Ch 14 Growth and development Exercise

New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
Book 2
Ch 14 Growth and development
Multiple-choice questions (p. 14-26)
Short questions (p. 14-27)
HKDSE Biology Practice Paper 2012 IB Q10 b–c
(a) Water is needed.
to soften the seed coat for the emergence of the radicle. (1)
to activate the enzymes needed for germination. (1)
to hydrolyse the stored food (e.g. starch) for use in respiration to provide the energy
needed. (1)
to provide a medium for transporting the soluble food to growing parts for use. (1)
Any 2, @ (1) x2 = (2)
(b) Sample size: Soak a sufficiently large number of wheat grains (e.g. 50) in water added
with pesticide X. (1)
Setting up of the control: Soak equal number of wheat grains in water without pesticide
X. (1)
Controlled variables: Allow the grains in the 2 set-ups to germinate under identical
environmental conditions for the same period of time. (1)
Measurement: Compare the success rate of germination to see if there is any significant
difference. (1)
HKALE Biology 2010 II Q6b
N.B. Give your answers in paragraph, MUST NOT in table form.
In the region of cell division, cells undergo active mitotic cell division. (1)
This leads to an increase in the number of cells. (1)
In the region of elongation, cells take in water by osmosis. (1)
This leads to an increase in the size of cells. (1)
In the region of differentiation, extra materials are added to the cell walls. (1)
This leads to an increase in the complexity of cells. (1)
The head of the newborn baby is relatively larger. (1)
The arms / legs of the newborn baby are relatively shorter. (1)
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New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
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Genetic factor / diet / hormones / exercise
(any 2) @(1) × 2 = (2)
Different parts of the body grow at different rates. (1)
Height is not always related to mass. (1)
Mass may fluctuate / change temporarily. (1)
Structured questions (p. 14-27)
10 HKCEE Biology 2010 I Q8b
Title (T): Change in amylase activity and amount of reducing sugars in seeds
during germination (1)
Correct plotting and joining of all points (P) (1)
Correct key or labelling of curve (K) (½)
Correct labelling of axis with unit and appropriate scale (L) (1½)
(ii) When the amylase activity increases, the amount of reducing sugars in seeds
increases (1)
because more starch is being broken down by amylase to form reducing sugar (1)
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New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
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(iii) More reducing sugars are consumed in day 9 / Less starch (food storage) is
available for amylase activity in day 9 / More reducing sugars are transported away
from the seed in day 9 (1)
(iv) For energy release for the growth of the embryo (1)
As material for forming structural component of new cells (e.g. cellulose) for
growth (1)
Total: 9 marks
11 HKCEE Biology 2006 I Q10a
(i) The average dry mass of both samples decreases from day 0 to day 12 (1)
because the stored food in cotyledon / seed is used (1)
in respiration / oxidation / is broken down to carbon dioxide and water (1)
(ii) The average dry mass of the seedlings grown in daylight increases from day 12 to
day 18, while that of seedlings grown in darkness continues to decrease (1)
because under daylight, the seedlings have developed green leaves (1)
for photosynthesis (1)
The rate of food production is faster than the rate of food consumption (1)
resulting a net gain in dry mass
Effective Communication C (1)
(iii) The dry mass shows the actual biomass / organic matter of the seedlings /
The water content of the seedlings varies and hence the fresh mass cannot indicate
the actual growth (1)
Total: 8 marks
Essay (p. 14-28)
Meristemic cells are undifferentiated cells which are able to divide by mitotic cell
division. /
In the root tip, meristemic cells are situated at the region of cell division. /
When a meristemic cell undergoes mitotic cell division, a daughter cell may be pushed to
the region of elongation of the root tip. /
It takes in water by osmosis and the cell elongates as many small vacuoles are formed. /
The elongated cell is then pushed to the region of differentiation of the root tip. /
Small vacuoles in the cell fuse to form large vacuoles. /
A long extension, the root hair, grows from the cell. /
More cellulose fibres are made and added to the cell wall.
(any 7) (1) × 7 = (7)
Style (3)
Reading to learn (p. 14-29)
Seeds take less space. / More seeds can be stored to provide greater genetic variability. /
- 10 -
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New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
Book 2
The maintenance cost is lower. / Seeds can be stored for a long period of time.
(any 2 or other reasonable answers) (1) × 2
To avoid the growth of fungi / mould (1)
which may spoil the seeds. (1)
To suppress the activity of enzymes involved in seed germination. (1)
To ensure that the seeds are still viable / living after they are dried and stored at low
temperature. (1)
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