Pavement Marking Manual Transport Services Division

Pavement Marking Manual
Transport Services Division
Department of Planning Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI)
Pavement Marking Manual
First Published : September 2004
Version 3.1 :
October 2012
This manual was developed by Traffic Regulation and Standards, Traffic and Access Standards Section,
Road and Traffic Management Directorate, Transport Services Division.
It has been approved and authorised for use by DPTI staff and its authorised agents and other Road
Authorities as defined by the Road Traffic Act, by :
Paul Gelston
Director, Road and Traffic Management
Stephen Pascale
Manager, Traffic and Access Standards
Steve Clark
Unit Manager, Traffic Regulation & Standards
Extracts may be reproduced providing the subject is kept in context and the source is acknowledged.
Every effort has been made to supply complete and accurate information. This document is subject to
continual revision and may change.
All printed copies are uncontrolled unless otherwise marked.
For information regarding the interpretation of this document please contact:
Traffic and Access Standards Section,
DPTI
Telephone: (08) 8343 2289
Facsimile: (08) 8343 2630
Pavement Marking Manual
Revisions
Revision to this document will be made from time to time. Revisions will only be published on
the DPTI Home page (http://www.dpti.sa.gov.au/standards/tass).
It will be the responsibility of the users of this document to ensure that the most current revision
is followed.
Version
Month/Year
Part/Section
Sept 2004
Description of Revision
Removal of "Draft" status
Approved By
S.C
1.0
Sept 2005
Minor changes in section A, Major alterations in section B
S.C
2.0
March 2007
Minor changes in section B, Section C added
S.C
3.0
Dec 2010
Issued for comment, changes and additions to Section B and C
S.C
3.1
Oct 2012
Pavement Marking Manual
All
Part C 2.23
Coloured bicycle lane - high potential conflict removed
S.C
INTRODUCTION
This manual specifies the lines, patterns, symbols, letters and
numerals, pavement bars and markers used in or on roads, road
related areas and other places including kerbs, for the purpose of
regulating, guiding and warning road users, and provides guidelines
for appropriate use.
TYPES OF MARKINGS
This Section describes the types of markings including paint
substitutes, pavement bars, raised pavement markers and coloured
and/or textured surfaces.
A
B
It details the actual dimensions and other specification attributes of
markings which need not be shown on traffic control and road design
drawings.
DESIGN GUIDE
This section describes the requirements for the correct and consistent
use of pavement markings in South Australia.
C
It is intended that the section provide specific diagrammatic examples
of the application of markings and where necessary explain to the
designer the reasons why certain treatments are used. It also
provides references to the Code of Technical Requirements for the
Legal Use of Traffic Control Device (The Code), Australian Standards,
Austroads and Department for Transport Energy and Infrastucture
(DPTI) Operational Instructions.
All road authorities including their consultants and contractors are
required to conform to this manual.
Pavement Marking Manual
Table of Contents
PART A - INTRODUCTION
1.0 Scope ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.0 Legal Requirements ____________________________________________________________
3.0 General Attributes ______________________________________________________________
3.1 Purpose __________________________________________________________________
3.2 Removal of Markings ________________________________________________________
3.3 Limitations ________________________________________________________________
3.4 Reflectorisation ____________________________________________________________
3.5 Anti-Skid Treatments ________________________________________________________
3.6 Materials __________________________________________________________________
3.7 Colours ____________________________________________________________________
3.8 Distinctive Pavement Colours ________________________________________________
3.9 Off Street Parking Areas ____________________________________________________
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PART B - TYPES OF MARKINGS
1.a Scope ________________________________________________________________________ B-1
1.b Installation Specifications ________________________________________________________
2.0 Types of Markings ______________________________________________________________
2.1 Longitudinal Lines __________________________________________________________
2.1.1 Dividing Lines __________________________________________________________
2.1.2 Barrier dividing Lines ____________________________________________________
2.1.3 Lane Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.4 Special Purpose Broken Lines ____________________________________________
2.1.5 Edgelines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.6 Continuity Lines ________________________________________________________
2.1.7 Turn Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.1.8 Outlines ______________________________________________________________
2.2 Transverse Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.2.1 Stop Lines ____________________________________________________________
2.2.2 Give Way Lines ________________________________________________________
2.2.3 Pedestrian Crosswalk Lines ______________________________________________
2.2.4 Pedestrian Holding Lines (Station Platforms Only) ____________________________
2.2.5 Pedestrian Kerb Ramp Access (Off Street) __________________________________
2.3 Parking Control Lines ________________________________________________________
2.3.1 Parking Control Edgelines ________________________________________________
2.3.2 Parking Space Outline __________________________________________________
2.3.3 Shared Space or Area Markings __________________________________________
2.4 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Marking ________________________________________
2.4.1 Diagonal Stripes Edge Treatments__________________________________________
2.4.2 Diagonal Stripes Dividing Treatments ______________________________________
2.4.3 Chevron Marking ______________________________________________________
2.5 Arrows ____________________________________________________________________
2.5.1 Arrows - Common Type __________________________________________________
2.5.2 Arrows - Special Type____________________________________________________
2.5.3 Arrows - Lane Change __________________________________________________
2.5.4 Arrows - Expressway Exit ________________________________________________
2.6 Messages and Symbols ______________________________________________________
2.6.1 Letters and Numbers ____________________________________________________
Pavement Marking Manual
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2.6.2 Words ________________________________________________________________
2.6.3 Bicycle and Pedestrian Pavement Symbols __________________________________
2.6.4 International Symbol of Access ____________________________________________
2.6.4a Accessible Boarding Indicator Patch (station platforms only) ______________
2.6.4b Identification of Dedicated Parking Space for People With Disabilities ______
2.6.4.1 Station Platforms ________________________________________________
2.6.4.2 Dedicated Parking Space Identification & Delineation (angle Parking) ______
2.7 Railway Level Crossing Pavement Message ____________________________________
2.8 Railway Level Crossings Yellow Box Markings __________________________________
2.9 Zig Zag School Zone Markings ________________________________________________
2.10 Point to Point Safety Camera Markings ________________________________________
2.11 Road Hump Markings ______________________________________________________
2.11.1 On Street ____________________________________________________________
2.11.2 Off Street (Watts Profile Only) ____________________________________________
2.12 Pavement Bars ____________________________________________________________
2.13 Raised Pavement Markers __________________________________________________
2.13.1 Dividing and Barrier Lines (Separates Opposing Traffic Flows Only) ______________
2.13.2 Lane Lines __________________________________________________________
2.13.3 Edgelines ____________________________________________________________
2.13.4 Corner Islands ________________________________________________________
2.13.5 Freeway/Expressway Ramps ____________________________________________
2.13.6 Urban Arterial Road ____________________________________________________
2.13.7 Rural Multi-lane Road __________________________________________________
2.13.8 Rural Two-lane Two-way Road- __________________________________________
2.13.9 Rural Intersections ____________________________________________________
2.13.10 Overtaking Lane - Merge Area Deliniation Treatment- ________________________
2.14 Audio Tactile Line Markings (ATLM) __________________________________________
2.15 Distinctive Coloured Pavement Areas ________________________________________
2.16 Kerb Painting ______________________________________________________________
2.16.1 Medians ____________________________________________________________
2.16.2 Roundabouts ________________________________________________________
2.16.3 Other Raised Islands __________________________________________________
2.17 Barrier Line Installation ____________________________________________________
2.17.1 Intersections __________________________________________________________
2.17.2 Property Accesses ____________________________________________________
2.18 Longitudinal Line Style Transition ____________________________________________
2.18.1 Dividing Lines ________________________________________________________
2.18.2 Barrier Lines __________________________________________________________
2.18.3 Unbroken Edgelines or Outlines __________________________________________
2.18.4 Edgeline Mis-match ____________________________________________________
3.0 Traffic Control Drawings and Design Layouts ________________________________________
3.1 Longitudinal Lines __________________________________________________________
3.2 Transverse Lines ____________________________________________________________
3.3 Parking Control Lines ________________________________________________________
3.3.1 Parking Control Edgelines ________________________________________________
3.3.2 Parking Space Outlines __________________________________________________
3.4 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Markings ________________________________________
3.5 Arrows ____________________________________________________________________
3.6 Messages and Symbols ______________________________________________________
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PART C - DESIGN GUIDE
1.0 Scope ________________________________________________________________________ C-1
Pavement Marking Manual
2.0 General Treatments ______________________________________________________________
2.1 Dividing Lines ______________________________________________________________
2.2 Barrier Lines ______________________________________________________________
2.3 Diagonal Stripes and Chevron Markings ________________________________________
2.3.1 Corner Treatment ______________________________________________________
2.3.2 Flush Medians ________________________________________________________
2.3.3 Corner Islands ________________________________________________________
2.3.4 High Angle Treatment____________________________________________________
2.4 Diverge and Merge Taper Treatments __________________________________________
2.4.1 Diverge Taper Treatments ________________________________________________
2.4.2 Merge Taper Treatments (lane drop and acceleration lane situations) ______________
2.5 Raised Pavement Markers ____________________________________________________
2.5.1 Continuity Lines ________________________________________________________
2.5.2 Bicycle Lanes __________________________________________________________
2.6 Lane Line __________________________________________________________________
2.6.1 Roundabouts __________________________________________________________
2.6.2 Indented Bus Stops (partial or full)__________________________________________
2.6.3 Bicycle Lane Start and End ______________________________________________
2.7 Continuity Line ____________________________________________________________
2.7.1 Left and Right Turn Storage ______________________________________________
2.7.2 Left and Right Turn Acceleration Lanes ______________________________________
2.7.3 Bicycle Lane Continuity Lines ____________________________________________
2.8 Outlines and Painted Kerbs __________________________________________________
2.9 Edgelines __________________________________________________________________
2.10 Parking Control Lines ______________________________________________________
2.11 Pavement Messages ________________________________________________________
2.11.1 Keep Clear __________________________________________________________
2.11.2 Speed Limits __________________________________________________________
2.11.3 Other Messages ______________________________________________________
2.12 Kerb Extensions Markings __________________________________________________
2.13 Standard Intersections (local roads) __________________________________________
2.14 Give Way and Stop Line Markings ____________________________________________
2.15 Changed Priority __________________________________________________________
2.16 Roundabouts ______________________________________________________________
2.16.1 Single Lane Roundabout ________________________________________________
2.16.2 Multi-lane T-intersection Roundabout ______________________________________
2.16.3 Bicycle Lane Approach to Single Lane Roundabout __________________________
2.17 Signalised Intersections ______________________________________________________
2.17.1 Pedestrian Crosswalk Lines______________________________________________
2.17.2 Stop Lines __________________________________________________________
2.17.3 Turn Lines____________________________________________________________
2.17.4 Pavement Arrows ______________________________________________________
2.17.4.1 Multiple Turn Lanes ____________________________________________
2.17.5 Lane Lines __________________________________________________________
2.17.6 Non-reflective Raised Pavement Markers __________________________________
2.18 Expressways ______________________________________________________________
2.18.1 Expressway Exit Lane Arrows ____________________________________________
2.19 Path Treatments____________________________________________________________
2.19.1 Destination Group Layout ______________________________________________
2.19.2 Connector Group Layout ________________________________________________
2.19.3 Shared Use Path T Intersection Layout ____________________________________
2.19.4 Shared Use Path Intersection Layout ______________________________________
Pavement Marking Manual
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2.19.5 Shared Use Path T Intersection Offset Layout ______________________________
2.20 Pedestrian Treatments ______________________________________________________
2.20.1 Pedestrian Refuge ____________________________________________________
2.20.2 Emu Crossing ________________________________________________________
2.20.3 Koala Crossing ________________________________________________________
2.20.4 Wombat Crossing______________________________________________________
2.20.5 Pedestrian Actuated Crossing ____________________________________________
2.21 School Zones______________________________________________________________
2.21.1 Zigzag Marking Position ________________________________________________
2.21.2 Basic School Zone ____________________________________________________
2.21.3 Curved Alignment ______________________________________________________
2.21.4 At Intersections and Emu Crossing ________________________________________
2.21.5 Undivided Multi-lane Road ______________________________________________
2.21.6 Divided Multi-lane Road ________________________________________________
2.22 Bus Facilities ______________________________________________________________
2.22.1 Placing of Lane Messages ______________________________________________
2.22.2 Full-time/Part-time Bus Lane Treatment ____________________________________
2.22.3 Bus Lanes Approaching Signalised Intersections ____________________________
2.22.4 Parking Bays in Bus Lanes ______________________________________________
2.22.5 Bus Only ____________________________________________________________
2.23 Distinctive Coloured Bicycle Lanes __________________________________________
2.23.1 Left Turn Deceleration Lane (Potential Confict) ______________________________
2.23.2 Left Turn Acceleration Lane ______________________________________________
2.23.3 High Angle Left Turn Lane ______________________________________________
2.23.4 Minor Side Road Junction ______________________________________________
2.24 Floodways and Causeways __________________________________________________
3.0 Rural Treatments ________________________________________________________________
3.1 Divided Roads ______________________________________________________________
3.2 Multi-Lane Undivided Roads __________________________________________________
3.3 Dividing Lines on Rural Roads ________________________________________________
3.4 Barrier Lines on Rural Roads ________________________________________________
3.5 Lane Lines on Rural Roads __________________________________________________
3.6 Edgelines on Rural Roads ____________________________________________________
3.6.1 Narrow Rural Two-lane Two-way Road ______________________________________
3.6.2 Standard Rural Two-lane Two-way Road ____________________________________
3.6.3 Wide Sealed Shoulder Rural Two-lane Two-way Road __________________________
3.6.4 Multi-lane Divided Road __________________________________________________
3.7 Standard Rural Intersections __________________________________________________
3.8 Overtaking Lane Treatments __________________________________________________
3.8.1 Overtaking Lane - Diverge ______________________________________________
3.8.2 Lane Change Arrow Placements __________________________________________
3.9 Turnouts __________________________________________________________________
3.10 Rest Areas ________________________________________________________________
3.10.1 Roads With Edgelines __________________________________________________
3.10.2 Roads Without Edgelines________________________________________________
3.10.3 Full Acceleration / Deceleration Lane ______________________________________
3.10.4 Sealed Shoulders Only ________________________________________________
3.11 Structures and Obstructions ________________________________________________
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Pavement Marking Manual
Introduction
A
PART A
Introduction
1.0 Scope
This manual specifies the lines, patterns, symbols, letters and numerals, pavement bars and
markers used in or on roads, road related areas and other places including kerbs, for the
purpose of regulating, guiding and warning road users, and provides guidelines for
appropriate use.
