ASHARIKANDI CLUSTER INTERACTIVE DESIGN RESEARCH AND NEED ASSESSMENT SURVEY CLUSTER LEVEL REPORT MSME SCHEME 2011 Submitted By: Rakesh Sah Foreword The small and medium scale industries play a very important role in the Indian economy as they provide employment to about 14 million persons and contribute to 45% of the industrial production equivalent to 7% of the gross national product. Besides, the sector generates 35% of the direct exports. One of the mechanisms to promote SME development that has become popular the world over is the idea of industrial clustering. A cluster is sectorial and geographical concentration of enterprises in particular SME, employing similar process scale of operation and producing similar products but faced with common opportunities and threats. MSME Definition In accordance with the provision of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) are classified in two Classes (a) Manufacturing Enterprises: The enterprises engaged in the manufacture or production of goods pertaining to any industry specified in the first schedule to the industries (Development and regulation) Act, 1951). The Manufacturing Enterprise are defined in terms of investment in Plant & Machinery. (b) Service Enterprises. The enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services and are defined in terms of investment in equipment. The limit for investment in plant and machinery/equipment for manufacturing/service enterprises, as notified,vide S.O. 1642(E) dtd.29-09-2006 are as under : Manufacturing Sector Enterprises Investment in plant & machinery Micro Enterprises Does not exceed twenty five lakh rupees Small Enterprises More than twenty five lakh rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees Medium Enterprises More than five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees Service Sector Enterprises Investment in equipments Micro Enterprises Does not exceed ten lakh rupees Small Enterprises More than ten lakh rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees Medium Enterprises More than two crore rupees but does not exceed five core rupees Microfinance Scenario Indian MFIs are true to their mission of serving the poor strata of society. A stable 8 out of 10 clients have been provided loans sized less than Rs. 10,000. The loan segment between Rs. 5,000 and Rs. 10,000 has been growing strongest. This can be explained by two impulses: On one hand, microfinance customers mature to bigger loans over the loan cycles. On the other hand, urban microfinance starts with comparatively bigger loans than rural finance. In terms of outreach, the microfinance sector has reached 33 million clients. However, the potential is over 100 million clients as against the estimated potential of microfinance demand of Rs. 2 lacs crores (Intellecap 2009), the sector has reached only Rs. 24,000 crores in 2009-2010. There is need for expand the current portfolio by the factor of around 10 to realize the estimated potential. This requires continuous flow of on-lending financial resources into the sector. Acknowledgment Special thanks to “IIE, Guwahati” Director/Chief Executive Officers and its entire team to organize the 'Design Clinic Scheme Programme' and shown their trust over me to accomplished the program, taking me as consulting design resource. I would also thanks “Design Clinic Scheme; National Institute Of Design”, who has given me an opportunities to accumulate a intensive report after realizing my strength, potential and past experience. I would also like to thanks Miss. Sukanya B Saikia(Co-ordinator DCS North east), Surajit Dutta and Rupankar Kakati from IIE,Guwahati, Devdas Paul from Asharikandi cluster and each individual unit member who has given me their great support during the design audit. Where, without their kind involvement & assistance I was unable to understand cluster background & their present status. Thus I come up with such informative, structural, analytical and design intervention opportunities. CONTENTS Introduction- Assam (Demographics, Religion, Language, Culture, Arts & Craft, How to reach Assam) Introduction- Dhubri (Demographics, Transport, Places) Introduction- Asharikandi (Demographics, History, Cluster overview) Existing Products Contemporary terracotta products available in domestic and export market Present Status and availability of infrastructure facilities in the cluster Process and Raw materials Tools and Equipments The Process Detailed process chart followed for terracotta products with approximate time frame Skill & Market Packaging and Transportation Unit visited in Asharikandi terracotta cluster Design Audit for Cluster Macro, Micro and Internal Environment Scope of unconventional energy resources of the cluster Scope for special purpose machine based on conventional energy and manual source Spot remedial solution provided to MSME unit during the survey SWOT Analysis Step by step Concern Issues and Intervention Possibilities for Future Developments vision, Development Plan and CFC Improvement and Opportunities Area Conclusion References Page 1-9 10-12 13-15 16-18 19-21 22 23 24 25-29 30 31 32-33 34-54 55-73 74-75 76 77-78 78-88 89 90 91 92 01 Introduction - Assam Assam, state in northeastern India, bordered by the nations of Bhutan and Bangladesh. Assam means "Peerless" in the ancient Ahom language. To the east by the states of Nagaland and Manipur, to the south by the states of Mizoram and Tripura, and to the west by Bangladesh and the states of Meghalaya and West Bengal. The capital of Assam is Dispur. Its zenith under King Rudra Singh (1696-1714). Internal strife brought an invasion from Myanmar into Assam in 1817. The British eventually drove out the Myanmar invaders and made the area part of British India in 1826. By 1842 the whole Assam valley had come under British rule. Assam's economy is rural and agricultural. Tea is cultivated in the hilly regions, and the state provides much of the tea grown in India. Other significant crops include oilseeds, peas, beans, canola (rapeseed), sugarcane, and fruits. Major industrial towns are Guwahati, Dimapur, Jorhat, Dibrugarh and Tezpur. Area 30,285 square miles (78,438 square km). Population: (1991) 22,414,322. Administrative Data Establishment: 15th of August 1947 Legislature (seats): Unicameral (126) Capital: Dispur Largest city: Guwahati Districts: 27 Official language(s): Assamese, Bodo, Karbi Geographical data Population Density: 396.8/km² (2011 census) Area: 78,438 km² State Boundaries: East : Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur West :West Bengal and Meghalaya North:Arunachal Pradesh South:Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Tripura International Boundary: North:Bhutan West:Bangladesh Geographic Coordinates: Latitude:24° to 28° North Longitude:90° to 96° East Assam 02 Time zone: IST Forest Cover: 35.48 % Religion Statistical Data Total Population (2011 census): 31,169,272 Male - 15,954,927, Female - 15,214,345 According to the 2001 census, there are 17,296,455 Hindus, 8,240,611 Muslims, 986,589 Christians, 22,519 Sikhs, 51,029 Buddhists, 23,957 Jains and 22,999 belonging to other religious communities. The latter includes Animism (Khamti, Phake, Aiton etc. communities) Literacy rate (2011 census): 73.18% Male 78.81% Female 67.27% Sex Ratio (Male:Female): 1000 : 954 Demographics Total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001.Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darang and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million by 2011, 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.In 2001, the census recorded literacy in Assam at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. Urbanization rate was recorded at 12.9%. Growth of population in Assam has experienced a very high trajectory since the mid-decades of the 20th century. Population grew steadily from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941, while it has increased unprecedentedly to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991 to reach the present level. The growth in the western and southern districts was of extreme high in nature mostly attributable to rapid influx of population from the then East Pakistan or Bangladesh. Assam has many ethnic groups and the People of India project has studied 115 of these. Out of which 79 (69%) identify themselves Template: Explanation needed regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 transnationally. The earliest settlers were Austro-Asiatic, followed by TibetoBurman, Indo-Aryan speakers, and Tai–Kadai speakers. Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austro-Asiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan (24) and Indo-European (12). Three Template: Not making 45 in total!!! of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism. Languages Assamese and Bodo are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali holds official status in the three districts in the Barak Valley and is the second most widely spoken language of the state (27%). Traditionally Assamese was the language of the commons (of mixed origin – Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Prakrit) in the ancient Kamarupa and in the medieval kingdoms of Kamatapur, Kachari, Sutiya kingdom, Borahi, Ahom and Koch. Traces of the language is found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, etc. in Charyapada (c.7th–8th AD). Modern dialects Kamrupi, Goalpariya, etc. are the remnant of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for needed economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh. The form used in the upper Assam was enriched by the advent of Tai-Shans in the 13th century. Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form in practice near Sibsagar (Siwoxagor) district. Assamese (Osomeeya) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature with its unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. Assamese literature is one of the richest. Bodo is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista, Dikrai, etc.) reveal that it was the most important language in the ancient times. Bodo is presently spoken largely in the Lower Assam (Bodo Territorial Council area). After years of neglect, now Bodo language is getting attention and its literature is developing. 03 Culture Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are DEORI Mishing, Karbi, Dimasa, Rabha, Tiwa, etc. Rajbongshi also known as Kamatapuri/Goalpariya is also widely spoken by the people of western Assam. Nepali is also spoken in almost all parts of the state.There are approximately thirty lakhs of Nepali speakers spreading over the area of all the district of Assam. Assamese language being the main language, they are well versed in it. Assamese language is the main medium in educational institutions but Nepali language is also taught as a major Indian language. In Guwahati and Digboi, many Jr. basic School and Jr. high School are Nepali medium where all the teachers are Nepali. As a major Indian language, Nepali is included by Assam State Secondary Board, Assam Higher Secondary Council and Gauhati University in their HSCL, higher secondary and graduation level respectively, in some jr. basic and higher secondary schools and colleges, Nepali teachers and lecturers are also appointed. In these institutions, Nepali and literature are taught. Assam is the meeting ground of diverse cultures. The people of the enchanting state of Assam is an intermixture of various racial stocks such as Mongoloid, Indo-Burmese, Indo-Iranian and Aryan. The Assamese culture is a rich and exotic tapestry of all these races evolved through a long assimilative process. The natives of the state of Assam are known as "Asomiya" (Assamese), which is also the state language of Assam. The state has a large number of tribes, each unique in its tradition, culture, dresse and exotic way of life. Diverse tribes like Bodo, Kachari, Karbi, Miri, Mishimi, Rabha, etc co-exist in Assam, most tribes have their own languages though Assamese is the principal language of the state. There are smaller groups of people speaking Tai-Phake, Tai-Aiton, Tai-Khamti, Tai-Khamyang etc., some of the Tai languages. The Tai-Ahom language (brought by Sukaphaa and his followers), which is no more a spoken language today is getting attentions for research after centuries long care and preservation by the Bailungs (traditional priests). There are also small groups of people speaking Manipuri, Khasi, Garo, Hmar, Kuki, Zeme Naga etc. in different parts. Bengali is the official language in Barak Valley and the widely spoken language there is Sylheti, a dialect of Bengali. Bengali is also largely spoken in the western districts of Dhubri, Barpeta and Goalpara.Santali or Santhali is also spoken widely by the tribal population in the tea garden districts of Assam. these people who were initially brought as tea estate labourers by the British to Assam have now made it their home state. Bishnupriya Manipuri language is also spoken by a small minority of people in Barak Valley. A majority of the Assamese is the Vaishnavas (a sect of Hinduism). The Vaishnavas do not believe in idol worshiping and perform Namkirtana where the glory of Lord Vishnu is recited. The two important cultural and religious institutions that influence the cultural fabric of Assam: the Satras, the site of religious and cultural practice which have been in existence for over 400 years and and the Naamghar, the house of prayers. 