Bunny Medical Supplies And Emergency Kit By Beau’s Maple Leaf Rabbitry© Bunny Medical Supplies & Emergency Kit Items: Worming Medication: Durvet: Ivermectin Paste 1.87% Sulmet Solution (Liquid) Corrid Liquid Solution 9.6% Feeding Syringes: 1ml Syringe, 6ml Syringe and 10ml Syringe Critical Care Red Gatorade Gauze Pads Hydrogen Peroxide Mineral Oil Q-Tips Styptic Powder Neomycin Oral Solution Papaya Enzyme Tablets Pedialyte Terramycin Eye Ointment Rubbing Alcohol Small Animal Nail Trimmers Vaseline-Petroleum-Jelly Digital Thermometer: (Digital only) Vet Wrap Bag Balm Dried Lavender Heat Lamp Baking Soda Baby Gas Drops Craisins Apple Cider Vinegar Chamomile or Chamomile Tea Not all stuff will fit in your container for your kit, but have it nearby to access the items. I added some additional information to have on hand as well to refer back to. Wormer: Worming Medication for Rabbits: Durvet: Ivermectin Paste 1.87% Where to Purchase: Tractor Supply – $3.99 Dose Amount: (Size of Pea) Place a pea size amount on a Popsicle stick and give it orally. **Adults, Pregnant/Nursing and Kits 7 weeks and up can be treated** Worming Schedule: Every 6 months Sulmet Solution: (Has to be the liquid solution) Preventive for Coccidia Where to purchase: Agway (Tractor Supply DOES NOT carry this) $9.99 Syringe directly out of the bottle. DO NOT Dilute. Dose: 1cc per 2.2 lbs. for 5 days, again directly syringe out of bottle and give orally. Treament Schedule: 1 time every year, but if showing 2 x a year ***NOTE: Only for Rabbits - 4 months and Up**** Corid - Liquid Solution 9.6% Coccidia Treatment Where to purchase: Local Feed Stores – (Tractor Supply doesn’t carry this 9.6%) Dose: 5ml to 1 gallon of water. Fill up water bottles with the one gallon water jug and continue for 30 days to kill any coccidia BUNNY EMERGENCY KIT! - MUST HAVE!!! This will come in handy and every breeder should have one, items listed below are what you should have in the kit: Feeding Syringes: 1ml Syringe, 6ml Syringe and 10ml Syringe (pics below) 1ml 6ml 10ml Critical Care: This is a life saver, use for when your rabbit is not eating due to an illness. You have to syringe feed the rabbit 6ml 2 – 3 times daily to help give things moving in the GI Tract so that the rabbit does not go into GI Stasis. GI Stasis is when a rabbit stops eating and their stool becomes smaller and smaller. That is a big sign as well as not eating. You have to get it eating, once the rabbit stops pooping all together it can be hard to get it out of GI Stasis. Where to purchase: Amazon or some vet clinics do carry this. Red Gatorade: This is to help prevent a rabbit from going into GI Stasis. You can use it with the Critical Care. 6ml Syringe 2- 3 times daily, this helps keeps the fluids in the GI Tract. (Any color Gatorade will do also) You syringe it directly in to your rabbits mouth. Gauze Pads: Hydrogen Peroxide: Any brand Hydrogen Peroxide is good to have one hand for not only clean up cuts or wounds, but also great to use on white rabbits to get urine stains or any stains in general out. Apply a good amount to a wash cloth and wipe stained area clean! ________________________________________________________________ Mineral Oil: Any Brand can be used to treat ear mites also. Place only 2 drops into each ear 1 time daily for a few days and also clean out each day with gauze and Q-Tips. Where to Purchase: Mineral Oil can be purchased at a drug store Q-TIPS: Uses – Use with Styptic Powder. Dip end of Q-Tip in water, then dip the Q-Tip in the Styptic Powder and apply to toe nail that is bleeding. Styptic Powder: Use – Stops bleeding instantly if you cut nail too short. Use Q-Tip, dip end of the Q-Tip in water and dip into the Styptic Powder and apply to nail. Where to Purchase: Tractor Supply or Pet Store Neomycin Oral Solution: This is to help with Enteritis, it get rid of the bacterial in the GI Tract. Dose amount: 1ml - 1 time daily orally. Where to purchase: Tractor Supply **NOTE has to be the liquid** Papaya Enzyme Tablets: Helps keep rabbits GI Tract but most of all from wool block. You can tell when your rabbit is digesting hair when you can see stool that is linked by hair. Where to purchase: GNC you can get a large count for – $19.99 Dose: 1 -2 tablets - 1 time daily till you do not see linked stool. Grooming will also help keep the rabbits from getting hair block. Pedialyte: Good to have on hand to place in water bottles in summer to keep rabbits hydrated and also when a Rabbit is recovering from GI Stasis. Where to purchase: Local Food Store or Walmart in the baby isle. Terramycin Eye Ointment: Used to treat eye infections: place in each eye 2 – 3 times a day till symptoms subside Can only get online http://www.bunnyrabbit.com or from a vet. Small Animal Nail Trimmers: Where to purchase: Pet Stores Digital Thermometer: (Digital only) Normal Temperate is 101oF - 103oF. If a rabbit has a temperature higher than 103oF you need to bring it down. That is when Rubbing Alcohol comes in handy. Place some on the rabbits ear – the Rabbits ears is where their body regulate their body temp. Also pour the Rubbing Alcohol over the rabbits back. You can keep applying until the rabbits temp is back in the normal range. You also will need to keep checking the temp with your thermometer to make sure you don’t make your rabbits temp too low. When it is back in the normal range no more apply the Rubbing Alcohol, just check temp every hour. You still want to seek medical attention, anytime a rabbit has a very high temp there is something causing it. If the rabbits temperature is lower or very low than 101oF you need to get the rabbits temp up by wrapping the rabbit in warm towels (place towels I dryer for a few minutes) also heat lamp is great to help keep steady heat. Again you would want to seek medical attention to find out what is causing the low temps or high. If you rabbits temp drop to low the rabbit can go in to hyperthermia and their organs will shut down. You will need to get your rabbits temperature back up to the normal range, by using a warm towel from the dryer. Also you want to place a heating lamp over the cage of your rabbit to make the rabbits temperature stable. Vet Wrap: In case you need to wrap a wound Where to purchase: Tractor Supply Bag Balm: Used for Sore Hocks or Wounds, apply to affected area 2-3 times daily until resolved. Where to Purchase: Tractor Supply or any store Dried Lavender: Help to induce labor if a rabbit is over 32 days. For small breeds 1 tablespoon of the Dried Lavender and you will need to mash it up in a Banana real good and let your rabbit eat it. Dried Lavender can take up to 12 hours to induce labor. After the 12hrs is up and nothing you can give another dose. Also use to calm rabbits. Heat Lamp: Heat lamp is great to have on hand in case you need warm up your bun or place babies under to keep warm if you have to hand feed. Where to purchase: Tractor Supply Baking Soda: Use –also getting stains out of white rabbits. Mix Baking Soda with Water to make a paste. Apply to the stained area on your rabbit and let dry. Once it is dry, than brush out with a comb or brush. Baby Gas Drops: use - Bloat in rabbits for pain and discomfort. You can normally tell if your rabbit is in pain, if it is hunched over or grinding teeth. Dosage: ½ of a dropper 1 x daily. Craisins: Uses- to treat urinary tract infections and rabbits prone to hutch burn, also good as a treat! Apple Cider Vinegar: Apple cider vinegar has many benefits for the domestic rabbit. Dosage: Add 1 – 2 teaspoons of Apples Cider Vinegar to water. You can give it daily or few times a month. Brand: Organic is the best, but any brand will do. ACV helps reduce the ammonia smell of rabbit urine. Boost Immune System, natural Probiotic Prevents urinary tract problems like bladder sludge (from excess calcium), reducing infections because the organisms cannot live in acidic urine. Keeps the body pH regulated, clearing up any skin infections or weepy eyes. Increases the nutrient absorption capabilities of the G.I. tract as well as helping the whole digestive process. Boosts fertility rates and may result in more female kits in a litter. Makes the does more willing to breed. Makes rabbits unattractive to fleas and mites by making the rabbit “smell” off, making it a great repellent. Extensive historical use and veterinary studies indicate that apple cider vinegar added to feed or water can cure a mastitis infection and reduce the transmission rates of the bacteria. One part vinegar and one part water can be sprayed on [any pet's] fur and rubbed in generously to the skin. Saturate the entire coat, and continue every day for a few days to a week; any flea infestation will disappear. Can be used as a cleaner for cages and crocks as well as keeping the green algae from growing in water bottles in the summer. Known for keeping fur softer and shinier. If bringing your rabbit to a show or transporting them, ACV water will taste the same as the water from home no matter what tap you use. Rabbits like the taste of ACV and drink more water, resulting in better hydrated rabbits. It’s safe to give to pregnant does, great for rabbits at any life stage. Adding ACV to water changes the pH level of the water, lowering the freezing point of water (a handy benefit when you live in the mountains at 8,000 ft. elevation!). Chamomile/ Chamomile Tea: Chamomile is great to use for a calming agent (you can get dried Chamomile at Price Chopper) Chamomile Tea you can also for a calming agent (make the tea but stronger than you would make for yourself and add to water bottle. Pain refief, calm nervous rabbit, and weepy eye (combine with a little honey in a tea/wash or compress). Uses: Feed the flowers; Make a tea with honey for an eye wash. Medicinal Herbs for Rabbits: ALDUR - (Alnus glutinosa) - Swelling Uses: Green leaves used as a poultice for swellings of breast and legs. ANISE: Increase Milk Flow – purchase at food store! Works great! AGRIMONY - This has iron, Vitamins B and K. Digestive problems, Abscesses Uses: Make a tea for tonic for digestive system as is a bitter. 1/4 oz. of dried herbs in a teapot with 1 point of boiling water, wait ten minutes and then take out leaves and use tea for abscesses. ALFALFA/LUCERENE - Kidney cleanser, nervine (nerve tonic). ALMOND (Prunus dulcis) - Skin irritation, Sores, Lung Ailments, Sickly Young. Uses: Nut kernels and oil. Act as a skin soothing remedy. Treats sores which refuse to heal on young animals and others and lung ailments. Oil is good for sore eyelids and cracked noses/lips and sore teats in milking animals. Kernels can be fed to young sickly animals - finely grated kernels. One teaspoon of grated almonds given twice daily. For very sick animals, almonds should be blanched (skins removed by dipping in hot water), or fed extracted oil at dose of a few drops of oil in a tablespoon of tepid milk. ALOE (Aloe communis) - Mastitis, Skin ailments, Eye ulcers, Sores, Tumors. Uses: As an external lotion. Some controversy over how safe aloe is for internal use (licking). Used for eye ulcers, wounds and sores even tumors. APPLE (Malus domestica) - Diarrhea, Constipation Uses: Apple pulp is rich in pectin. It works in either direction, plugging up the bowels when loose or loosening them up if constipated. ARNICA - Paralysis, Bruising, Stiffness Uses: POISONOUS as plant so use homeopathic tincture only. For shock – emergency: Only 1-2 drops for small rabbits, 3-4 for large breeds. ASPARAGUS - Reduces Milk Yield, Dries up Milk in Nursing Does, Diuretic Uses: Can be used to reduce milk yield, used to help reduce chance of getting blockages of the kidneys and bladder and also jaundice. Dose is a handful of raw shoots twice daily. BALM/BEE BALM - see lemon balm BASIL - Insect Bites, Increases Internal Warmth/Temperature, Nervous Exhaustion, Ringworm, Skin Itch, Retained Placenta/Afterbirth, and Eye inflammation Uses: Leaves can be rubbed on insect bites to reduce itching and inflammation. Leaves can also be taken as a warming and uplifting tonic for nervous exhaustion or any cold condition. Mixing the juice with an equal quantity of honey can be used for ringworm and itching skin. An infusion (tea) of Basil combined with Wood Betony can be given immediately after birthing to prevent a retained placenta or afterbirth. Also goof for inflammation of the eyes humans and rabbits. Cautions- do not use essential oil externally or internally during pregnancy. Harvest before flowering. BILBERRY & BLUEBERRY (Vaccinium, various species) - Diarrhea Uses: Dried berries (fruits) help relieve diarrhea because they are rich in tannins and pectin. BIRCH – Chewing, pain relief, anti-inflammatory, diuretic. Uses: Sticks, twigs, and branches. BLACK OIL SUNFLOWER SEEDS – Coat Condition Uses: Feed 1-2 TBSP per day BLACK CURRENT - Aids against miscarriage, Dysentery, Fevers, Bladder Problems. Uses: Feed fruit and leaves. BLACKBERRY – Used for pregnant does, summer cooling, stimulate appetite, diarrhea and safe introductory green for young kits use leaves and fruit. Uses: The whole plant, fresh or dried. BLUE COHOSH - Similar to Shepard’s Purse: Birthing trouble, inducing labor and healing after birthing. Uses: Use sparingly, do not feed to pregnant does, unless to induce labor. BORAGE – Mild Laxative, Increases milk flow of nursing does, helps with fevers, reduces stress. Uses: no special notes. BRAMBLE - Scours, Bacterial Enteritis, Diarrhea Uses: Leaves. Check that none of the leaves show raspberry mosiac - a disease peculiar to this plant. BURNET - Astringent, Reduce bleeding Uses: Put on wounds. Use leaves only. Leaves do not dry well but may be picked in winter as is a hardy creeper. Pick center leaves as outer ones are tough and unpleasant. CALENDULA (marigold) - Burns, Wounds, Sores, Antiseptic. Uses: This is the HOMEOPATHIC solution. It is safe for rabbits to lick. CARAWAY - Bronchitis, Respiratory Problems, Colic Uses: Seed and leave are appetizer and good for colic. Also good for bronchitis and respiratory problems, best to use young plants as older plants have much less protein CARROT (Daucus carota) - Diarrhea Uses: Use cooked carrots, when they're cooked, carrots may soothe the digestive tract which helps control the diarrhea while also providing nutrients that are lost. CARNIP - Chronic bronchitis, Calming Effect Uses: NOT CATMINT. CELERY - Urinary Antiseptic Uses: Stalks and tops only. Watch as it increases amount of urine being peed. CHAMOMILE – Pain relief, calm nervous rabbit, and weepy eye (combine with a little honey in a tea/wash or compress). Uses: Feed the flowers; Make a tea with honey for an eye wash CHICKWEED – Anti-inflammatory, healing of cuts, molt, Constipation Uses: It is full of copper but very laxative so be very careful. Use in a mixed feed when feeding generally. If used as an eye lotion - one handful brewed in 3/4 points of water. Has white flowers and not red like Scarlet Pimpernel (poison) which looks like it. CHICORY - Gastritis, lack of appetite CHIVES - Skin Trouble, Infections Uses: Feed the green stem only. CLEAVERS/STICKYWEED (Galium aparine) – Healing of cuts, laxative, blood cleanser, abscesses. Uses: Feed fresh plant. Not all rabbits like it. Feed a small handful of fresh herbs finely cut and mixed with hay twice daily. If used as a poultice, prepare as for Chamomile. COLTSFOOT – Respiratory expectorant, Appetite Stimulant, Tonic, Laxative. Uses: As a feed plant, laxative in quantity. COMFREY – Healing, bone formation, ill rabbits, stressed and weak rabbits, rabbit off feed, source of vitamin A, digestive aid, wool block, boost the immune system, good for the stomach, feed as a general tonic. Uses: BE CAREFUL. Use with care with dwarfs as it also contains chemicals that can be dangerous as well as being medicinal. Some breeders will use it and some will not. In extreme doses, comfrey can cause diarrhea! This is its effects working too hard and if left unnoticed, the rabbit may dehydrate BUT IT IS SAFE WHEN used with common sense as it possesses "Cholin", a very powerful healing agent. Great herb for sickly, stressed or weakened bunnies. Feed both root and foliage or apply compress externally to bruised or sprained area. DANDELION – Blood purifying, respiratory ailments, anti-inflammatory, bladder infections, diarrhea, milk flow of nursing does, good treat for does after having a litter. ECHINACEA - Immune system stimulant and broad spectrum antibiotic. In the lower doses it’s the stimulant and in higher doses acts as an antibiotic. Anti-inflammatory with anti-viral properties. EUCALYPTUS – Dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas. EYEBRIGHT – Weepy eye wash FENNEL – Bloating, gas, milk flow of nursing does. GARLIC – Immunize against disease, antiseptic, antibiotic, bloating and gas, wormer, respiratory expectorant. GINGER – Infertility in bucks GOATS RUE – Milk flow in nursing does GOLDEN ROD – Anti-inflammatory GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACT- Wormer - 10 drops in a gallon of water for 2 weeks, coupled with raw pumpkin seeds this mix should clean out your rabbits. LAMBS QUARTERS- Wormer (Rabbits generally prefer it younger). Overall good green. LAVENDER – Mild tranquilizer, circulation problems, nervous stress, exhaustion, induces labor. Use with caution/sparingly/in extreme cases only. LEMON BALM – Anti-bacterial, antiviral, bloating and gas, diarrhea, reduce stress. LICORICE – Gastric inflammation, coughs. LINSEED – Laxative helps with molting. MARIGOLD – Bruises, slowly healing wounds, ulcers, skin diseases, digestive problems. MARJORIM – Coughs, inflammation of mouth, throat. Digestive problems, uterine discomfort, calm nerve MEADOWSWEET – Weepy eye wash MILK THISLTE – Helps take ammonia from the blood and protects both the liver and the kidneys, increases milk flow in nursing does MINT – Firms loose stools, decreases the milk flow of does during weaning, Good herb for treating mastitis. Safe as food for dry does and bucks DO NOT FEED to lactating does. Used for colds, eye inflammation, liver stimulant, and used to relax the muscles of the digestive tract and stimulate bile flow so mint is useful for indigestion, gas and colic. Avoid prolonged use; it can irritate the mucous membranes. Do not give any form of mint to young babies, should be harvested just before flowering. MOTHER WART – Weepy eye wash NASTURTIUM – Strongly antiseptic NETTLES – Increases milk flow in nursing does. OATS – Digestive problems, diarrhea, kidney and bladder problems. Watch small kits as they may not be able to swallow oats and may actually choke on them. PARSLEY – Enriches the blood, urinary problems. Roots are used for constipation and obstruction of the intestines. Good for the cure of inflammation of bladder & kidneys, digestive disorders, fertility in bucks, productivity in does. PAPAYA - Wool block. PINEAPPLE - Fresh Pineapple cores are good for diarrhea and wool block. PLANTAIN – antimicrobial, antispasmodic, healing of cuts, respiratory expectorant, fevers, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, lung infections, inflammation, sores, wounds. Safe introduction of young kits to greens. PURSLANE - Purslane contains more Omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy vegetable plant know of. There was a study where they fed Purslane to rabbits with high cholesterol and it lowered it. RASPBERRY – Prevention and treatment of kindling problems like retained afterbirth. Improves condition during pregnancy, ensuring speedy and strong birth. Feed during the last two weeks of pregnancy as a great preventive prenatal supplement. Also wonderful cure for digestive ailments including diarrhea, infertility in bucks, fevers, and a safe introductory green for young kits ROSEMARY – Lowers blood pressure, Ideal for exhaustion, weakness, and depression in rabbits. The stems and leaves invigorate the circulation, stimulate the digestion, and are good for cold conditions. SAGE – Dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas, dry up does who’s kits have been weaned. Reduces lactation when weaning, digestive stimulant and a uterine stimulant. This herb should be used with caution and should be avoided during pregnancy. SASSAFRASS – Dried and powdered, and sprinkled repel fleas. SCOTCH PINE – bronchitis, sinusitis, neuralgia, rheumatism SHEPHERDS PURSE – Uterine disorders, A strong medicine for diarrhea. Use sparingly. SORREL – Very cooling and soothing, it is a much cherished treat in the summer. STRAWBERRY – Whole plant is antiseptic and cooling. Leaves are rich in iron and are supposed to prevent miscarriage. Externally used for inflamed areas, rashes and sore eyes. THYME – Good for diarrhea, the stems and leaves are ideal for a useful as a digestive remedy, warming for stomach ache, chills and associated diarrhea. Expels worms. Harvest before and during flowering in summer discard the woody stems WILLOW – Intestinal inflammation, willow twigs and leaves. Useful winter food easily gathered and stored. Also a pain-reliever and possible natural coccidiostat 101 on Bunny Poop Bunny Poops: Average sized bunnies will make 200-300 poops per day. They should be uniform in size and shape which means rounded and pea to garbanzo sized. The size of your bunny won't always predict the size of their poops Healthy Poops: They should also be friable. Friable means that they'll have a stable form. If you apply gentle pressure and roll them between your fingers, they'll fall apart into something resembling sawdust as in the photo. Bunny poops can get pretty hard as they dry out, so test a fresh one if possible. Inside Healthy Poops: Once you've tested the friability of a poop, inside you should find lots of chewed up hay. Testing them regularly will give you a baseline for what's normal for your bunny Color of Poops: Darker, more moist poops may be a sign that your bunny is getting too much protein in their diet. The poops in the lower left were from a bunny before a switch from orchard grass (a 'richer' hay) to timothy hay (upper right) after only 24 hours. After 48 hours the poops contained even more visible chewed up hay on their surface and continued to become lighter brown and larger. Cecotropes: These poops are completely normal; usually bunnies eat them to ensure that they get enough protein and B vitamins in their diet. Sometimes bunnies will make more than normal when they're stressed or are getting too much sugar in their diet. This is okay as long as the bunny doesn't get a messy bottom (by sitting on the cecos) and it doesn't happen all the time. If it does, it might be time for a change of diet. Sometimes cecotropes' berry-like structure can be disrupted into individual pieces by your bunny. You'll know them by their squishy texture, glossy surface and odor which will intensify if the membranous outer coating is disrupted. Linked By Hair: These poops are linked together by shed hair. This isn't a problem - the spacing suggests that the bunny's gut is working normally and the hair is getting pushed through with all the other fiber. I would suggest giving the bunny more fresh greens (in addition to their free access to hay) to keep things hydrated and moving and brush them more regularly, but otherwise this bunny seems healthy. When you see this happening you should start grooming your rabbit and give the rabbit Payapa Enzyme Tablets daily. The tablets can be found at GNC. Double and Singles: The 'doubles' at the top of this image occur when a bunny's gut slows for whatever reason and 2 pills collide during their formation creating a double poop. These can be caused by stress or advanced age. If your bunny starts making more then two or three doubles (or triples) per day, it might be time to ask your vet about a stimulant to get your bunny's gut back to a normal pace. Their pills should be uniform in size and shape like those at the bottom of the image. Small Round Poops: Poops can become small for any number of reasons: stress is the most common one for small round poops. A strange noise or a stressful experience can cause your bunny's poops to be smaller temporarily. They should go back to normal within a few hours. Chronically small poops can indicate chronic pain, narrowing of the intestine or a partial blockage and a vet visit is an order. Small Misshape Poops: Not eating enough. This can happen after surgery, if your bunny's teeth are hurting, or any other reason your bunny might not want to eat. Post-surgery, this is a good sign - your bunny's digestive tract is working, there just isn't a lot of food in there. Otherwise, your bunny's poops are telling you to go see a vet. Mucous Covered Poops: Mucous in poops is common after a course of antibiotics, but can also be caused by anything that might irritate the intestinal lining. In this case, the bunny ate her first piece of parsley ever with such gusto that she forgot to chew. Similarly other large or irritating masses might be encased in mucous. Mucous might be present for parasites or other very serious disorders like cecal impaction. A consult with a veterinarian is advised if you observe mucous in your rabbit's poops. Diarrhea: True diarrhea is very rare in rabbits and is cause for alarm. Rabbits with diarrhea may be infected with deadly parasites or possibly have been exposed to poisons. Very young rabbits with watery runny stools may have been weaned before they're ready. Regardless of the age of any rabbit with diarrhea, getting them to a vet as soon as possible should be first priority. If it's an option, bring some of the runny stool for your vet to examine. WHAT IS ENTERITIS? *IMPORTANT: I am summarizing this disease to the BEST of my knowledge and findings. The information below has been gathered through personal experience, countless articles, and conversations/studies via Veterinary Specialists. I am NOT an expert by any means – This article is intended to provide a simplified reference to a disease commonly seen in Lagomorphs.