2.0 Legal Requirements
An "Instrument of General Approval" has been issued by the Minister for Transport to
Councils and the Commissioner of Highways (and some other authorities) to use traffic
control devices which includes pavement markings. The conditions of this general approval,
which are required by law under the Road Traffic Act are contained in Part 2 - Code of
Technical Requirements for the Legal Use of Traffic Control Devices (The Code) which forms
part of ‘The Legal and technical responsibilities for Traffic Control Devices’. One of the
conditions of general approval is the requirement that the design, installation, alteration and
removal of pavement markings be in accordance with the Code.
This manual has been developed to conform with the Code and takes into consideration the
relevant Australian Road Rules, Australian Standards, Austroads guidelines and Department
of Planning Transport and Infrastructure Operational Instructions.
Pavement markings not conforming to this Manual and the Code, such as innovative or nonstandard treatments are not authorised to be used under the Instrument of General Approval
issued by the Minister. Authorisation for such treatments may only be given by the Manager,
Traffic and Access Standards Section, Department of Planning Transport and Infrastructure
(DPTI), acting as the Minister’s delegate.
3.0 General Attributes
3.1 Purpose
A system of clear, effective and consistently applied pavement markings is essential for
the proper regulations, warning and guidance of drivers, cyclists, pedestrians and other
road users.
Pavement Markings may guide traffic or give advance warning or may impose
restrictions which are supported by the Road Traffic Act. They may act as a
supplement to other traffic control devices or may be used alone to convey certain
regulations, warnings and guidance.
It is therefore important to ensure that the use of the markings conforms with the legal
requirement mentioned above before they are approved, installed, altered or removed
to avoid possible conflict or confusion, legal or otherwise.
3.2 Removal of Markings
Where traffic conditions are altered and the existing pavement markings no longer
apply it is essential that those markings be removed or obliterated. It is important that
the end result of removing markings does not leave an impression of the marking on
the road surface which may otherwise be interpreted as a marking in certain light
and/or weather conditions.
In rare cases, redundant pavement markings may be allowed to fade but only when
these markings cannot be misinterpreted or otherwise create a confusing message to
the road user which may create a safety hazard.
Pavement Marking Manual
A-1
Introduction
3.3 Limitations
Pavement markings have the following limitations:
(a) They may not be clearly visible if the road is wet or dusty, for example near an
edge of a median.
(b) They are subject to traffic wear and usually require frequent maintenance.
(c) They can be obscured by traffic.
(d) Their effect on skid resistance requires careful choice of materials and precludes
the use of large marked surface areas.
(e) They cannot be applied to unsealed roads.
In spite of these limitations they have the advantage under favourable conditions of
conveying information to the driver without diverting attention from the road.
3.4 Reflectorisation
All longitudinal lines except zig zag markings shall be reflectorised.
3.5 Anti-Skid Treatment
An anti-skid treatment shall be applied to all markings other than longitudinal lines.
3.6 Materials
Road pavements may be marked with paint, thermoplastics, pre-cut sheeting, raised
pavement markers (retro-reflective, non reflective or illuminated) or pavement bars.
3.7 Colours
For all traffic control purposes pavement markings shall be white, yellow or blue. Yellow
shall be used on pavement bars and to define tram only lanes and areas where
parking/stopping restrictions apply. Blue is used for disability access. Raised pavement
markers may be white, red or yellow.
Black paint may be used in the gaps and around the edges of pavement markings to
heighten contrast where a light coloured pavement does not allow adequate marking
definition to be obtained. Where this is being considered advice should first be sought
from Manager, Traffic and Access Standards Section, DPTI.
In situations such as community events on closed roads light blue coloured pavement
markings (known as honour lines) may be used to define pedestrian boundaries.
These markings are not considered traffic control devices but should be removed after
the event, to ensure road users are not confused by the markings.
3.8 Distinctive Pavement Colours
There is a trend by road authorities to use distinctive coloured pavements to highlight
the road surface in a visual, tactile or audible manner. Such treatments may
supplement traffic control devices (e.g. bus lanes, bicycle lanes and islands) or they
may be aesthetic devices to supplement streetscape designs (e.g. intersection
threshold paving treatments). For commonly used distinctive coloured pavement areas
used in South Australia, refer to Part A 2.15.
3.9 Off Street Parking Areas
AS 2890.1 and AS 2890.6 are used in South Australia for off street car parking
pavement markings.
A-2
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
PART B
Types of Markings
B
1.a Scope
This Section describes the types of marking used including paint substitutes, pavement bars,
raised pavement markers and coloured areas.
It details the actual dimensions and other specification attributes of markings which need not
be shown on traffic control and road design drawings.
IMPORTANT :
All drawings are not to scale. The reader shall use the dimensions specified throughout the
manual. Do not scale off drawings.
1.b Installation Specifications
DPTI shall and all other road authorities should require pavement marking to be installed in
accordance with DPTI Master Specification for Road Works parts:
245 Supply of Materials for Pavement Markings
246 Application of Pavement Marking
247 Application of Audio Tactile Line Marking
Pavement Marking Manual
B-1
Types of Markings
2.0 TYPES OF MARKINGS
2.1 LONGITUDINAL LINES
Line
width Colour
(mm)
2.1.1 Dividing lines (separates opposing
traffic flows only)
3m
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
9m
▼
3m
▼
9m
▼
3m
▼
9m
▼
3m
▼
▼
(a) Single broken (standard)
width Colour
(mm)
▼
▼
W
200
W
100
W
200
W
100
100
100
W
100
100
100
W
▼
9m
▼
▼
3m
▼
▼
▼
9m
100
▼
(b) Enhanced broken (multi-lane)
▼
2.1.2 Barrier dividing lines (separates
opposing traffic flows only)
t
(a) Single continuous barrier
t
t
(b) Enhanced single continuous barrier
3m
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
9m
t
3m
t
9m
t
3m
t
t
t
9m
t
3m
t
(c) Double one-way barrier
t
t
(d) Double two-way barrier
t
Where the road speed limit is <70 km/h and :
- Double two-way barrier lines are justified then a single continuous barrier line shall be used, including approaches to
railway crossings and ferries. No gaps should be left for driveways or other accesses, only side roads.
Where the road speed limit is >80 km/h and :
- Double two-way barrier lines are justified, then double two-way barrier lines shall be used. Gaps should be left in linemarking
for driveways, or other accesses and side roads.
- Double one-way barrier lines are justified, then double one-way barrier lines shall continue across driveways and other
access but gaps shall be left for side roads.
- Double two-way barrier lines are justified on the approaches to railway crossings and ferries, an enhanced single barrier line
shall be used. Gaps should not be left for driveways or other accesses, only side roads.
(e) Continuous
(bicycle and shared paths off road)
▼
80
W
100
W
100
W
100
W
▼
3m
t
t
t
t
t
t
9m
t
3m
t
9m
t
3m
t
9m
t
t
t
3m
t
2.1.3 Lane lines
t
(a) Standard broken
t
t
(b) Continuous
t
9m
t
t
3m
t
t
t
9m
t
2.1.4 Special purpose broken lines
t
t
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Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
Line
width Colour
(mm)
2.1.5 Edgelines
t
t
t
23m
t
1m
t
23m
t
t
t
(a) Standard broken - two-lane two-way
roads or multi-lane roads with a sealed
shoulder < 0.5m
(b) ** Standard continuous - All roads with
sealed shoulders > 0.5m unless
Part B 2.1.5 (c) (below), applies.
t
t
t
(c) ** Enhanced continuous - Southern Expressway
- Dukes Highway
- Sturt Highway
- Pt Augusta - Pt Wakefield Rd
All dual carriageway roads with
sealed shoulders > 0.5mk
esd Road
• Pries Highway - Toll Gate to
Dukes Highway Intersection
• Southern Exressway
Sturt Highway
• Other roads as determine
t
100
W
100
W
150
W
100
W
150
W
100
W
100
W
150
W
450
W
600
W
** Note: The application of Standard Continuous and Enhanced edgelines should be
consistent over the entire length of the road. There must not be short lengths of change
in edgeline style less than 1km.
Should there be just a few kilometres of sealed shoulder >0.5 metres in the middle of a
route (between townships) with a sealed shoulder width <0.5 metres, the standard
continuous edgeline must be applied to the length with the sealed shoulder >0.5 metres
with a transition to the existing standard broken edgeline as shown in Part B 2.18.4.
2.1.6 Continuity lines
1m
t
t
3m
t
t
t
t
t
1m
t
3m
t
t
1m
t
3m
t
t
1m
(a) Standard
t
t
1m
t
t
3m
t
t
t
t
t
1m
t
3m
t
t
1m
t
3m
t
1m
t
(b) Enhanced (used in conjunction with
150mm edgelines)
t
t
2.1.7 Turn lines
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
600mm stripe and gap
▼
▼
2.1.8 Outlines
t
t
(b) Enhanced (roads where 150mm edge
lines are used, see Part B 2.1.5 (c)
t
t
(a) Standard
2.2 TRANSVERSE LINES
2.2.1 Stop lines
(a) Standard (<70 km/h)
t
t
t
(b) Enhanced (>80 km/h)
t
Pavement Marking Manual
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B
Types of Markings
Line
width Colour
(mm)
2.2.2 Give way lines
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
600mm stripe and gap
▼
(a) Standard (<70 km/h)
450
W
600
W
150
W
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
600mm stripe and gap
▼
(b) Enhanced (>80 km/h)
▼
2.2.3 Pedestrian crosswalk lines
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
*
▼
▼
600mm stripe and gap
▼
*
▼
▼
kerb
kerb
(b) Wombat and Zebra crossings
▼
600mm stripe and 300mm gap
(a) Standard (pedestrian actuated
crossings, intersection traffic
signals, koala and emu crossings)
3m min
6m max W
▼
▼
*Equal, 600mm or less
2.2.4 Pedestrian holding lines (station
platforms only)
Refer to Part B 2.6.4.1 for layout of
platform markings.
▼
(a) Platform edge hazard line
▼
t
(b) Platform ‘wait behind’ line
100
Y
100
W
t
2.2.5 Pedestrian kerb ramp access (off street)
Access to kerb ramps between parking spaces may be marked with diagonal stripes to discourage drivers from impeding
access to the ramp. Where marked they shall be white.
NOTE : For new works and large car parks, consideration should be
given to raised kerb extensions and/or formal pedestrian
crossings eg wombat crossings.
Detail A
path / walkway
150mm
450mm
See Detail A
100mm
45%
100mm
B-4
1.8m (preferred)
parking aisle
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
Line
width Colour
(mm)
2.3 PARKING CONTROL LINES
2.3.1 Parking control edgelines
B
(a) *No Stopping or Clearway at all
times
▼
100
Y
100
Y
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
600mm stripe and 900mm gap
▼
3m
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
3m
▼
3m
▼
3m
▼
3m
▼
▼
3m
▼
▼
3m
▼
▼
(b) *Restricted parking other than
Clearway
▼
(c) Clearway, part time
100
Y
100
W
100
Y
100
Y
▼
2.3.2 Parking space outline
(a) All vehicles/*no restrictions
(individual bays may be marked)
t
t
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
900mm stripe and 600mm gap
(b) *Restricted vehicle type and/or parttime restriction (individual bays
may be marked).
▼
(3) **Parking for people with disabilities
▼
* Restricted Parking: Parking restriction by time and/or by vehicle type
** Dedicated parking spaces for people with disabilities shall be outlined
on all sides excepting any side delineated by a kerb, barrier or wall.
2.3.3 Shared space or area markings
Within off street car parking areas, shared areas or spaces located adjacent to the longitudinal side only of dedicated angle parking
spaces for people with disabilities shall have a yellow outline and yellow diagonal stripes with a slip resistant surface.
Yellow diagonal stripes shall not be used in trafficked areas including walkways within or partly within a shared area, parking aisles or
roadways.
