LINGUISTICS 1, WEB QUIZ #4 1. SPEECH AS A SOUND WAVE 2. DUALITY OF PATTERNING 3. "SAME" SOUNDS 4. ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS I 5. ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS II 6. ARTICULATORY DESCRIPTION 7. READING THE PHONETIC ALPHABET 8. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION 9. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION VS. ORTHOGRAPHY 10. TYPES OF WRITING SYSTEMS: MAYAN FEEDBACK WILL BECOME AVAILABLE AFTER THE QUIZ CLOSES. 1. SPEECH AS A SOUND WAVE Answers a-e are wave forms of the following five sentences: Why are you yelling? Why are you yakking? Why are you talking? What are you yakking? What are you talking? Which one is the wave form for the sentence, "WHY ARE YOU TALKING?" a. b. c. 1 Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 2 d. e. 2. DUALITY OF PATTERNING Select the one item in a-e that illustrates of DUALITY OF PATTERNING. a. = "stop" b. = "go" = "curves in the road" c. Combining the root CURVE with the morpheme S to make the plural CURVES. d. Saying BOO! to scare someone. e. Clicking the tongue twice (usually written TSK-TSK) to mean, "That's too bad!" 3. "SAME" SOUNDS In the left hand column below, are two pairs of words, where the members of each pair represent the same sounds in reverse order. In the right hand column are the words manipulated electronically to play backward. Contrary to expectation, the "backward" version does not sound like the other member of the pair. Click here to hear the sounds. Base word leaf feel nap pan Base word played backward leaf backward (should sound like feel) feel backward (should sound like leaf) nap backward (should sound like pan) pan backward (should sound like nap) Why does the backward version not sound like the word that it "should" sound like? Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 3 a. When manipulating sounds electronically, there will always be distortions not heard in the original recording. b. The context that speech sounds occur in (beginning or end of word, neighboring sounds, and so forth) affects their pronunciation. c. Speakers probably never pronounce the same word in precisely the same way each time they say it. It is these slight variations in prounciation that account for the nonidentity noted here, NOT the fact that word is played backward. d. In the English spelling system, the same letter often can represent several different sounds. The pairs of words here are examples of this, that is, the same letters are being used in multiple ways. e. The words in blue in the left-hand column are English words, but if the letters are reversed, they are not English words. 4. ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS 1 Select the correct description of the sound that the speaker in the diagram would be pronouncing. (You might want to look at the "movie" for English consonants that was used in lecture.) a. voiced alveolar stop b. voiceless alveolar stop c. voiced alveolar nasal d. voiced alveopalatal affricate e. voiceless alveopalatal affricate Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 4 5. ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS II Which of the following diagrams would represent a speaker saying a MID FRONT UNROUNDED vowel? (You might want to look at the "movie" for English vowels that was used in lecture.) a. b. d. e. c. 6. ARTICULATORY DESCRIPTION Which of the following words begins in a VOICELESS ALVEOPALATAL AFFRICATE? a. chord d. shore b. chore e. circus c. core 7. READING THE PHONETIC ALPHABET NOTE: THIS IS FILL-IN QUESTION, NOT MULTIPLE CHOICE! Here are five English words transcribed phonetically. Write each word in normal English spelling. 1. [res] ________ Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 5 2. [čuz] ________ 3. [šʊk] ________ 4. [θaŋ] ________ 5. [klaym] ________ 8. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION NOTE: THIS IS FILL-IN QUESTION, NOT MULTIPLE CHOICE! Transcribe each of the following English words phonetically. (The phonetic symbols needed to transcribe these words are all letters of the regular Roman alphabet, so you will not have to type any special symbols.) 1. hound ________ 2. wound (in the meaning "injury") __________ 3. cough __________ 4. 'zine ("an underground magazine") _________ 5. cite ___________ 9. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION VS. ORTHOGRAPHY Here are phonetic transcriptions of two pairs of utterances in English. Click here to hear the phrases by the two speakers. a wɔk ʌrænd ɪr ɪvrɪ dʌy ay wak ʌrawnd hɪr ɛvri de gɛt ðʌ frɛš e gɛt ðʌ frɛš ɛr How do these transcriptions show the value of using a standard orthography to write English rather than transcribing people's speech phonetically? a. The standard alphabet has only 26 letters, which are easier to memorize than the many more symbols that would be needed for phonetic transciption. b. Since standard orthography is for WRITING, it allows for a standard set of characters for printing presses and keyboard fonts, usable wherever English is spoken. c. A true phonetic transcription would require that one use different symbols to write variants of sounds that speakers hear as "the same", such as "dark" vs. "light l", "nasalized" vs. "non-nasalized" vowels, and the like. d. If English speakers around the world wrote differently according to their pronunciation, it would be difficult, if not impossible for speakers from other areas to read and understand what they had written. Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 6 e. Standard orthography does NOT have value from an objective point of view--the use of standard orthography has been imposed on English speakers by prescriptive grammarians, who control school curricula. 10. TYPES OF WRITING SYSTEMS: MAYAN The Mayan writing system was used in what is now Guatemala and the Yucatan area of Mexico for a period extending from at least the 3rd century CE until the 16th century (Wikipedia has a pretty good article on the study of this writing system). Scholars managed to ascertain that this was really a writing system, rather than simply pictorial artworks, only in the latter half of the 20th century. The Mayan hieroglyphs are basically a syllabic writing system. Here is a table of some of the syllabic signs of Mayan. Down the left side of the table are the consonants that begin the syllables, and across the top are the vowels of the syllables. Some syllables can be represented by several different hieroglyphs. NOTE ON ARRANGEMENT OF HIEROGLYPHS: Mayan hieroglyphs within a word can be arranged either left-to-right or top-to-bottom. Often, if the top-to-bottom arrangement is used a hieroglyph is rotated 90 degrees. For example, in a word pronounced taki, you might get either of these arrangements: Linguistics 1, Quiz 4 7 ta ki ta ki Here are five Mayan words written in hieroglyphyphs. WHICH ONE REPRESENTS THE WORD lata 'to bury'? a. b. c. d. e.
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