* What exactly IS Enteritis? The term Enteritis (also referred to as bloat, Mucoid Enteritis, Mucoid Enteropathy) in itself is a bit vague, literally translating to ‘inflammation of the gut’. It’s a serious condition in which digestive processes have either slowed down greatly, or stopped completely. If it is not taken care of fast, the rabbit’s system will become plagued with Toxemia, and will most likely shut down entirely, resulting in death. Mucoid Enteropathy is bloat coupled with a gelatin-like feces. Those who have experienced this type of Enteritis in their barn can smell it from a mile away. The stench is unimaginable. Because of the excessive diarrhea, it is ESSENTIAL to keep infected rabbits hydrated – Sub Qs are the most efficient way to do this (but we’ll get to that later). “The mucoid enteropathy is an acute mortal disease of rabbits, characterized by signs of dehydration, bloating of the abdomen, and a gelatin like secretion in the feces. Rabbits with 3-10 weeks of age are the most frequently affected animals.” Targeted Ages: Weanlings Juniors under 6 months old Nursing does Symptoms: Off feed/water Dehydration Lethargy Underweight Bloated abdomen Sloshing noises in gut Little/no stools Jelly-like diarrhea or diarrhea in general Grinding teeth (pain) Causes: It’s hard to pinpoint the exact cause of a given outbreak. We do know, however, it is USUALLY either Bacterial or Protozoal, so it’s extremely important to treat for both organisms. Potential causes could include (but aren’t limited to) stress (especially in weanlings and nursing does), Bacterial or Protozoal contamination through feed, hay, or other ingested supplements, or airborne pathogens. PLEASE NOTE: Enteritis is contagious to the age groups targeted. It is not unlikely for a rabbit to spread it to cagemates/stacker-mates. It’s important to practice strict quarantining methods should Enteritis affect ANY rabbit in your herd. Necropsy Results: Personal findings (Courtesy of Dr. Joy Lucas, Saratoga Springs, NY): Lesions lining the intestinal tract (Thought to be caused by gelatin like substance intoxicating the intestinal tract – The TOXINS are what kill the rabbit) Other findings (Courtesy of Dr. Jay Hreiz, ARBA Judge #789): Enlarged Liver Nodules on Liver Enlarged Gallbladder TREATING ENTERITIS SYMPTOMS: I cannot reiterate enough HOW important it is to prepare your Bunny Medicine Cabinet ahead of time, as time is of the essence when a Bacterial or Protozoal strain hits your Rabbitry. The moment Enteritis rears its ugly head, treatment begins. Not a minute later. As mentioned in the previous post What IS Enteritis?, the instigating organism which produces Mucoid Enteritis symptoms is usually either Bacterial (such as C. Spiroforme or Pastuerella Multocida Bacterin) or Protozoal (which may include various forms of Coccidiosis – one of the 12 species of Eimeria). As you can imagine, it is crucial to treat for both if the instigating organism is not determined. (NOTE: “Intestinal coccidiosis is the most common presentation noted by rabbit breeders and can be diagnosed with fecal flotation at most small animal veterinary clinics” – Dr. Jay Hreiz, ‘Protozoal Pests: Coccidiosis‘ VMD – Veterinarian and ARBA Judge #789). Many breeders do not have Veterinarians who are familiar with these infections, however, so as a result, breeders choose to treat their herds themselves. We have had positive results using the following list of treatments. I’m not stating that these are the ONLY remedies however, we managed to save quite a few lives once we realized how to pinpoint and eliminate certain organisms with certain medications. With Enteritis I STRONGLY advice AGAINST homeopathic remedies, Mucoid Enteropathy is fast-moving, and the weaker the concoction, the longer it will take to relieve symptoms and kill the organism. **Toltrazuril 200 mL Baycox - 2.5-5mg/kg for first 3 days. Once 3 days are complete switch to Albon - horseprerace.com a coccidiocide. Sulfamethoxine (Albon) – 0.7 cc/lb 2x/day for 10 days. Must be prescribed by your Veterinarian, a coccidiostat. Metronidazole – 0.5cc/lb* 1x/day for 10 days. (*Could vary by prescribed strength) Vet prescribed only. Sub Q Fluids – Hydration varies between cases. 2x/day until symptoms subside. Sub Qs must be prescribed /given by your Veterinarian. Oxbow Critical Care – 1 part Critical Care to 3 parts warm water daily until symptoms subside. Amazon.com or you vet can carry it. Probios Equine One Gel, 30g (Remember to supplement with Probiotics when administering an Antibiotic). tractorsupplycompany.com **Only administer Toltrazuril in place of Albon, or another Coccidiostat/cide, as it is unnecessary to treat with 2 Coccidiostats/cides in the presence of an outbreak. Additional Treatments (should it be difficult to obtain the ones mentioned above): Neomycin Sulfate – 30mg/kg/day/rabbit until symptoms subside. (Substitute for Metronidazole). This may vary for weanlings. bunnyrabbit.com Amprolium 9.6% (Corid) – water treatment: 5ml/gallon for 30day (Replaces Albon but not nearly as strong), can be found in agricultural stores AND on Amazon.com and bunnyrabbit.com. While treating for Enteritis, pull pellets from their diets completely (until symptoms subside), and push extra hay. Fiber is crucial for your rabbits’ weakened gastric tracts. Also, quarantine any infected bunnies until AT LEAST one week after symptoms have subsided