THE DRIVELINE

2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
2002-07 GENINFO
Driveline - Overview - MINI
THE DRIVELINE
Model: All
Production: All
ENGINES
Fig. 1: MINI COOPER Engine W10B16
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:44
10:00:38 AM
Page 1
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 2: MINI COOPER S (Super Charger) Engine W11B16
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
In 1996 BMW Group and DaimlerChrysler entered into a joint venture to design and construct a small gasoline
engine with a cylinder displacement of 1598cc. The venture would provide an engine suitable for both car
manufacturers in terms of power output and compliance with world emissions. In addition BMW required a
high power derivative for the MINI COOPER S. The MINI COOPER (COOPER S) engines are a product of
this venture.
The MINI COOPER (COOPER S) is a front wheel drive vehicle with the engine mounted transversally across
the car.
Engine Derivatives
ENGINE DERIVATIVES
R50 MINI COOPER
R53 MINI COOPER S
Engine Number W10B16
Engine Number W11B16
Engine Weight 129.22 kg.
Engine Weight 138.05 kg.
Engine Construction
The engine block and bearing ladder are constructed from cast iron with an aluminum alloy cylinder head. The
oil pan is manufactured from aluminum alloy to reduce weight.
Despite the iron block and bearing ladder, the engine is very light (129.22 kg.). Main features of the engine
include:




16 valves, single overhead chain driven camshaft
Hydraulic Lifters
Automatic adjusting accessory drive belt
Supercharger on MINI COOPER S
Engine Components
Engine Block
The engine block is manufactured in two halves from sand cast nodular iron. The top portion (main cylinder
block) includes the cylinder bores and has provisions for five main bearing top shells. The lower portion
(support ladder) incorporates the lower main bearing shells and support for the rear main oil seal. The engine
block and ladder are machined as a matched pair and are not serviced as individual components. Three locating
dowels are used to ensure perfect alignment between the support ladder and the engine block.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 2
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 3: Main Cylinder Block/Ladder Intake Side (Front Of Car)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 4: Identifying Main Cylinder Block/Ladder Exhaust Side (Firewall)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
A number is stamped on the engine block and the same number is stamped on the bearing ladder. This ensures
that the matched pair of components remain together during engine assembly. The other number stamped on the
block is the engine plant serial number.
Crankshaft Assembly
The MINI COOPER crankshaft is machined from nodular cast iron. The MINI COOPER S crankshaft is
machined from forged steel. Both crankshafts provide a mounting point for the crankshaft sensor reluctor ring
that is retained by three bolts. The drive for the oil pump is provided by machined flats towards the front of the
crankshaft. The auxiliary drive belt pulley is a press fit on the crankshaft and retained by a bolt.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 3
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 5: Identifying Crankshaft
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 6: Bearing Tightening Sequence
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 7: Flat On Crankshaft Stub For Oil Pump Drive
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Crankshaft Bearings
All MINI COOPER engines use five main bearings. Lubrication is supplied through holes in the upper shell
directly from the main oil gallery. The upper shell is grooved to transport oil to the lower plain shells located in
the bearing ladder.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 4
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
A thrust washer built into the center upper main bearing shell controls crankshaft end float. The connecting rod
and main bearing shells are made of an aluminum base that is rolled onto a low carbon steel backing.
Fig. 8: Identifying Crankshaft Bearings
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Connecting Rods
Fig. 9: Connecting Rod Assembly (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
MINI COOPER connecting rods are manufactured from 'non-coplanar' powder metal. They are manufactured in
one piece and then fractured across the big end journal.
The MINI COOPER S connecting Rods are manufactured from forged steel to provide additional strength and
are fractured.
The big end bearings are of a conventional plain shell design with oil supplied from a hole in the crankshaft.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 5
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 10: Connecting Rod Assembly (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fracture Process
In the fracture splitting process, the connecting rod and big end bearing cap are designed to separate close to the
theoretical center line with no loss of material. This is achieved by applying a load between the big end bearing
cap and the connecting rod via a wedge in a split mandrel. The big end bore in the connecting rod is pre
machined with a notch introduced at the required joint plane to initiate the fracture. The separation is accurately
determined by careful consideration of the geometry of the forging and material selection. Fracturing of the
connecting rod takes place immediately before the bolts are fitted and correctly tightened, this keeps the
matching cap and connecting rod together for subsequent finish machining of the bore.
After fracturing, the surfaces form a unique "multifaceted" joint which provides a contact area much greater
than that of a normally ground surface.
The multifaceted joint also promotes precise mating between the big end cap and the connecting rod. No further
machining of the faces is required, and no additional means of big end bearing to connecting rod location is
necessary.
The main benefits of the Fracturing Process are:
1. Reduction in manufacturing time and cost
2. Each rod and bearing cap have a unique fracture reducing the possibility of mismatched pairs
3. Improve rod weight control
Pistons
The pistons are of aluminum construction with a grafal coating applied to the skirt to reduce noise, friction, and
scuffing.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 6
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 11: Piston (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 12: Piston (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The MINI COOPER pistons have flat tops.
The MINI COOPER S has a concave piston top with a volume of 1.66cc to reduce the compression ratio.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 7
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 13: MINI COOPER Piston Crown
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Grafal Coating
Grafal consists of a fine colloidal graphite which is bonded with resin. It is between 10 and 20 micrometers
thick (0.010-0.020 mm) and is applied by means of a printing process, followed by curing. Improved adhesion
properties are achieved by a thin metallic phosphate layer or other proven methods which are applied prior to
coating.
Oil Pan
The oil pan is constructed of die cast aluminum. It is secured to the support ladder by 13 bolts. The oil pan
provides a mounting position for the air conditioning compressor on the right side of the engine (viewed from
the crankshaft pulley) and for the engine tie rod bracket on the left side of the engine.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 8
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 14: Underside Of Oil Pan
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 15: Inner Side Of Oil Pan
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The seal between the oil pan and bearing ladder has a washer fitted to each bolt location to prevent over
tightening and distortion of the seal. A lip on the oil pan seal ensures correct location to the bearing ladder. The
insert shows the sealing ribs to prevent oil leakage.
Cylinder Head
Introduction
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 9
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The cross flow design cylinder head includes a single overhead camshaft, two rocker shafts and four valves per
cylinder. The valves are arranged in two inline banks, the intake side facing towards the radiator, the exhaust
facing towards the firewall.
Fig. 16: Cylinder Head Assembly
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Cylinder Head Gasket
The head gasket is constructed from three layers of sheet metal and is termed as a "multi layered steel gasket".
Four small rivets on the outer edge of the gasket hold the three layers together. The head gasket contains an oil
restrictor that controls the oil flow to the cylinder head.
The standard thickness of the gasket is .065 mm with a thicker (.095mm) available.
Fig. 17: Cylinder Head Gasket
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
The gasket does not have any markings to indicate the correct orientation of the gasket, this is determined by the
location dowels and oil transfer gallery
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 10
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 18: Cylinder Head Bolt
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
The head bolt should be discarded and a new one installed should there be any evidence of thinning at any point
along its length.
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
Fig. 19: Underside Of Oil Pan
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Pipe A.
The PCV valve in the valve cover has Pipe A connecting it to the intake manifold, this connection is
downstream of the throttle valve (High vacuum area).
Pipe B.
Pipe B connects the valve cover to the intake system rubber bellows between the air cleaner and throttle body,
this connection is upstream of the throttle valve. Pipe B has no restrictions and allows air to travel in both
directions depending on the pressure in the crankcase.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 11
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Under normal driving conditions (negative crankcase pressure), air is drawn into the crankcase via pipe B and
mixes with the blow by gases in the crankcase. The gases pass back up through the crankcase and re-enter the
cylinder head cover. A negative pressure (vacuum) in the manifold will be sufficient to open the PCV valve and
allow the gases to enter the inlet manifold downstream of the throttle valve through pipe A and be drawn into
the combustion chambers.
When the engine speed is high (positive crankcase pressure), the volume of blow-by gases may be too great for
the PCV valve to handle alone, vacuum in the inlet manifold will also be greatly reduced. Under these
conditions the blow-by gases will also flow through pipe B and enter the air inlet system upstream of the
throttle valve, where they will be drawn into the combustion chambers.
Fig. 20: Intake Manifold Connections
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Valve Train
Camshaft
The camshaft is machined from nodular iron. Nodular iron combines many advantages including good
castability, excellent machinability, wear resistance, and weight savings.
The camshaft consists of 5 bearing journals and three valve lift lobes per cylinder. The camshafts are identical
for both derivatives. The intake side uses one rocker per valve, while on the exhaust side a single rocker
operates both valves.
A machined recess in the cylinder head next to the Number 5 camshaft journal controls the camshaft end float.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 12
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 21: Camshaft And Rocker Arms
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 22: Camshaft Journal
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The camshaft retaining pedestals support both rocker shafts.
Rocker Arms and Rocker Shafts
The rocker shafts are hollow to allow an oil supply to the hydraulic lifters that are retained in the end of the
rocker arm. The valves are opened by roller rocker/hydraulic lifter assemblies, which pivot on the rocker arm
shafts.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 13
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 23: Intake And Exhaust Valve Rocker Mechanism
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 24: Intake Rocker Arm
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 25: Exhaust Rocker Arm
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 14
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Valves
Powder metal valve guides and seats are installed on both engine derivatives, the valves, springs and retainers
are of conventional design.
Fig. 26: Intake And Exhaust Valves
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 27: Valves And Springs
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Intake Valves
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 15
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The intake valves are made from carbon steel. The carbon content allows the valve to be hardened and tempered
to increase strength and also to be locally hardened to improve wear resistance. The MINI COOPER S uses an
upgraded material.
Intake Valve Seat Inserts
Powder metal technology is used for valve seat inserts as the sintered part requires little or no machining and
any number of material compositions can be developed to satisfy particular engine demands.
Exhaust Valves
The exhaust valve specification is an austenitic steel, a particular type of steel with characteristics that are ideal
for exhaust valve manufacture. The MINI COOPER S has upgraded exhaust valves.
Exhaust Valve Seat Inserts
Many of the characteristics for the intake valve seat inserts carry over to the exhaust valve seat inserts. In
addition, the exhaust valve seat uses what is known as "Grade J" steel, this contains molybendum and tungsten.
This provide high heat hardness giving increased resistance to indentation and wear.
Powder Technology
A shape is produced from powdered metal by filling a rigid die with a blended powder and applying pressure.
The pressure causes the powder particles to be forced together in an interlocking of particles similar to a weld.
After being pressure formed the parts are heated to 80% of the boiling point of the metal. The heat increases the
bonds between the particles and further strengthens the part.
To increase thermal conductivity the pores of the powder compact are infiltrated with copper during the
sintering process.
Timing Chain
Fig. 28: Timing Chain
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 16
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
There is a fixed chain guide on the intake side of the engine. The exhaust side has a semi-floating guide that is
spring-loaded and contains a self-ratcheting tensioner to retain the adjusted position. Engine oil pressure finetunes the free play using a hydraulic tensioner.
Fig. 29: Crankshaft Gear Timing Marks
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 30: Camshaft Gear Timing Mark
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The timing chain incorporates three copper color links that are used to assist timing chain installation. Both the
crankshaft and camshaft gears incorporate timing marks, which are used in conjunction with the copper coated
chain links.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 17
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Timing Chain Tensioner and Drive Gears
Fig. 31: Hydraulic Tensioner Mechanism
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 32: Timing Chain In Service Position
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
Before reinstalling the timing chain tensioner the plunger must be placed in the "transit" position. This is
achieved by pushing the plunger fully in until it locks in place.
This moves the mechanical ratchet mechanism to the start position. When the tensioner has been installed in the
engine, the chain guide is pushed towards the tensioner to release the plunger ratchet mechanism to apply the
correct amount of tension to the timing chain.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 18
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 33: Crankshaft Gear
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 34: Camshaft Gear
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
A key way locates the crankshaft gear (23 Teeth). The camshaft timing gear (46 Teeth) is located by a key way
and is retained by a central bolt. The camshaft gear is driven by a roller timing chain.
Lubrication System
The lubrication system is the full flow filtration pressure feed type. The oil fill process at the factory allows for
a tolerance of 4mm above to 4mm below the maximum mark on the oil level dipstick. The oil level will depend
on the oil temperature and length of time from the last engine switch off.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 19
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 35: MINI COOPER Oil Dipstick
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 36: MINI COOPER S Oil Dipstick
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Oil Circuit
Oil is drawn up through the oil strainer to the oil pump, which is located at the front of the engine: the oil pump
delivers oil under pressure through the full flow oil filter to the main oil gallery.
The main oil gallery runs the full length of the engine block and delivers oil to the main bearings. Diagonal
drillings in the crankshaft webs deliver oil to the connecting rod bearings. The cylinder bores and connecting
rod small end are splash lubricated from directed slots on the connecting rod thrust collar.
The main oil gallery also supplies oil to the cylinder head assembly via a vertical hole on the exhaust side of the
cylinder block between bores two and three. The cylinder head gasket incorporates an oil restrictor to ensure
that oil volume to the crankshaft is maintained and oil volume to the cylinder head is reduced.
Upper engine lubrication is provided by one main feed to the number three camshaft bearing cap. Oil is then
routed through the rocker shafts to the remaining camshaft bearing caps and rocker arms/hydraulic lifters.
Oil returning to the sump pan from the pressurized components supplies lubrication to the valve stems.
Oil Pickup
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 20
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 37: Oil Strainer
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Piston Cooling - MINI COOPER S Only
The MINI COOPER S incorporates oil "squirt" jets to assist in the cooling of the piston crown. The four jets are
located in the cylinder block next to the main oil gallery. Oil spray is controlled by a ball and spring. These
allow oil flow only when the oil pressure exceeds 2 bar. The position of each jet is critical to the effectiveness
of the cooling.
Fig. 38: Oil Squirt Jets
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Oil Pump
The oil pump and pressure relief valve are located on the front cover (internally) and are secured by 10 bolts.
They are both manufactured from aluminum.
The oil pump consists of two gears. The internal gear is driven directly from two flats on the crankshaft nose
and is in permanent mesh with the outer gear.
The eccentric rotation of the gears creates a low pressure at the inlet suction crescent end of the pump and draws
in oil. As the gearwheel rotates, oil will be compressed between the gears and discharged at the outlet port end
of the crescent at a high pressure.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 21
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 39: Oil Pump
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 40: Oil Pump Gears
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Oil Pressure Regulator
The oil pressure relief valve is installed in the oil pump housing. The valve consists of a spring, retaining cap,
circlip and hollow plunger with radial holes.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 22
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
If a blockage or restriction occurs and the oil pressure is sufficient to overcome the spring tension, the plunger
will be forced back, exposing the radial holes and oil will return to the low pressure side of the pump.
Oil Filter Housing
The oil filter housing is located adjacent to the exhaust manifold and is externally mounted by three bolts.
The housing incorporates a spring-loaded drain back function, allowing oil to return to the oil pan. The drain
back function is activated as the oil filter top housing is unscrewed.
The oil filter housing also retains a bypass valve for the full flow oil filter and an oil pressure switch. The oil
filter is a disposable paper element and is retained in the upper section of the aluminum housing.
Fig. 41: Oil Filter Housing Assembly (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 42: Oil Filter Housing Assembly (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 23
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
When replacing the oil filter element, unscrew the upper housing slowly, This will allow sufficient time for the
drain back valve to open and release oil to the sump. Removing the housing quickly could allow oil to overflow
onto the suspension.
Flywheel
MINI COOPER
Fig. 43: Flywheel (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The MINI COOPER flywheel is constructed from steel and is retained on the crankshaft by eight flanged head
bolts.
Two dots are used for correct alignment, one on the crankshaft and the other on the flywheel.
MINI COOPER S
Fig. 44: Duel Mass Flywheel
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 24
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
On MINI COOPER S a dual mass flywheel is used to insulate the gearbox from torsional and transient
vibrations produced by the engine or drive line. The flywheel consists of a primary and a secondary flywheel.
The drive between the two is transferred by a torsional damper made up of four coil springs located in the inside
diameter of the primary flywheel. Under high torque loading conditions the secondary flywheel can rotate in
either direction up to 70 degrees in relation to the primary flywheel.
Cooling System
Engine cooling on the MINI comes in two forms, although the basic layout remains the same. Both systems use
a 50/50 coolant solution with standard kevlar reinforced EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) cooling
hoses.
Fig. 45: Cooling System (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 46: Cooling System (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Cooling System Operation
When the engine is cold the thermostat is closed, preventing the coolant from circulating through the radiator.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 25
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Coolant is able to circulate through the heater core, expansion tank, and on the MINI COOPER S, the oil cooler.
The MINI COOPER S has a pressurized expansion tank, and allows coolant to enter the top via the heater core
pipe, and exit the bottom of the tank to join the heater core return pipe.
Fig. 47: Coolant Flow Diagram (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
As the coolant temperature increases the thermostat gradually opens. This allows a bleed of coolant from the
bottom hose into the cylinder block via the coolant pump, and allows hot coolant to flow to the radiator via the
top hose. The flow of hot and cold coolant is balanced to maintain the optimum engine temperature. When the
thermostat opens fully, the full flow of coolant passes through the radiator.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 26
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 48: Coolant Flow Diagram (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Coolant Pump
MINI COOPER
The coolant pump is manufactured from die cast aluminum and is driven by the auxiliary belt on the MINI
COOPER. It is installed on the intake side of the engine block (towards the front of the car).
Fig. 49: Coolant Flow Diagram (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
MINI COOPER S
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 27
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The MINI COOPER S coolant pump is driven by the supercharger via a reduction gearbox. The coolant pump
is fitted directly onto the supercharger housing and is connected by a two legged dog drive.
Fig. 50: MINI COOPER S Coolant Pump
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Thermostat
The thermostat is located in the cylinder head and is retained by a plastic housing (aluminum on COOPER S).
The thermostat begins to open at 89-92°C and is fully open at 103°C. The MINI COOPER thermostat housing
also incorporates the cooling system pressure cap (MINI COOPER S system pressure cap is installed on the
expansion tank)
Fig. 51: Thermostat Housing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Expansion Tank
The plastic expansion tank for both models is located between the primary and secondary bulkheads. The MINI
COOPER expansion tank is a non-pressurized type, it is only used to collect excess coolant due to heat
expansion, and this coolant will be drawn back into the system as the coolant cools.
Both models use a pressure cap to pressurize the cooling system to 1.1bar (16 psi) at which point the cap valve
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 28
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
will lift to relieve pressure.
The MINI COOPER S is fitted with a conventional pressurized cap on the expansion tank.
Fig. 52: Expansion Tank (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 53: Expansion Tank (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Radiator
The radiator installed in the MINI COOPER (COOPER S) is a conventional cross flow type. It is constructed
from aluminum tubes, wavy corrugated cooling strips and plastic end caps. Coolant flows from the top left to
the bottom right (viewed from the front of the car).
There are two radiator arrangements for the MINI COOPER and only one for the COOPER S.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 29
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 54: Radiator/Air Conditioning With Manual Gearbox
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 55: Radiator/Air Conditioning With Automatic Gearbox
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Heater Core
The heater core is constructed of aluminum and is of conventional design.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 30
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 56: Heater Core
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
Coolant System Drain and Refill
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Remove pressure cap
Remove lower hose from radiator, and heater hoses at bulkhead. Use caution when coolant is hot
Reinstall hoses after coolant has drained
Open the coolant bleed screws in the upper hose and the heater return hose (Protect generator)
Fill engine with coolant (50/50 Mix) through thermostat housing (Expansion tank in COOPER S)
Close bleed screws when air free coolant flows
Continue to fill through thermostat housing (or Expansion Tank)
Fill expansion tank to "MAX"
Start engine and run at idle. Top up coolant as necessary
Turn off engine and install pressure cap
Coolant Fan
The Coolant Fan is a nine bladed fan measuring 400 mm in diameter, driven by a 350 watt motor and controlled
by the EMS 2000. This system has two fan speeds.
Low speed is switched on at 105°C coolant temp and off when the temperature drops to 101°C.
High speed is switched on at 112°C and remains on until the system coolant temperature drops by 4°C at which
point the system will revert to Low speed.
The cooling fan will also operate on Low speed when the Air Conditioning is switched on and system pressure
reaches 8 bar. Should the Air Conditioning system pressure rise to 18 bar, the fan will automatically run on the
High speed.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 31
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 57: Coolant Fan
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Oil Cooler (MINI COOPER S)
The MINI COOPER S is fitted with a plate type oil cooler mounted directly onto the oil filter housing. Engine
oil from the filter housing and coolant from the hoses flows through the cooler tubes adjacent to each other.
This process takes place continuously: there is no thermostat control. The inlet and outlet pipes are connected in
parallel with the heater core pipes.
Fig. 58: Oil Cooler (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Engine Mounting
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 32
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 59: Engine Mounting
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
A twin tie bar torque axis system is used on all MINI engine derivatives. The system consists of 2 mass carriers
and 2 torque reacting tie bars.
Brackets, bolt and mount rates vary with engine/gearbox combinations. The hydra-mount and hydrabush carry
the mass of the engine. They control the vertical and lateral movements of the engine. These movements are
generated by the engine itself and through road inputs from the suspension. The tie bars control torque reaction.
This is the natural fore-aft movement of the engine during acceleration and deceleration.
Hydramount
The hydramount is located on the right hand side of the engine (viewed from the driver seat). It is filled with
glycol fluid to absorb vibration. The bracket that is located directly on the mount is constructed from cast
aluminum and is attached by four bolts to the top of the cylinder block.
Hydrabush
The Hydrabush is located between a two part assembly mounted on top of the gearbox. It consists of two die
cast aluminum housings. The first part is bolted directly on top of the gearbox and houses the hydrabush. The
second part is connected from the inner strut housing to the hydrabush. This also provides additional mountings
for the fusebox, battery box (MINI COOPER only) and air cleaner assembly.
Top Stabilizer Bar
The stabilizer consists of a large die cast aluminum housing. This is bolted to the rear of the suspension strut
and houses a large bushing. A mild steel bracket is used to connect the strut mount to the twin axis mount that
incorporates a small bushing, this will be available as a separate part.
Lower Stabilizer Bar
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 33
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The lower stabilizer is also constructed from die cast aluminum and incorporates two bushings of different
sizes. The large bushing is bolted directly on to the subframe cross member. The other end is fixed to a mild
steel bracket, bolted on the sump pan.
Auxiliary Drive Belt
The Auxiliary belt is of six-rib construction.
Two belt configurations will be available.


