ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS USED IN MEDICINE Assoc. Prof. Warwick Carter MB.BS., FRACGP, FAMA Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols and postnominals that may be encountered in medical books, magazines, letters, research articles and advertisements, or patient records, prescriptions and reports. The interpretation of an abbreviation may vary in different contexts. The use of medical acronyms and abbreviations should be discouraged. PREFACE Abbreviations and acronyms seem to be multiplying exponentially in modern medicine. Some are just a passing fad, or have only local significance; others, though, become widely used and recognised. Unfortunately, remembering the details about the alphabet soup that may appear in medical records or reports has become an impossible task for the busy clinician. This book is aimed to assist doctors, medical students, nurses and others involved in reading medical notes and reports in interpreting the abbreviations and acronyms used by others. It is NOT designed to encourage their use in any way. The use of abbreviations and acronyms in medical records and reports may lead to errors in patient care as they may be misunderstood or misinterpreted. When acronyms and abbreviations are used, they should always be defined within the records, report etc. in which they appear, thus: “Mr. Jones has suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA). His CVA has left him with a left hemiplegia.” Not every abbreviation and acronym used in every clinical and geographical area of medicine can possibly be described in a book of this size, but it should include the majority of those encountered by most physicians. I trust that you will find this book useful in your practice. Warwick Carter Brisbane 2009 SYMBOLS Δ ψ Σ # † Θ diagnosis / change psychiatry / psychiatrist sum / syphilis fracture / number death birth 15/60 3/24 5/7 30/40 10/52 4/12 5 HIAA 7vPCV 14C 23vPPV fifteen minutes three hours five days thirty weeks pregnant ten weeks four months 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Carbon-14 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine NUMBERS A A A2 A2RB A&E A&O A1AT AA aa AAA AAAGP AAD AAGP AAL AAO AAPM AAT AAV AB Ab ABD ABG ABN ABVD Aedes / argon / artery / Ancyclostoma / Ascaris angiotensin 2 / aortic second sound angiotensin 2 receptor blocker accident and emergency alert and orientated alpha-1-antitrypsin Alcoholics Anonymous / amino acid / affected area equal quantities of each ingredient abdominal aortic aneurysm Australian Association of Academic General Practitioners antibiotic associated diarrhoea Australian Association of General Practitioners anterior axillary line alert awake oriented Australian Association of Practice Managers alpha1-antitrypsin adenovirus-associated virus abortion / abnormal antibody abdomen arterial blood gas abnormal adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblatine and dacarbazine AC ac Ac ACE ACER ACh AChE ACL ACLE ACP ACRRM ACS ACTH AD ad lib ADD ADEC ADGP ADH ADHD ADIS ADL ad lib ADM ADP ADR ADT AE AED AF AFB AFP AG Ag A/G AGES AGPAL A-GR AH AHD AHF AHIA AI AID acromioclavicular / acute / anterior chamber (eye) ante cibum (before food) / acetyl actinium angiotensin converting enzyme Australian Council for Educational Research acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase anterior cruciate ligament acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus acid phosphatase; acetyl carrier protein Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine acute coronary syndrome / American College of Surgeons adrenocorticotrophic hormone Alzheimer disease / auris dextra (right ear) ad libitum (at freedom, as desired) attention deficit disorder Australian Drug Evaluation Commission Australian Divisions of General Practice antidiuretic hormone attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Australasian Drug Information Service activities of daily living as much as is necessary / liberally admission / admitted adenosine diphosphate adverse drug reaction adult diphtheria and tetanus (vaccine) / any damn thing above elbow anti-epilepsy drug atrial fibrillation acid fast bacillus alpha-fetoprotein / Australian Family Physician antigen silver albumin-globulin ratio Australian Gynaecological Endoscopic Society Australian General Practice Accreditation Limited albumin-globulin ratio after hours / Accuhaler / antihistamine / Allen & Hanburys advance health directive / after hours doctor anti-haemolytic factor Australian Health Insurance Association aortic incompetence / artificial intelligence artificial insemination by donor AIDS AIH AIIRA AJ AK AKA Al alb alc Alk.Phos. ALL ALP ALT alt. AMA amb AMC AMD AMI AML amn AMO AMP amp ANA ANCA ANF ANS ant Ant-AChR ante AntiXa ANZFA AO AOB AON AP APA APC APH APPT APTT aq acquired immune deficiency disorder artificial insemination by husband angiotensin two reuptake inhibitors ankle jerk above knee above knee amputation / alcoholic ketoacidosis aluminium albumin alcohol alkaline phosphatase acute lymphatic leukaemia alkaline phosphatase alanine amino transferase alternate / alternative Australian Medical Association / American Medical Association / antimitochondrial antibody / against medical advice ambulatory Australian Medical Council age-related macular degeneration anterior myocardial infarct acute myeloid leukaemia amniocentesis / amniotic fluid attending medical officer adenosine monophosphate ampoule / amputation antinuclear antibody anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies antinuclear autoantibodies, fluorescent / antinuclear factor autonomic nervous system anterior anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody before anti-factor Xa Australian and New Zealand Food Authority alert and orientated alcohol on breath area of need anteroposterior / abdomino-perineal / antepartum Australian Physiotherapy Association activated protein C ante-partum haemorrhage activated partial prothrombin time activated partial thromboplastin time aqua (water) APR Ar ARB ARC ARD ARDGP ARDS ARF ARM AROM ART AS