entirely. Baby gas drops can be given for pain (should your bunnies be exhibiting teeth grinding, or any other signs of grave discomfort). Dosages vary depending on brand. It’s fundamental to treat the rest of your herd for Coccidiosis at the time of an outbreak as well. Dose their water bottles with Corid (5cc/gallon for 30days) or Sulmet (12.5% Sodium Sulfamethazine) – These recommended dosages came from bunnyrabbit.com. Please Note: Recommended preventative treatments are CoccidioSTATS, not CoccidioCIDES, meaning they do not eliminate the pathogen entirely, rather, inhibit replica while the rabbit gains immunity. We’ll go into greater detail on prevention options for your herd in future posts: Soluble solutions (Coccidiostats/Coccidiocides), disinfection (products/practices), and quarantine methods. Posted in Rabbit Health Tagged bunnies, enteritis, medications, prevention, rabbits, remedies *Additional Information found online* Gentamicin Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution - To treat weepy eye (for white rabbits due to non-staining of fur/wool) apply meds 2-3 times a day until resolved. Terramyacin Powder – Antibiotics that are safe for rabbits, 1 tsp to 1 gallon of water for 3-5 days (may have changed names to Duramyacin) Piperzine Liquid – Follow directions on bottle (4 Drops per pound orally) twice a year, treat intestinal parasites. Timothy Hay – Should be given every day or once a week if molting CLEAN ‘N GROOM – Great coat cleaner, removes Dirt and Stains from Bunnyrabbit.com 1c Vinegar & 2 Tbsp. Listerine – Spray coat and feet to remove urine stains – can be used on COLORED RABBITS Hemorrhoid Ointment – Used for sore hocks or wounds, apply to affected foot twice daily until resolved. Bounce Back – 1 to 2 Tbsp. per gallon of water for shows or 1 Tbsp per 1/2c of warm water for diarrhea, not eating or in times of stress. Penicillin G Procaine Ointment – To treat vent disease, apply on genitals twice daily for 3-5 days. Penicillin G Procaine Injectable – To treat vent disease, 0.1ml orally or twice daily for 3-5 days QXY-GEN – Give ¼ to ½ ounce over the food for 3 days to stimulate older does to have a more abundant litter NUTRI-CAL – Give a pea size amount orally 2-3 times daily for rabbits that are underweight or to stimulate appetite Calf Manna – For underweight rabbits, place 1 tsp over the feed until desired weight is achieved, great to give Pregnant, Nursing and Kits. Sweet PDZ – In Granular from, sprinkle a small amount in the bottom of cage trays to eliminate ammonia odor and absorbs moisture. Pineapple Juice – Orally to promote eating Sexing your Rabbit Posted on January 3, 2013 by MAD HATTER RABBITS We welcomed a litter of Silver Marten babies yesterday! It’s so exciting to see those little ones wiggling around and mama so proud! Earlier this year I saw a post on a rabbit group claiming you can sex a rabbit at birth. I had never heard of this, so I’ve decided to try it with this newborn litter and see how it turns out in the end. Traditionally, you need to wait until the rabbits are about six weeks or older to see if you’ve got a male or female. To check this, turn the rabbit over on its back and clasp the base of the tail between your second and third fingers. Using your thumb on the same hand, press down at the top of the genital area. This will cause the area to open and you will see a slit opening for a doe and a round opening for a buck. Older bucks protrude a lot – there can be no doubt you’re looking at a penis! Another clue is whether testicles have descended, they would be located on either side of the genital area. The funniest thing I’ve read is about a gal who was too embarrassed to sex her rabbits and would sneak out at night with a flashlight to shine under the cage and try to catch a glimpse of testicles! The post I read recently claims you can sex your rabbits at birth! They posted the following picture and explanation: “Both pictures of a buck, the one on the left is actual the one on the right is marked in red to make it a little easier to see. There is a little bit of a gap between the penile opening and the anus. This will not be present in the newborn doe.” According to our observations last night of the newborns, we believe we have three does and three bucks. We have put a mark with sharpie on the left ear for our buck guesses and the right ear for our doe guesses. Now it’s just a matter of time to see if we guessed right! I’ll be sure to update and let you know! “This is a doe. The anus and vent will be touching.” ** Note** - I have tried this myself and it does work! I will would check them still at 3-4 weeks to be 100% sure. My Safe and Non-Safe Food List: Safe Foods: (All Fruit & Carrots should be fed as a treat only) A Agrimony • Apple (Not the seeds) • Artichoke leaves • Asparagus • Avens B Balm • Banana • Barley • Basil • Beetroot • Blackberries and leaves • Blueberries • Borage • Broccoli (flower, stem & leaves purple sprouting type too) • Buckwheat • Burne C Calendula • Chamomile • Caraway • Carrot • Celery • Celeriac • Chervil • Chicory • Chickweed • Chinese Leaf • Cleavers • Clover (white) • Coltsfoot • Coriander • Cow Parsnip • Courgette • Crosswort •Cucumber D Dandelion • Dill • Dock (Before Flowering) E Endive F Fat Hen • Fennel G Goosefoot • Goosegrass • Goutweed (Before Flowering) • Grapes • Ground Elder (Before Flowering) H Hawkbit • Hawkweed • Heather • Hedge Parsley • Horseradish K Kiwi Fruit • Knapweed • Knotgrass • Kohlrabi L Lavender • Lovage M Mallow • Mango • Marjoram • Mayweed • Maywort • Meadowsweet • Melon • Milk Thistle • Mint (not the candy) • Mugwort N Nectarines • Nettles (Dead ones only) • Nipplewort O Oats • Orache • Oranges (Not the Peel) • Oregano • Oxeye Daisy P Papaya • Parsley • Parsnip • Peas (Including leaves and pods) • Pear (Not seeds) • Peppermint • Peppers (Green, Yellow and Red) • Pigweed • Pineapple • Plantain • Pumpkin R Radish (Tops Only) • Raspberries and leaves • Rosemary • Rocket S Sage • Savory • Sanfoin • Shepherd’s Purse • Silverweed • Sow Thistle • Soya • Spring Greens • Strawberries and leaves • Swiss chard T Tara • Thyme • Tomatoes (Not the leaves) • Trefoil V Vetch • Vine leaves W Watercress • Watermelon • Wheat Y Yarrow SAFE IN MODERATION: ALL Fruits • Brussels sprouts • Cauliflower • Groundsel • Kale • Romaine Lettuce • Molasses • Mustard greens • Spinach • Tallow • Turnip BEWARE OF FRUIT WITH STONES IN: Peaches • Cherries • Plums • Apricot SAFE FLOWERS: Aster • Carnation • Daisy • Geranium • Geum • Helenium • Hollyhock • Honesty • Marguerite • Marigold • Michaelmas Daisy • Nasturtium • Rose • Stock • Sunflower • Wall Flower UNSAFE FLOWERS: (Mainly Anything That Grows From a Bulb Is Unsafe) Acacia • Aconite • Antirrhinum • Anemone • Brugmansia • Columbine • Crocus • Daffodil • Dahlia •• Love-in-a-mist • Lupin • Narcissus • Poppy • Primrose • Snowdrop • Tulip UNSAFE FOODS: Arum • Bigwort • Bindweed • Bluebell • Bryony • Buttercup • Celandine • Clover RED • Cabbage • Colchicum • Cowslip • Cuckoo Pint • Dog’s Mercury • Elder • Euphorbia • Evergreens • Fool’s Parsley • Foxglove • Ground Ivy • Hemlock • Henbane • Iceberg Lettuce • Kingcup • Meadow Saffron • Milkweed (Very Deadly) • Nightshade • Ragwort • Scarlet Pimpernel • Spurge • Toadflax • Tomato Leaves • Traveller’s Joy • Green Beans • Peach Leaves • Plum Leaves • Potato (All kinds) • Rhubarb •Wood Sorrel *Never Feed Rabbits Grass/Lawn Cuttings – The grass ferments quickly and can be extremely harmful* If you wish for your bun to eat some grass take them outside on a harness and let them enjoy it for a bit SAFE TREE & SHRUB LEAVES: (Should always be fresh young leaves) Apple • Birch • Blackberry • Hazel • Horse Chestnut • Lime • Mountain Ash • Mulberry • Pear •Poplar (Not Black) • Raspberry • Strawberry SAFE TWIGS: Apple • Birch • Blackberry • Fir • Hazel • Hawthorn • Maple • Pear • Raspberry • Spruce • Willow UNSAFE TWIGS: (Anything that Produces Fruit with a Stone) Apricot • Cherry • Peach • Plum • Cedar As Well As… Acacia • Azalea • Beech • Box • Clematis • Elder • Holly • Ivy • Laburnum • Mistletoe • Nux Vomica •Oak • Oleander • Periwinkle • Privet • Rhododendron • Rosewood • Snowberry • Spindleberry • Thorn Apple • Waxplant • Wisteria • Yew All Evergreens not mentioned in safe twig list. RABBIT DISEASES: Disease Abscesses Cause Bacterial Infection Symptoms Enlargements under skin near jaw. Can occur on other parts of where there are wounds or scratches. Prevention Minimize fighting. Eliminate sharp objects that can injure the rabbit. Cake Mammary Gland Milk production is in excess of utilization. Too fee young or the young are not nursing. Five different species of protozoa (one celled animals) can injure the bile ducts, intestines or cecum. One or more of the mammary glands may become swollen, hot and firm. Often mistaken for mastitis. Reduce ration by one-half the day the doe kindles and gradually increase to full feed in 7 days. Keep pens clean and prevent fecal contamination of feed and water. Use wire floor pens. Coccidiosis Affects primarily young rabbits. In severe cases, symptoms are diarrhea, loss of flesh, pot belly, loss of appetite, rough fur coat. Treatment Clip the fur around abscess, than lance and remove the puss. Disinfect with peroxide and use an approved antibiotic ointment or powder to promote healing. Relieve some congestion by partial milking. Massage gland with an anti-inflammatory ointment. Sulfaquinoxaline in food or drinking water continuously for 2weeks. Disease Conjunctivitis “Weepy Eye” Cause Inflammation of eye lid. Can result from irritation by dust, sprays, and fumes or by bacterial infection. Ear Canker Ear Mite Enteritis: Diarrhea Likely caused by coccidiosis or other intestinal inflammation. In young rabbits excessive “greens” will cause diarrhea. Thought to result from an irritant, a toxin or other stress factors such as dietary changes, antibiotics and travel stresses. Not thought to be contagious. Several types of bacteria. Mucoid Eye Infection Fur Block “Hair Ball” Rabbits ingest a large amount of its own hair or that from another rabbit in a short period of time. Symptoms Excessive tear formation and fluid runs down check. Rabbit rubs eye with its front feet which further aggravates the condition. Rabbits with snuffles frequently have “Weepy Eye”. Scabs or a crust start forming at base of inner ear. Mites cause considerable irritation and rabbit will shake its head and try to scratch ears with hind feet. A water diarrhea may be only symptom Prevention Minimize sources (dust, dirt) of irritation. Remove chronically affected rabbits. Treatment Use a commercial eyewashing product to remove dust, dirt or other foreign object. In inflammation persists, an ophthalmic ointment containing antibiotics may be helpful. Do not let unaffected rabbits in contact with rabbits that have ear canker. Use a cotton swab to apply mineral, vegetable or olive oil over all visible crust. Usually one or two treatment is sufficient. Develop a program to control coccidiosis. Do not feed “greens” to rabbits. Keep rabbits comfortable and encourage feed consumption. A medicated or vitamin fortified feed may be helpful Characterized by subnormal body temperature, loss of appetite, tooth grinding depression, rough fur coat, dehydration, bloated abdomen and diarrhea containing mucus material The eyes of baby rabbits may stick shut and pus around the eye may be noticed. Rabbit will sporadically eat small amounts of feed. A firm mass can be palpated in the stomach. Prevent or reduce stress factors and have strict sanitation of hutches, feeding and watering equipment. No successful treatment known, but mortality may be slightly reduced by feeding a medicated or vitamin fortified food. Eliminate all affected rabbits, and purchase breeding stock that is free of the disease. Apply an antibacterial ophthalmic eye ointment. Prevent cold drafts and other stress conditions. Fur block is noted more often in Angoras rabbits An oral dose of ½ oz. mineral oil may be effective. If the fur block is too large, surgical removal is necessary. Disease Fungus Infection Cause Fungus Symptoms A dry scaly skin (dandruff) on the shoulders and back. Prevention Prevent contact with affected rabbits. Heat Exhausted Excessively high temperatures (above 85º F) and high humidity (above 70º F), obesity, poor ventilation, insufficient water and crowding. Usually associated with wet and dirty hutches. Urine and fecal material cause the skin to become irritated and infected. Obesity, large litter, lack of exercise. Increased