NOTE: walkways within or partly within a shared area or
space shall be marked with yellow 100mm wide
unbroken longitudinal lines on both sides of the
walkway excepting any side delineated by a kerb,
barrier or wall (see Part B 2.6.4.2).
150mm
450mm
dedicated space
100mm
45%
100mm
Pavement Marking Manual
B-5
Types of Markings
2.4 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS
2.4.1 Diagonal stripes edge treatment
▼
Direction of travel
▼
▼
**100mm
100mm
X
Outline/Edgeline
▼
▼
▼
45
0
*1.0m
▼
▼
▼
0m
seal
1.
Edge of water table or
▼
▼
100mm
▼
2.4.2 Diagonal stripes dividing treatment
Direction of travel
▼
X
▼
▼
Outline/Edgeline
▼
▼
45
▼
**100mm
100mm
0
*1.0m
▼
▼
▼
100mm
▼
1.
0m
▼
Direction of travel
2.4.3 Chevron markings
Direction of travel
▼
▼
X
▼
**100mm
100mm
▼
Outline/Edgeline
▼
▼
45
0
*1.0m
▼
▼
45
0
▼
▼
100mm
▼
▼
1.
0m
▼
Direction of travel
* 1st diagonal marking or chevron is placed where the width of the treatment is 1.0m.
** In rare cases wider outlines/edgelines may be specified on traffic control drawings.
X - Spacing may be modified to suit corner islands, flush medians and merges.
For design details see Part C 2.3 and 2.12.
B-6
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.5 ARROWS
2.5.1 Arrows - common types
B
Centre of lane
Centre of lane
Centre of lane
Y
X= 100
Pavement Marking Manual
B-7
Types of Markings
2.5.2 Arrows - special types
(a) Double turn
arrow
Centre of lane
(b) U- turn arrow
Centre of lane
(c) 45% turn
arrow
Centre of lane
(d) Through right
left turn arrow
Centre of lane
Y
B-8
Centre of lane
X= 100
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.5.3 Arrows - lane change
780
1500
B
1000
600
NOTE: Lane change arrows shall not be used in SA
without the approval of Manager, Traffic and
Access Standards Section, DTEI, other than
at the termination of overtaking lanes and at
the end of high speed multi-lane roads.
1400
780
580
880
550
60
860
7500
1310
780
780
1880
edge of lane
centre line
of lane
edge of lane
2.5.4 Arrows - expressway exit
900
650
875
15
15
0
0
2m
2m
2m
3.1m
200
4m
4m
4m
2.7m
2m
630
200
725
edge of lane
centre line
of lane
edge of lane
edge of lane
centre line
of lane
edge of lane
Pavement Marking Manual
B-9
Types of Markings
2.6 MESSAGES AND SYMBOLS
2.6.1 Letters and Numbers
Letters and numbers other than those shown in words (2.6.2) are available from Australian Standard 1742.2.
2.6.2 Words
X
Y
NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid
height
(Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40
However the word AHEAD may be made narrower
(eg grid width reduced to 75mm) to fit into a lane.
B-10
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.6.2 Words (cont)
B
X
Y
NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40
Refer to Part C 2.11.1 for the placement of KEEP CLEAR messages.
Pavement Marking Manual
B-11
Types of Markings
2.6.2 Words (cont)
X
Y
NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40
B-12
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.6.2 Words (cont)
B
X
Y
NOTES:
The grid width (X) is constant at 100 mm, but the grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter or numeral required (mm)
40
Pavement Marking Manual
B-13
Types of Markings
Y
Centre of lane
2.6.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols
X
X
X
Centre of lane
Pedestrian pavement symbol
(path only)
X=75mm
X
Bicycle pavement symbol
Road X=65mm
Path X=28mm
Road Y=1800mm
Path Y=800mm
X
X
Arrow pavement symbol
(path only)
X=100mm
B-14
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.6.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols (cont)
B
1220mm
300mm
X
X
No-Bicycles Pavement symbol for path use
X=30mm
Pavement Marking Manual
B-15
Types of Markings
2.6.3 Bicycle and pedestrian pavement symbols (cont)
X
X
No-Skaters symbol for path use
X=24mm
B-16
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.6.4 International symbol of access
B
NOTE:
The grid is for positional purposes
2.6.4.a Accessible boarding indicator patch (station platforms only)
1000mm
Symbol shall be centrally located
within the blue background
786mm
1000mm
The colour used for the blue background
shall be “Ultramarine” (AS2700-B21)
160mm
2.6.4.b Identification of dedicated parking space for people with disabilities
1200mm max
Symbol shall be centrally located
within the blue background
1200mm max
800 - 1000mm
The colour used for the blue background
shall be “Ultramarine” (AS2700-B21)
Pavement Marking Manual
B-17
Types of Markings
2.6.4.1 Station platforms
Direction of train travel
600mm
100mm yellow line
600mm
Tactile ground surface indicators
100mm white line
Accessible Boarding Indicator Patch
PLATFORM AREA
100mm yellow line
Tactile ground surface indicators
600mm
600mm
Direction of train travel
100mm white line
Accessible Boarding Indicator Patch
PLATFORM AREA
Note : For design requirements specific to station platforms, contact
DTEI Passenger Transport Services.
B-18
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.6.4.2 Dedicated parking space identification & delineation (angle parking)
Each dedicated parking space for people with disabilities shall be identified by a white
symbol of access on a blue background in the centre of the space between 500mm and
600mm from its entry point.
B
dedicated space
kerb, barrier or wall
Either :
- end of parking module
- dedicated space
- other parking spaces
other parking
spaces
primary access
path
Tactile ground
surface indicators
500 to
600mm
2.4m
2.4m minimum
when adjacent to a dedicated
parking space for people with
disabilities.
Note : The primary access path or the shared
space can be located on the left or
right side of the dedicated space.
Parking aisle
dedicated space
kerb, barrier or wall
Either :
- end of parking module
- dedicated space
- other parking spaces
other parking
spaces
shared space
bollard
800mm
_
+ 50
500 to
600mm
2.4m
2.4m
Parking aisle
Pavement Marking Manual
B-19
Types of Markings
2.7 RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSING PAVEMENT MESSAGE
Urban < 70km/h
Rural > 80km/h
( Message shall commence with the 'X' )
( Message shall commence with the 'RAIL' )
2.5m
6m
2.5m
X
Y
7.5m
3m
X
Y
5m
The grid width (X) is constant at 100mm, but the
grid height (Y) may vary as follows:
Y = Height of letter (mm)
40
Note :
1. Marking to commence 15m to 20m beyond the first warning sign, towards the railway level crossing.
2. When a new message scheme is required, the above example shall be used. When repainting
original message, existing markings can be used.
B-20
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.8 RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSINGS YELLOW BOX MARKINGS
45%
2.
45%
0m
B
5.0m minimum
Parallel to track
0m
2.
AY
RAILW
150mm yellow lines
S
TRACK
150mm yellow lines
150mm
0.5m gap
NOTE:
When a new scheme is required, the above example shall be used.
When repainting original box markings, existing lines can be used.
Refer to AS1742.7 for the warrants for box markings.
Pavement Marking Manual
B-21
Types of Markings
2.9 ZIGZAG SCHOOL ZONE MARKINGS
150mm
1.1m
6.0m
30.0m
NOTE:
ZIGZAG marking commences 30m in advance of School Zone Sign.
2.10 POINT TO POINT SAFETY CAMERA MARKINGS
Dividing line
Direction of travel
400mm
400mm
400mm
100mm
100mm
Direction of travel
Direction of travel
Edgeline or
lane line
2.11 ROAD HUMP MARKINGS
2.11.1 On street
200mm
Detail A
(measurements are in mm)
500
500
400mm
See Detail A
Nominal start of ramp
200mm
Kerb
face
1000mm
200
Kerb
face
500
1000mm
1000
200mm
200
200
Nominal start of ramp
200mm
200
"Inverted Piano Key" marking
2.11.2 Off street (Watts profile only)
Detail B
Edge of road
(measurements are in mm)
See Detail B
500
500
200
300
200
B-22
200
200
road hump
Edge of
road hump
400mm
Edge of
road hump
1200
500
The transverse part of the pavement marking is placed
on the original road in front of the road hump.
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.12 PAVEMENT BARS
Double row, triple row etc
Single row
Outline or edgeline
B
Outline or edgeline
75mm
75mm
90%
90%
75mm min
Pavement bars for lane control
750mm
75mm
6m
3m
1.5m
3m
Note : First two bars at 1.5m spacing, then at 3m spacing up to 45m and 6m spacing over 45m
Control of turning movements at intersections
9m
10m taper
75mm gap
1.5m
400mm 750mm
100mm
3m
1.5m
750mm
Note : The 9m length using 4 bars at 3m spacing may be extended to 18m using 7 bars at 3m spacing.
B
B
90%
90%
A
A
Where used to supplement diagonal markings or chevrons,
pavement bars shall be placed centrally (longitudinally)
between the markings
NOTE:
Pavement bars shall not be used where *85th percentile approach speeds are greater than 75km/h. (The use
of yellow RRPM’s is an alternative, refer to inset Part B 2.13.9).
Pavement bars shall always be placed at 900 to the direction of traffic.
* 85th percentile speed (V85 km/h) - the speed at or below which 85% of vehicles are observed to travel under free-flowing conditions past a nominated
point. A vehicle is considered to be operating under free-flowing conditions when the preceding vehicle has at least 4 s headway and there is no apparent
attempt to overtake the vehicle ahead.
Pavement Marking Manual
B-23
Types of Markings
2.13 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS
COLOUR OF RETROREFLECTIVE RAISED PAVEMENT
MARKERS TO AUGMENT PAINTED LINES
Applications
Lane lines, small* channelizing island outline,
painted or raised - all sides.
RRPM colour
White
SYMBOLS FOR RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS
Marker
Left hand edgeline, divided and 2-way roads.
Left side of diverge outline, including expressway
exit nose, and approach end of large island.
Non-retroreflective raised pavement marker
Red
Retroreflective raised pavement marker :
Unidirectional
Dividing lines, right hand edgeline (divided road),
median island outline, painted or raised - all sides.
Tram lane lines.
Right side (when viewed in the direction of travel)
of exit lane on diverge outline, including
expressway exit nose, and approach end of large
island.
Symbol
- White
- Yellow
- Red
Yellow
Bidirectional
- White
- Yellow
Line extension on symbol indicates direction of reflection.
Face of marker to be normal to direction of travel.
* A small island should generally be regarded as one with no side
longer than 12m including approach and departure markings.
2.13.1 Dividing and Barrier lines
(separates opposing traffic flows
only)
4.5m
(a) Single broken (standard) unlit
24m
4.5m
(b) Single broken (standard) lit
12m
1.5m
(c) Enhanced broken (multi-lane)
unlit
24m
1.5m
(d) Enhanced broken (multi-lane)
lit
12m
25mm min
50mm max
(e) Single continuous (standard)
unlit
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(f) Single continuous (standard)
lit
12m
B-24
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
25mm min
50mm max
(g) Enhanced continuous barrier
unlit
24m
B
25mm min
50mm max
(h) Enhanced continuous barrier
lit
12m
4.5m
(i) Double one-way barrier unlit
25mm min
50mm max
24m
4.5m
(j) Double one-way barrier lit
25mm min
50mm max
12m
25mm min
50mm max
(k) Double two-way barrier unlit
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(l) Double two-way barrier lit
12m
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(m) Outline urban roads unlit
median or island kerb
12m
25mm min
50mm max
(n) Outline urban roads lit
median or island kerb
24m
(o) Enhanced outline rural roads
freeways and expressway
unlit
25mm min. 50mm max.
X*
median or island kerb
* where sufficient width permits (also see Part B 2.13.5)
12m
(p) Enhanced outline rural roads
freeways and expressway
lit
Pavement Marking Manual
25mm min. 50mm max.
X*
median or island kerb
B-25
Types of Markings
2.13.2 Lane lines
4.5m
(a) Broken unlit
24m
4.5m
(b) Broken lit
12m
25mm min
50mm max
(c) Continuous unlit. Markers
may be on left or right of line.
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(d) Continuous lit. Markers may
be on left or right of line.
12m
Note: Direction of travel is left to right in above diagrams, with the exception of purpose
built reversible roads, i.e. Southern Expressway, where markers are bi-directional.
2.13.3 Edgelines
(a) Standard broken
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(b) Standard continuous unlit
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(c) Standard continuous lit
12m
25mm min
50mm max
(d) Enhanced continuous unlit
24m
25mm min
50mm max
(e) Enhanced continuous lit
12m
Note: Direction of travel is left to right in above diagrams, with the exception of purpose built
reversible roads, i.e. Southern Expressway, where markers are bi-directional red - white.
NOTE: Edgelines in the merge taper on overtaking lanes varies from this specification (see Part B 2.13.10).
B-26
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.13.4 Corner islands
2.13.4.1 Posted speed <80km/h
B
< 15m
no RRPMS
on bicycle lanes
RRPMs shall not be
placed within crosswalks
> 15m
<3m
<3m
minimum of 2 RRPMs
on any one edge
NOTE :
In urban areas RRPMs on corner islands are to be white except where large
raised dividers are used (refer to Part B 2.13.6) or where red RRPMs have been
used on the edgelines on the approach or downstream from the corner island.