04 Culture Villagers generally associate on the basis of membership of a local center of devotional worship called "Naamghar". Villages are usually made up of families from a number of distinct castes. In Assam, the caste system, although it exists, is not as prominent as in other parts of India. Other religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam etc. are also practiced in Assam. The national festival of Assam is the Bihu which is celebrated in three parts during a year with great pomp and grandeur by all Assamese, irrespective of caste, creed or religion. Bengali-speaking Hindus and Muslims represent the largest minorities, followed by Nepalis and populations from neighboring regions of India. The most important social and cultural celebrations are the three Bihu festivals observed with great enthusiasm irrespective of caste, creed and religious affinity. From time immemorial, the people of Assam have traditionally been craftsmen. Artists, sculptors, masons, weavers, spinners, potters, goldsmiths, artisans of ivory, wood, bamboo, cane and hide have flourished in Assam from ancient times. a red border on three sides and red woven motifs on the fourth (in addition to red, other colors are also used) is put to many uses. It is used as a towel, as a waistcloth or a loincloth; a Bihu dancer wraps it around the head in a knot, it is also hung around the neck at the prayer hall and thrown over the shoulder to signify social status or respect. Gamochas, also known as bihuwaans, are offered during Bihu as a token of love.Significantly the gamocha is used equally by all, irrespective of religious and ethnic backgrounds. Arts and crafts The people of Assam have traditionally been craftsmen from time immemorial. Though Assam is mostly known for its exquisite silks and the bamboo and cane products, several other crafts are also made here. Different regions of Assam are known for their different forms of art and handicrafts. Weaving is one traditional craft that every Assamese woman takes pride in. The Assamese women produce silk and cotton clothes of exquisite designs in their looms. Assam is renowned for its exquisite silks namely Eri, Pat and the world famous Muga silk. Gandhiji complimented the Assamese weavers as artists who could weave dreams in their looms. The Gamocha is one of the most easily recognizable cultural symbols of the Assamese people besides the tamol-paan (areca nut & betel leaf) which is an integral part of almost all socio-religious ceremonies. The Gamocha, a white rectangular piece of cotton hand woven cloth with primarily Cane and Bamboo Cane and bamboo have remained inseparable parts of life in Assam. Grown in abundance here and hence most of the household articles in the homes of Assamese are made of cane and bamboo. They happen to be the two most commonly-used items in daily life,ranging from household implements to construction of dwelling houses to furniture to weaving accessories to musical instruments. 05 Arts and crafts Sarthebari, are engaged in producing traditional bell-metal and brass articles. They have also used their innovative skills to design modern day articles to compete with the changing times. Gold, silver and copper too form a part of traditional metal craft in Assam and the State Museum in Guwahati has a rich collection of items made of these metals. Gold however is now used only for ornaments. Handlooms The Jappi, the traditional sunshade continues to be the most prestigious of bamboo items of the state, and it has been in use since the days when the great Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang came to Assam that visitors are welcomed with a jaapi. Bell-meta Bell-metal and brass have been the most commonly used metals for the Assamese artisan. Traditional utensils and fancy articles designed by these artisans are found in every Assamese household. The Xorai and bota have in use for centuries, to offer betel-nut and paan while welcoming distinguished guests. The entire population of two townships near Guwahati - Hajo and Assam's silk fabrics have earned immense recognition from all over the world. The state is the home of several types of silks, the most prominent and prestigious being muga, the golden silk exclusive to this state. Muga apart, there is paat, as also eri, the latter being used in manufacture of warm clothes for winter. Of a naturally rich golden colour, muga is the finest of India's wild silks. It is produced only in Assam. The women of Assam weave fairy tales in their looms. In earlier times, te skill to weave was the primary qualification of a young girl for her eligibility for marriage. 06 Arts and crafts This perhaps explains why Assam has the largest concentration of handlooms and weavers in India. One of the world's finest artistic traditions finds expression in their exquisitely woven 'Eri', 'Muga' and 'Pat' fabrics. The traditional handloom silks still hold their own in world markets They score over factory-made silks in the richness of their textures and designs, in their individuality, character and classic beauty. No two hand woven silks are exactly alike. Personality of the weaver, her hereditary skill, her innate sense of colour and balance all help to create a unique product. Today, India exports a wide variety of silks to western Europe and the United States, especially as exclusive furnishing fabrics. Boutiques and fashion houses designers and interior decorators have the advantage of getting custom-woven fabrics in the designs, weaves and colours of their choice. A service that ensures an exclusive product not easily repeatable by competitors. The Tribals on the other hand have a wide variety of colourful costumes, some of which have earned International repute through the export market. Weaving in Assam is so replete with artistic sensibility and so intimately linked to folk life that Gandhiji, during his famous tour to promote khadi and swadeshi, was so moved that he remarked : "Assamese women weave fairy tales in their clothes!” Toys The toys of Assam can be broadly classified under four heads (i) clay toys (ii) pith (iii) wooden and bamboo toys (iv) cloth and cloth-and-mud toys. While the human figure, especially dolls, brides and grooms, is the most common theme of all kinds of toys, a variety of animals forms have also dominated the clay-toys scene of Assam. Clay traditionally made by the Kumar and Hira communities, have often depicted different animals too, while gods, goddesses and other mythological figures also find importance in the work of traditional artist. Pith or Indian cork has also been used for toy-making since centuries in Assam. Such toys are chiefly made in the Goalpara region and they include figures of gods, animals and birds, the last of which again dominate the over-all output. Wood and bamboo on the other hand have been in use for making toys for several centuries, and like the other mediums, come as birds, animals and human figures. 07 Arts and crafts Toys of cloth as also with a mixture of cloth and mud too have constituted part of the rich Assamese toy-making tradition. While the art of making cloth toys have been traditionally handed down from mother to daughter in every household, the cloth-and-mud toys are generally used for puppet theatres. Among the household toys, the bride and the groom are the most common characters, while the other varieties have animals and mythological characters as the plays demand. Wood Craft Pottery Assam has always remained one of the most forest-covered states of the country, and the variety of wood and timber available here have formed a part of the people's culture and economy. Pottery is probably as old as human civilisation itself. In Assam, pottery can be traced back to many centuries. The Kumars and Hiras are two traditional potter communities of Assam and while the Kumars use the wheel to produce his pots, the Hiras are probably the only potters in the world who do not use the wheel at all. Again, among the Hiras, only the womenfolk are engaged in pottery work, while their men help them in procuring the raw materials and selling the wares. The most commonly-used pottery products include earthen pots and pitchers, plates, incense-stick holders, earthen lamps etc, while modern-day decorative have also found place in their latest An Assamese can identify the timber by touching it even in darkness, and can produce a series of items from it. While decorative panels in the royal Ahom palaces of the past and the 600-years old satras or Vaishnative monasteries are intricately carved on wood, a special class of people who excelled in wood carving came to be known as Khanikar, a surname proudly passed down from generation to generation. The various articles in a satra and naam-ghar(place of worship) are stiff cut on wood, depicting the guru asana (pedestal of the lords), apart from various kinds of birds and animals figuring in mythology. Modern-day Khanikar have taken to producing articles of commercial values, including figures of one-horned rhino and replicas of the worldfamous Kamakhya temple - two items heading the list of demands of a visitor from outside. 