As ASA ASAP ASD ASOT AST At AT III ATFL ATP ATSI Au aud AV AVF AVN AW Ax AXR AZT abdomino-perineal resection argon angiotensin receptor blocker AIDS related complex acute respiratory distress Australian Rural Divisions of General Practice acute/adult respiratory distress syndrome acute renal failure / acute respiratory failure artificial rupture of membranes artificial rupture of membranes assisted reproductive technologies / artery aortic stenosis; auris sinistra (left ear) arsenic acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) as soon as possible atrial septal defect antistreptolysin O titre aspartate aminotransferase astatine antithrombin III anterior tibio-fibula ligament adenosine triphosphate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander gold auditory atrioventricular / arteriovenous arteriovenous fistula atrioventricular node atomic weight anxiety / axilla abdominal x-ray azidothymidine B B B2M BA Ba BAL BAppSc BBB BCC BCG BCh Bacillus / bath / blood / boron beta-2 Microglobulin Bachelor of Arts barium British Anti-Lewesite Bachelor of Applied Science blood-brain barrier / bundle branch block basal cell carcinoma Bacille Calmette-Guérin (TB) Bachelor of Surgery BChir bd BDSc BE Be Beta HCG BHA Bi bid BIH bil BK BKA BM BMA BMD BMedSc BMI BMJ BMR BMT BNF BNO BNS BOccThy BOM BOO BOZ BP BPH BPhty BPM BPO BPP Br BR BS BSA BSL BSP BSpThy BT BTU BTZ Bachelor of Surgery (UK) bis die (twice a day) Bachelor of Dental Surgery barium enema / below elbow beryllium beta human chorionic gonadotrophin Bachelor of Health Administration bismuth bis in die (twice in a day) bilateral inguinal hernias bilirubin below knee below knee amputation Bachelor of Medicine / bowel movement / bone marrow British Medical Association bone mineral density Bachelor of Medical Science body mass index British Medical Journal basal metabolic rate bone marrow transplant British National Formulary bowels not opened Blue Nursing Service Bachelor of Occupational Therapy bilateral otitis media bladder outlet obstruction bismuth oxide and zinc cream blood pressure / British Pharmacopoeia benign prostatic hypertrophy Bachelor of Physiotherapy beats per minute benzyl peroxide Better Practice Program / brand price premium breech (pregnancy) / Brucella / bromine bed rest Bachelor of Surgery / bowel sounds / breath sounds / blood sugar body surface area blood sugar level bromsulfophthalein Bachelor of Speech Therapy bleeding time British thermal unit butazolidin BUN BW Bx Bz blood urea nitrogen birth weight / body weight / bi-weekly biopsy benzoyl C C c. C1-7 C&S c/o c/s Ca CA ca. CABG CACP CACS CAD CAI cal CAM cAMP cap CAPD CASA CAT cath CB CBC CBG CBT CC cc CCA CCB CCF CCP CCU CD Cd CDC carbon / calorie / capsule / Celcius / cephalic (pregnancy) / cervical / cervix / Clostridium / complement cum (with) cervical vertebrae one to seven culture and sensitivity care of / complains of cycles per second / culture and sensitivity calcium carbohydrate (cancer) antigen / cancer / cardiac arrest / community acquired circa (approximately) coronary artery bypass graft coreoathetoid cerebral palsy coronary artery calcification score coronary artery disease carbonic anhydrase inhibitors calorie complementary and alternate medicine cyclic adenosine monophosphate capsule continual ambulatory peritoneal dialysis cancer associated serum antigen computerised axial tomography catheter caesarean birth complete blood count capillary blood gas cognitive behaviour therapy chief complaint cubic centimetre calcium channel antagonist calcium channel blocker congestive cardiac failure cyclic citrulinated peptide coronary care unit / catch clean urine cardiac disease / contagious disease cadmium Centre for Disease Control (USA) CDT CE CEA CEO ceph CF CFC CFP CFS CFT CG CHA ChB CHD CHF CHO chol chr CI CJD CK CKD Cl CLE CLL CLO cm CMA CMCJ CME CMI CML CMV CN CNS CO Co CO2 CoA COAD COC Comm. Comp. COPD child diphtheria and tetanus vaccine continuing education carcinoembryonic antigen chief executive officer cephalic (pregnancy) cardiac failure / complement fixation / cystic fibrosis chlorofluorocarbon Certificate in Family Planning. chronic fatigue syndrome complement fixation test chorionic gonadotrophin Certificate of Health Administration. Bachelor of Surgery (British University) congenital heart disease / coronary heart disease congestive heart failure / chronic heart failure carbohydrate cholesterol chronic cardiac index / cardiac insufficiency / colour index Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease creatine kinase chronic kidney disease chloride / chlorine / Clostridium cutaneous lupus erythematosus chronic lymphatic leukaemia Campylobacter like organism centimetre Canadian Medical Association / certified medical assistant (USA) carpo-metacarpal joint continuing medical education consumer medical information chromic myeloid leukaemia cytomegalovirus cranial nerve(s) central nervous system carbon monoxide / cardiac output / complains of cobalt carbon dioxide coenzyme A chronic obstructive airways disease combined oral contraceptive comment compound / compensation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cor COX CP CPAP CPD CPH CPK CPR cps CR Cr CRF CRP CS Cs CSF CSIRO CSL CT CTG CTR CTS Cu cu CV CVA CVD CVL CVP CVS Cx CXR CYP coronary cyclooxygenase cerebral palsy / chest pain continuous positive airways pressure cephalopelvic disproportion / continuing professional development Certificate in Public Health. creatine phospho kinase cardio-pulmonary resuscitation cycles per second controlled release / computed radiography creatinine / chromium chronic renal failure cross reactive protein caesarean section caesium cerebrospinal fluid Commonwealth Scientific Institute and Research Organisation Commonwealth Serum Laboratories computerised tomography / coronary thrombosis / cerebral tumour cardiotocograph cardio-thoracic ratio / carpal tunnel repair carpal tunnel syndrome copper cubic cardiovascular / curriculum vitae cerebrovascular accident / costovertebral angle cardiovascular disease central venous line central venous pressure