MINI COOPER
MINI COOPER S
Fig. 60: Belt Arrangement (MINI COOPER)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 61: Belt Arrangement (MINI COOPER S)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 34
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Auxiliary Drive Belt Tensioner
The MINI COOPER uses a torsional spring to apply load to the belt and a friction damper to reduce the
pulsating vibrations from the engine.
Fig. 62: MINI COOPER Belt Tensioner
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Workshop Hint
Auxiliary belt should be replaced at 100,000 Miles on MINI COOPER and 60,000 Miles on Cooper S. Always
refer to the .
Fig. 63: MINI COOPER S Belt Tensioner
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The MINI COOPER S Spring travel stop uses a compression spring to apply to load to the belt and a hydraulic
damper to control the engine pulsation.
Supercharger (MINI COOPER S only)
Supercharger History
The first "Blower" was designed and patented in 1865 by F.M. and P.H. Roots. They were used for various
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 35
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
purposes but a popular early application was for mine shaft ventilation.
The first type of Blower used on motor vehicles was a Roots rotating type. This "positive driven" type would
consume up to 15% of engine power. On the MINI COOPER S the supercharger will consume a maximum of
20 kW of power (17% of maximum power output).
The decline in the use of positive driven blowers came with demands on motor manufacturers to produce more
efficient and smaller engines. Most manufacturers at this time opted for the non positive driven blower known
as the turbocharger. This has the advantage of not consuming any engine power directly but was not capable of
delivering increased engine power at low engine speeds (turbo lag).
With the advantage of new material and designs the positive driven blowers have once again risen in popularity
among motor manufacturers. Over the past few years, design engineers have managed to enhance the operation
of the supercharger, now providing the following:






Increased Power Output.
A 40% net increase in power, without affecting fuel economy.
Improved Reliability and Life Expectancy.
Newly developed 60 degree twisted rotors (helix), aided with high quality bearing seals and synthetic oil
(sealed for life).
Improved Quietness.
Newly developed inlet/outlet ports and ducting mounts.
The MINI COOPER S is fitted with a "state of the art" supercharger that has been specifically engineered for
small engines. It was designed as a compact unit with the ability to provide the performance that is synonymous
with the COOPER S name.
Fig. 64: MINI COOPER S Supercharger
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 36
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 65: MINI COOPER S Supercharger - Helix Rotors
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Supercharger Operation
The supercharger is a positive displacement pump. Its purpose is to increase air pressure and density in the
intake manifold. The supercharger is matched to the engine by its displacement and belt ratio (driven from the
crankshaft).
The concentrated charge of air provided by the supercharger results in a more powerful combustion stroke in
the engine's cylinders, resulting in improved performance over non-supercharged engines.
The supercharger incorporates a specially designed bypass valve. This is actuated by a vacuum pipe near the
throttle body and re-circulates the supercharger air when boost is not required.
During typical driving conditions the intake manifold is under pressure for only 5% of the time.
For the remaining time the intake manifold is under vacuum (negative pressure), allowing for better fuel
economy and a quieter ride.
Inside the supercharger the helix angled rotors and specially designed inlet and outlet port geometry reduce
pressure variations. This results in a smooth discharge flow and a lower level of noise during operation. The
way in which the ducting to and from the supercharger is mounted also plays a major role in reducing noise.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 37
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 66: MINI COOPER S Supercharger Internal Parts
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 67: Supercharger Bypass Tube
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 38
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 68: Air Intake System Air Flow Diagram
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Intercooler (MINI COOPER S only)
Heat exchangers, now more commonly known as intercoolers, were originally used on large diesel engines in
conjunction with a blower (supercharger). The intercooler construction is similar to that of the engine radiator.
Advantages of an intercooler.



Increases mass/density of air change entering the cylinders.
Helps keep cylinder head temperature lower.
Reduces oxides of nitrogen.
There are two types of intercooler.


Air to liquid intercooler.
Air to air intercooler.
MINI COOPER S uses an air to air intercooler. The major advantage of the air to air intercooler over the air to
liquid intercooler is its capacity to reduce the temperature of the compressed air charge to around 40-50°C.
Operation
When the compressed air mass leaves the outlet of the supercharger, the molecules of air are tightly packed
together which generates heat. The air is forced into the inlet of the intercooler and is passed through many
elongated tubes.
The ram air effect takes place as the vehicle moves forward and outside air passes externally over the elongated
tubes cooling the compressed charge sufficiently before leaving the intercooler.
Location
The intercooler is located directly on top of the supercharger. It is mounted by 2 top hat brackets at the front,
with the rear of the intercooler solidly mounted.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 39
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 69: Intercooler
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Exhaust System
The exhaust system on the MINI is constructed in two sections:


The manifold and front pipe - manufactured as a single piece.
The center/rear section - manufactured as a single piece that can include up to three silencers, dependent
on the model.
The system is designed to meet current noise legislation producing just 74 DBA.
Exhaust Manifold and Front Pipe
The Manifold and front pipe is common to both models. The flange of the front pipe (cylinder head mounting)
is manufactured from mild steel, while the four primary tracks are of stainless steel. They all join a load
supporting decoupler. From the decoupler the exhaust continues in a single pipe to the metallic starter catalyst
and the ceramic catalyst. The outer casing of the catalyst is manufactured from stainless steel. From the catalyst
a short section of pipe meets the mounting flange that is joined to the center pipe by a two point mounting.
To meet emission legislation an additional oxygen sensor is fitted downstream of the catalyst.
Center Pipe and Rear Silencer.
All tailpipe silencers have an Aluminized mild steel outer casing. The rubber support hangers are silicone based.
The MINI COOPER has a silencer located at the front of the center pipe, which has a volume of 1.8 liters. The
rear silencer is finished with a polished stainless steel tailpipe trim, known as the "Coke" can design.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 40
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 70: MINI COOPER Exhaust
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 71: MINI COOPER S Exhaust
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
MINI COOPER S
The MINI COOPER S also has a center silencer but its size has been increased to 3 liters. The rear section of
the exhaust consists of two silencers, one mounted on each side of the vehicle. The rear silencers are mounted
by two sets of silicone based hangers. Two pipes leave the left hand silencer and exit the body in the center of
the vehicle. The tail pipes are finished with polished stainless steel trim.
CLUTCH
There are two types of clutch assemblies used on the MINI. The MINI COOPER uses a conventional type
clutch and flywheel arrangement, the MINI COOPER S has an upgraded clutch in combination with a dual
mass flywheel.
MINI COOPER
The MINI COOPER Clutch System consists of the following components:

Pressure Plate
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 41
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI



Clutch Disc
Clutch Release Bearing
Clutch Hydraulic System
System Components
Pressure Plate
The MINI COOPER pressure plate is constructed from steel. The pressure plate is located on the flywheel by 3
dowels and retained by 6 external torx headed bolt.
Fig. 72: MINI COOPER Pressure Plate
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 73: MINI COOPER Clutch Disc
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 42
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Clutch Disc
The Clutch Disc is constructed from steel, incorporates four double springs to absorb torsional vibration and has
a friction surface on each side.
The 200 mm diameter clutch disc is marked to indicate the direction of mounting.
Clutch Release Mechanism
Fig. 74: MINI COOPER Clutch Disc
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Clutch Hydraulic System
The master cylinder is located on the pedal box and is supported by 2 mounting points. The lines, which
connect into the clutch slave and master cylinders, are quick release connectors. The brake master cylinder
reservoir supplies fluid to the clutch master cylinder.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 43
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 75: Clutch Master Cylinder
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 76: Clutch Slave Cylinder
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The slave cylinder is the same on all models, although the location is different. MINI COOPER slave cylinder is
located on top of the gearbox, in front of the battery box. All slave cylinders are mounted with 2 bolts and have
provisions for bleeding.
Workshop Hint
The lines are not self-sealing and provision should be made to minimize spillage when removing quick fit
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 44
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
connectors.
MINI COOPER S
The MINI COOPER S has an upgraded clutch assembly with a dual mass flywheel. Primary components of the
COOPER S clutch system include:





Model Specific Pressure Plate
Model Specific Clutch Disc
Dual Mass Flywheel
Clutch Release Bearing
Clutch Hydraulic System
System Components
Fig. 77: MINI COOPER S Pressure Plate
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 45
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 78: MINI COOPER S Clutch Disc
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Pressure Plate
The MINI COOPER S uses a diaphragm type pressure plate, constructed from steel housing 18 spring steel
fingers. The clutch is located on the flywheel by three dowels and is retained by 6 external torx head bolts.
Clutch Disc
The clutch disc on the MINI COOPER S is constructed from cast iron and has no damper springs fitted, with a
friction surface on each side. The torsional forces are absorbed by the dual mass flywheel. The disc diameter is
216 mm and has a protruding splined center boss that is installed away from the flywheel.
Dual Mass Flywheel
The MINI COOPER S is fitted with a dual mass flywheel that is attached to the crankshaft by 8 bolts. The
flywheel is correctly aligned when the crankshaft center dot is aligned with the scalloped recess on the flywheel.
A ring gear is fitted on the outer 'primary' part of the flywheel, and will not be available separately in service.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 46
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 79: MINI COOPER S Dual Mass Flywheel
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The dual mass flywheel is used to insulate the gearbox from torsional and transient vibrations produced by the
engine or driveline. The flywheel consists of a primary and a secondary flywheel. The drive between the two is
transferred by a torsional damper made up of four coil springs located in the inside diameter of the primary
flywheel. Two of the springs are of smaller diameter and fit inside the larger diameter springs.
The two pairs of coil springs are located in a recess in the flywheel, between two riveted retainers. A roller
bearing is pressed onto the central boss of the primary flywheel and is retained with a riveted plate. The bearing
provides the mounting for the secondary flywheel. The secondary flywheel consists of two parts, an outer
flywheel, which provides the friction surface for the clutch drive plate, and an inner drive plate, which transfers
the drive from the primary flywheel via the coil springs, to the outer flywheel. The two components of the
secondary flywheel are secured to each other with rivets.
The inner drive plate is located between the two pairs of coil springs and can rotate on the ball bearing in either
direction against the combined compression force of the four coil springs. Under high torque loading conditions
the secondary flywheel can rotate in either direction up to 70 degrees in relation to the primary flywheel.
Clutch Release Bearing and Hydraulics
The Clutch Release Bearing and Hydraulics is similar to that of the MINI COOPER. The Clutch Slave Cylinder
is mounted towards the bottom of the transmission facing forward.
TRANSMISSION
The MINI COOPER is available with either a manual or automatic transmission. COOPER S is available only
with a manual transmission. All of the transmissions are mounted in line with the engine on the drivers side of
the engine bay. The final drive/differential assembly is integral with the transmission housing and provides
drive to the front wheels.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 47
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
MANUAL TRANSMISSIONS
MINI COOPER
The manual transmission and final drive assembly installed in the MINI COOPER is known as the R65. This
transmission has 5 forward speeds and a maximum torque input of 160nm. The shift pattern is of a conventional
design with reverse gear opposite 5th gear, and neutral in the 3rd/4th gear plane.
Fig. 80: R65 Transmission Assembly
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 81: R 65 Shift Pattern
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Features of the R 65 Transmission assembly include:


Two Shaft Design
Input shaft incorporating four fixed input gears and 5th gear located by splines and a lock nut
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 48
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI





All output gears free to rotate on the output shaft
Overall length of just 395mm including the clutch housing
All forward gears have synchromesh with dual cone synchromesh on 1st, 2nd and 3rd gears
Aluminum die cast housings with the exception of the rear cover that is pressed steel
All housings are sealed with liquid sealer except the rear housing that has a rubber seal
Primary components of the R65 transmission are:




Gears and Shafts
Clutch Housing
Main Housing
Shift Mechanism
System Components
Gears and Shafts
The gear tooth design has been optimized for gearbox smoothness and efficiency. The fine tooth design allows
more teeth to be in mesh with each other at any moment. There will be three teeth in mesh as opposed to two in
conventional gearboxes. This greatly reduces gear noise.
The input shaft incorporates fixed 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th speed input gears forming a single component. 5th gear
is splined to the input shaft and secured with a lock nut. The output shaft assembly contains all free rotating
output gears and synchronizer assemblies.
The differential is mounted on two tapered roller bearings. The need to take pre-load measurements is negated
by the use of very close machining tolerances on the various components. This accuracy is achieved with a new
machining technique that employs the very latest technological advances. Automated machines take
temperature readings from the aluminum block being machined, the cutting head and cutting fluid and make
necessary adjustments to compensate for temperature fluctuations.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 49
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 82: R65 Main Internal Components
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Clutch Housing
The clutch housing is bolted and doweled to the rear of the engine. It houses the flywheel, clutch, clutch release
fork, clutch release bearing guide and input shaft seal. It also provides space for the differential, a differential
bearing, and a seal housing for the right hand drive shaft.
Fig. 83: R65 Clutch Housing Engine Side
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 50
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 84: R65 Clutch Housing Transmission Side
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Main Housing
Fig. 85: Main Housing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 51
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 86: Intermediate Plate
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The Main Housing houses the gearbox breather, reverse light switch, selector shafts, input shaft and output
shaft, all gears except 5th and the reverse gear idler shaft.
The intermediate plate assembly is situated on the gearbox side of the clutch housing. It provides support for the
gear selector lever and input and output shaft bearings.
Rear Cover
The rear cover is an extension to the Main Housing providing a housing for 5th gear, 5th gear synchromesh hub
and the selector fork. The rear cover also houses an oil trap and guide to supply oil to the hole inside the output
shaft. Cross drilled holes in the shaft provide lubrication for the gears.
Fig. 87: Rear Cover
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 52
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 88: Gear Change Rod
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Shift Mechanism
Fig. 89: R65 Internal Shift Mechanism
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Principle of Operation
The input shaft incorporates fixed 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th speed input gears forming a single component. 5th gear
is splined to the input shaft and secured with a lock nut. The output shaft assembly contains all free rotating
output gears and synchronizer assemblies.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 53
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
First Gear
The first gear synchromesh hub is fixed to the output shaft. The synchromesh cones synchronize the speed of
first gear on the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft. The hub then locks first gear to the output shaft and
drive is transmitted.
Second Gear
The second gear synchromesh hub is fixed to the output shaft. The synchromesh cones synchronize the speed of
second gear on the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft.
The hub then locks second gear to the output shaft and drive is transmitted.
Third Gear
The third gear synchromesh hub is fixed to the output shaft. The synchromesh cones synchronize the speed of
third gear on the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft. The hub then locks third gear to the output shaft
and drive is transmitted.
Fourth Gear
The fourth gear synchromesh hub is fixed to the output shaft. The synchromesh cones synchronize the speed of
fourth gear on the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft. The hub then locks fourth gear to the output shaft
and drive is transmitted.
Fifth Gear
The fifth gear synchromesh hub is fixed to the output shaft. The synchromesh cones synchronize the speed of
fifth gear on the output shaft to the speed of the input shaft. The hub then locks fifth gear to the output shaft and
drive is transmitted.
Reverse Gear
Reverse gear is incorporated into the 1st and 2nd gear hub, which is fixed to the output shaft. When reverse gear
is selected the 1st and 2nd selector shaft is moved, a fixed arm on the shaft interlocks with the reverse gear arm,
moving the gear into mesh with the fixed hub.
NOTE:
1st and 2nd selector fork does not move during reverse engagement.
An interlock mechanism includes an inhibitor to physically prevent reverse gear from being inadvertently
selected directly from 5th gear.
Service Information R65
The oil drain and filler level plugs on the R65 gearbox are both positioned in the differential housing on the
main gearbox housing. Both plugs have an external hexagonal 17 mm head.
With the vehicle on level ground, the gearbox is filled until the oil is level with the bottom of the filler/level
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 54
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
plug hole.
There is no requirement for maintenance at any of the service intervals.
Fig. 90: R65 Drain And Fill Plugs
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 91: R65 Transmission Identification Label
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
MINI COOPERS
The manual transmission and final drive assembly fitted to the MINI COOPER S has been specifically
manufactured by Getrag for this application. This transmission has 6 forward speeds and is rated for a
maximum torque input of 210Nm, enough to handle the output of the supercharged engine.
The gearshift pattern has reverse to the left of 1st gear. 6th gear is opposite 5th gear. The neutral position is in
the 3rd /4th gear plane.
The gearbox uses the reference code "285".
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 55
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 92: Getrag 285 Transmission Assembly
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 93: Getrag 285 Shift Pattern
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Features of the Getrag 285 Transmission include:






Three shaft design with four fixed gears on the input shaft
Seven gears on two output shafts
Overall length of 322 mm including the clutch housing
All gears have synchromesh
Aluminum die cast housings
All housings sealed with liquid sealer
Primary components of the 285 transmission are:
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 56
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI





Gears and Shafts
Clutch Housing
Gearbox Housing
Gear Change Housing
Shift Mechanism
System Components
Gears and Shafts
The 285 Transmission contains two output shafts in addition to the one input shaft. The input shaft is supported
on a roller bearing in the clutch housing and a sealed ball bearing race in the gear case. The output shafts are
both supported by roller bearings in the clutch housing and sealed ball bearing races in the gear case. All speed
gears with the exception of first are supported on needle roller bearings. First gear is supported on a roller
bearing. The differential assembly is supported on a pair of tapered roller bearings.
Output shaft 1 provides Reverse, 3rd and 4th gears. Output shaft 2 contains 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th gears. Both
Output shafts are meshed with the final drive output gear.
Fig. 94: Getrag Output Shafts
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Gear Box Housing
The gearbox assembly is constructed from four die casts aluminum housings.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 57
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 95: Getrag 285 Gear Box Housing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 96: Getrag 285 Clutch Housing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Shift Mechanism
The shift mechanism consists of a single shift shaft and four shift rods. The shift shaft is supported by roller
bearings. The shift forks are manufactured from die cast aluminum.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 58
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 97: Getrag 285 Clutch Housing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 98: Getrag Internal Selector Mechanism
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Principle of Operation
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 59
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 99: First Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 100: Second Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 60
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 101: Third Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 61
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 102: Fourth Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 62
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 103: Fifth Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 104: Sixth Gear Power Flow
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 63
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 105: Reverse Gear Power Flow
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Service Information Getrag 285
The oil drain and filler level plugs on the Getrag "285" are both positioned in the differential housing on the
main gearbox casing. Both plugs have an 8 mm Allen key.
There is no requirement for maintenance at any of the service intervals.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 64
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 106: Getrag 285 Drain And Fill Plugs
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 107: Getrag Transmission Identification Label
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Notes:
AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION (MINI COOPER ONLY)
The ECVT (Electro Constantly Variable Transmission) is available on the MINI COOPER. The origins of the
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) manufactured by ZF dates back to 1974 with, at that time, a
revolutionary rubber drive belt. After several years of development, a new generation of CVT has evolved,
incorporating the use of a steel drive belt.
Purpose of the System
The stepless shifting pattern of the transmission provides a very comfortable drive, as well as having full
vehicle performance, available at any time.
The advantages of using an automatic transmission of this type are:

Low engine revolutions at constant speeds.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 65
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI




Improved emission control/fuel consumption.
Low noise, vibration and harshness levels.
Smooth acceleration.
Flexible driving on mountain roads.
The ECVT consists of a number of elements that are divided into three groups, depending upon their function.
Group One
Elements providing the mechanical torque flow through the transmission. These elements are:







Planetary gear set
Multiplate clutches
Primary pulley
Steel drive belt
Secondary pulley
Pinion shaft
Differential unit
Group Two
These elements relate to the hydraulic system. This system enables the transmission to transmit power and to
vary the ratio in a proper way, according to load conditions and driver demand.


Hydraulic pump
Hydraulic control unit
Group Three
These elements are externally connected to other systems.







Ratio Control Motor
Park/Neutral Switch
Output Shaft Speed Sensor
Instrument Cluster Display
Selector Shift Mechanism
Steering Wheel Remote Buttons (Optional)
GIU (gearbox interface unit)
The Ratio Control Motor, Park/Neutral Switch and Output Shaft Speed Sensor are inside the transmission.
System Components
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 66
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Group One
Planetary Gear Set
The planetary gear set enables the transmission to provide a drive torque in two directions, forward and reverse,
to the drive shafts. Engine torque always enters the transmission through the planet carrier via the input shaft.
This carrier can be directly connected to the sun-wheel by the forward multi-plate clutches. When it does, the
epicyclic gear set rotates as one unit, and engine torque is transmitted directly to the primary pulley. The planet
gears do not transmit any torque, therefore no mechanical loss will occur in the planetary gear set and the
primary pulley will rotate in the same direction as the engine. This is the forward drive mode.
In reverse mode, the annulus of the planetary gear set is held stationary by the reverse multi-plate clutches.
Three pairs of planet gears are driven by the planet carrier, forcing the sun-wheel to rotate in the opposite
direction.
Fig. 108: Planet Gears
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Multiplate Clutches
There are two Multiplate wet clutch packs; one forward and one reverse. Each pack has three friction plates
providing six friction surfaces. Hydraulic pressure controls the clutches to allow the vehicle to move away
smoothly regardless of the degree of throttle opening and by controlling the slip, allow the vehicle to be held
stationary after a drive gear is engaged. Oil from the oil cooler is directed to the clutch plates to prevent
overheating of the friction surfaces.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:39 AM
Page 67
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 109: Multiplate Clutches
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Primary Pulley, Secondary Pulley, Steel Belt
The main design feature of the CVT is a pair of steel "V " shaped pulleys connected by a steel drive belt. The
distance between centers of the primary and secondary pulley is 155 mm. Each pulley consists of one fixed half
and one movable half, both having 11 degree sloping sides. A 24 mm wide "Van Doorne" push type drive belt
is used to transfer torque between the pulleys. The belt is lubricated and cooled by an oil jet from a nozzle. Both
moving halves are situated diagonally opposite to each other in order to reduce misalignment of the drive belt
during shifting.
Fig. 110: Multiplate Clutches
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 68
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 111: ECVT Drive Belt (2 Of 2)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The steel drive belt has approximately 450 segments and is held together by 24 steel bands, 12 on each side. All
the segments are of the same thickness.
Pinion Shaft
The pinion shaft creates a two-set helical gear reduction between the secondary pulley and the crown wheel. In
this way, the rotational direction of the drive shafts will be correct. The reduction between the secondary pulley
and the drive shafts can be made large enough to give good vehicle performance. The pinion shaft is supported
by two conical bearings, one in the clutch housing and one in a separate bearing support.
Fig. 112: Pinion And Crown Wheel
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Differential
Drive torque on the crown wheel is transmitted to the vehicle wheels via a bevel gear differential, just as in a
manual transmission. The crown wheel is bolted to the differential case with 8 bolts. The drive shafts are fitted
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 69
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
to the differential with conventional CV joints and seals. Conical bearings are used to support the differential.
Fig. 113: Differential
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Group Two
Oil Pump
The pump within the transmission is an externally toothed gear pump. The engine drives it via a shaft through
the hollow primary pulley shaft. The pump shaft is splined to the planet carrier, which always runs at engine
speed. System pressure reaches 40 bar. The oil pressure is used both for controlling the transmission
hydraulically, and for lubrication purposes.
Fig. 114: Oil Pump Assembly
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Hydraulic Control
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 70
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The CVT is controlled by a number of valves that respond to mechanical, electrical and hydraulic inputs. The
control system is designed to control the pulleys and the clutches in the following three ways:



Flow to and from the primary pulley is controlled to command the correct transmission ratio for all
driving conditions.
Secondary pressure is supplied to the secondary pulley to ensure that there is always adequate clamping
force onto the belt for all load conditions. A solenoid valve influences the secondary pressure control
valve, optimizing the pressure and hence the belt tension between the primary and secondary pulleys.
This pressure optimization improves fuel consumption.
The clutch control consists of:
 Selection of the correct clutch (forward or reverse). Engagement of forward or reverse gear via the
selector mechanism operates the manual valve directing oil to the appropriate clutch.
 Control of the operation needed for take off:
A solenoid valve acting on the clutch valve controls the clutch application pressure to ensure
smooth clutch engagement and drive away at all throttle openings.
Pitot Pressure
Engine speed and hydraulic pressure monitoring is accomplished through two Pitot Pressure Systems. Each
system consists of a pitot chamber and a pitot pipe. The pipe is stationary while the chamber, which is filled
with oil and rotating at the speed to be measured.
Hydraulic Control Valves
The Hydraulic Control System consists of the following valves:











Primary Valve
Exhaust Secondary Valve
Cooler Flow Valve
Constant Pressure Valve
PWM Solenoid Clutch Valve
Manual Valve
Secondary Valve
PWM Solenoid Secondary Valve
Exhaust Valve Clutch Pressure
Supply Valve
Reverse Inhibitor Valve
Primary Valve
The function of the primary valve is to regulate primary pressure, controlling the primary pulley, and changing
the transmission ratio. The pressure in the primary cylinder defines the position of the primary pulley mobile
half. The greater the distance between the pulley halves the smaller the primary radius of the belt and the higher
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 71
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
the transmission ratio.
Secondary Valve
The secondary valve determines the clamping force on the secondary pulley by regulating the pump pressure.
The higher the clamping force, the higher the torque that can be transmitted.
Exhaust Secondary Valve
The exhaust secondary valve regulates overall maximum pressure and controls the secondary pressure in 'Low'
for engine speeds up to 1600 - 2000 rpm. This valve improves creep quality that is better at lower secondary
pressures. It also creates a smooth transition from the level in creep to the level in low at higher engine speeds.
The valve is closed if not in low ratio.
PWM Solenoid Secondary Valve
The PWM solenoid secondary valve influences secondary valve movement, hence belt tension via secondary
pulley chamber pressure. The secondary pressure solenoid further modulates the pressure acting on the
secondary pressure valve. This optimizes the secondary pressure and hence minimizes losses and improves fuel
consumption.
Cooler Flow Valve
The cooler flow valve controls the oil flow through the cooler when D position is engaged. The valve ensures
enough oil flow during stall conditions or driving in high ratio for cooling, while ensuring sufficient system
pressure is maintained at low engine speeds even under extreme temperatures.
Clutch Valve
This valve regulates the clutch pressure and allows for the adjustment of stall speed. The clutch pressure is
derived from the secondary pressure and is controlled by the engine speed pitot, the primary pressure pitot and
the clutch PWM solenoid pressure. The clutch valve consists of 1 valve, 2 springs and a plunger.
Exhaust Valve Clutch Pressure
The Exhaust Valve Clutch pressure has two main functions:


Limit the maximum clutch pressure.
Protection of the gearbox from abuse.
The clutch pressure is bled into the exhaust valve, otherwise, with increasing engine speed; the pressure would
limit the minimum secondary pressure too much, which would adversely affect fuel economy and could lead to
damage within the gearbox.
Constant Pressure Valve
The Constant Pressure Valve establishes a base pressure that is used to supply the supply valve. The constant
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 72
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
pressure valve acts as a filter for the supply valve and reduces disturbances in the secondary pressure. The
constant pressure is also used for the ratio control depending on locking of the clutches. As the ratio approaches
overdrive the constant pressure will be supplied to the clutch valve instead of the clutch PWM solenoid
pressure.
Supply Valve
The Supply Valve controls the pressure function of the two pitot pressures. A higher engine pitot pressure will
cause a higher supply valve pressure and a lower primary pitot pressure will cause a lower supply valve
pressure. If both pitot pressures rise by the same amount the supply pressure will also increase. The supply
pressure forms an input to the clutch PWM solenoid and is also used for belt lubrication and oil supply to the
pitot systems.
PWM Solenoid Clutch Valve
Influences clutch application pressure by biasing the clutch valve. Permits a variety of strategies to be applied to
the engagement process.
Reverse Inhibitor Valve
The Reverse Inhibitor Valve prevents the reverse clutch from being energized above a specified forward speed.
Manual Valve
The manual valve has four positions, each corresponding to a position of the selector lever inside the vehicle.
Choosing reverse or drive activates one of the two clutches whereas in the neutral and park position both
clutches are released. The engine can only be started with the selector lever in the neutral or park position, in all
the other positions the starter circuit is inhibited.
Group Three
Ratio Control Motor
The Ratio Control Motor is housed inside the transmission, adjacent to the oil cooler pipe connections. The
motor and solenoids are connected to the main harness via a circular connector. The motor is operational in all
transmission modes and controls the hydraulic control unit to adjust the primary pulley to the appropriate
position.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 73
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 115: Ratio Control Motor
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
The motor which controls the transmission ratio is a linear actuator and a bi-polar stepper motor.
Park/Neutral Switch
The selector cam activates the park/neutral switch, which prevents the car from starting in reverse or drive and
switches on the reverse lights when in reverse. The switch status is also used by the EMS 2000 in conjunction
with the gear selector switch to establish the correct driving mode.
The switch is operated by a cam, which also operates the hydraulic control unit within the transmission. The
selector lever via a cable to the transmission operates the cam. The switch has two positions and performs
several functions, one of which is to inform the EWS immobilization unit that the transmission is in the park or
neutral positions. The EWS unit will then enable the starter relay coil to be energized, thus allowing the engine
to be started.
When the selector lever is in the park or neutral position and the ignition is switched on, the EMS 2000 will
energize a shift lock solenoid on the selector lever. This locks the lever in the park or neutral position. The
selector lever cannot be moved from the park or neutral position until the footbrake is applied.
Fig. 116: Park/Neutral Plunger
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Output Shaft Speed Sensor
The ECVT transmission has a dedicated secondary speed sensor located in the differential housing. This sensor
is a Hall effect sensor and produces a pulse train of approximately 73000 pulses per mile. The sensor allows for
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 74
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
more precise calculation of transmission output speed that is used in the control strategy systems.
The secondary speed sensor is located so that the sensor tip is close to the crown wheel of the differential. By
sensing the crown wheel, the signal is not affected by the different wheel speed signals when the vehicle is
cornering.
Fig. 117: Secondary Speed Sensor
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 118: Instrument Cluster Display
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Instrument Cluster Display
A Liquid Crystal Display in the instrument cluster shows the current drive mode and selected gear. The display
includes the following characters, 'P', ' R', 'N', 'D', ' SD', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6' and EP. During Adaptations "X"
will be displayed in front of the normal character (e.g XP).
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 75
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Selector Mechanism
Selection of the required driving mode, through the selector lever inside the vehicle, activates a selector shaft
within the transmission. A push/pull type cable connects the lever in the car and the shaft on the gearbox. A cam
fitted to the selector shaft is also connected to the manual valve of the control system, and selects one of its five
desired positions (PRNDS/M). Moving the selector lever across the gate trips a proximity sensor.
A spring and cone operated pawl mechanically locks the secondary pulley when the selector lever is moved to
the Park position. If selection of park is made at speed the pawl will rattle without engaging Park. It will not
engage until the vehicle speed drops below approximately 3 mph.
Fig. 119: Parking Lock
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Movement of the selector lever (or steering wheel buttons) in a forward direction, plus (+), changes the
transmission up the gear ratios and movement in a rearward direction, minus (-), changes the transmission down
the gear ratios.
Fig. 120: ECVT Gear Positions
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 76
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 121: ECVT Remote Gear Change Button
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
GIU (GearBox Interface Unit)
The main function of the GIU is to allow communication between the ECVT and the EMS 2000. The GIU has
the following functions:



Conversion of inputs from the selector lever switches (and steering wheel switches if fitted) into a CAN
instruction that is read by the EMS 2000.
Drive the LED's to display transmission mode.
Conversion of the CAN instruction for the EMS 2000 into electrical signals to drive the ratio control
motor, clutch and secondary pressure solenoids.
Gearbox Interface Unit Inputs
There are many inputs the GIU requires for correct functionality:




Selector lever switches.
Steering wheel switches (if fitted).
Park/Neutral switch.
CAN messages from the EMS 2000.
Selector Lever Switches
The park, reverse, neutral and drive switch is located on the left-hand side of the selector lever, secured to the
base plate with two screws. The switch is connected to the main harness by a ten-pin connector.
The park, reverse, neutral, drive and manual switch has four proximity sensors that correspond to the four
selector lever positions. Two further proximity sensors correspond to the manual +/- positions. The selector
lever has two targets, upper and lower. The upper target is aligned with the park, reverse, neutral, drive and
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 77
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
manual sensors and the lower target aligns with the +/- sensors.
Fig. 122: ECVT Selector Lever Mechanism
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
When the selector lever is moved to the manual/sport position, the upper target moves away from the drive
proximity sensor. The GIU senses this and puts the transmission into manual/sport mode. The transmission will
operate in sport mode until the GIU senses that either the + or the - proximity sensor is operated, the GIU will
then operate the transmission in manual mode.
CAN Communication
The communication between EMS 2000 and GIU is by CAN. The EMS 2000 talks directly to the ECVT
interface GIU via the CAN link. The GIU sends the EMS 2000 information on the following:






The current status of the park, reverse, neutral and drive switches.
The current status of the sport/manual switches.
The current status of the +/- switches (steering wheel buttons if fitted).
The current status of the +/- switches (selector lever).
Fault status of all active components.
The current status of the Park/neutral switch.
The EMS 2000 provides information for the transmission GIU via a CAN-bus. The EMS 2000 controls the
position of the ratio control motor indirectly (by means of instructing the GIU to control the motor to a given
position).
The EMS 2000 can interrogate the GIU for fault diagnostics and to request real time data and system
performance checks when the vehicle is connected to DISplus.
Notes:
Principle of Operation
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 78
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
CVT Principles
Unlike conventional planetary automatic transmissions that provide a limited number of gear ratios, usually
three, four or five, the CVT, as its name suggests, continuously varies the gear ratio.
A low gear (low ratio) makes it easier to pull away from a rest position, the drive pulley being relatively small,
while the driven pulley is large by comparison. The drive belt is used to transmit power and torque.
The CVT uses a primary pulley and a secondary pulley. Both pulleys have one fixed half and one mobile half,
controlled by hydraulic pressure. The position of the drive belt on the pulleys will determine the ratio. If the
mobile half of the pulley is close to its opposite half then the drive belt is forced to travel around the outer
circumference. When the pulley is open wide then this circumference is reduced. The primary and secondary
pulley mobile halves are diagonally opposed so when the drive belt diameter is reduced on the primary pulley, it
increases on the secondary pulley.
To pull away, a low ratio is required. To provide this, the primary pulley is open, allowing the drive belt to sit
down into the pulley and forcing it to run around the outer part of the closed secondary pulley.
Fig. 123: ECVT Pulleys In LOW Position (1 Of 2)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
As vehicle speed increases, a higher gear ratio is required. To do this, the primary pulley gradually moves
towards its fixed partner, increasing the pulley circumference. At the same time the secondary pulley is forced
apart reducing pulley diameter, therefore creating a higher gear ratio.
If acceleration continues to take place, further up-shifts may be made until the drive pulley diameter is as large
as possible and the driven pulley diameter is as small as possible. Therefore, for every revolution of the drive
pulley the driven pulley revolves several times.
This degree of change can be controlled to ensure that the most suitable ratio is provided. An overdrive ratio is
obtained when the primary pulley is fully closed and the secondary pulley is fully open. The secondary pulley is
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 79
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
now forced to rotate approximately two and a half times for every turn of the primary pulley.
Fig. 124: ECVT Pulleys In LOW Position (2 Of 2)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Drive Plate
The engine is connected to the input shaft in the transmission, via a torsional damper, instead of the torque
converter used by more conventional automatic transmissions.
Fig. 125: Drive Plate
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Mechanical Operation
Selector Lever in Park or Neutral
In this condition motion is not transferred to the wheels as both clutches for reverse (2) and forward gears (4)
are disengaged.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 80
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI





The transmission input shaft (1) turns at the same speed as the engine.
The reverse gear clutch (2) is disengaged.
The forward gear clutch (4) is disengaged.
The planetary gears (3) idle around the sun gear.
As the sun gear does not move, neither does the primary pulley (5), the secondary pulley (7) and,
subsequently, the vehicle.
Fig. 126: ECVT Operation Diagram (Park/Neutral Position)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Selector Lever in Drive Position
Under these conditions, the epicyclic set of gears, the planetary gears (3), the sun gear and the outer ring gear
are held by the forward clutch (4) that is engaged.