08 Arts and crafts Wooden Mask With tribal art and folk elements from the base of Assamese culture, masks have found an important place in the cultural activities of the people. Masks have been widely used in folk theatres and bhaonas with the materials ranging from terracotta to pith to metal, bamboo and wood. Similarly, among the tribal's too, the use of masks is varied and widespread, especially in their colorful dances which again revolve chiefly around their typical tribal myth and folklore. Such traditional masks have of late found their way to the modern-day drawing rooms as decorative items and wall-hangings, thus providing self-employment opportunities to those who have been traditionally making them. Jewellery Gold has always constituted the most-used metal for jewellery in Assam, while the use of silver and other metals too have been there for centuries.In the old days, gold was locally available, flowing down several Himalayan rivers, of which Subansiri is the most important. . In fact, a particular tribe of people, the Sonowal Kacharis were engaged only for gold-washing in these rivers.Jorhat in Upper Assam is one place where the traditional Assamese form of manufacture of jewellery is still in vogue, and people flock to Jorhat to get the exquisite Assamese jewellery. Assamese jewellery include the doog-doogi, loka-paro, bana, gaam-kharu, gal-pata, jon-biri, dhol-biri and keru, all of which have also encouraged the modern jewellers to producing similiar designs mechanically. 09 Arts and crafts Terracotta How to reach Assam Assam, the gateway to the northeast is well connected with the rest of India by air, rail and road. By Flight The Lokapriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport at Guwahati is 18 km from the city centre and is well connected to most of the metros in the country. There are regular flights to Guwahati running all year long on daily basis. Terracotta as a medium has dominated the handicraft scene of Assam since time immemorial. The tradition itself has been handed down from the generation to generation without break. Today we have the descendent of such families engaged in improvised terracotta versions of various common figures of gods and goddesses to mythological characters, while toys, vases, etc have also found a new life. Traditional Paintings The tradition of paintings in Assam can be traced back to several centuries in the past. Ahom palaces and satras and naam-ghar etc still abound in brightly-coloured paintings depicting various stories and events from history and mythology. In fact, the motifs and designs contained in Chitra-Bhagavata have come to become a traditional style for Assamese painters of the later period, and are still in practice today. All the major carriers of the country like Air India, Jet Airways, Kingfisher Red, SpiceJet, Go Air Business, JetLite and IndiGo airlines connect Guwahati to most of the major cities of India. Druk Air also operates an international weekly flight between Bangkok and Guwahati. Most of the carriers also operate flights connecting the other towns of Assam like Jorhat, Dibrugarh, Tezpur, North Lakhimpur and Silchar to Guwahati and to the other major cities in India. By Rail Assam has a convenient railway network connecting the state to the rest of the country. There are train services from Kolkata, New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Cochin and Trivandrum. B.G. line connection is up to Dibrugarh and M.G. line with Haflong and Silchar. By Road A network of National Highways and other roads connect Guwahati with all the important places of Assam and India. It is the connector city of NH - 31, 37 and 40 with the other cities of India by road. 10 Dhubri District At a Glance The Gateway of Western Assam Dhubri Map Dhubri District - the gateway of western Assam happened to be in the past a meeting place of different racial groups which mingled together and formed a unique Cultural Heritage and Historical Background. The growth of blended culture in this region particularly in case of Language, Art and Religion is due to continuous process of assimilation of various races, caste & creed of local people, invaders & migrated people. Dhubri District is bounded both by interstate and international border i.e. West Bengal and Bangladesh in the west, Goalpara and Bogaigoan district of Assam and Garo Hills district of Meghalaya in the east, Kokrajhar district in the north, Bangladesh and state of Meghalaya in the south. Covering an area of 2,838 Sq. Kms. including forests, reveries, hills etc. the district has become the most densely populated district in India with a density of 584 persons per Sq. Km.(As per 2001 census). Dhubri district is primarily dependent on agriculture and forest products. Main source of income is paddy with surplus production than its requirement Jute and mustard seed occupy the major share of cash crops. From forest mainly timber and bamboo add to the income though boulder and sand also available. Fish, milk, meat and egg have small contribution to the economy. Land revenue collection is very small in amount whereas excise duty occupies a lion's share of the Govt. exchequer. Geography Dhubri district occupies an area of 2,838 square kilometres (1,096 sq mi).Dhubri District is bounded both by interstate and international borders: West Bengal and Bangladesh in the west; Goalpara and Bogaigoan district of Assam and Garo Hills district of Meghalaya in the east; Kokrajhar district in the north; and Bangladesh and state of Meghalaya in the south. Economy Dhubri District is primarily dependent on agricultural and forest products. The main source of income is paddy (both winter and autumn) with surplus production. Jute and mustard seed occupy the major share of cash crops. Wheat, maize, pulses and sugar cane are also grown moderately. From forest, mainly timber and bamboo add to the income, though boulders and sand are also available. Fish, milk, meat, and eggs have small contribution to the economy.Currently three tea gardens, whose contribution to the district economy is almost negligible, cover an area of 1362.33 hectares. Land revenue collection is minimal, whereas tax from check gates and excise duty occupy much of the government exchequer. Devoid of major industrial production, the district uses more funds for administration, development, and welfare works than it provides. 