Directed Reading A Section: Scientific Methods

Name_______________________________ Class __________________ Date __________________
Skills Worksheet
Directed Reading A
Section: Scientific Methods
1. What did James Czarnowski and Michael Triantafyllou develop?
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WHAT ARE SCIENTIFIC METHODS?
2. The ways scientists answer questions and solve problems are called
______________________.
3. Do scientists always use the steps in the scientific method in the same way?
Explain your answer.
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ASK A QUESTION
Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided.
_____ 4. What step helps scientists focus the purpose of an investigation?
a. using the scientific methods
b. asking a question
c. using observation
d. finding a dinosaur bone
_____ 5. Which statement about observations is true?
a. They always involve seeing something.
b. They must be made at the beginning of an investigation.
c. They involve noticing the natural world.
d. They can be made with any of the senses.
_____ 6. Why is it important for observations to be accurately recorded?
a. so that scientists will be paid
b. so that scientists never need to make the same observations
c. so that other scientists will not be able to use the information
d. so that scientists can use the information in future investigations
_____ 7. What is a measurement?
a. A measurement is a tool.
b. A measurement is a recording.
c. A measurement is an observation.
d. A measurement is a way to ask a question.
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston; a Division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Science and Technology
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Science in Our World
Name_______________________________ Class __________________ Date __________________
Directed Reading A continued
Match the correct definition with the correct term. Write the letter in the space
provided.
_____ 8. a comparison of energy output with
energy input
_____ 9. application of science for practical
purposes
a. technology
b. engineer
c. efficiency
_____ 10. scientist who puts scientific knowledge
to practical use
11. What did Czarnowski and Triantafyllou learn from observing boat propulsion
systems?
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12. Explain why a boat’s propeller system is not as efficient as it could be.
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13. What is the formula used to calculate efficiency?
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14. What question did Czarnowski and Triantafyllou ask?
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FORM A HYPOTHESIS
Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided.
_____ 15. A possible explanation or answer to a question is a(n)
a. prediction.
b. data.
c. variable.
d. hypothesis.
_____ 16. A good hypothesis
a. is always true.
b. always answers a scientific question.
c. is testable.
d. includes a lot of information.
_____ 17. What hypothesis did Czarnowski’s observations lead to?
a. The penguin propulsion system is more efficient than propellers.
b. The penguin propulsion system is less efficient than propellers.
c. Propulsion systems cannot be improved.
d. Penguins have rigid bodies.
Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston; a Division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Science and Technology
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Science in Our World
Name_______________________________ Class __________________ Date __________________
Directed Reading A continued
_____ 18. A statement in an if-then format is a(n)
a. prediction.
b. data.
c. variable.
d. hypothesis.
TEST THE HYPOTHESIS
_____ 19. How would you find out if your hypothesis is a reasonable answer to
your question?
a. Make more observations.
b. Look up the answer in an encyclopedia.
c. Test the hypothesis.
d. Develop a new hypothesis.
20. A test that compares the results from a control group with the results from one
or more experimental groups is a(n) ______________________.
21. The one factor that changes in a controlled experiment is called a(n)
______________________.
22. How did Czarnowski and Triantafyllou test their hypothesis?
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23. Pieces of information gathered through observation or experimentation are
called ______________________.
24. Why do scientists like to study a large number of samples?
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25. What were three kinds of data the scientists collected about Proteus?
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Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston; a Division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Science and Technology
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Science in Our World
Name_______________________________ Class __________________ Date __________________
Directed Reading A continued
ANALYZE THE RESULTS
Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided.
_____ 26. What must scientists do after they have collected their data?
a. Make a prediction.
b. Analyze results.
c. Communicate results.
d. Draw a conclusion.
_____ 27. How was the data collected by Czarnowski and Triantafyllou
organized?
a. in a speech
b. as photographs
c. on graphs
d. as an experiment
DRAW CONCLUSIONS
_____ 28. Which is NOT a conclusion a scientist might draw at the end of an
investigation?
a. The investigation was a waste.
b. The results support the hypothesis.
c. The hypothesis was not proven.
d. More information is needed.
29. What hypothesis was supported by Czarnowski and Triantafyllou’s
investigation?
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COMMUNICATE RESULTS
_____ 30. Why do scientists communicate the results of their investigations?
a. so no other scientist will need to make the same experiment
b. so other scientists can reproduce the experiment and verify the data
c. so credit will be given to the right scientist
d. to prove the hypothesis is true
31. What were three places the Proteus results were shared?
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Original content Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston; a Division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Additions and changes to the original content are the responsibility of the instructor.
Holt Science and Technology
7
Science in Our World
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