The transmission input shaft (1) turns at the same speed as the engine.
The reverse clutch (2) is disengaged.
The forward clutch (4) is engaged.
The planetary gears (3) the sun gear and the annular ring gear of the epicyclic train will rotate together.
The primary pulley (5) turns at the same speed as the engine in the forward gear direction.
The secondary pulley (7) turns in the forward gear direction at a speed that depends upon the belt ratio for
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 81
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
that operating condition.
Fig. 127: ECVT Operation Diagram (Drive Position)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 82
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 128: ECVT Operation Diagram (Reverse Position)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Selector Lever in Reverse Position
Under this condition, the reverse clutch (2) is engaged and makes the annular ring gear (9) lock to the
transmission case. The planetary gears (3) force the sun gear (10), the primary pulley (5) and the secondary
pulley (7) to turn in the opposite direction to the transmission input shaft (1). Therefore reverse gear is now
selected.





The transmission input shaft (1) turns at the same speed as the engine.
The reverse clutch (2) is engaged.
The forward clutch (4) is disengaged.
The annular gear (9) is held stationary with the transmission case by means of the reverse clutch (2).
The planetary gears (3), which are driven directly by the transmission input shaft (1), turn around the
annular gear (9). Therefore they force the sun gear (10), the pulley (5) and the secondary pulley (7) to turn
in the reverse gear direction.
Electronic Controls
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 83
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
The ECVT is based on a standard CVT unit with electronic components fitted to control the gear ratios, the
secondary pressure and the clutch pressure. The location of the components that form the steptronic
transmission vary depending upon vehicle installation.
All of the control methods associated with the transmission are run as part of the EMS 2000 software. The EMS
2000 receives inputs from the main sensors of this system, communicates with the gearbox interface unit (GIU)
to control the transmission, accepts driver inputs and provides information to the driver via the instrument
cluster.
The control of the transmission is integrated with the EMS 2000 and a GIU enables this integration, acting as a
slave/interpreter for the EMS.
EMS 2000 can control the transmission so that the input shaft speed, relative to the output shaft speed, is fixed
in one of six ratios. This gives the effect that the vehicle has a six speed manual transmission with a sequential
gear change.
The system protects the transmission, while in manual mode, against shifts that could be potentially dangerous
or could damage the engine, for example, shifting to first gear at 90 mph, or shifting to top gear at 10 mph. In
addition, if the driver does not shift up, the next gear will be automatically selected when the engine revolutions
reach approximately 6000 rpm. Equally, if the driver does not shift down when reducing vehicle speed, the
system performs the down-change automatically thus ensuring the transmission is in the appropriate gear when
throttle is applied. This prevents excessive clutch slip should the throttle pedal be reapplied.
Driving and ambient conditions can influence the pulley positions, these conditions include:




Oil temperature
Clutch slip
Hydraulic balancing of the controlling cylinders
Hydraulic pressure within the control lines
The primary and secondary pulleys alter their position to maintain the commanded transmission input/output
ratio.
All inputs and outputs of the ECVT control system pass through the EMS 2000 and the GIU The EMS 2000
monitors the speed of the transmission output shaft and communicates with the GIU to select the correct gear
ratio to suit the current driving conditions. The GIU drives the park, reverse, neutral, drive and sport LED
module to display the selected gear next to the gear selector lever and the EMS drives the instrument cluster
display.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 84
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 129: ECVT Control System Diagram
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Modes of Operation
The transmission control is incorporated into the EMS 2000. The EMS 2000 does not control the transmission
ratio directly but does provide all of the intelligence relating to the required position of the ratio control motor.
It also provides the intelligence for how fast it should be operated.
The EMS 2000 controls the transmission in one of four modes:




Drive mode (normal CVT driving).
Sport CVT mode or Low CVT mode.
Manual mode.
Fault mode.
In the CVT modes, the control system operates by deriving a target engine speed based on current vehicle speed
and driver demand. In manual mode, the system derives a target engine speed based on the vehicle speed and
the current gear ratio. Having obtained an engine speed target, the system calculates the appropriate ratio
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 85
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
control motor position and instructs the GIU to deliver this position.
The engine load calculation will depend on two factors:
1. The vehicles road speed.
2. The driver's demand (throttle position).
The EMS 2000 also needs to control the speed of the ratio control motor in order to protect the transmission
from damage due to drive belt slippage. This is more likely to occur at low transmission oil temperatures, and
when the transmission is delivering a large change in ratio (for example, after a manual gear change, or sudden
throttle movement in Drive mode).
Four speeds are used by the Ratio Control Motor. The motor is accelerated as appropriate to ensure the motor
does not lose its reference, thereby compromising system control. The EMS 2000 also knows the maximum
torque that the belt can transfer across all possible ratio ranges. It is extremely important that the belt is not
allowed to slip on the pulleys, as this would cause excessive wear.
Target Engine Speed
The target engine speed is critical in deciding the position of the ratio control motor. The EMS 2000 will keep
changing the ratio of the motor to achieve the target engine speed. The target engine speed is mapped inside the
EMS 2000 against Road speed and Driver demand (throttle angle).
The map is not linear. To achieve good driving characteristics the engine target speed map is programmed to
overcome.



The initial engine speed required to build pressure within the hydraulic clutch.
The hydraulic profile of the transmission itself.
The engines power and torque profile.
When the transmission is operating in the D mode (drive), the driver does not experience full engine power until
the road speed reaches 50 mph.
Sports Mode
The EMS 2000 uses the same map programmed into the EMS 2000 as it uses for normal Drive mode but applies
a scalar function to the throttle angle. For example if the driver selects sports mode and has the throttle applied
by 40%, the scalar function will be applied so that the EMS 2000 uses a throttle angle of 60% to calculate its
target engine speed. The instrument cluster display will change from 'D' to 'SD'.
Manual Mode
As soon as the EMS 2000 receives one of the "+ or - " switched inputs via the GIU, the EMS 2000 stops
displaying 'S', and changes to one of six gear position displays.
Fault Mode
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 86
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
When the EMS 2000 or GIU detects a fault, the EMS 2000 will try to position the ratio control motor so that the
engine speed in most driving conditions is around 2800-3200 rpm. In this position the vehicle still has
reasonable driving characteristics. For certain failure modes, where the EMS 2000 cannot command the position
of the motor, the GIU will set the motor position to 130 steps (full range of travel is 0-214 steps). In this case,
the engine speed in most driving conditions will be 3750-4000 rpm.
The EMS 2000 will instruct the instrument cluster to display 'EP', or the Engine MIL depending on legislative
requirements. There are certain faults that when stored will not cause the EMS 2000 to default the transmission
into its limp home position.
These are:






Gear lever + switch failure.
Gear lever - failure.
Steering wheel + switch failure (if fitted).
Steering wheel - switch failure (if fitted).
Shift interlock system fault.
Centre Console LED fault.
A gearbox default is not necessary for these failures because the control of the gearbox is not compromised; it is
only necessary to warn the driver. The EMS 2000 will not operate the sequential gear changes in manual mode
if these switches are faulty.
Transmission Adaptation
Due to manufacturing tolerances in the transmission, and since the ECVT system is subject to many strict
legislative requirements, it is essential to put the control system through a learning procedure, before the
transmission can be controlled effectively.
The 'learn ' mode can be recognized because the LCD gear display will display an 'X ' character in addition to
the current drive mode. The 'star' stands for fast adaptation - the control system is being adapted to adjust its
control thus optimizing the performance of the transmission within the particular vehicle. If the transmission or
EMS 2000 is changed, the fast adaptation procedure must be repeated.
There are two procedures that must be completed before the star on the display is removed.
Clutch Adaptation
A dealer diagnostic procedure has been written for this function. It is essential that this procedure be followed
for a reliable clutch adaptation. Follow the instructions given by the procedure. Having completed the
instructions, the ratio adaptation drive cycle can be completed.
Ratio Adaptation
The transmission hydraulic/mechanical characteristics can be mapped inside the EMS 2000. The curve of the
input shaft speed verses output shaft speed looks like a straight line up to approximately 2,500 rpm. It then
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 87
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
plateau's before rising in a curved manner. This profile will be a similar shape for all transmissions but its
position plotted against engine speed will vary.
The EMS 2000 knows the shape of the profile and monitors the actual engine speed relative to the mapped
engine speed. The EMS 2000 learns, through historical control, a new profile that is more representative of the
actual transmission characteristics. The EMS 2000 also monitors the amount this line moves from the mapped
line, as long as this difference is within its tolerance band, the EMS 2000 accepts the value and learns from it. If
the actual value goes beyond the adaptive tolerance the EMS 2000 will perform a reset. If the value still exceeds
the adaptive tolerance band, the EMS 2000 will store a fault code and place the transmission into its default
position.
The figures quoted are only representative, due to the nature of the adaptation, these may or may not be correct.
When setting the fast adaptation, the control system will initially target 5,000 rpm in order to learn the ratio
control motor position at this engine speed. Once the vehicles power train is stable enough for an adaptation to
take place, the ratio control motor position is noted and the control system will target 4,500 rpm. This process
continues subsequently targeting 4,000, 3,500, 3,000, 2,500, 2,000, 1,900, 1,800, 1,700, 1,600, 1,500, 1,400.
When the 1,400 rpm point has been adapted, normal operation will commence.
To set the fast adaptation procedure drive the car, on a level road, at around 60 km/h in ECVT drive mode, and
then lift off the throttle.
As the vehicle decelerates (do not use the brakes) the adaptations will occur. If the vehicle speed drops too far
before the process is complete, the engine speed will drop from its targeted speed back towards idle.
The instrument cluster display will continue to display the "X" character, and the transmission will not operate
normally. If this happens, simply repeat the process by accelerating back to 60 km/h and lift off the throttle
again to give the software a chance of learning the remaining points. When the procedure is complete, the
display will return to normal.
On the completion of a fast adaptation, the lifetime adaptation strategy will commence, fine tuning the response
of the control system for the transmission attached to a particular vehicle.
If either the EMS 2000 or transmission is changed during the service life of the vehicle, the fast adaptation
strategies must be reset, which in turn will reset the lifetime strategy so it starts learning from the new base
point.
Drain & Refill Procedure
The ECVT gearbox contains three plugs, one is used for draining, one is used for fill/level and the other for fill
only. On the MINI it is recommended that the oil fill takes place from the underside of the gearbox through the
fill/level plug. There is another oil fill plug on the top of the gearbox that is used in other applications but is not
suitable for MINI due to lack of access.
The ECVT oil change is carried out at every "Inspection" service.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 88
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 130: Drain Plug
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 131: Under Car Panel
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 132: Refill/Level Plug
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 89
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 133: Adapter In Filler Plug
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Shut the valve of the hydraulic equipment, to ensure no oil flow takes place in either direction. Lower the
vehicle sufficiently, (Note: ensure road wheels are approximately 15 cm off the ground, as it is necessary to
operate the vehicle in drive mode.) Ensure the parking and foot brake are applied firmly, start the engine and
allow 10 seconds of engine running time before moving the gear lever from P (park). Shift the gear lever into
each position and allow the gear lever to rest in each of its positions for 5 seconds before progressing to the next
position. The final part of this process will require the gear lever to be moved into the Drive position and the
foot brake released. A light throttle application will be sufficient to shift the gearbox through the various ratios,
this should be carried out 2 times, after completion apply the foot brake and return the gear lever to the park
position. Keep the engine running and raise the vehicle.
With the oil temperature between 30°C and 50°C remove the hydraulic equipment and special tool, (Note: care
must be taken to prevent scalding). Should the filler tube run dry very quickly, the gearbox is likely to be under
filled. Refit the Special Tool and pump an additional amount of oil into the gearbox. Remove the Special Tool
and wait until the oil flow begins to slow and then refit the fill/level plug.
Fig. 134: View Of Filler Tube Inside Transmission
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Service Information
At present repair/replacement is limited to:
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 90
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI








Drain and refill
Inhibitor switch and 'O' ring
Selector shaft oil seal
Input shaft and drive shaft oil seals
Primary cover
Secondary cover 'O' rings
Sump gasket
Oil cooler pipe and unions
NOTE:
All service repair and replacement procedures should be carried out in
accordance with the workshop manual.
Diagnostics
All diagnostics of the ECVT are carried out via the EMS. Using DISplus, the EMS can request actions from the
GIU and monitor these actions for the correct performance. A requirement has been identified for the GIU to
perform an integrity check on its output drives. This mode will be engaged as part of the end of line testing
during production, and also for the technician performing diagnostic testing. In response to these signals, the
GIU shall perform the following:



Perform a test on the LED drives.
Test both the clutch and pressure solenoids.
Attempt to move the motor through a complete cycle.
Once the operation of the EMS 2000 has been established, the GIU operation should be established. The CAN
link between the GIU and the EMS 2000 can be verified by observing the LCD display in the instrument
cluster. The display should change in accordance with the gear lever selector and is an indication that the
selector switches are operational and the drive from the EMS 2000 to the instrument cluster is operational.
If the ratio control motor is suspected to be faulty the following procedure can be carried out to confirm its
state:
PROBLEM SYMPTOMS CHART
Fault/Symptom
Most Likely Causes

Road speed sensor fault
Road speed sensor interfrence
Fault with EMS 2000 or
Drive-by-wire system
Ratio Control Motor fault

Transmission malfunction

Sticking Primary valve

Transmission stays in highest ratio. Vehicle pulls away as normal,
but engine speed does not rise as normal
Vehicle pulls away and accelerates sluggishly


Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 91
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Transmission stays in lowest ratio. Vechicle pulls away as normal,
but engine speed rises rapidly to around 6000 rpm at 30 KPH





Engine speed stuck at a constant speed for most driving conditions





No Creep in D



High engine load in D




No centre console LEDs with ignition On






Ratio Control Motor Fault
Ratio Control Motor Wiring
Transmission malfunction
Selector switch fault
Selector cable fault
Link lost between EMS 2000
and GIU
Ratio Control Motor Fault
Road Speed Sensor Fault
Transmission is overheating
Clutch solenoid fault
GIU Fault
Transmission Fault
Open or Short Circuit LED
drives
GIU Fault
Transmission Fault
Open or Short Circuit LED
drives
GIU Fault
EMS 2000 Main Relay fault
(No power to GIU)
Invalid Selector
Position/Selector Fault
Turn the ignition off and wait 5 minutes for the EMS 2000 to power down.
Unplug the connector from the GIU and using a multi-meter measure phase coils across pin 5 & 6 and
then 7 & 8. The reading should be between 18-30 Ohms.
When a reading cannot be obtained, try reading the phase coils on the transmission connections by
probing the connection directly on the transmission.
When readings can not be obtained at the transmission, the motor is assumed to be faulty.
DRIVESHAFTS
The old Mini had an outer constant velocity joint and "Moulton" rubber coupling for the inner joint, this is in
fact a combination of rubber and metal. The construction was a metal cross inside rubber bushings encased with
steel shells. The coupling was connected to the shaft and differential flange by "U" bolts, two holding it to the
shaft, two holding it to the flange. Early Cooper "S" and vehicles with an automatic gearbox had a "Hardy
Spicer" universal joint. Horizontal movement of the shaft was by a sliding joint incorporated into the mounting
for the coupling. These inner joints later changed to a plunge joint for all models.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 92
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Purpose of the System
Much the same as the old Mini, drive on MINI is transmitted through the front steering wheels, consequently
the design of these shafts is different to those on rear wheel drive vehicles, as a greater degree of articulation is
required on the outer joints.
Two different diameters of joints for inner and outer are used. The larger size is for the MINI COOPER S and
the smaller for MINI COOPER with R65 or ECVT gearboxes.
Fig. 135: Driveshafts
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Primary components of the Driveshaft System include:






Driveshafts Left and Right Side
Intermediate Shaft Right Side Only
Support Bearing
Outer Joints
Inner Joints
Front Hubs
DRIVESHAFT AND INTERMEDIATE BAR SHAFT LENGTH AND DIAMETER SPECIFICATION
Model
Drive Shaft Bar Shaft
Location
Intermediate Bar Shaft
Length
Diameter
Circlip
Spring
Length
Diameter
R65
395 mm
22.8 mm
Yes
400.5 mm
28 mm
ECVT
385 mm
22.8 mm
Yes
415.4 mm
28 mm
Getrag
372 mm
24.9 mm
Yes
450.6 mm
28 mm
System Components
The drive train for all three gearboxes consists of the same elements. A final drive, offset to the left of the center
line of the vehicle by varying amounts. An intermediate shaft connects to the right hand side of the final drive
with a support bearing at its outer end. The support bearing is fixed by a bracket and bolts to the engine block
lower and ladder rail and incorporates the inner joint. This configuration in effect gives two drive shafts of
equal length. The benefit of this is to reduce drive shaft derived torque steer that can be a problem on front
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 93
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
wheel drive cars with un-equal length drive shafts.
Driveshaft Bar Shafts
The inner and outer joints are connected together by bar-shafts of solid construction but different lengths and
diameters depending on the gearbox used. All outer joints have shields to protect the wheel speed sensors.
ECVT and R65 have shields on the inner joints to protect the drive shaft seal. The MINI COOPER S has no
need for a shield on the left hand inner joint due to the proximity of the inner joint to the differential housing.
Support Bearing
Fig. 136: Right Hand Drive Shaft And Support Bearing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 137: Support Bearing
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 94
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Outer Joints
To achieve greater articulation the outer joint has six ball bearings located in a cage running on convex grooves
on the inner race and longitudinal elliptical grooves in the outer joint. The outer joint construction allows the
joint to turn at the same speed as the shaft when in line and when the joint is turned through any position up to
45°. The name for this type of joint is "constant velocity". This design applies to the outer joints on all models.
Fig. 138: Drive Shaft Outer Joint Assembly
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Fig. 139: Outer Joint Components (1 Of 2)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 95
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
Fig. 140: Outer Joint Components (2 Of 2)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Inner Joints
The inner joint is of the tripod type with spherical bearings to reduce sliding resistance. The joint has three
bearings supported on needle roller bearings. This allows the shaft to slide horizontally inside the joint. The
horizontal sliding movement will allow the overall length (differential to hub) of the shaft to increase or
decrease as required with suspension travel.
A maximum drive angle of 25° is possible with this type of joint but the working angle is normally less than
10°. This is why tripod plunge joints are normally positioned at the differential end of the drive shaft.
On the left hand inner joint, used with the R65 gearbox, the drive shaft it is retained in the differential by
pressure from a spring located between the two halves of the inner joint.
Fig. 141: Inner Joint Retention Ring (Getrag/ECVT)
Courtesy of BMW OF NORTH AMERICA, INC.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 96
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
2006 MINI Cooper S
2002-07 GENINFO Driveline - Overview - MINI
On ECVT and Getrag the left hand drive shaft is located in the differential by a spring ring on the end of
splines.
Front Hub
The front hub is a unitary construction with the wheel flange. The flange acts as the outer race of the outer
bearing and is machined to take the outer race of the inner bearing. This hub bearing is of the ball type. The
drive shaft is located onto the wheel bearings with multi-splines, and retained by a lock nut. The tightening of
the nut provides the correct amount of pre-load on the wheel bearings.
Repair Information
Two different types of lubrication are used for the drive shaft joints. The outer joint uses a graphite-based
grease and the inner joint uses high temperature melting point grease.
Drive shaft boots (inner and outer) are available to replace separately in the event of a split or damaged boot.
The appropriate type of grease is supplied with the boot kit.
A BMW Special Tool will be available to aid the removal of the left hand drive shaft inner joint from the
differential on the MINI COOPER with ECVT and the MINI COOPER S.
The tightening torque for the front hub / drive shaft retaining nut is: 167 - 196 Nm.
Microsoft
Tuesday, February 16, 2010 10:00:40 AM
Page 97
© 2005 Mitchell Repair Information Company, LLC.
`