11 Its rich natural wealth is yet to be explored and some believe that proper utilization of natural resources could provide a boost for the struggling economy. Some important production and earnings are given below: · Rice Production: 15,000 Tones (Approx) Chandardinga, Boukuamari, Boropahar, Chakrasila, etc. All these are situated in the north eastern part of the district. Mighty river Brahmaputra is flowing through this district from east to west with its tributaries like Champabati, Gourang, Gadadhar, Gangadhar, Tipkai, Sankosh, Silai, Jinjiram, etc. The average annual rainfall of the district is 2,916 mm. · Forest Revenue: Rs. 40,00000.00 (Approx) · Excise Revenue: Rs. 1,70,80,742.00 (2000–2001) Transport · Sales Tax Revenue: Rs. 10,13,36,902.00 (2000–2001 Demographics Dhubri has an airport at Rupshi which is about 23 km away from the town. It was constructed during World War II by the British Govt. mainly for military purpose. Till 1983, the Indian Airlines and some private commercial flights operated regularly between Calcutta, Guwahati and Dhubri. According to the 2011 census Dhubri district has a population of 1,948,632,roughly equal to the nation of Lesotho or the US state of West Virginia. This gives it a ranking of 240th in India (out of a total of 640).The district has a population density of 1,171 inhabitants per square kilometer (3,030 /sq mi) .Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 24.4 %.Dhubri has a sex ratio of 952 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 59.36 %. The town had a very busy river port on the bank of the Brahmaputra which was used as an international trade centre with the neighboring countries, especially in British era. At present, this port is lying idle. The largest religious group in the district are the Muslims, with 1,216,455 (74.29%)followers, while Hindus and Christians constitute 405,065 and 12,477 inhabitants respectively. The importance of the Railway station and the MG line was also decreased since 1947, when the direct line to Calcutta was snapped as it ran through erstwhile East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). The district has become one of the most densely populated district in India with a density of 584 persons per km2.(As per 2001 census report) which is second highest in Assam after Nagaon district. The literacy rate is 48.21% of which male 55.91% and female 40.04%. Bengali is the most widely spoken language, although Assamese is the official language. However the train facilities are running from Dhubri taking a new root from Dhubri to Guwahati Kamakhya station. The train has newly started on 2010 again, and it is functioning smoothly. The district is located on the globe between 89.42 to 90.12 degree east longitude and 26.22 to 25.28 degree north latitude and situated at 30 meters above the sea level on an average. General topography of Dhubri district is plain with patches of small hillocks like Tokorabandha, Dudhnath, Now it is totally closed. However, recently the ministry of DONER, GOI, has taken some initiative to renovate and functionalize the airport. By Road from Guwahati - By boarding the Omni Buses at Guwahati, which are plying between Guwahati and Dhubri regularly, one can reach Dhubri. It is a six hours journey. Buses are available for day & night. Buses for Dhubri are also available from Siliguri (West Bengal). It takes about 5-1/2 hours. 12 Guru Dwara Places of Interest The main places of interest in Dhubri district include Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, Mahamaya Dham, Rangamati or Panbari Mosque, the oldest mosque in entire northeast region of India,Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary, Florican Garden and Panchpeer Dargah. This place is famous for the Sikh Gurdwara namely Gurdwara Damdama Sahib or Thara Sahib which was constructed in memory of visit of First Sikh Guru Nanak Dev and later it was followed by visit of Ninth guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur and the Gurdwara is named as Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. Hence, it has great importance for Sikh community. Major Tribes - 1 Rabha , 2 Bodo, 3 Hajong , 4 Garo Major Language spoken - 1 Assamese 2 Goalparia ( Deshi) 3 Rajbongshi 4 Bengali 13 Asharikandi In the Dhubri district of Assam the terracotta activity is practiced widely in the village of Asharikandi. The people of this village are practicing terracotta down through several generations. Here it is seen that every household of the village are fully involved in terracotta activity and has taken it as the primary means of livelihood. Map of Asharikandi The practice of terracotta in Asharikandi presents a unique case where both pottery and terracotta are practiced in traditional way for which Asharikandi is known as Terracotta craft village. Geography and Transport Asharikandi is located 14 km away from Dhubri, 3 km from Gauripur and 1 km from NH-31 under the Devitola Block. It comprises of five villages that is Madaikhali, Palpara, Baganpara, Bogurapara and Sikasipara. The terracotta craft is practiced only in the Madaikhali village. The nearest broad gauge railway station from Asharikandi is New Coochbehar in West Bengal. The nearest big cities are Guwahati in Assam, Coochbehar and Siliguri in West Bengal. Demographic analysis The Assam State transport services and private transport services ply through the NH 31 and cater to the transportation needs of the area. The cluster is located in the Dhubri district of Assam which is 270 km from Dispur which is the capital of Assam and through which he national highway 31 runs. Asharikandi comprises of five villages that is Madaikhali, Palpara, Baganpara, Bogurapara and Sikasipara. The terracotta craft is practiced only in the Madaikhali village which comprises of 137 household units covering 500 artisans of which 195 are male and 305 are female. 14 History of Terracotta The term terracotta is derived from the words 'Terra' and 'Cotta'. 'Terra' means earth and 'Cotta' means baked. Both the words are of Latin and Italian origin. An object of art made of a composition of clay and sand and baked with earthen color, a brownish red, is terracotta. Terracotta is one of the oldest craft that human beings ever introduced on Earth. It was once considered to be poor man's craft, but in due course of time it has made its ascent and occupied a distinct identity among all classes of people by its aesthetic value. The countries famous for Terracotta practice other than India are Italy, China, France, Japan, Iraq, Egypt, etc. India has a rich tradition of clay crafts and pottery throughout the country. There is hardly any Hindu festival or ritual, which is complete without the use of earthen lamps or the diya. The terracotta tradition is the continuation of the Indus valley traditions that date back 5000 years. India also has an age-old tradition of clay toys and terracotta figures. Terracotta has been used throughout history for sculpture and pottery, as well as bricks and roof shingles. In India the places where terracotta and pottery are generally found are Gorakhpur, Molela in Rajasthan, Vishnagar, Bhuj and Kutch in Gujarat, Gwalior, Jagdalpur