaller and not quite so hot. Here’s how to make your volcano: 1 Stand your lemonade bottle in the hole in your volcano base. 2 Loosely wrap a sheet of tinfoil around the bottle and tape it to the base. Make sure the tinfoil doesn't wrap around the top of the bottle as you will need to be able to get your fingers in here to twist the top off. Build Your Own Resource Sheet 6.1 Volcano Volcano 3 Build Your Own Now make the body of your volcano. You can do this with modelling clay, air drying clay or papier mache. If you make it with papier mache you will need to leave your volcano for a few days before going on to Step 4 so that it dries out. 4 The best shape to make is a nice cone. As you build up your cone make sure that you can still remove your bottle through the base. Also make sure that the crater at the top is big enough so that you can get your fingers in to twist the lid off of your bottle. 5 Elle n’ s The volcano body should be complete. If it is made from papier mache or air drying clay you may want to paint it to get that real volcano look. Painting modelling clay generally doesn't work very well. ck fact about volcanoes qu i Did you know that the biggest volcano in the solar system is called Olympus Mons and it can be found on Mars? At 27 km (17 miles) high it actually pokes out of the top of Mars' atmosphere and is nearly three times higher than Mount Everest. Build Your Own Resource Sheet 6.1 Build Your Own Volcano Volcano Erupting Your Volcano Explosively 1. Make a short paper tube (about 3 cm long) that will fit snugly inside the top of your bottle. Fasten it together with sticky tape. Then use a pair of scissors to make two small cuts in the side of the tube. 2. Poke the end of your lolly stick through the cuts in the tube wall so that the lolly stick blocks the tube. 3. Tape a piece of string to the end of the lolly stick. The string needs to be stuck quite firmly as you will need to give it a sharp tug. Paper tube 4. Your lemonade bottle should be inside your volcano. Twist the lid off and add a teaspoonful of red food colouring. 5. Push your paper tube into the bottle neck and put a 'Minto' sweet into the tube so that the lolly stick stops it from falling in. String Lolly stick Use tissue paper to bung up any holes between your bottle and the volcano body. 6. Retreat to a safe distance and pull the string. The lolly stick should pull out of the tube, letting the sweet fall into the lemonade and your volcano should erupt quite explosively! Erupting Your Volcano More Gently 1. Put your lemonade bottle in a freezer until it is as cold as it can get without freezing. 2. Tip out about a quarter of the lemonade. Put a few teaspoons of wallpaper paste into the bottle and a teaspoon of red food colouring then screw the top back on. 3. Give your bottle a good shake and put it back inside your volcano and use tissue paper to bung up any holes between your bottle and the volcano body. 4. Now quickly remove the top of your bottle and step back from the danger zone.
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