respiration rate (panting) prostration, and excessive saliva discharge. Pregnant does and young in the nest box are most susceptible. Provide shade, adequate air movement, and plenty of cool water on a hot day. Wet burlap in cage will aid in cooling. Usually, a brownish crust covers the infected area and bleeding exudate may be seen. Do not allow fecal material to accumulate in the hutch. Clean affected skin with a germicidal soap and keep the area clean. Usually occurs just before or just after kindling. Does go off feed and will not eat. Obesity can be prevented by limiting feed to 4 to 6 oz. daily for does. Mastitis “Blue Breast” A bacterial infection in the mammary gland caused by an injury from the nest box, cage or a bit from nursing young. The mammary gland will become red in color, swollen, tender and dark blue streaks may appear. Malocclusion “Buck Teeth” An inherited condition characterized by excessive growth of the front teeth. Lower teeth protrude and upper teeth curve into mouth. Prevent young does from getting too fat and make sure the does are eating at kindling time. Reduce any chance of injury to mammary gland as the doe enters the nest box. Do not transfer the young to another lactating doe. Do not use rabbits with “Buck Teeth “for breeding purposes. Hutch Burn Ketosis Treatment Apply tolnaftate to affect area. Other medications are available. Rabbits suffering from heat exhaustion can be immersed in lukewarm water to reduce body temperature to the normal 101-104ºF. Apply a cool compress to the ears. Penicillin is effective against staphylococcus or streptococcus organisms. Teeth on young rabbits can be trimmed and adults as well. Will always require their teeth trimmed. Disease Pastaurellosis “Snuffles” Cause A chronic upper respiratory ailment caused by bacterial infection Symptoms Typical early signs are nasal discharge, watery eyes, head shaking, sneezing or rattling noise in breathing and a loss of weight. Continual infection may cause rabbits to become sterile. Pneumonia A bacteria or virus infection usually associated with other respiratory disease or stress factors such as damp drafty unsanitary hutches. A fungus infection that can appear on any part of the body but most often will occur on the head. This fungus infection can be transmitted to humans. Several members of the Salmonella group of bacteria can affect rabbits. An infestation of mites that burrow through the skin and cause considerable irritation. Mange mites that affect dogs can cats can infect rabbits. Elevated temperatures, labored breathing, nasal discharge and loss of appetite are symptoms. Ringworm Salmonellosis “Scours” Skin Mange Prevention Treatment Quarantine all There is not cure for new rabbits for Pastaurellosis 30 days. Cull “Snuffles” Blood testing rabbits that show and cultures should be continuous taken for accurate chronic result. symptoms of the disease. Reduce You can treat the stress factors and symptoms of Snuffles to have good decrease symptoms but management and rabbits will always carry sanitation it and can still pass it. practices. Control of Treatment may vary “Snuffles” depending upon the reduces chances causative agent. A of pneumonia. broad spectrum Eliminate drafts antibiotic may be and wet helpful. conditions. Loss of hair in circular patches. A yellowish crust forms and sloughs off in about 3 weeks. If infection goes untreated, considerable scratching will occur. Do not allow infected rabbit in contact with other rabbits. Wear gloves when handling the infected rabbit. Clip the fur around affected area and treat with toinaflate. Other medications are available. General symptoms are diarrhea, loss of weight, conjunctivitis, and rapid breathing. There will be some loss of hair, scaly skin and intense itching and scratching. Good husbandry practices and a quarantine of any new rabbits. Infected rabbits should be separated and treated. The premises should be disinfected. Tetracycline in the feed may be effective. Dust with an insecticide approved for the purpose. Treatment should be repeated in 7 days. Disease Sore Hocks Spirochetosis “Vent Disease” Tyzzers Disease Warbles “Botfly” Cause A bruised or infected area on the under-surface of the hock joint. Related stress factors are a dirty hutch, rough surfaces on the floor, or a floor constructed with the wrong size wire-grid. Infection by a spirochete and can be transmitted by mating. A bacterial infection usually associated with stress conditions and poor sanitation. The growth of the botfly larvae under the skin Symptoms Scabs usually appear on the bottom of the rear feet. Pad and toes of the front feet may become infected. Nervous and heavy rabbits are more susceptible to the sore hock condition. Prevention Do not let wet litter and manure accumulate. Eliminate sharp objects on the floor. Treatment Wash the hock with a germicidal soap and apply antiseptic such as tincture of iodine or Bag Balm. Blisters or scabs occur on the sex glands. Always check the breeders before mating. Isolate all new rabbits. The best preventative measures are clean stock and good husbandry practices. Screen the area to keep the botfly away from the rabbit. Injection of penicillin is the best treatment. Do not breed until all lesions disappear. The acute form results with diarrhea dehydration and death within 48 hours. Warbles can be observed as enlargements under the skin with a small hole in the center. The condition is painful and the rabbit may lick the area. Treatment with antibiotics is not very effective. Remove the larvae without crushing it. Apply Vaseline to smother the larvae. Clean the wound with a germicidal soap or apply an antibiotic or ointment to prevent infection. **Ask your local veterinarian for dosage levels when using antibiotics and for the names of antibiotics powders and ointments. **When antibiotics are a part of the treatment program, follow the withdrawal period of the medication if the animal is going to be used for food. **This information on diseases and treatment was reviewed by Dr. David J. Black University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine; and by Dr. T.J. Lane, University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine.
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