and Bastar in MP, Darbhanga in Bihar, Katwa and Krishnanagar in West Bengal, Dhubri in Assam, Bargharh in Orrissa, Khamapur in Karnataka. History about the cluster The study was undertaken in Madaikhali village of Asharikandi where the practice of terracotta presents a unique case. Here the activity of terracotta and skills involved in the practice has been passed down through several generations. Before the partition of India, a few potter families from erstwhile East Bengal, at present Bangladesh, migrated to this place of Asharikandi. It is said that the term Asharikandi derived from the combination of two words 'Ashar' and 'Kandi'. Ashar is the third month in Assamese calendar, and kandi (an Assamese term meaning 'shedding tears'). During rainy season heavy rainfall causes flood in this low lying area. The villages shed tears out of misery caused by the havoc of flood. The potters have to suffer a lot; they cannot make, dry up, burn their products and cannot even store their products during rainy season of Ashar, the flood prone month. The senior most villagers opined that they selected the place due to its nearness to raw materials, cheaper transportation facility and its strategic location. The main raw material, hiramati (clay soil) lie in the nearby areas of Silaipar, which is only four kilometers from the village. Owing to the location the raw material is transported through waterways, as the village is located just at the bank of the river Gadadhar, a tributary of river Brahmaputra. Earlier the needs of the Jamindar (Royal) family use of ware and utensils were catered from this area since this potter community migrated to this place. It is said that the activity of this craft in the village dates back more than 100 years. 15 An overview of the cluster Name of the Cluster Location Asharikandi Terracotta cluster Asharikandi.P.O Devitola block. District: Dhubri .(Assam) Name of the Product God / Goddess idols, Flower Vase, Portraits, Lamp Stands, Storage Pots, Horse / Birds Portraits , Drinking Glass, Decorative Lamps, Wall Hangings,Masks, portraits etc. Number of Villages Covered One Raw Material Available at Romna village which is 3km from the cluster Total Households Artisan500 137 Number of Female Artisans Number of Male Artisans 305 195 Number of terracotta units 137 MarketLocal market and market within the state, Trade Fairs Support Institutions Banks and Financial Institutions (2); Government and Non-government Institutions (4) Technology Obsolete and traditional Equipments and Tools Indigenous (traditional wheel, furnace, Kankatti (a bamboo piece used to design the artifacts), Knives, Kur, and Kathi. Total Annual Sales Rs. 45, 50,000.00 (approx) of 137 households 16 Existing Products at a glance In Asarikandi traditional potters produced functional ware as well as decorative items. In functional ware they make pitcher, jars, water containers, earthen utensils, tandoor Owen, planters, flower vase, parts of tabla and mridang (Indian musical instrument), etc. For decorative products they produce various Idol of god and goddess, animal figures, birds, lamp stands, toys, masks, decorative vase and wall hangings etc. These products price differ as per the market and occasions. Mother and child Palki Horse 17 Existing Products at a glance Ganesha Tings for Tandoor 18 Existing Products at a glance Horse and different kind of Planters Planters and Decorative Bowl Tabla and Mridang 19 Contemporary terracotta products available in domestic and export market 20 Contemporary terracotta products available in domestic and export market 21 Contemporary terracotta products available in domestic and export market 22 Present Status and availability of infrastructure facilities in the cluster ( electricity, transportation, water, communication etc.) The Asharikandi village known as paul para which is based on the potters cast from the tradition. The cluster have went through lots of ups and downs but the craft still alive and at present around 137 households are engaged in terracotta and pottery activities. They are involved in this profession throughout the year for their livelihood therefore it's a full time activity. All the families from village are engaged directly or indirectly with this craft. The terracotta work is not only limited to the men but also includes the women and children. By evolving children to the work they pass their working tradition generation by generation. Earlier the artisans use to sell their products in the nearby towns and villages only and now after involvement of government and few NGO's these are also being marketed through trade fairs and sale cum exhibitions organize by Government and NGO. But still a huge number of families are selling their work through middle man due to lack of finance and opportunities. The Asharikandi village comes under Debitola Tehsil in Dhubri district, Assam. The geographical location of the village provides it a well connection for transportation. The village is located 14 km distance from its District Main City Dhubri, 3 km from Gauripur and 1 km from NH-31 under the Devitola Block. The electricity is provided by Santi self group and in future one can use this service for development of the units and its infrastructure. They don't have any proper system for water supply but due to low ground water and nearby river they manage it well. Due to the day by day technological development communication is better these days. With help of government, NGO's, electronic and print media the cluster is getting more attention and opportunities for the development. Village has well functional schools till higher secondary, hospital and post office. Overall it endow with the well platform to carry forward the development plan for the cluster. 23 Process and raw materials Kabish Raw materials Clay is the basic raw material and is available from the banks of nearby river Silair (Silairpar Village) which is 18-20 km from Asharikandi (Madaikhali village) from where the clay is transported by country boats. The area is a Khas land (owned on settlement basis without any paper) and has been settled upon by the migrants. Earlier the artisans use to procure clay by paying a small royalty to the forest department but now the artisans have to buy clay from the migrants @ Rs 950/- per boat and it carries approx 20,000kg clay and they deliver the clay from the source to final place. The clay is brought via river Gadadhar and loaded into thelas or handcart from country boats at the Baganpara ghat (river port) close to the village. The stretch of the road from Baganpara ghat to the Madaikhali village is sandy and prone to getting submerged during the rainy season. Next to clay the other raw material needed is sand which they get from the thikaders (contractors) @ Rs 300/ thela. Red Colored clay (Kabish) from the mountain 40 kg per bag cost Rs-150. Further Caustic soda is also needed to remove toxic elements from the clay. For firing the fuel is wood . Earlier, firewood was collected from the nearby Modhatipur at nominal cost, however at present the artisans pay Rs.400 for 100 kg of firewood . Straw is also required for firing to cover the kiln and also used in piling up the products. Straw cost Rs- 05 Per Kg. Wood