In the latter cases, red RRPMs shall be used to 'continue' the line of RRPMs on
the drivers left hand side only.
2.13.4.2 Posted speed >90km/h
>12m
>3m - <12m
>3m - <12m
>12m
NOTE :
On rural roads with continuous edgelines (standard or enhanced) red RRPMs
should be located on the other side of the corner island outline.
Indicates direction of travel
Pavement Marking Manual
B-27
Types of Markings
2.13.5 Freeway/Expressway ramps
(a) Preferred
Indicates direction of travel
kerb or
edge of seal
N* = 12m lit or 24m unlit
N*
N*
6m
6m
NOTE :
N*
RRPMs should be placed on the
median traffic island or shoulder
side where sufficient pavement
width permits.
6m
6m
6m
6m
N*
6m
6m
N*
N*
kerb or
edge of seal
B-28
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.13.5 Freeway/Expressway ramps (cont)
(b) Alternative
B
Indicates direction of travel
kerb or
edge of seal
N*
N* = 12m lit or 24m unlit
N*
N*
N*
6m
6m
NOTE :
This treatment narrows the lane
width and may not be consistant
with RRPM locations before and
after the ramp.
6m
6m
6m
6m
6m
N*
6m
N*
N*
N*
kerb or
edge of seal
Pavement Marking Manual
B-29
Types of Markings
2.13.6 Urban arterial road
for RRPMs on urban corner
islands see Part B 2.13.4.1
kerb
kerb
red RRPMs on edgelines
in urban areas is optional.
raised divider
200m maximum
between bicycle
symbols.
Generally no
RRPMs on
continuity lines.
B-30
kerb
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.13.7 Rural multi-lane road
B
edge of seal
for RRPMs on rural corner
islands see Part B 2.13.4.2
200
X
sealed shoulder
> 0.5m
200
X
2
Pavement Marking Manual
B-31
Types of Markings
2.13.8 Rural two-lane two-way road
(b) Sealed Shoulder >0.5m
(a) Unsealed Shoulder
Unsealed
Unsealed
48m standard continuous
do not extend edgeline
into side road.
48m standard
continuous
only extend edgeline into
side road where sealed
side road extends > 50m
TP
TP
Sealed
Sealed
TP
48m standard
continuous
TP
48m standard continuous
B-32
RRPM's may be either side of dividing line
but must be consistently placed through
the intersection.
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.13.9 Rural intersection
B
(a) Auxiliary Right Turn (AUR)
(b) Auxiliary Left Turn (AUL)
(For maintenance purposes only.
Not to be used for planning / design)
Generally no RRPMs
on continuity lines
enhanced
Note:
Unlit road example.
For lit roads RRPM
spacing shall be 12m.
Pavement Marking Manual
B-33
Types of Markings
2.13.9 Rural intersection (cont)
(c) Channelised Right Turn
(CHR and CHRS)
Inset A
X
See Inset A
for more detail
200
200
X
2
650mm
Inset B
For storage and taper lengths refer to Austroads
Guide to Road Design Part 4A.
CL to CL
400mm
1.5m
See Inset B
for more detail
125mm
from CL
750mm
1.5m
125
200
9m
Start laying yellow RRPM's
before first diagonal marking
then every 24m.
B-34
200
3m
Note :
The 9m length using 4 sets of RRPM's
at 3m spacing may be extended to 18m
using 7 sets of RRPM's at 3m spacing.
Pavement Marking Manual
Pavement Marking Manual
24m
24m
24m
24m
12m
24m
12m
48m
12m
24m
12m
12m
12m
24m
edgeline
12m
12m
24m
12m
12m
24m
12m
24m
12m
48m
12m
24m
12m
24m
edgeline
24m
24m
24m
RRPM plan
24m
12m
Types of Markings
2.13.10 Overtaking lane - merge area deliniation treatment
B
B-35
Types of Markings
2.14 AUDIO TACTILE LINE MARKINGS (ATLM)
ATLM may consist of a thermoplastic pattern of transverse ribs or chequers to a specification. Such markings are
designed to provide a significant audible and tactile warning in rural environments where driver fatigue has been
identified as a problem. Refer to Operational Instruction 2.13 Audio Tactile Linemarking.
2.15 DISTINCTIVE COLOURED PAVEMENT AREAS
Only
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
the following AS2700 colours shall be used:
Bus Only areas (not bus lanes) - Signal Red, R13.
Bicycle lanes - Emerald, G13.
Full time signalised pedestrian crossings (only) - Golden Yellow, Y14
Accessible boarding indicator patch and identification of dedicated parkng spaces for people with disabilities Ultramarine, B21 (refer to Part B 2.6.4).
The above coloured pavement areas shall be treated with skid resistant material to a minimum value 45 BPN (British
Pendulum Number).
Distinctive coloured pavements for areas other than those stated above shall be refered to Manager, Traffic and Access
Standards Section, DTEI for consideration.
Bicycle Lane line
or kerb
Bicycle Lane line
No gap between green
distinctive pavement marking
and continuity line
No gap between red
distinctive pavement
marking and lane line
continuity lines
continuity lines
B-36
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.16 KERB PAINTING
2.16.1 Medians
B
Isolated openings in median kerbs left for drainage purposes shall not be painted.
TP
TP
< 2.0m
TP
TP
TP
TP
< 2.0m
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
> 2.0m
To start of taper
or 60m max.
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
To start of taper
or 60m max.
TP
Pavement Marking Manual
> 3.0m
TP
TP
TP
TP
TP
B-37
Types of Markings
TP
TP
TP
To start of taper
or 60m max.
TP
TP
TP
TP
To s
tart
of ta
per
or 6
0m
max
.
TP
TP
2.16.2 Roundabouts
Kerbs on roundabouts including stand alone splitter islands shall be fully painted. On roundabouts with provision for
heavy vehicle movements i.e. with mountable or semi-mountable areas, the first 200mm of the mountable or semimountable area shall be painted white. The kerb of the central or main island in these circumstances shall not be
painted.
2.16.3 Other raised islands
Unless specified otherwise on traffic control drawings the approach ends of traffic islands shall be painted white for a
distance of 6 metres. Exit ends of islands need not be painted.
Where approach end of islands have outlines with diagonal markings or chevrons, kerbs need not be painted.
Kerbs on islands with sides measuring less than or equal to 9 metres (between end tangent points) shall be fully
painted.
Direction of travel
6m
TP
TP
TP
6m
Direction of travel
TP
6m
Direction of travel
vel
tra
6m
io
ect
Dir
f
no
TP
TP
6m
ct
re
Di
l
n
io
ve
of
re
Di
n
tra
io
ct
6m
l
ve
tra
B-38
TP TP
of
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.17 BARRIER LINE INSTALLATION
2.17.1 Intersections
B
Gaps shall be provided in double two way barrier lines and shall generally be 10m wide and centrally placed at the
intersecting centre point of the side road.
Where barrier lines are required for vertical or horizontal alignment sight restrictions take precedence over standard
rural two lane, two way road intersection treatments.
2.17.2 Property accesses
Gaps should not generally be provided in double two way barrier lines. Leaving a gap allows a driver to legally enter
and leave the road as well as U-turns at a place where there may be a restricted sight distance due to horizontal or
vertical curves. A gap may only be provided where a survey determines that sufficient sight distance is available to
safely allow all movements.
Where provided the gap shall generally be 5m. The gap may be increased at wider accesses or where the turning
vehicle envelope would otherwise cross the double two way barrier lines.
2.18 LONGITUDINAL LINE STYLE TRANSITIONS
2.18.1 Dividing lines
Broken (standard) to enhanced
broken
100mm
Centre line
200mm
100mm
Continuous to enhanced continuous
Centre line
200mm
12m
Enhanced continuous to standard
outline
200mm
Centre line
100mm
100mm
Pavement Marking Manual
B-39
Types of Markings
2.18.2 Barrier lines
Transition from ‘one direction’ to ‘both
directions’ lines
150mm
▼
▼
▼
2.18.3 Unbroken edgelines or outlines
100mm
▼
Direction of travel
B-40
Pavement Marking Manual
Types of Markings
2.18.4 Edgeline mis-match
A mis-match of the edgeline road markings may result where a change of lane width occurs
after sealing the road shoulders, resealing works or road reconstruction. Where this occurs,
a transition of the edgeline between the new and existing markings shall be made as
indicated in the diagram below.
B
post re-seal edgeline road markings
unsealed
shoulder
existing surface
transition edgeline
a minimum of 24m
obsolete RRPMs
to be removed
of new work
obsolete edgelin
to be removed
work
transition of edgeline
continuous
edgelines
note : obsolete edgeline and RRPM's
must be removed. Refer to Part A 3.2
Pavement Marking Manual
B-41
Types of Markings
3.0 TRAFFIC CONTROL DRAWINGS AND DESIGN LAYOUTS
3.1 LONGITUDINAL LINES
Longitudinal lines shall be shown on all traffic control drawings. This includes edgelines and
outlines.
Dimensions to kerbs shall be to the kerb face. Dimensions to longitudinal lines (other than zig
zag school zone markings ) shall be to the centre of the line. Dimensions of barrier lines shall
be to the centre of the combination of the two parallel lines.
3.2 TRANSVERSE LINES
Transverse lines shall be shown on all traffic control drawings. Dimensions shall be clearly
shown to either the leading or trailing face of all transverse lines, except pedestrian cross walk
lines. Pedestrian crosswalk lines shall be dimensioned to the centre of the line.
3.3 PARKING CONTROL LINES
3.3.1 Parking Control Edgelines
All parking control lines (where used) shall be shown on traffic control drawings.
Parking control edge lines shall be marked in a consistent alignment parallel to and
approximately 400mm from the kerb or edge of seal.
3.3.2 Parking Space Outlines
Parking space outlines shall be shown and dimensioned on traffic control drawings.
3.4 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS
Diagonal stripes and chevron marking shall be shown on traffic control drawings.
3.5 ARROWS
All arrows shall be shown on traffic control drawings and may be dimensioned longitudinally.
Arrows shall be located centrally within the lane width as shown in Part B 2.5.
3.6 MESSAGES AND SYMBOLS
All messages and symbols shall be shown and the longitudinal spacing dimensioned
longitudinally on traffic control drawings.
Messages and symbols shall be located centrally within the lane such that a minimum of
150mm gap is maintained between the edge of the message or symbol and the centre of any
adjacent longitudinal line or to the edge of seal. Spacing between letters to form commonly
used words are shown in Part B 2.6.2.
Bicycle symbols shall be located approximately 100mm from the bicycle lane line adjacent to
the traffic lane. Where the bicycle lane is less than 1.4 metres wide it will be necessary to
reduce the width of the symbol. This will be achieved by masking part of the rear wheel to
preserve the 100mm gap between the edge of the symbol and the centre of lane line.
Symbols on paths shall be located centrally within the designated area of travel i.e. between the
left edge of the path and the separation line. Examples for both symbols and messages on
paths is shown in Part C 2.19.
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Design Guide
PART C
Design Guide
1.0 Scope
C
This section describes the requirements for the correct and consistent use of pavement
markings on roads in South Australia
It is intended that the section provide specific diagrammatic examples (i.e. not to scale or
proportion) of the application of markings and where necessary explain to the designer the
reasons why certain treatments are used. It also provides references to :
l
The Road Traffic Act
l
Australian Road Rules (ARR)
l
The Technical Requirements for the Legal Use of Traffic Control Devices (The Code)
l
Australian Standards (AS)
l
Austroads Guide to Traffic Management (GTM)
l
Austroads Guide to Road Design (GRD)
l
Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure (DTEI)
l
Operational Instructions (OI)
All road authorities including their consultants and contractors are required to conform to this
manual.
NOTE:
Dimensioning Convention
All drawings are not to scale. The reader shall use the dimensions
specified throughout the manual. Do not scale off drawings.
All markings (longitudinal and transverse) are dimensioned centre
to centre, except for Give Way, Stop lines and pavement messages.
lane lines
x
Give Way, Stop lines and pavement messages are generally measured
from either the leading or trailing edge of the line or message.
crosswalk line
y
trailing edge
stop line
leading edge
Pavement Marking Manual
C-1
Design Guide
2.0 GENERAL TREATMENTS
References
General treatments are considered those that apply in all urban built up areas. These include
local residential roads, collector roads, arterial roads and expressway type roads in or near
cities and townships. They may include roads of any speed environment.
2.1 DIVIDING LINES
There is no traffic volume warrant for the provision of dividing lines on urban roads in South
Australia. It is important for designers to remember that the use of single continuous dividing
line prohibits certain crossing movements, including U turns, but does not prohibit entering or
leaving the road. U turns should generally not be restricted by the use a single continuous lines
unless site distance is poor or special facilities have been provided to satisfy U turn demand
within the section of road.
ARR 132, 134
AS1742.2 Section 5
GTM Part 10
OI 2.15
OI 2.27
OI 2.40
Any assessment for the need for dividing lines should take the following into consideration:
l
All ‘arterial’ roads shall be provided with dividing lines in urban areas, and shall be
augmented with RRPM’s.
l
All ‘collector’ roads should be provided with dividing lines.
l
Local roads may be provided with dividing lines. Installing dividing lines on narrow roads
may have implications for parking.
l
Where provided between major intersections dividing lines should be broken, and shall be
standard width for two lane roads and enhanced for multi lane roads.
l
Where provided on minor or local roads at intersections, short sections of continuous
dividing lines may be provided (see intersection examples in Part B 2.13.8, 2.13.9 and Part
C 3.7).
l
Double barrier lines, i.e. multiple lines consisting of combinations of broken and continuous
lines or double continuous lines, are not used on urban roads.
l
Broken dividing lines on arterial roads continue through minor road intersections.
l
On any road, a break is provided in continuous dividing lines through intersections (see
Part B 2.13.9 for example).