cardiovascular system /chorionic villus sampling cervix / culture / cancel chest x-ray cytochrome P-450 D D d D5W D&C DA dB DC DCBE DCH daughter / decreased / dioptre / dorsal day dextrose 5% in water dilation and curettage Diploma in Anaesthetics / developmental age decibel direct current / discharge / discontinue double contrast barium enema Diploma in Child Health DCh Doctor of Surgery DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ DCP Diploma in Clinical Pathology. DD differential diagnosis / discharge diagnosis DDSc Doctor of Dental Science. DDU Diploma of Diagnostic Ultrasound. DES description / diethylstilboestrol DEXA dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DFP Diploma in Family Planning DHEA dihydroepiandrosterone DHODH dihydrooroate dyhdrogenase DI diabetes insipidus / diagnostic imaging DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation DIPJ distal interphalangeal joint DipMedSurg Diploma in Medical Surgery (Papua New-Guinea) DIU death in utero DJD degenerative joint disease DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DLE disseminated lupus erythematosus DM Doctor of Medicine / diabetes mellitus / diastolic murmur DMARD disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide DNA did not attend/deoxyribonucleic acid DNR do not resuscitate DO Diploma in Ophthalmology DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DObstRACOG Diploma in Obstetrics from the Royal Aust. College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists DOE dyspnoea on exertion DPH Diploma in Public Health DPI dry powder inhaler DPM Diploma in Psychological Medicine DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus DPyd deoxypyridinoline DR delivery room DRACOG Diploma of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists DRE digital rectal examination DRG diagnosis related group DS Doctor of Surgery / double strength / discharge summary DSA digital subtraction angiography DSAP disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (of Mental Disorders) DT DTH DTM DTP DTPa DTR DTs DU DUI DVA DVT DW Dx delirium tremens Diploma in Tropical Health. Diploma in Tropical Medicine diphtheria tetanus pertussis (vaccine) diphtheria tetanus pertussis adsorbed (vaccine) deep tendon reflex delirium tremens duodenal ulcer driving under influence Department of Veteran Affairs deep venous thrombosis dextrose water diagnosis E E e. EAA eAG EBM EBV EC ECF ECG ECT ED EDC EDD EDP EDTA EEG EENT eGFR EGFR EHEC EKG ELISA EMG EMS EMW ENA ENG Eng ENT electrolytes / engaged (pregnancy) / Escherichia ex (without) essential amino acids estimated average glucose evidence based medicine / expressed breast milk Epstein-Barr virus enteric coated extracellular fluid electrocardiograph electroconvulsive therapy effective dose / emergency department / eating and drinking estimated date of confinement expected date of delivery end diastolic pressure ethylenediaminete- traacetic acid electroencephalogram ears eyes nose throat estimated glomerular filtration rate epidermal growth factor receptor Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli Infection electrokardiogramme (German - ECG) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay electromyogram emergency medical service early morning waking extractable nuclear antigen electronystagmogram engaged (pregnancy) ear, nose & throat E/O EPAP EPC epis EPO EPP EPS ER ERCP ERG ERV ESP ESR EST ESWL ESWT Et. ETOH ETR ETT EUA EUC Ex ex aq ex lac exp ext excision of expiratory positive airways pressure enhanced primary care episiotomy evening primrose oil electrophoretic pattern of plasma electrophysiological studies extended release / emergency room endoscopic retrograde cholecysto-pancreatography electroretinogram expiratory reserve volume extrasensory perception erythrocyte sedimentation rate exercise stress test extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy extracorporeal shock wave therapy etiology ethanol effective thyroxine ratio endotracheal tube examination under anaesthesia electrolytes urea creatinine exercise / example ex aqua (with water) ex lactis (with milk) expire(s) external F F FA FAAD FAAOO FAAP FACA FACD FACP FACR FACRRM FACS FAMA FAMAS FANA FB Fahrenheit / father / female / femoral / finger / fluorine fluorescent antibody / first aid Fellow American Academy of Dermatology Fellow American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Fellow American Academy of Paediatrics Fellow American College of Anaesthetists Fellow Australian College of Dermatology Fellow American College of Physicians Fellow American College of Radiologists Fellow Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine Fellow American College of Surgeons Fellow of the Australian Medical Association Fellow Australian Medical Acupuncture Society fluorescent antinuclear antibodies foreign body FBC FBG FBS(L) FC FCAP FDA FDP Fe FEF FESS FEV1 FFP FH FHR fL Fl fl FM FMF FMH FMNF FMP FNAC FOBT FRACDS FRACGP FRACOG FRACP FRACR FRACS FRANZCP FRCGP FRCOG FRCP FRCPath FRCPsych FRCS FS FSH FT ft FTA full blood count fasting blood glucose fasting blood sugar (level) film coated Fellow College of American Pathologists Food and Drug Administration (USA) fibrin degradation products / flexor digitorum profundus iron / ferrous forced expiratory flow functional endoscopic sinus surgery forced expiratory volume in one second fresh frozen plasma foetal heart / family history foetal heart rate femtolitre fluid flaccid family medicine foetal movements felt foetomaternal haemorrhage foetal movements not felt Family Medicine Program fine needle aspiration cytology faecal occult blood test Fellow Royal Australian College of Dental Surgeons Fellow Royal Australian College of General Practitioner Fellow Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Fellow Royal Australian College of Physicians Fellow Royal Australian College of Radiologists Fellow Royal Australian College of Surgeons. Fellow Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Fellow Royal College of General Practitioners (UK) Fellow Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (United Kingdom) Fellow Royal College of Physicians (UK) Fellow Royal College of Pathologists (UK) Fellow Royal College of Psychiatrists (UK) Fellow Royal College of Surgeons (UK) flexible sigmoidoscopy follicle stimulating hormone falling titre / full term (pregnancy) foot fluorescent treponema antibody FTE FTI FTT FU FUO FVC Fx full time equivalent free thyroxine index failure to thrive fluorouracil / follow up fever of unknown origin forced vital capacity fracture G g G6PD GA GABA GAD GAMSAT GB GBS GC GCS GE GERD GETT GFR GGT GH GHB GHb GHRF GI GIFT GIT GLP gm GM GMC GNC GnRH GORD GP GPCG GPEA GPET GPI Giardia / gravida (pregnancies) gram / guttae (drops) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase general anaesthetic gamma-amino butyric acid generalised anxiety disorder Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admission Test gall bladder Group B Streptococcus gonococcal Glasgow Coma Scale gastroenterology / gastroenteritis gastroesophageal reflux disease general by endotracheal tube glomerular filtration rate gamma glutamyl transferase / transpeptidase growth hormone gamma-hydroxybutyrate glycosylated haemoglobin growth hormone releasing factor gastrointestinal gammete intrafallopian transfer gastrointestinal tract glucagon-like peptide gram grand mal General Medical Council (UK) general nursing care gonadotrophin releasing hormone gastro-oesophageal reflux disease general practitioner / general paralysis General Practice Computer Group General Practice Education Australia General Practice Education and Training general paralysis of insane G GPPP GPRA gr grav GSAD GSW GTN GTP GTT gtt GU GUS GvHD GW GYN generalised pustular psoriasis of pregnancy General Practice Registrars Association grain (1 grain = 65mg). gravida (pregnancy no.) generalised social anxiety disorder gunshot wound glyceryl trinitrate guanosine triphosphate glucose tolerance test guttae (drops) gastric ulcer / genitourinary genitourinary system graft versus host disease glucose water gynaecology H h HA HAV HB Hb HbA1 HbA1c HbCO HbF HbH HBIG HbM HbO2 HBP HbS HBV HC HCG HCl HCO3 HCT HCV Hd HD HDL HDN Haemophilus / Helicobacter / history / husband / hydrogen hour headache hepatitis A virus / hepatitis A vaccine heart block haemoglobin haemoglobin A1 (Glycated Haemoglobin) haemoglobin A1 (Glycosylated Haemoglobin) carboxyhaemoglobin foetal haemoglobin haemoglobin H hepatitis b immune globulin haemoglobin M oxygenated haemoglobin high blood pressure haemoglobin S hepatitis B vaccine / hepatitis B virus head circumference human chorionic gonadotrophin hydrochloric acid bicarbonate haematocrit / hydrochlorthiazide hepatitis C virus head Hodgkinʼs disease high density lipoprotein haemolytic disease of newborn H He HEENT hep HER Hg HGH HIAA HiB HIC HIE HIV HLA HMD HMG HMG-CoA HMMA HMO HO HOB hor HPA HPF HPV HR HRT hs HS HSM HSV Ht HT HTLV HUS HV HVA Hx Hz HZ helium head, eyes, ears, nose, throat hepatitis human epidermal receptor mercury human growth hormone hydroxyindole acetic acid Haemophilus influenzae B Health Insurance Commission hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy human immunodeficiency virus human leucocyte associated antigen / histocompatability locus antigen hyaline membrane disease human menopausal gonadotrophin hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy mandelic acid health maintenance organisation history of / house officer head of bed horizontal hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis high powered field human papilloma virus heart rate hormone replacement therapy hora somni (evening) heart sounds hepatosplenomegaly Herpes simplex virus height / heart hypertension human T-cell lymphocytotrophic virus haemolytic uraemic syndrome home visit homovanillate history (medical) hertz Herpes zoster I I I&D I&O iodine / Ixodes incision and drainage intake and output IA IBC IBD IBNR IBS ICCU ICD ICF ICP ICS ICSI ICU ID IDDM IDU IEC IF IFG IFN Ig IgA IgE IGF IgG IgM IGT IHD II IL IM IMG IMI in. inc. inf. inj INR insp. int. IOL IOP IP IPC IPJ intra-arterial iron binding capacity inflammatory bowel disease incurred but not reported (indemnity cases) irritable bowel syndrome intensive coronary care unit International Classification of Diseases intracellular fluid intracranial pressure intercostal space intracytoplasmic sperm injection intensive care unit infectious disease / identification / intradermal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus idoxuridine intraepithelial carcinoma intrinsic factor impaired fasting glucose interferon immunoglobulin immunoglobulin A immunoglobulin E intrinsic growth factor immunoglobulin G immunoglobulin M impaired glucose tolerance ischaemic heart disease image intensifier interleukin intramuscular / infectious mononucleosis / internal medicine international medical graduate intramuscular injection inch increased / incomplete infusion / inferior / infection injection international normalised ratio inspiration internal intraocular lens intraocular pressure intraperitoneal inter-practice comparison interphalangeal joint IPP(B) IPV IRDM IQ IR Ir IRV ISQ ITP IU IUCD IUD IUFD IV IVC IVD IVF IVI IVP IVU Ix IZS intermittent positive pressure (breathing) injectable polio vaccine insulin resistant diabetes mellitus intelligence quotient infra-red iridium inspiratory reserve volume in status quo (no change in condition) idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura international unit(s) intrauterine contraceptive device intrauterine device intrauterine foetal death intravenous inferior vena cava / intravenous cholangiogram intravertebral disc invitro fertilisation intravenous injection intravenous pyelogram intravenous urogram investigation)s) insulin zinc suspension J J JAMA JIA JODM JRA Jt JVD JVP joule / joint Journal of the American Medical Association juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile onset diabetes mellitus juvenile rheumatoid arthritis joint jugular venous dilation jugular venous pressure K K KA KAu kcal KCl kg kJ KJ kPa kph potassium / Kelvin / kidney keratoacanthoma King-Armstrong units kilocalorie potassium