straw Clay 24 Tools and Equipments The entire production process is manual and all the terracotta objects in Asharikandi are handmade. The traditional and existing tools used in terracotta production at Asharikandi crafts cluster are 'Kodal', Kaim', 'Boila', 'Pitna', 'Chakku' (Different types and sizes of knives), . Kaim Kathi (Three to four varieties), 'Khota', 'Natar Kada', Fulam (Design tools), 'Scale', Wheel (For maleuse only), 'Para' 'Chatali', 'Nata' (muddy tom piece of cloth), 'Athi'. Apart from these, traditional potter's wheel and few cast and moulds are also used Existing Tools Knife Brush Existing Tools Kaim Kathi Pitna Boila Nata Traditional Potter’s Wheel Khota 25 The Process Soak the clay for two to four hours or overnight. The Process Clay Kneading clay by leg for an hour or two, and leave it for some time after that they removed stones and other impurities manually with the help of bamboo strip. Put clay dough on wheel and give desired shape to make product. Some time they use other process like coiling, pinching etc. When they make animals, big flower vases and the other products they join different parts according to requirements. Then live it for three four hours (it depends on weather). On leather hard stage they apply coat of “Kabish” (a kind of slip glaze) and burnish. Lastly they arrange fuel and fire the products in traditional bhathi. For decoration and other work they only use bamboo strip as a tool. They don't have any proper tools for clay modeling. On the same time they use straw for packaging to transport. Soak the clay 26 The Process Mmixing the Clay Removed the impurities from clay Mix the clay with water and Kneading the clay 27 The Process Using slab for Mould Clay dough on the wheel and throwing on it. Shaping and finishing on leather hard Finishing 28 The Process Decoration on leather hard Application of Kabish Dry the products on sunray 29 The Process Arrange the articles for firing firing Products after firing Cover the bhati for firing 30 Detailed process chart followed for terracotta products with approximate time frame 1 Crush the clay lumps in small pieces (2-4 hours) 2 Soak the clay in the water (for a day) 3 Mix the clay manually (2-4 hours) 11 10 Firing (one day) Loading the product in the traditional kiln ( 2-4 hours) 12 Unloading the kiln on the next day of the firing.(30 minutes to 1 hours depends on the kiln capacity and numbers of the products) 9 Again dry the products in sunlight for some time (maximum 1 hour). 5 Throwing on wheel (depends on the product size and complexity) or slab on mould (5 – 30 minutes as per the size and complexity) 8 Application of kabish/red color clay (1-3 hours depends on the number of products which is going for firing) 4 Make the lumps by needing the clay before work as per the need (5-10 minutes) 7 6 Finishing the product on leather hard ( depends on size and numbers of the product usually they do it for whole day as many as possible) Drying the products in sunlight ( 1or half day as per the weather) 31 Skill Asharikandi potters are very good at hand build technique as well as wheel work. They have traditional wheel which they run by hand and its very heavy in weight. The potters use wheel to produce the cylindrical parts of animal & other figures also other cylindrical products. They make some decorative and life style products also produce utility ware on the wheel. These craftsmen use throwing, coil ,beating and slab technique to produce their products as well as they know how to make mold and its use. The quality of material is not very good. Their work has unique characteristics which differentiates it from other terracotta craft. Market Terracotta has a good market not only nationally but also internationally. Unfortunately asharikandi crafts men don't have right exposure to these markets due to lack of awareness and financial situation therefore they sell their product mainly by using following ways1- Through local hawkers – The local hawkers mostly sell these products in local market such as Gauripur, Dhubri, Bilasipara, Boxirhat and Cooch Behar as well as they sell it during local mela and festivals for example Ashok asthami and Durga puja etc. 2- Via Middle man- In asharikandi large part of selling products goes through middle man. These middle man comes to village and place an order and give money in advance so that they have the negotiation power and craftsmen got trapped in their strategy therefore their situation and social life remains same. These middle man sell their product to domestic markets specially the north east market such as Manipur, Dimapur, Kohima, Bondurpur, Shillong, Tinsukhiya etc. 3- Exhibition and trade fairs – Very few craftsmen from asharikandi goes for exhibitions and trade fairs because of their financial situation and stuck with the completing preorder by middle man. The few craftsmen only goes for exhibition or trade fair when they get support from DCH or other sources otherwise it's not possible for them to attend it. Terracotta products sell varies throughout the year and in rainy season it goes down as the production process got disturbed due to the climate and overall situation of working condition on the same time they don't have proper unit or studio to work. Craft Fair in Guwahati 32 Packaging and Transportation Asharikandi craftsmen don't have proper place to store the products ,they just stack products top of each other. For packaging they don't have proper packaging system. They use straw and plastic bag for packaging but when they transport their products for long distance, they face higher risk of breakage as a result it has opportunity to introduce innovative packaging which can be also value addition to the products. For transportation to the market they use hand cart or themselves on their shoulder or cycle or van or truck as well as some time boats it depends on requirement and place too. In rainy season cost of transportation goes up and highly expensive which effects the cost of products consequently the profit goes down. Packaging with Straw and Plastic Bag Packaging with Straw and Plastic Bag 33 Packaging and Transportation 34 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Asharikandi cluster is divided in Four part which called Pada. Unit - 01 Dhirendra nath Paul Age- 67 Years Devdas Paul Age- 29 Years Total Family members- 05, Monthly income- Rs- 5000/- to 7000/- per month. Best master craftsmen in asharikandi village, Had won many awards and well known for their work. Had been invited by Indian Government during Asian games in Assam. Required latest equipments to cater different areas with good quality products. 35 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 02 Mahadev Paul Age- 62 Years Rajeswari Paul Age- 52 Years Total family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs-3500/- per month. Having Issues with Raw materials, firing kiln, working unit and potter's wheel 36 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 03 Jamuna Paul Age- 38 Years Ashwani Paul Age- 46 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs-3000/- Per Month, Facing production and finance problem 37 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 04 Aaduri Paul Age- 51 Years Rampada Paul Age- 61 Years Total family members-04 Monthly Income- Rs-5000/- to 7000/- per month. Facing health, labor, stocking and equipment problems. As well as need marketing, sales and logistic help. 38 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 05 Dilip Paul Age- 38 Years Anna Paul Age- 30 Years Total family members- 03 Monthly Income- Rs- 3500/- per month. Finance, storing space ,Kiln and marketing help required. 