Dividing lines are not normally necessary on minor road approaches to major roads. However
there may be situations where such lines could provide additional guidance to road users.
Such cases include :
- Wide side roads
- Multi lane side roads
- High volumes of right turn movements into and/or from minor road
Dividing lines should not be provided on minor road approaches where right turn and through
movements are prevented or prohibited from the minor road.
Dividing lines should always be provided on minor road approaches that have give way or stop
lines (also see Part C 2.12).
C-2
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
PARKING
Kerb
Kerb
C
Kerb
Kerb
PARKING
Dividing lines
Kerb
PARKING
Kerb
two-lane
two-way road
two-lane two-way road
with marked parking
multilane two-way road
(with bicycle lanes)
multilane two-way road
(two plus one with parking)
Indicates direction of travel
2.2 BARRIER LINES
Double one way barrier lines are used at Railway Crossings and Ferries in both rural and
urban areas where the speed limit is >80km/h to prohibit overtaking on the approached side.
A single continuous barrier line should be used where the speed limit is <70km/h or as an
alternative to permit traffic to cross the line to enter or leave the road. Where single
continuous barrier line is used, it shall be standard width on roads <70km/h and enhanced
on roads >80km/h.
ARR 132, 134
AS1742.2 Section 5
AS1742.7 Section 3
GTM Part 10
OI 2.15
OI 2.40
OI 7.1
Generally single continuous lines should be used instead of double barrier lines (one-way or
two- way) in urban and low speed rural areas (also see Part B 2.1.2).
There is a temptation to use double barrier lines (double one-way or double two-way) to
control vehicle movements. However experience has shown that such treatments are
generally too passive in nature. Where it is considered necessary to prohibit all crossing
movements (for road safety) then preference should be given to physical controls e.g. raised
medians and islands, that are self regulating and do not rely on police enforcement to be
effective.
For further information on the use of barrier lines on rural roads refer to Part C 3.4.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-3
Design Guide
2.3 DIAGONAL STRIPES AND CHEVRON MARKINGS
References
Diagonal stripes and chevron markings are used to augment and highlight pavement
marking treatments. They often have legal significance under the ARR. They take the form
of chevrons when used to indicate that drivers, travelling in the same direction may pass
either side of the treated area or as diagonal stripes where the treatments separate
opposing traffic flows. Refer to Part B 2.4 for detailed layout of stripes.
ARR 88, 138 and 197
AS1742.2 Section 5
GRD Part 4A
Spacing between diagonal stripes at low speed turns is generally 6m. The spacing for
diagonal stripes and chevron markings is generally 6m on roads <70km/h, 12m on roads
>80km/h and 24m or 48m on freeways/expressways.
Diagonal stripes shall be placed at 45 degrees to the direction of travel whether straight or
curved and shall be at 45 degrees to the centre line of the divergence where drivers travel
on both sides of the markings.
While not exclusive, below are examples of diagonal treatments.
Traffic on either side
(opposing direction)
Traffic to right side only
bo
ker
ge
r ed
eal
of s
Indicates direction of travel
Traffic on either side (same direction)
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Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.3.1 Corner Treatment
References
On curved alignments, where diagonal markings are not parallel, the spacing of the
markings shall be measured at the outline or edgeline.
C
45
o
6m*
45
o
Indicates direction of travel
kerb or
edge of seal
The use of diagonal stripes is discouraged on left turn treatments,
where the left turn driver has priority. Stripes are a passive treatment
and in this location are usually driven over regulary, requiring additional
maintenance. They can also be a slip hazard with differential skid
resistance between the painted area and the pavement.
kerb
*Nominal spacing between stripes is 6 metres but may be varied. For rural treatments the
spacing may be increased depending on the radius of the curve. Where the section to be
striped is short it is preferable to provide stripes closer together (as close as 3 metres) to
ensure the stripes provide the desired effect of discouraging traffic from driving on the area.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-5
Design Guide
2.3.2 Flush medians
References
Flush medians may separate lanes dividing opposing traffic streams, while allowing access
to and from the road or entrance to a turning lane.
ARR 138
It should be noted that unlike raised medians, flush medians do not provide physical control
of traffic movements nor do they have the advantages of being clearly visible, especially at
night and in wet weather.
Spacing between median breaks
*12m
Diagonal marking variations for median breaks
widest point
taper point
30m
*15m
widest point
>10 but <20
*15m
widest
point
widest
point
<10m
widest
point
Indicates direction of travel
* Generally spacing between diagonal markings should be 12m. Spacing may be varied
between 10 - 15m to suit median lengths. Spacing must be consistent along entire length
of each median section. Although it is preferable to provide at least 2 diagonal markings
in short lengths, one marking may be used in cases of very short lengths.
C-6
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.3.3 Corner islands
The use of very small corner islands (less than 3m sides) should be avoided. Such islands
cause confusion to drivers regarding give way responsibilities when turning at intersections.
Chevrons and diagonal stripes may be used between the outline and the kerb of a raised
island where better turning control is required. However they should only be augmented
with diagonal stripes where the distance between the kerb and outline is greater than 1.0m.
C
Flush Corner Island
>3m - <12m
<3m
<3m
>3m - <12m
1m
1m
Corner Islands both flush and raised for left turning vehicles should be augmented with
chevron markings for the guidance of both left turn and through vehicles. The treatment
also clearly define the differences in the ARR between turning movement priorities at
intersections.
ARR 62, 69 and 72 (4)
Raised Corner Island
>1m
3m
3m
3m
<1m
3m
3m
3m
Indicates direction of travel
Pavement Marking Manual
C-7
Design Guide
References
2.3.4 High Angle treatment
Diagonal stripes adjacent to kerbs at left turn treatments may be placed to guide standard
design vehicles through left turns.
Vehicles such as Semi-trailers are permitted to turn over diagonal stripes to complete turns.
Diagonal markings may be supplemented with pavement bars to promote lane compliance.
b
r
ke
Special purpose lanes and corner island treatments, adjacent to motor vehicle through lanes.
C-8
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.4 DIVERGE AND MERGE TAPER TREATMENTS
2.4.1 Diverge taper treatments
It is often necessary to move traffic laterally across a section of road without merging lanes.
Examples include divergence of traffic lanes to avoid pedestrian refuges, on street parking
areas and at the start of median sections.
C
It is preferable to provide as long a divergence length as possible, especially where two or
more adjacent lanes must diverge. The following diverge calculation provides a minimum
length. However, experience has shown that greater lengths should be provided whenever
possible. For example, extra taper length is important for pedestrian refuge situations to
provide additional protection for pedestrians and to avoid constant damage to signs and
pedestrians hand rails.
(x)
see table below
GRD Part 3 Section 9
OI 2.15
OI 2.40
Td = Vy
3.6s
kerb
y
2m
kerb
A length of continuous barrier line should be provided in accordance with the table below on
the approach / exit to merge and diverge tapers.
Td = Diverge length
V = Design speed or speed limit (km/h)
y = Lateral movement (m)
s = Rate of lateral movement
diverge = 1m/sec
in the above case
Td = 70 x 1.0
3.6 x 1.0
Design
(or 85th percentile operating)
Speed (km/h)
< 60
70/80
> 80
Pavement Marking Manual
= 20m
x
12m
24m
36m
C-9
Design Guide
2.4.2 Merge taper treatments (lane drop and acceleration lane situations)
References
direction
of travel
“Zip merge”, is the preferred merge treatment in urban areas
with a speed limit of less than 80km/h.This is a minimum
merge taper length. However, experience has shown that
greater lengths should be provided, to assist drivers
undertake the zip merge.
AS1742.2 Section 4
median
Tm = Merge length
V = Design speed or speed limit *(km/h)
y = Lateral movement (m)
s = Rate of lateral movement
Tm = Vy
3.6s
merge = 0.6m/sec
note :
no continuity
lines
in this case Tm = 70 x 3.5
3.6 x 0.6
Design Speed
or Speed Limit (km/h)*
< 60
< 80
*whichever is higher
= 110m
x
36m
48m
x
Zip merges are not to be used on roads with a
speed limit of 80 km/h or greater.
lane widths
3.5m
2.5 RAISED PAVEMENT MARKERS
Broken and continuous lines may be augmented with retroreflective raised pavement markers
(RRPMs).
Standard spacing is 12m on lit and 24m on unlit roads.
As a minimum on arterial roads, RRPMs shall be provided on all dividing lines in urban areas
and should be provided in rural areas. RRPMs should also be provided on lane lines, special
purpose lane lines and flush island outlines.
RRPMs enhance longitudinal lines to such an extent that they discourage crossing
movements. For this reason RRPMs shall not be used on continuity lines except in
circumstances shown.
RRPMs may be used on collector and local roads if additional delineation treatment is
considered necessary.
For the use of non-reflective pavement markers through intersections, refer to Part C 2.17.6.
C-10
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.5.1.Continuity lines
References
Generally RRPMs are not required on continuity lines. However, in some rare cases they may
be required to provide guidance .eg
- On tapers where traffic is required to deviate from their path eg. trapped lane situation.
- On long lengths of curvilinear continuity lines.
C
Note:
- RRPMs shall not be used on continuity lines in merging situations.
- Where used, spacing shall be generally the same as that applied to lane lines i.e. 24m
on unlit roads, 12m on lit roads.
12m
where RRPMs on continuity lines are used, it must
be shown / indicated on the design drawings.
2.5.2 Bicycle lanes
The provision of RRPMs can be hazardous to cyclist’s when placed adjacent bicycle lane
lines. This is particularly the case for part-time bicycle lanes when cyclist’s are required to ride
around parked cars outside bicycle lane operating times. Therefore it is recommended that
RRPMs not be located adjacent to or near part-time bicycle lane lines. It may also be
appropriate to not install RRPMs on full-time bicycle lanes in areas where cyclists are required
to ride around buses and other vehicles legitimately stopped on the road.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-11
Design Guide
2.6 LANE LINES
References
Lane lines divide two or more lines of traffic travelling in the same direction and shall be
provided on roads where traffic is expected to travel in more than one lane.
ARR 146
AS1742.2 Section 5
Lanes in urban areas should not be marked on a road where it would result in lane widths of
less than 3.0m.
Where kerbside lanes are designed to be shared with cyclists, the minimum lane width shall
be 3.7m
Lane lines are normally standard broken. However, continuous lane lines may be required
between exclusive through and exclusive turn lanes on approaches to intersections (see Part
C 2.7). They may also be used to restrict lane changing mid-block.
Lane lines should be continued through minor road intersections.
At a lane drop, the lane line should cease before the taper commences. This distance is
shown in the table in Part C 2.4.2.
For lane lines on the approach to signalised intersections see Part C 2.17.5.
For the use of continuity lines as lane lines (including the length of continuous line) see
Part C 2.7.
continuity lines
see Part C 2.7
length of unbroken lane line
see Part C 2.7
lane drop
see Part C 2.4.2
5m
7.5
m
C-12
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.6.1 Roundabouts
References
Lane lines on the approach to a multilane roundabout are positioned as they would be for
other intersections. The lane lines within the circulating lanes and leading out of a
roundabout, known as special purpose lines, provide added guidance through the curves
while negotiating within and exiting the roundabout. Lane lines must be curved where
necessary to ensure this guidance is further enhanced.
ARR Part 9
AS1742.2 Section 5
GTM Part 6
GTM Part 10
C
Exit line placement
additional two exit lines
should be provided after
the exit.
where drivers in the left lane wishing
to continue in the circulating path
around the roundabout they are
required to cross the exit line, it is
preferable that the exit line extend from
a point within the circulating path and
continue into the exit road.
exit area
starting position for exit line, see inset for
each exit line around the roundabout.
Inset
Pavement Marking Manual
C-13
Design Guide
Multi-lane roundabout with two single lane approaches
and two single lane exits
References
Multi-lane roundabout with two lane approaches and two
lane exits
C-14
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
Multi-lane roundabout with two approach lanes, one exit
lane, and featuring an exclusive left turn lane
References
C
Multi-lane roundabout with two approach lanes, one exit
lane, and featuring an exclusive right turn lane
Pavement Marking Manual
C-15
Design Guide
References
2.6.2 Indented bus stops (partial or full)
car park
ARR 195
Standard
continuous
line
Standard
continuous
line
bus stop
bus stop
sign
kerb
car park
20m
median (or other dividing treatment)
indented bus stop
10m
kerb
NOTE: For bus stop design requirements, refer to GD800
page 3 of (www.dtei.sa.gov.au/standards/road_design_standards_and_guidelines)
C-16
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.6.3 Bicycle lanes start and end
AS1742.2 Section 9
GRD Part 3
GTM
OI 9.2
OI 9.3
y
start of
bicycle lane
d=vy
3.6
d = minimum length of taper (m)
v = design speed or speed limit (km/h)
y = lateral movement of vehicle, or width
reduction (m)
30m or d
(whichever is greater)
formula for calculating
diverging taper
end of
bicycle lane
Pavement Marking Manual
C-17
C
Design Guide
References
2.7 CONTINUITY LINES
Continuity lines generally provide longitudinal ‘continuity’ to traffic along lengths of road
where lane lines or other longitudinal lines either cannot or should not be provided. They are
used to substitute lane, dividing or edgelines where it is intended that the line be crossed.