chloride kilogram kilojoule knee jerk kilopascal kilometres per hour KUB KYR kidney, ureter, bladder know your risk L L1-5 L&D L-S R LA left / Leishmania / Leptospira / litre / liver / low / lumbar lumbar vertebrae labour and delivery lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio local anaesthetic / left arm / left atrium / light and accommodation / lupus anticoagulant long acting beta agonist laceration / lacrimal / lactic left axis deviation (ECG) / left anterior descending (coronary artery) left atrial enlargement laminectomy lateral long acting thyroid stimulator laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy pound large bowel left bundle branch block lower back pain low birth weight lethal concentration left coronary artery Licentiate College of Physicians and Surgeons (UK) ligase chain reaction lethal dose 50% left dorsal anterior lactic dehydrogenase low density lipoprotein left dorsal posterior lupus erythematosus / left eye / left ear / lower extremities low forceps liver function tests large lymphogranuloma venereum luteinising hormone lithium left iliac fossa ligament / ligature left inguinal hernia liquid / liquor lower inner quadrant (breast) L LABA lac LAD LAE lam lat LATS LAVH lb LB LBBB LBP LBW LC LCA LCPS LCR LD50 LDA LDH LDL LDP LE LF LFT Lg LGV LH Li LIF lig LIH liq LIQ LKS LL LLL LLQ LM LMLP LMO LMP LMSSA LN LN2 LNMP LOA LOC LOL LOM LOP LOQ LP LPC LPF LRCP LRCPS LRQ LRTI LS LSCS LSD LSK LSO LUL LUQ LUSCS LUTS LV LVEF LVF LVH LVRS lytes liver kidney spleen lower lid left lower lobe left lower quadrant Licentiate in Medicine (UK) left middle lobe pneumonia local medical officer last menstrual period Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery, Society of Apothecaries (UK) lymph node liquid nitrogen last normal menstrual period left occipito-anterior (position of foetal head) loss of consciousness / level of consciousness left occipito-lateral (position of foetal head) left otitis media / loss of movement left occipito-posterior (position of foetal head) lower outer quadrant (breast) lumbar puncture liquor picis carbonis (coal tar solution) low power field Licentiate Royal College of Physicians (UK) Licentiate Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (UK) lower right quadrant lower respiratory tract infection lumbosacral lower segment caesarean section lysergic acid diethylamide liver spleen kidneys left salpingo-oophorectomy left upper lobe left upper quadrant / lateral upper quadrant lower uterine segment caesarean section lower urinary tract symptoms left ventricle left ventricular ejection fraction left ventricular failure left ventricular hypertrophy lung volume reduction surgery electrolytes m M MASS / metre / minim Mycobacterium / mole / molar / male / married / mother / muscle M M(C)SU M/C/S M1 M2 MA mab mane MAOI MAP max MB MBC MBS MC MCD MCF mcg MCh MCH MCHC mCi MCL MCPJ MCTD MCV MD MDA MDI MDO MDU mdu ME MEC MEA med MEDLARS MEN MenCCV MEP mEq MEST met MEV microscopy and (culture) sensitivity of urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity first mitral sound second mitral sound metered aerosol / mental age monoclonal antibody morning monoamine oxidase inhibitor morning after pill / mean arterial pressure maximum / maxilla Bachelor of Medicine minimum bactericidal concentration medical benefits schedule miscarriage meningococcal disease Medical & Commercial Finance microgram Master of Surgery mean corpuscular haemoglobin mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration millicurie midclavicular line metacarpo-phalangeal joint mixed connective tissue disease mean corpuscular volume Doctor of Medicine (USA) / muscular dystrophy medical defence association metered dose inhaler medical defence organisation(s) Medical Defence Union more dicto utendus (use as directed) myalgic encephalomyelitis / middle ear/ medical examiner / mucolytic and expectorant medical emergency clinic microwave endometrial ablation medial / medicine Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System multiple endocrine neoplasia meningococcal C conjugate vaccine maximum expiratory pressure milliequivalent maximal exercise stress test metastases million electron volts Mg mg MG MGR MH MHC MHz MI MIC MICA MICU MIIAA MIMS min MIPS mist mitt mIU MJA mL mm MM mmHg mmol MMR Mn MO Mo mo mod mol.wt MOM mOsm MoU MOW MPJ mPa.s MPI MPJ MR MRC MRI MRSA magnesium milligram myasthenia gravis murmurs gallops rubs medical history / marital history major histocompatability complex megahertz myocardial infarct / mitral insufficiency minimum inhibitory concentration medical intensive care ambulance medical intensive care unit Medical Indemnity Insurance Association of Australia Monthly Index of Medical Specialties minute / minimum Medical Indemnity Protection Society mistura (mixture) mitte (send / dispense) milli-international unit Medical Journal of Australia millilitre millimetre / muscles mucous membrane millimetres of mercury millimol measles mumps rubella (vaccine) manganese / midnight medical officer / Medical Observer molybdenum month moderate molecular weight milk of magnesia milliosmole memorandum of understanding Meals on Wheels metacarpophalangeal milliPascal seconds myocardial perfusion imaging metacarpo-phalangeal joint mitral regurgitation / modified release / mental retardation / medial rectus Medical Research Council (USA) magnetic resonance imaging methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MS Ms MSc MSD MSF MSG MSH MSL mss MSSA MSU MT MTPJ MV MVA MVE MVR MW MWF Mx multiple sclerosis / mitral stenosis / morphine sulphate murmurs Master of Science Merck Sharpe & Dohme Ltd. Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) monosodium glutamate melanocyte stimulating hormone midsternal line massage methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus midstream urine muscles and tendons metatarsophalangeal joint multivitamin motor vehicle accident Murray Valley encephalitis mitral valve replacement molecular weight monday, wednesday, friday medications N N2O Na NAC NaCl NAD Neisseria / nerve / nitrogen / normal nitrous oxide sodium National Asthma Campaign / N-acetyl cysteine sodium chloride (salt) no abnormality detected / no apparent distress / no active disease / not actually done National Association of Medical Deputising Australia neutrophil alkaline phosphatase note benne (note well) newborn nil by mouth normal bowel sounds / normal breath sounds non compus scribus (unable to write) not engaged (pregnancy) / not examined no evidence of disease negative New England Journal of Medicine no evidence recurrent disease not for resuscitation nanogram nasogastric N NAMDA NAP nb NB NBM NBS ncs NE NED neg NEJM NERD NFR ng NG NGT NGU NHMRC NHS Ni NICU NIDDM NK NKA NLV NM nmol NMR NND nocte NOF NOTES NP NR nRNA NS NSA NSAID NSR NSTEACS NSU NSVD NT NTT NV NWB NYD nasogastric tube nongonococcal urethritis National Health and Medical Research Council National Health Service (UK) nickel neonatal intensive care unit non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus not known / nil known no known allergies Norwalk-like virus nuclear medicine / neuromuscular nanomol nuclear magnetic resonance neonatal death at night neck of femur natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery new patient normal range nuclear ribonucleic acid normal saline / nervous system / neurosurgery no significant abnormality nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug normal sinus rhythm non-ST-segment-elevation coronary syndrome non specific urethritis normal spontaneous vaginal delivery nasotracheal nasotracheal tube nausea and vomiting non weight bearing not yet diagnosed O o O OA OAG OB OBG obs OBS OC(P) OCD none / without oral / oxygen osteoarthritis open angle glaucoma obstetrics obstetrics and gynaecology observation(s) organic brain syndrome oral contraceptive (pill) obsessive compulsive disorder / osteochondritis dessicans OCG oculent od OD OE oh OHSS om OM on OOB Op OP OPD OPV OR ORIF OT OTC ov OXT oz oral cholecystogram ocullentum (eye ointment) omni die (every day) overdose otitis externa / on examination omni hora (every hour) ovarian hypersensitivity syndrome omni mane (every morning) otitis media omni nocte (every night) out of bed operation outpatient / osmotic pressure outpatients department oral polio vaccine operating room open reduction internal fixation occupational therapy (therapist) over the counter (non-prescription drugs) / ornithine transcarbamylase ovum (egg) oxytocin ounce P P PA PABA PAH PAN PaO2 Pap Para PAS PASA PAT Pb PB PBAC PBC PBG PBL PBS para (pregnancy) / phosphorus / plasma / Plasmodium / pressure / Proteus posteroanterior / physicianʼs assistant / percussion and auscultation para-aminobenzoic acid pulmonary arterial hypertension polyarteritis nodosa partial pressure of oxygen in arteries Papanicolou smear prior births / paraplegic periodic acid-Schiff stain / para-aminosalicylic acid para-aminosalicylic acid paroxysmal atrial tachycardia / pregnancy at term lead peripheral blood Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee permanent birth control porphobilinogen problem based learning Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme pc PC PCB PCL PCN pCO2 PCP PCR PCV PD PDA PDR PDT PE PEEP PEFR PEG Pen PEP PERLA PET PF PFT pg PG PGD pH PH PHC PhD PHI phys PI PICA PID pig PIL PIN PIP PIPJ PK PKU PM post cibum (after food) presenting complaint / politically correct polychlorinated biphenyl posterior cruciate ligament percutaneous nephrolithotomy partial pressure of carbon dioxide Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia polymerase chain reaction packed cell volume provisional diagnosis / Parkinson disease / peritoneal dialysis patent ductus arteriosus / Private Doctors Association Physicians Desk Reference photodynamic therapy pre-eclampsia / pulmonary embolus / physical examination positive end expiratory pressure peak expiratory flow rate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy / polyethylene glycol penicillin polymorphic eruption of pregnancy / post exposure prophylaxis pupils equal and reacting to light and accommodation positron emission tomography / pre-eclamptic toxaemia push fluids pulmonary function tests picogram prostaglandin pre-implantation genetic diagnosis acidity / hydrogen ion concentration past history primary health care Doctor of Philosophy private health insurance physical / physiology product information / pulmonary incompetence / prothrombin index / present illness posterior inferior coronary artery pelvic inflammatory disease / prolapsed intervertebral disc pigmentum (paint) patient information leaflet prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia Practice Incentive Program proximal interphalangeal joint pyruvate kinase phenylketonuria post mortem / petit mal / afternoon PMB PMH PMN pmol PMR PMS PMT PN PND PNX po pO2 POAG POD POM POMR POP pop POR pos post PP pp PPD PPH PPI ppm PPV PR PRBC prep PRF primip prn prog PROM PS PSA PSH psi PSP PSR postmenopausal bleeding past medical history polymorphonuclear leukocyte picomol polymyalgia rheumatica premenstrual syndrome premenstrual tension practice nurse post-nasal drip / paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea / premature nodal contraction pneumothorax per os (by mouth) partial pressure of oxygen primary open angle glaucoma post-op day prescription only medicine problem oriented medical record plaster of Paris popliteal problem oriented record positive posterior post partum post prandial (after food) purified protein derivative (tuberculin) post partum haemorrhage proton pump inhibitor parts per million positive pressure ventilation per rectum /pulse rate / prothrombin ratio packed red blood cells preparation / prepare / preparatory prolactin-releasing factor primiparous (first pregnancy) pro re nata (when necessary/as required) prognosis passive range of movements presenting symptoms / pulmonary stenosis / psychotic / plastic surgery prostate specific antigen past surgical history pounds per square inch progressive supra-nuclear palsy Professional Services Review PSVT Pt P/T PT PTA PTC PTCA PTEA PTH PTSD PTT PTU PTX PU Pu PUJ PUO PUPPP PUVA PV PVC PVD Px PZI paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia platinum / patient part time prothrombin time / physiotherapy plasma thromboplastin antecedent / prior to admission plasma thromboplastin component percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty pulmonary thromboendarterectomy parathormone post-traumatic stress disorder partial thromboplastin time propylthiouracil pneumothorax peptic ulcer plutonium pelviureteric junction pyrexia of unknown origin pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy psoralen and ultraviolet A per vagina (vaginal examination) / plasma volume polyvinyl chloride / premature ventricular contraction peripheral vascular disease physical examination protamine zinc insulin Q q q3h QA qd qds qh qid QNS qqh qs qv qw quaque (every) quaque 3 hora (every 3 hours) quality assurance quater die (every day) quater die sumendum (strictly four times a day) quaque hora (every hour) quater in die (four times in a day) quantity not sufficient quaque quarta hora (every fourth hour) quantum sufficiat / satis (sufficient quantity) as much as desired every week R R RA Ra RACF right / return / Rickettsia / resistance / rectal right arm / right atrium / rheumatoid arthritis radium residential aged care facility RACGP RACOG RACP RACR RACS RAD rad RAI RAMC RANZCP RAS RAST RBBB RBC RCA RCC RCGP RCOG RCP RCPath RCPsych RCS RD RDA RDAA RDS re RE reg REM RF RH Rh RHD RHF RI RIA RIF RIH RIMA RLA RLL RLQ RML Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Royal Australian College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Royal Australian College of Physicians Royal Australian College of Radiologists Royal Australian College of Surgeons reversible airways disease / right axis deviation (ECG) radial radioactive iodine Royal Army Medical Corps Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists renin-angiotensin system radioallergosorbent test right bundle branch block red blood cell right coronary artery red cell count Royal College of General Practitioners (UK) Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (UK) Royal College of Physicians (UK) Royal College of Pathologists (UK) Royal College of Psychiatrists (UK) Royal College of Surgeons (UK) respiratory distress recommended daily allowance Rural Doctors Association of Australia respiratory distress syndrome review / regarding / with reference to right eye / right ear regular rapid eye movements rheumatic fever / rheumatoid factor / releasing factor releasing hormone rhesus factor rheumatic heart disease right heart failure reference interval radioimmune assay right iliac fossa right inguinal hernia reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A reacts to light and accommodation right lower lobe right lower quadrant right middle lobe RMO RN Rn RNA RO ROA ROM ROP ROS ROT RP RPBS rpm RPR RQ RR RRR RS RSD RSI RSO PSR RSV RT RTS RUL RUQ RV RVH RVS RWA Rx resident medical officer registered nurse radon ribonucleic acid rule out right occipito anterior range of movements / right otitis media / rupture of membranes right occipito posterior removal of sutures / review of systems right occipito transverse retrograde pyelogram Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme revolutions per minute rapid plasma reagin test respiratory quotient recovery room / relative risk regular rate and rhythm respiratory system reflex sympathetic dystrophy repetitive strain injury right salpingo-oophorectomy Professional Services Review respiratory syncitial virus radiation therapy / respiratory Rural Training Stream right upper lobe right upper quadrant residual volume right ventricular hypertrophy relative value study Rural Workforce Agency recipe / treatment / medication / prescription S S SA Sa SAAG Sag SAH SB Sb SBE SBO Sarcoptes / Schistosoma / son / serum / Strongyloides / sulphur sustained action / sinoatrial saline serum-ascites albumin gradient sagittal subarachnoid haemorrhage seen by / stillbirth antimony subacute bacterial endocarditis small bowel obstruction SBS SC SCC SCI SCID SD SE Se sec SERM SET SFX SG SGGT SGOT SH SI Si SIADH sib SIDS sig SIG SIN SIR SK SKM sl SLE SLR SMA SMR Sn SNAP SNRI SNS SO SO4 SOAP SOB SOBOE sol soln sp short bowel syndrome subcutaneous / sugar coated / sternoclavicular / sickle cell squamous cell carcinoma subcutaneous injection severe combined immunodeficiency standard deviation side effect(s) sensitivity / selenium second selective (o)estrogen-receptor modulator single embryo transfer side effects specific gravity serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase social history system internationale / sacro-iliac silicon syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion sibling sudden infant death syndrome signa (label) special interest group see if necessary standardised incidence ratio seborrhoeic keratosis / streptokinase skeletal muscle slight / sublingual systemic lupus erythematosus straight leg raising smooth muscle antibodies submucous resection / standardised mortality ratio tin smoking nutrition alcohol and physical activity selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor sympathetic nervous system superior oblique sulphate subjective, objective, assessment and plan short of breath short of breath on exertion soluble solution species (singular) / specimen Sp SPECT SPF spg spp SPT sq SR Sr SS SRN SSRI SSS SSTT stat STD STI STM STS sup supp susp SVC SVD SVT SWD Sx specificity single photon emission computed tomography sun protection factor sponge species (plural) skin prick test square sustained release / sinus rhythm / system review / sedimentation rate strontium social services state registered nurse selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sick sinus syndrome saturday, sunday, tuesday, thursday statim (immediately / at once) sexually transmitted disease soft tissue injury / sexually transmitted infection short term memory serological test for syphilis superior / supine suppository suspension superior vena cava spontaneous vaginal delivery supraventricular tachycardia / superficial venous thrombosis short wave diathermy symptoms T T