Where they are used in lieu of a lane or dividing line it is important to remember that they
may continue to have the same legal effect in regard to traffic movements.
Examples of continuity lines include :
l
To provide continuity at very wide straight openings across side roads or other entry and
exit points along a road or across those openings that are subject to significant vertical or
horizontal changes. Continuity lines should only be provided for such situations where it is
likely that through traffic would otherwise loose continuity of travel (see Part C 2.5.1 for
example).
l
At the start and end of auxiliary and special purpose lanes to indicate the section of road
that should be crossed to access or exit the auxiliary lane.
l
Across side roads and other sections of road to indicate the continuance of bicycle lanes.
l
Across median openings where the median is greater than 2 metres in width.
2.7.1 Left and right turn storage / deceleration lanes
A
kerb or edge
of bitumen
x
Indicates direction of travel
2.7.2 Left and right turn acceleration lanes
A
kerb or edge
of bitumen
A
<72m
x
x
0m (all continuity line)
72m - 120m
12m continuity line
120m - 180m
24m continuity line
>180m
36m continuity line
NOTE: A single continuous line has regulatory importance in the ARRs. When a single
continuous line is used, ARR permits vehicles to cross it to enter or leave the road
or when passing a stationary obstruction (including a parked vehicle), but does not
permit overtaking or u-turning.
C-18
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
kerb
kerb
2.7.3 Bicycle lane continuity lines
PARKING
C
Note:
1. Check turning vehicle envelope for
standard design vehicle.
2. Bicycle lane continuity lines to extend
across turning vehicle envelope.
3. Bicycle logo not to be placed within
bicycle lane continuity lines.
Pavement Marking Manual
kerb
kerb
PARKING
turning vehicle
envelope
C-19
Design Guide
References
2.8 OUTLINES AND PAINTED KERBS
l
RRPMs generally need not be provided on outlines.
l
Raised median kerbs shall be outlined where the adjacent through lane width is
3.0m or greater in width.
l
Raised median kerbs shall be painted where the adjacent through lane width is less than
3.0m.
l
Raised median kerbs in auxiliary right turn lanes shall not be outlined unless the right turn
lane is greater than or equal to 3.0m in width.
l
Raised islands, other than raised medians and roundabouts shall be outlined unless the
adjacent lane is a bicycle lane.
l
All roundabouts and splitter island kerbs shall be painted and may be outlined.
l
Outlines on raised islands and medians shall be standard continuous.
Outlines and median kerb painting for auxiliary right turn lanes <3.0m
<3.0m
<3.0m
6.0m min
6.0m min
>3.0m
<3.0m
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Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
Outlines and median kerb painting for auxiliary right turn lanes >3.0m
References
>3.0m
>3.0m
C
6.0m min
6.0m min
>3.0m
<3.0m
>0.15m
Pavement Marking Manual
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Design Guide
2.9 EDGELINES
l
References
Kerbed roads in urban areas are generally not edgelined.
l Unkerbed
roads in urban areas shall be provided with edgelines and may be augmented
with RRPMs.
2.10 PARKING CONTROL LINES
ARR 169
AS1742.11
On street parking control lines are not dealt with in detail in this document. Where used,
markings shall conform to the Australian Standard (AS 1742.11), except as indicated below.
Generally parking control markings, such as lines, T’s and L’s used to delineate parking
spaces are white.
Clearways, both part time and full time shall not be marked with edgelines.
Full time parking restriction lines i.e. unbroken yellow lines, may be used to designate No
Stopping areas (with or without sign posting), but shall not be used to designate No Stopping
areas already covered in the Road Rules i.e. driveways, corners of road intersections, bus
stops, post boxes and fire hydrants.
If yellow parking control lines are used along a section of road, they shall not be marked
through bus stops. The lines shall also not be marked 3m each side of a post box or 1m
each side of a fire hydrant, or through designated taxi zones (taxi zones must be sign posted
and may be delineated with parking space markings).
2.11 PAVEMENT MESSAGES (Including Symbols)
Pavement messages on roads shall be limited to the following :
l
BUS LANE
l
BUS LANE AHEAD
l
BUS ONLY AHEAD
l
FERRY
l
GIVE WAY
l
KEEP CLEAR
l
LEFT TURN ONLY
l
NO LEFT TURN
l
NO RIGHT TURN
l
PED XING
l
RAIL X (X RAIL)
l
RIGHT TURN ONLY
l
SCHOOL
l
SIGNALS AHEAD
l
STOP
l
Bicycle (symbol)
l
Pavement Arrows
l
Yellow Box Markings
l
BUS ONLY
Pavement messages for other road related areas shall be limited to the following:
l
Bicycle (symbol)
l
Bicycle Prohibited (symbol)
l
Access (symbol)
l
Path Arrows
l
Pedestrian (symbol)
l
Skater Prohibited (symbol)
C-22
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.11.1 Keep clear
References
The keep clear pavement message shall only be used in accordance with Operational
Instruction 2.23 KEEP CLEAR Pavement Markings
Keep clear pavement markings shall consist of the words “KEEP CLEAR” and :
l
Be positioned wholly within a single lane where possible.
l
Shall have 2.5m letter height with 2.5m spacing between words.
l
Shall have a letter style as shown in AS1742.2.
l
Where two or more lanes are to be marked with KEEP CLEAR, the message may be
staggered at wide side roads or driveways.
C
ARR 96
AS1742.2 Section5
OI 2.23
Single lane
150mm line, positioned to the limits
of the required keep clear area. e.g.
in line with side road kerbs.
2.5m
2.5m
2.5m
Multi-lane (preferred)
Note:
a single message covering
two lanes may be adequate.
The words may be spaced
wider to suit.
2.5m
2.5m
2.5m
Pavement Marking Manual
C-23
Design Guide
References
2.11.2 Speed limits
Speed limit pavement messages shall not be used in South Australia.
2.11.3 Other messages
Where it is desired to use other pavement messages, the matter shall be referred to DTEI
Manager, Traffic and Access Standards Section.
2.12 KERB EXTENSION MARKINGS
Kerb extensions (formerly known as protuberances) are used to reduce road widths,
especially in pedestrian crossing locations. They also provide traffic calming qualities to a
road by removing parking from the through traffic.
As the name suggests, kerb extensions should preferably consist of raised areas bordered
by semi mountable median type kerbing. However, they may also consist of pavement
markings designated by outline markings with diagonal stripes, and pavement bars and/or
RRPMs.
Kerb extensions may also be used to physically control the movement of vehicles, such as a
traffic divergence on a road section or to create a high angle entry to the main road.
taper length determined in
accordance with Part C 2.4
raised
kerb or edge of seal
Note: Diagonal stripes should be placed at 6m spacing on the divergence
taper section and then at 12m spacing for long parallel sections
up to 200m. For sections longer then 200m where diagonal stripes
are considered necessary they may be spaced at up to 24m in urban
areas and up to 48m in high speed rural areas.
maybe augmented with pavement
bars between diagonal stripes
( see next example )
C-24
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
Painted kerb extensions
ARR 195
No painted
kerb extension
C
10m
Standard
continuous line
10m
0
Bus
stop
20m
nominally
10m
3m
Painted kerb
extension
3m
may be supplemented
with pavement bars
for positive control
refer to Part B 2.12
6m
Pavement Marking Manual
C-25
Design Guide
References
2.13 STANDARD INTERSECTIONS (Local Roads)
Local or minor roads need not to be line marked. However, where they are, it is preferred to
provide a single dividing line to the extent of the limit of the No Stopping restriction from the
intersection (only) on the road with priority.
The controlled road approaches i.e. the road under Give Way or Stop sign control must be
provided with a give way or stop line. The provision of a dividing line from the give way or
stop line is preferred.
The dividing line would not normally extend beyond 10m from the kerb alignment of the
intersecting road. This length of line matches the road rule which prohibits stopping within
10m of an intersecting road.
ARR 170
Single lane
10m
minimum
dividing line
kerb
10m
minimum
Multi-lane minor road exits, from major roads, where traffic may enter the side road from
more then one lane, lane lines should be provided. In these cases, the lane line should
commence 300mm from the prolongation of the main road kerb line. At least three line
segments are preferred.
For multi-lane minor roads approaching a major road, lane lines should cease with a full line
segment at 300mm back from the prolongation of the main road kerb line. Where a stop or
give way line exists, the full line segment should cease.
Where lane use discipline is a problem, pavement arrows should be provided.
Multi lane
300mm
prolongation
kerb line
C-26
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.14 GIVE WAY AND STOP LINE MARKINGS
width = 450mm (<80km/h)
width = 600mm (>80km/h)
Note: Examples shown apply for both GIVE WAY and STOP locations.
C
typical no special
turn requirments
kerb
300mm
special turn
requirments
x
kerb
nominally
10m
x = placement of give way line may have to be
further in advance of the roundabout to allow
for the wider swept path of some larger vehicles
travelling around the roundabout.
kerb
300mm
kerb
300mm
Pavement Marking Manual
kerb
kerb
300mm
300mm
C-27
Design Guide
References
2.15 CHANGED PRIORITY
Changed priority junction
7.
5m
5m
C-28
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.16 ROUNDABOUTS
References
Give Way lines
All roundabouts shall be provided with give way lines at the point drivers are expected to
‘hold’ to give way before entering the circulating lane(s). To determine the location of the
give way line it is important to consider sight distance to approaching vehicles from the right
while ensuring that the holding vehicle is not placed within the turning path of vehicles
travelling within the circulating lane(s), see Part C 2.14.
The Code Section 6
AS1742.2 Section 2
AS1742.2 Section 5
ARR part 9
Special purpose and lane lines
Refer to Part C 2.6.1.
Note: Spiral lane line markings i.e. where additional lanes are created within a
roundabout shall not be used in SA without the authorisation of DTEI, Manager
Traffic and Access Standards.
Pavement arrows
Pavement arrows, while not used on single lane roundabouts, shall be used on any
approach to the roundabout which has more then one lane.
Splitter islands
Splitter islands, raised or flush, shall be provided on each approach. A standard single
continuous barrier line should be marked on the approach to a splitter island.
Painted kerb and outlines
All roundabouts, splitter islands and kerb extension shall be painted and may be outlined.
For semi-mountable central islands and sppitter islands refer to Part B 2.16.2.
2.16.1 Single lane roundabout
kerb
extension
Pavement Marking Manual
C-29
C
Design Guide
References
2.16.2 Multi-lane T-intersection roundabout
2.16.3 Bicycle lane approach to single lane roundabout
locate start of bicycle lane
outside turning envelop
locate end of bicycle lane
outside turning envelop
design vehicle
turning template
C-30
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.17 SIGNALISED INTERSECTIONS
Signalised intersection treatment index
C
4
1
5
2
3
6
1
Pedestrian crosswalk lines
(page C-32)
4
Pavement arrows
(page C-35)
2
Stop lines
(page C-33)
5
Lane lines
(page C-39)
3
Turn lines
(page C-34)
6
Non-reflective raised
pavement markers
(page C-40)
Pavement Marking Manual
C-31
Design Guide
References
2.17.1 Pedestrian crosswalk lines
(a) Pedestrian
The signalised crossing should be at least 2m wide and delineated by two parallel lines.
See Part B 2.2.3.
The line nearest the centre of the intersection should be not less then 0.6m (desirably 1m)
clear of the cross street kerb line projection.
Crosswalks shall always be on a straight alignment between staged crossing points.
No other lines shall be placed between the crosswalk lines
kerb
0.6 - 1m
line width 150mm,
600mm stripe and
300mm gap
generally crosswalks should be 2.4m (2m min)
wide and should be parallel with cross walk lines.
However, the width of crosswalk may be increased
where there are high pedestrian volumes.
1.2m m
in
(b) Shared Use
Shared use marked crossings may vary in width between 2.0m - 4.0m depending on the
facility width leading to the marked crossing.
(c) Scramble Pedestrian Crossings
Scramble pedestrian crossing markings are covered in Operational instruction 14.1.
C-32
OI 14.1
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.17.2 Stop lines
(a) Stop line
Stop lines indicate to drivers the point behind which vehicles must stop during the red
signal phase, See Part B 2.2.1.
C
450 or 600mm
1.5m
200mm
1.2m
minimum
1m
1.8m
1.1m
(b) Angled or stepped stop lines
The correct stopping position at an angled stop line is often difficult for drivers to
accurately determine when the angle of the line is less then 60 degrees to the direction
of travel. Generally it is preferred to use shallow angle stop lines but this will sometimes
depend upon site suitability.
Greater or equal to 60 degress to the
direction of travel, use angled stop line
1.2m
min
> 60%
Less then 60 degress to the direction
of travel, use stepped stop line
1.2m
min
< 60%
Pavement Marking Manual
C-33
Design Guide
References
2.17.3 Turn lines
Turn lines may be used within signalised intersections to indicate the proper course to be
followed by turning vehicles. They shall always be used within an intersection where there
is more than one turning lane for turns in a particular direction. They are not required when
the path to be followed is obvious to drivers under all conditions.
AS1742.14
Where opposing right-turn movements operate in the same phase, care must be taken with
positioning turn lines so that sufficient gap is left between opposing turning traffic.
Austroads turning path templates or recognised equivalent should be used for turn lines. It
is suggested that a gap of 1.2 to 2.0m is provided between the turning vehicle envelopes.
At major urban intersections with double right-turn lanes from opposite directions, it is
necessary to select the design vehicles for the turns, e.g. car and semi-trailer from both
directions.
Turn lines should not be carried through pedestrian crosswalks but may continue after to
continue guidance.
Turn lines location shall be determined using design turning envelope as a guide, however
each location will be different depending on, for example, approach road angles, number of
turn lanes and/or phase sequence. Where multi-turn lanes exist adequate separation shall
be provided between each adjacent design turning envelope.
Turn lines can be designed and depicted using turn line design strings.
turn lines not to be
carried through crosswalk
line width 100mm,
600mm stripe and
600mm gap
C-34
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.17.4 Pavement arrows
Intersection pavement arrows may be provided in lanes to indicate the direction in which a
driver is legally obliged to travel through the intersection. They should only be used in lanes
from which the movements differ from the road rules. e.g. The road rules allow drivers to
turn left or travel through an intersection from the left lane. If these movements are to be
permitted within the intersection, the pavement arrow should not be provided. For simplicity,
use of Intersection Pavement Arrows table (page C-38) shows the movements for which
arrows shall be provided.
C
Intersection pavement arrows shall not be used to indicate a turn where the turn is
restricted during certain hours of the day.
When used, a minimum of 3 arrows should be provided in a traffic lane on the approach to
traffic signals. The arrow closest to the intersection shall be provided 6m from the stop line
or from the tangent point of the curve for a left turn lane. Subsequent arrows should
normally be provided at as close to 30m spacing as possible (tail to tail). However, to
ensure three arrows are provided, spacing may be reduced down to a minimum of 15m.
The last arrow shall be provided at a point where the full lane width is developed. For very
short lanes where three arrows cannot be provided (at 15m spacing) the number of arrows
may be reduced.
6m
15 - 30m
15 - 30m
first arrow placed,
at full lane width
Pavement Marking Manual
C-35
Design Guide
References
2.17.4.1 Multiple turn lanes
Left and right turn lanes are reserved for turning traffic, treatments are generally similar.
BUS
ONLY
refer to Part C 2.7
TP
6m
C-36
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.17.4.1 Multiple turn lanes (cont)
T-Junction combinations of left/right arrows are required to allow the movements
intended.
1 row only
C
3 rows where length
of lanes permit
3 rows where length
of lanes permit
Pavement Marking Manual
C-37
C-38
NOT APPLICABLE
Markings for shared right turn and through from
lane adjacent to two exclusive right turn lane
1
2
3
4
Three lane
Use of Intersection Pavement Arrows
Four lane
Black symbols indicate arrows to be marked.
Grey symbols indicate manoeuvres which are permitted by regulations but which need not be marked.
On some intersection approaches, it may be necessary to combine two or more of the marking methods shown.
Arrows for all movements shall be marked on multi-lane side road approaches to signal controlled "T" intersections and on all multi-lane approaches to roundabouts.
Notes:
Markings to indicate right lane prohibition
Markings to indicate left lane prohibition
NOT APPLICABLE
Two lane
Markings for shared left turn and through from
lane adjacent to two exclusive left turn lane
Markings for shared right turn and through from
lane adjacent to right turn lane
Markings for shared left turn and through from
lane adjacent to left turn lane
Markings for two exclusive right turn lanes
Markings for two exclusive left turn lanes
Legal manoeuvres if right lane only marked
Legal manoeuvers if left lane only marked
Legal manoeuvres if lane unmarked
Description of requirements
Design Guide
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.17.5 Lane lines
References
On the immediate approaches to traffic signals, the use of lane lines is essential where
the approach width will accommodate two or more traffic streams.
On the approach lane lines should cease with a full line segment at the stop line. This
may require a shorter gap segment, or a longer line segment.
C
On exits to intersections where pedestrian crosswalks exist, lane lines should start as
close as practicable (but not closer than 300mm) to the crosswalk.
For zip merges on the exit to intersections, refer to Part C 2.4.2.
For the use of continuity lines as lane lines, refer to Part C 2.7.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-39
Design Guide
2.17.6 Non-reflective raised pavement markers
Vehicles my require guidance through intersections by the placement of Non-Reflective
Raised Pavement Markers (NRPM) within the intersection for non-turning traffic.
Treatment is normally applicable only to wide signalized intersections on multilane roads.
NRPM must be placed such that they do not interfere with the alignment of the cross
movement lanes.
References
AS1742.2 Section 5
Typical situations are:
Lanes on opposite sides of the intersection offset by half a lane width or more.
Drivers required to steer a curved course through the intersection.
Highly skewed intersections where the travel distance within the intersection is
excessive.
Features such as tram lines or adverse geometry which may make the course
difficult to follow.
Typical situation
Location of guidance markers
C-40
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.18 EXPRESSWAYS
References
2.18.1 Expressway exit lane arrows
AS1742.2 Section 3
Expressway exit lane arrows shall only be used where multiple lanes exit onto a ramp.
C
mid - block left lane
becomes trap lane
entry ramp continues as
trap lane to next exit
Pavement Marking Manual
C-41
Design Guide
2.19 PATH TREATMENTS
References
2.19.1 Destination group layout
AS1742.9
1m x 80mm wide dividing
line with 7m spacing
3m
150mm
1m
1.2m
7m
150mm
1m
1.2m
300mm
1.2m
pavement
edge
2.19.2 Connector group layout
1m x 80mm wide dividing
line with 7m spacing
2m
1m
150mm
1.2m
7m
150mm
1m
1.2m
1.2m
pavement
edge
C-42
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.19.3 Shared use paths, T intersection layout
References
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
C
1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide
dividing line
15m min
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
12m x 80mm wide
single continuous line
50m
10m
5m
connector path eg.
SMITH STREET
5m
10m
50m
symbol groups should
be spaced at not more
than 200m intervals
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
15m min
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
Pavement Marking Manual
C-43
Design Guide
References
2.19.4 Shared use paths, intersection layout
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
15m min
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide
dividing line
15m min
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
12m x 80mm wide
single continuous line
25m
10m
5m
connector path eg.
SMITH STREET
connector path eg.
JONES AVENUE
5m
10m
25m
symbol groups should
be spaced at not more
than 200m intervals
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
15m min
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
C-44
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.19.5 Shared use paths, T intersection offset layout
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
1m x 7m gap x 80mm wide
dividing line
C
15m min
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
symbol groups should
be spaced at not more
then 200m intervals
50m
10m
5m
connector path eg.
JONES AVENUE
12m x 80mm wide
single continuous line
5m
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
5m
connector path eg.
SMITH STREET
5m
10m
50m
12m x 80mm wide
single continuous line
connector group
see Part C 2.19.2
for typical layout
15m min
destination group
see Part C 2.19.1
for typical layout
Pavement Marking Manual
C-45
Design Guide
References
2.20 PEDESTRIAN TREATMENTS
There are a number of distinctive facilities to assist the safe passage of pedestrians walking
adjacent to and across roads. The distinctive features including the legal effect for some of
these facilities is created by the pavement markings.
These facilities are known as:
Pedestrian refuge
Emu crossing
Koala crossing
Wombat crossing
Pedestrian actuated crossing
AS1742.10
2.20.1 Pedestrian refuge
l
Refuges shall be outlined and the outline shall continue past the pedestrian opening.
l
Where pedestrian openings are provided through medians, outlines shall also continue
past the opening but only if that length of median is provided with an outline.
l
Where the pedestrian refuge divides opposing traffic movements unidirectional yellow
RRPMs shall be provided at 6.0m spacings. White RRPMs shall be provided at the same
spacing where the refuge separates traffic travelling in the same direction.
Pedestrian refuges are either short lengths of raised medians used on roads for the sole
purpose of providing a staging area for pedestrians crossing the road or are long lengths of
median through which ‘cut outs’ or ‘walkthroughs’ may be provided.
refer to Part C 2.4.1 for
minimum diverge length
and continuous barrier line.
C-46
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.20.2 Emu crossing
References
two-lane two-way road
The Code Section 7
AS1742.10
post and flag
6m
C
2.4m - 6m
post
post
kerb
single broken
dividing line
standard stop line
kerb
post
post
6m
post and flag
two-lane two-way road (with kerb extensions)
6m
2.4m - 6m
post and flag
kerb
post
kerb
extension
post
kerb extension
single broken
dividing line
standard stop line
kerb
extension
post
post
kerb
6m
Pavement Marking Manual
post and flag
C-47
Design Guide
2.20.3 Koala crossing
References
AS1742.10
two-lane two-way road
6m
2.4m - 6m
kerb
single broken
dividing line
standard stop line
kerb
6m
twin alternate yellow
flashing signals
two-lane two-way road (with kerb extensions)
6m
2.4m - 6m
kerb
kerb
extension
kerb extension
single broken
dividing line
standard stop line
kerb
extension
kerb
6m
C-48
twin alternate yellow
flashing signals
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.20.4 Wombat crossing
kerb
C
6m min
platform
3m - 6m
kerb
extension
3m - 6m
kerb
extension
kerb
Pavement Marking Manual
C-49
Design Guide
References
2.20.5 Pedestrian actuated crossing
Undivided roads
two-lane two-way
2.4m
min *
6m
kerb
20m single continuous
barrier line (optional)
standard stop line
kerb
single post with
pedestrian push button
6m
* 5m preferred
four-lane two-way
6m
2.4m
min *
kerb
20m single continuous
barrier line (optional)
standard stop line
kerb
single post with
pedestrian push button
C-50
6m
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.21 SCHOOL ZONES
References
A zigzag marking is used to increase driver awareness of a school zone. It is placed in
advance of a School Zone sign, subject to site conditions.
ARR 23
The Code
Zigzag pavement markings shall be used at all School Zones.
Typically the trailing end of the zigzag marking is placed at the school zone sign with the
marking commencing 30m in advance of the sign.
C
‘SCHOOL’ pavement messages may be used where visibility to the school zone (zigzag
markings) is limited. These markings supplement School Zone warning sign(s).
Other markings, such as speed limits, coloured patches or symbols shall not be used.
The zigzag markings must be as shown in Part B 2.9, unless otherwise indicated in the
following examples.
2.21.1 Zigzag marking position
(a) Parking prohibited at all times.
zigzag positioned
centrally in lane
R3-SA58
edgeline or edge of seal
dividing line or
centre of road
(b) Adjacent indented parking lane and full time bicycle lane.
kerb extensions may be present
to provide protected parking lane
R3-SA58
marked parking lane
bicycle lane (full time)
R3-SA58
median or separation line
zigzag positioned
centrally in lane
(c) Adjacent part time bicycle lane.
R3-SA58
a part-time bicycle lane may be installed
a (see below)
R3-SA58
lane width
median or separation line
zigzag positioned
centrally in lane
indicates direction of travel
Pavement Marking Manual
C-51
Design Guide
References
(d) Part time parking restriction.
R3-SA58
lane width
a (see below)
R3-SA58
dividing line or
centre of road
Width of lane
Value of a
less than or equal to 4.0m
0.2m
between 4.0m to 6.0m
0.6m
greater than 6.0m
1.2m
2.21.2 Basic school zone
R3-SA58
R4-SA59
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
R3-SA58
R4-SA59
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
2.21.3 Curved alignment
1
Notes :
WG-SA106
1. ‘SCHOOL’ pavement message may be used
adjacent to a WG-SA106 School Zone sign
where sight distance to the zigzag marking
may be restricted.
SCHO
OL
2
2. Zigzag shall follow the curve of the road.
R3
A5
-S
8
9
58
A5
-S
A
-S
R4
R3
9
A5
-S
R4
R4
-SA
59
R3
-SA
58
R4
-SA
59
R3
indicates direction of travel
C-52
-SA
58
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.21.4 At intersections and Emu crossings
R3-SA58
1
30m
C
3
1.0m min
2
R4-SA58
1.0m min
Notes :
1. Zigzag marking should be 30m long but may be reduced to a
minimum of 21m.
2. Zigzag markings must not extend into an intersection. It must
be clear of the prolongation of the kerb or edge of road by at
least 1.0m.
3. Prolongation of kerb or edge of road.
3.0m min
1
21m min
3
R3-SA58
2
3
2
1.0m
min
1
for Emu crossings
refer to Part C 2.20.2
30m
1
R3-SA58
2.21.5 Undivided multi-lane road
R3-SA58
R3-SA58
Pavement Marking Manual
R4-SA59
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
R3-SA58
C-53
Design Guide
References
2.21.6 Divided multi-lane road
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
R3-SA58
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
<3m
>3m
R4-SA59
R3-SA58
R4-SA59
indicates direction of travel
2.22 BUS FACILITIES
Bus facilities on roads include part time Bus Lanes, full time Bus Lanes and Bus Only areas.
All three are pavement marked differently.