t T1-12 T&A T&C T1DM T2DM T3 T4 TA tab TAB TAH tablet / temperature / term (pregnancy) / thoracic / tinea / Treponema /Trichomonas tonne thoracic vertebrae tonsils and adenoids type and cross (blood) type one diabetes mellitus type two diabetes mellitus triiodothyronine thyroxine tendo achilles / tonsils and adenoids tablet therapeutic abortion total abdominal hysterectomy TB TBG TBI TBV TCA TCEA TDR tds Te TEDS TEN TENS tet TFT TG TGA TGP Th THC THR Ti TI TIA TIBC tid TKR Tl TLC TM TMJ TMTJ TNF TO tox TP tPA TPHA TPN TPR tr TRD TRF TRH tRNA tuberculosis thyroid binding globulin total body irradiation total blood volume tricyclic antidepressants / trichloracetic acid transcervical endometrial ablation treating doctorʼs report ter die sumendum (strictly three times a day) technetium thromboembolic deterrent stocking toxic epidermal necrolysis transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation tetanus thyroid function tests triglyceride(s) Therapeutic Goods Administration therapeutic group premium thorium tetrahydrocannabinol total hip replacement titanium tricuspid incompetence transient ischaemic attack total iron binding capacity ter in die (three times in a day) total knee replacement thallium tender loving care / thin layer chromatography / total lung capacity tympanic membrane temporomandibular joint tarso-metatarsal joint tumour necrosis factor telephone order toxin/toxoid term pregnancy tissue plasminogen activator Treponema pallidum haemagglutination total parenteral nutrition temperature, pulse, respiration trace temporary resident doctor thyrotropin releasing factor thyrotropin releasing hormone transfer ribonucleic acid Trp TRUS TRV TS TSH TSS TTSS TURP tuss TV TVH TVT Tx tryptophan transrectal ultrasound transverse tricuspid stenosis thyroid stimulating hormone toxic shock syndrome tuesday, thursday, saturday, sunday trans-urethral resection of prostate tussis (a cough) tidal volume total vaginal hysterectomy tension-free vaginal tape treatment / traction U U UA UAC UC UCD UDP ug UGI UGIS UIQ uL UL uln ULQ UMAT umol UMP ung UO UOQ URQ URTI US USP USPHS ut ut dict UTI UV unit / uranium / urine urinalysis umbilical artery catheter ulcerative colitis / umbilical cord / uterine contraction usual childhood diseases uridine diphosphate microgram upper gastrointestinal upper gastrointestinal series upper inner quadrant (breast) microlitre upper lid ulna(r) upper left quadrant undergraduate medical assessment test micromol uridine monophosphate / United Medical Protection (now Avant) unguentum (ointment) under observation upper outer quadrant (breast) upper right quadrant upper respiratory tract infection ultrasound United States Pharmacopeia United States Public Health Service uterus ut dictum (as directed) urinary tract infection ultraviolet V V VA vax VC vCJD VD VDRL VE VF VG VH VHD VHDL via vit VLDL VMA VMO VMRSA vol VP VPRC V/Q VR VS VSA VSD VT VTE vv VV vWf Vx VZV vagina / vein / venous / Vibrio / vision / volt / volume visual acuity / viral antigen / ventriculoatrial vaccine vital capacity / vasoconstrictor variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease venereal disease Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory vaginal examination ventricular fibrillation / vocal fremitus / visual fields vein graft very high valvular heart disease very high density lipoprotein by way of vitamin very low density lipoprotein vanillylmandelic acid visiting medical officer vancomycin and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus volume vasopressin / venous pressure volume of packed red cells ventilation-perfusion ratio vocal resonance / vancomycin resistant / vocationally registered vital signs vital signs absent ventricular septal defect ventricular tachycardia venous thromboembolism veins varicose veins von Willebrand Factor vertex varicella zoster vaccine W W WB WBC WC WCC WE tungsten / watt / wife / widow / Wuchereria whole blood white blood cells wheelchair white cell count wide excision WHO wk WNL WONCA WPW WR wt WTU WU World Health Organisation week within normal limits World Organisation of National Colleges and Associations Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Wassermann reaction weight ward test of urine work up X X x x2d XL XM XR XRT XS X chromosome / wrong times twice a day extended release / extra large cross match x-ray x-ray therapy excess Y YF yo yr ytd Yersinia / Y chromosome / yttrium yellow fever years old year year to date Y Z ZDV ZEEP ZES ZN Zn zidovudine zero end expiratory pressure Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Ziehl-Neelsen (stain) zinc UNCONVENTIONAL ABBREVIATIONS (Culled from medical records) CODOWISO coming down with something DTN do the needful FIIK f...ed if I know FLK funny looking kid GOK God only knows GOMER get out of my emergency room LOLINAD little old lay in no apparent distress NTT not today or tomorrow Omerta keep quiet about this (Mafia code of silence) PAAN pissed as a newt PAFO pissed and fell over PFO pissed and fell over PITA pain in the arse SLOL sweet little old lady SYT sweet young thing © Warwick Carter www.medwords.com.au POSTSCRIPT Assoc. Prof. Warwick Carter has written 24 books (including seven medical text books and 15 medical books for lay people) which have a total circulation exceeding 4.5 million in eleven languages. He has also written hundreds of radio and television scripts, scores of patient education guides, and over three thousand magazine and newspaper articles. He has been the editor, consultant editor or member of the editorial boards of numerous medical journals including “General Practitioner”, the “Macquarie Dictionary” and “MIMS”. Since 1977 he has been a general practitioner in the Western suburbs of Brisbane. Warwick Carter is deputy chair of the Avant Queensland Medical Experts Core Committee, and a member of the Professional Services Review Tribunal of the Commonwealth Department of Health. He is also is an Associate Professor in the School of Health Sciences and Medicine at Bond University on the Gold Coast.
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