General requirements
l
Preferred width 3.5 metres to 4.0 metres.
l
Widths less than 3.5 metres may be acceptable on Urban arterial roads with the
agreement of Passenger Transport Services, DTEI.
l
At the start of a Bus Lane where road users are required to diverge to avoid entering the
lane, a continuity line transition shall be provided.
l
Full time Bus Lanes shall have an continuous lane line.
l
Part time Bus Lanes shall have a special purpose broken lane line.
l
BUS LANE AHEAD pavement messages placed in advance of the continuity line
transition are preferred for both full and part time Bus Lanes.
l
BUS LANE pavement messages must be placed at the start of both full and part time Bus
Lanes after intersection and at intervals not exceeding 200 metres.
l
BL pavement messages shall not be used.
l
Continuity line transitions lines shall be
- Not less than 35 metres where traffic is not required to merge with another lane of traffic
to avoid entering the Bus lane.
- Full merging transition length where traffic is required to merge with another lane.
l
Pavement messages need not be in lateral alignment with Bus lane signs.
l
Bus Only Lanes and/or Area shall be treated with red pavement colouring. Red shall not
be used for any other purpose.
C-54
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.22.1 Placing of lane messages
References
Bus Lane Ahead
2.5m
1.2m - 2.5m
2.5m
1.2m - 2.5m
2.5m
C
Part Time Bus Lane
2.5m
1.2m - 2.5m
2.5m
special purpose broken line
bus lane
Full Time Bus Lane
2.5m
1.2m - 2.5m
2.5m
continuous lane line
bus lane
Bus Only
2.5m
1.2m - 2.5m
2.5m
continuous lane line
Indicates direction of travel
Pavement Marking Manual
C-55
Design Guide
2.22.1 Placing of lane messages (cont)
References
6.2m - 7.5m
35m
continuity
line
kerb
35m - 100m
C-56
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.22.2 Full-time / Part-time bus lane treatment
continuous lane line
References
special purpose broken line
C
10m
to
50m
10m
to
50m
200m max
200m max
100m
Full-time bus lane
Pavement Marking Manual
6.2m
to
7.5m
6.2m
to
7.5m
35m
35m
30m
to
100m
30m
to
100m
12.5m
12.5m
Part-time bus lane
C-57
Design Guide
2.22.3 Bus lanes approaching signalized intersections
References
Note:
1. Check turning vehicle envelope for
standard design vehicle.
2. BUS LANE pavement message not to
extend across turning vehicle envelope.
10m
to
50m
10m
to
50m
turning vehicle
envelope
100m max
Shared through and left turn
lane for other traffic
C-58
Exlusive left turn lane
for other traffic
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.22.4 Parking bays in Bus Lanes
References
Parking bays should not normally be marked in part-time bus lanes. However, when they
are required, they should be marked with “T” and “L” markings.
C
bus lane
AS1742.12
2.22 5 Bus Only
GRD Part 3
Pavement Marking Manual
C-59
Design Guide
2.22.5 Bus Only (cont)
C-60
References
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.23 DISTINCTIVE COLOURED BICYCLE LANES
References
C
This page has been left intentionally blank.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-61
Design Guide
2.23.1 Left turn deceleration lane (potential conflict)
C-62
References
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
2.23.2 Left turn acceleration lane
References
C
Pavement Marking Manual
C-63
Design Guide
2.23.3 High angle left turn lane
References
2.23.4 Minor side road junction
C-64
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
2.24 FLOODWAYS AND CAUSEWAYS
Floodways and causeways are sections of road that are subject to flooding. When water is
over the roadways delineation is reduced because the edgelines and particularly the
standard dividing line (3m line, 9m gap) is very difficult to see through the water. However, it
is important not to unreasonably restrict traffic movement by providing an continuous dividing
line.
C
To increase delineation qualities of the dividing line while still allowing the line to be crossed,
a special purpose broken dividing line ( i.e. 9m line, 3m gap) shall be used across the
section of road regularly subject to flooding.
Floodway/causeway examples
edge of seal
floodway /
causeway
enhanced
continuous
edgelines
floodway / causeway
special purpose broken
dividing line
edge of seal
special purpose
broken dividing line
edge
of seal
100m
minimum
broken
edgelines
broken
edgelines
existing road
edgeline if provided
>5.5m
>6.8m
edge of seal
no narrowing of road
formation or seal width
Pavement Marking Manual
narrowing of road formation
and/or seal width
C-65
Design Guide
3.0 RURAL TREATMENTS
References
This section details the pavement marking differences between the general or urban
treatments and those in rural areas. In cases other than those listed below, treatments should
be the same for both built up urban and rural situations.
3.1 DIVIDED RURAL ROADS
Although most of the design details for treatments between intersections in this section relate
to undivided roads, the same principles, with the exception of dividing lines, should be applied
for divided roads.
3.2 MULTI-LANE UNDIVIDED RURAL ROADS
Multi-lane undivided roads shall not be used in high speed rural environments with the
exception of specific treatments such as overtaking lanes, CHR and CHL intersection
treatments.
3.3 DIVIDING LINES ON RURAL ROADS
Dividing lines shall be installed in accordance with AS1742.2 other than at isolated
intersections treatments. The use of single continuous barrier lines as dividing lines are not
recommended in high speed rural environments. Although such lines prohibit certain crossing
movements, including u-turns, they do not prohibit entering or leaving the road (see Barrier
Lines on Rural Roads).
AS1742.2 Section 5
Any assessment for the need for dividing lines needs to consider the following:
l
All rural ‘arterial’ roads shall be provided with dividing lines and should be augmented with
RRPM’s.
l
All rural ‘collector’ roads should be provided with dividing lines.
l
Local rural roads may be provided with dividing lines. Installing dividing lines on narrow
roads may have implications for parking.
l
Where provided between major rural intersections dividing lines should be broken, and
shall be standard width for 2 lane roads and enhanced for multi lane roads.
l
Where provided on minor or local rural roads at intersections, short sections of single
continuous barrier line may be provided.
l
Dividing lines on rural arterial roads through minor road intersections are generally broken
(see Part C 3.8 Standard Rural Intersections).
3.4 BARRIER LINES ON RURAL ROADS
A single continuous barrier line should be used through rural townships as an alternative to
double two-way barrier lines. This allows the line to be crossed by traffic entering or leaving
the road.
Barrier lines on high speed rural roads shall only consist of double lines, either ‘Double One
Way Barriers’ or ‘Double Two Way Barriers’ to create ‘No Overtaking Zones’ and shall be
restricted to locations with either horizontal or vertical sight restrictions or both and only be
determined in accordance with AS1742.2.
Double barrier lines, one way or two way, are not generally used in SA to prohibit overtaking
at isolated locations unless there are sight restrictions which meet requirements for such
lines.
The only exceptions to the above requirement include:
l
l
l
Railway level crossings in accordance with Australian Standards Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (AS1742).
Overtaking lanes in accordance with this document and Operational Instruction 2.15
Ferry approaches in accordance with Australian Standards Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices.
C-66
AS1742.7 Section 3
OI 2.15
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
3.5 LANE LINES ON RURAL ROADS
References
Lane lines i.e. lines dividing lanes of the same direction traffic, must be provided on roads
where traffic is expected to travel in more than one line of traffic.
Lanes should not be marked on a rural road where it would result in lane widths of less than
3.2 metres. Restricted access routes may require greater lane widths.
C
Lane lines are normally standard broken. However, unbroken lane lines may be used
between exclusive through and exclusive turn lanes on approaches to intersections.
Lane lines on rural roads should be continued through minor road intersections.
All multi lane divided rural roads shall be provided with enhanced edgelines and outlines.
Multi lane divided rural road
enhanced edgeline
sealed shoulder or breakdown lane
(unkerbed)
dividing strip
(kerbed)
175mm
sealed shoulder or breakdown lane
enhanced edgeline
enhanced outline
3.6 EDGELINES ON RURAL ROADS
Edgelines are provided on most rural arterial roads. They provide a clear definition of the
lane and discourage traffic from travelling on shoulders.
AS1742.2 Section 4
AS1742.2 Section 5
GRD Part 3
They are particularly effective at night.
Edgelines shall be provided on all rural roads to ensure the desirable alne width does not
exceed 3.5 metres.
Practices regarding lane and sealed shoulder widths including the issues relating to
pavement depth, should be considered before providing an edgeline.
Part C 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 show best practice in regard to installation of dividing lines and
edgelines.
Part C 3.6.3 and 3.6.4 indicates a required treatment.
Pavement Marking Manual
C-67
Design Guide
3.6.1 Narrow rural two-lane two-way road (sealed width >5.5m, <6.8m)
References
unsealed shoulder
AS1742.2 Section 4
edge of seal (no edgeline unless
AS1742.2 Cl 4.2.2.1 (b) applies)
> 5.5m
unsealed shoulder
C-68
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
3.6.2 Standard rural two-lane two-way road
(sealed width >6.8m)
C
unsealed shoulder
standard broken
edgeline
edge of seal
minimum width 200mm
> 6.8m
(seal width)
Pavement Marking Manual
unsealed shoulder
> 6.4m
C-69
Design Guide
3.6.3 Wide sealed shoulder rural two-lane two-way road
(sealed shoulder width >0.5m )
References
continuous
edgeline*
> 0.5m
> 6.6m
> 7.6m
(seal width)
*on the following roads, the
continuous edgeline shall be
enhanced
- Southern Expessway
- Dukes Highway
- Sturt Highway
- Pt Augusta - Pt Wakefield Road
C-70
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
3.6.4 Multi-lane divided road (sealed shoulder width >0.5m )
References
C
enhanced
edgeline
> 0.5m
> 0.5m
> 0.5m
> 0.5m
Indicates direction of travel
Pavement Marking Manual
C-71
Design Guide
3.7 STANDARD RURAL INTERSECTIONS
References
Standard two-lane two-way rural side road intersection
10m standard
continuous
unsealed
48m standard
continuous
sealed
>50m
<50m
Standard two-lane two-way rural cross road intersection
48m standard
continuous
10m standard
continuous
unsealed
unsealed
>50m
C-72
10m standard continuous
or to end of seal if less
<50m
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
3.8 OVERTAKING LANE TREATMENTS
More details in Operational Instruction 2.15 Overtaking Lanes.
3.8.1 Overtaking lane - diverge
edgeline
C
W
C
D=VW/3
V85
A
C
km/h
m
m
<75
100
30
75-90
150
60
>90
250
100
edgeline
C
Pavement Marking Manual
C-73
Design Guide
3.8.2 Lane change arrow placements
Tm =
V =
y =
s =
References
Merge length
Design speed (km/h)
Lateral movement (m)
Rate of lateral movement
merge = 0.6m/sec
Tm = Vy
3.6s
G9-73B
.
A
2
V85
A
km/h
m
<75
100
75-90
150
>90
250
A
W4-9C
.
W8-15C
C-74
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
3.9 TURNOUTS
References
Turnouts are short sections of sealed shoulder of a suitable width to provide a stopping area
for slow vehicles to allow faster vehicles to pass.
Pavement markings consist of a continuity line past the turnout in line with the normal
edgeline.
GRD Part 6
C
Slow vehicle turnout
standard broken
edgeline
continuity line
edge of bitumen
standard broken
edgeline
edge of bitumen
Pavement Marking Manual
C-75
Design Guide
References
3.10 REST AREAS
Rest areas may be lay bys, truck (only) parking bays, information bays, and points of interest
sites.
3.10.1 Roads with edgelines
continuity
line
sealed shoulder only
(typically >3.0m)
OI 20.3
acceleration
lane
broken
edgelines
unsealed
area
edge of existing seal
length of continuity line for both acceleration
and deceleration (if provided) see Part C 2.7
sealed shoulder only
continuity
line
C-76
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
3.10.2 Roads without edgelines
narrow sealed shoulder
may exist after opening
C
continuity
line
unsealed
area
edge of existing seal
deceleration lane
continuity
line
Pavement Marking Manual
C-77
Design Guide
References
3.10.3 Full acceleration / deceleration lane
edege of seal
acceleration
lane
>3.5m
150m min
(30m
taper)
C-78
deceleration
lane
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
3.10.4 Sealed shoulders only
edege of seal
C
acceleration
lane
100m min
(30m
taper)
Pavement Marking Manual
deceleration
lane
C-79
Design Guide
References
3.11 STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS
Includes narrow bridges and grids etc.
l
All bridges and other road narrowings shall be edgelined.
l
Barrier lines to be provided only in accordance with no overtaking zone sight distance
requirements and only on roads greater than 5.5m width.
l
Edgeline to be standard broken or to match existing edgeline where provided.
l
Special purpose broken lines to be used for dividing lines on floodways and causeways
only (see Part C 2.24).
narrowing of
formation
width only
30m
narrowing of
formation
width only
30m
broken
edgelines
C-80
broken
edgelines
<5.5m
>5.5m
(no edgelines)
(no edgelines)
no narrowing of road
formation or seal width
no narrowing of road
formation or seal width
Pavement Marking Manual
Design Guide
References
Grid example
C
grid
narrowing of
sealed width
100m
minimum
broken
edgelines
existing road
edgeline if provided
>6.8m
(edgelined)
narrowing of road formation
and/or seal width
Pavement Marking Manual
C-81
`