39 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 06 Madhusudan Paul Age- 41 Years) Mira Paul Age- 35 Years Total Family members- 04 Monthly Income- 3500/- per month. Having issues with potter's wheel, electricity and firing problem. 40 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 07 Meghnath Paul Age- 31 Years Sondharani Paul Age- 25 Years Total Family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs- 4000/- per month. Having material and production issues. 41 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 08 Uttam Kumar Paul Age- 32 Years Champa Paul Age- 26 Years Total family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs- 4000/- per month. Concern issues with kiln, production equipments, electricity and logistics 42 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 09 Apporva Paul Age- 35 Years Lipika Paul Age- 26 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs- 5000/- per month. Required potter's wheel, stocking space and firing Kiln. 43 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 10 Shyam Paul Age- 45 Years Sarwasati Paul Age- 40 Years Total Family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs- 4000/- per month. Facing problem with raw materials, production, labor, marketing and finance. 44 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 11 Sadhucharan Paul Age- 46 Years Probhati Bala Paul Age- 40 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs- 4500/- per month. Required basic equipments for production and firing as well as to sell the products in the market. 45 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 12 Bishnu Pada Paul Age- 49 Years Broja Bala Paul Age- 36 Years Total Family members-05 Monthly Income- Rs- 6000/- per month. Open to learn new designs, technical knowledge, requires machine, packaging and transportation facilitate. 46 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 13 Nilanchal Paul Age- 49 Years Prabhati Paul Age- 36 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs-4500/- per month. Need support in terms of finance, technical and product diversification. 47 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 14 Kalachand Paul Age- 35 Years Bharti Paul Age- 28 Years Total Family members- 03 Monthly Income- Rs- 3500/- per month. Required all the basic equipments for production specially potters wheel and firing kiln. Expert in slab work 48 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 15 Bimal Paul Age- 38 Years Minati Bala Paul Age- 30 Years Total Family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs- 3000/- per month. Need support for finance, production and technical knowledge as well as marketing. 49 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 16 Amulyachandra Paul Age- 62 Years Tulu Rani Paul Age- 52 Years Total Family members- 04 Monthly Income- Rs- 5500/- per month. Facing problem with finance, logistic and sales problems on the same time need space for production and stocking products. 50 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 17 Lakhan Chandra Paul Age- 55 Years Toofani Paul Age- 42 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs- 4500/- per month. Having health and finance issues therefore it affect production. 51 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 18 Subhash Chandra Paul Age- 65 Years Mukti Rani Paul Age- 50 Years Total Family members-07 Monthly Income- Rs- 5500/- per month. Facing problem with raw materials and firing kiln. 52 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 19 Bijoy Chandra Paul Age- 60 Years Archna Paul Age- 35 Years Total Family members- 03 Monthly Income- Rs- 3500/- per month. Needed Raw material processing equipments, firing kiln and alternative fuel source. 53 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 20 Mahadev Paul Age- 55 Years) Chaya Rani Paul Age- 40 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs- 4000/- per month. Specialized in making rings and decorative objects. Required support for work unit ,firing kiln and storage place. 54 Unit Visited in Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Unit - 21 Sadhan Chandra Paul Age- 55 Years Batashi Bala Paul Age- 42 Years Total Family members- 05 Monthly Income- Rs- 4000/- per month. Open for training to upgrade new skills and technical knowledge. Need help to set up working unit and firing kiln. 55 Design Audit for Cluster 56 a) Existing Products, redesign, new product development and product diversification: Existing products: planters, naads, ditties, jars, water containers, animal figures, birds, toys, masks and many more decorative items. Redesign: units have varieties of figurines & ditties. New products: units have made some sculptures & decorative. Product development: developed some characters, facial expression and relief patterns. Product diversification: Earlier they were mainly focused on functional ware but now they are also making decorative products & artifacts. - The units have strength making functional & decorative wares which can be use to design garden wares & life style products to cater new market segment. - To improve the quality & finishes in the products the units need some technical input as well as quality control process. - The units need to create new range of products based on consumer need, usage, behavior & life style of various communities. - To create its own identity units need to maintain their developed characteristics for further new products and market. Also units should intermingled its unique characteristics & contemporary style together for future growth. Existing Products. 57 Existing Product. Redesign Planter. Existing Flower Pot. New Decorative Pot. Redesign Existing Decorative Works. Product Diversification. 58 b) Scope for research and development direction for future initiatives: FUNCTIoNAl/DECoRATIvE WARE DESIGN RESEARCH & DEvEloPmENT TECHNICAl INPUT URBAN & RURAl ToolS & EqUIPmENT CoNSUmER STUDY RAW mATERIAl (ClAY, GlAZES & ENGovE) PATTERNS GloBAl lIFE STYlE CoNSUmER CUlTURE CoNTEmPoRARY TRENDS NEW RANGE oF PRoDUCTS AND NEW mARKET AREA c) Existing status and opportunity for visual identity, branding and communication design: - The units do not have proper knowledge and exposer towards visual identity and branding. So there is scope to create brand image for recognition of the unit in the market. - The visual identity can be use for packaging and product details to attract consumer. - Brochures and product catalogues can be introduce for B2B (business to business) B2C (business to consumer) clients. It will be also useful during exhibitions and trade fairs for its better image. - A brochure can be designed with better graphics, presentation and composition keeping in the mind its identity. FIRING TECHNIqUES & NATURAl ENERGY RESoURCE RECYClED WASTE mATERIAlS SUSTAINABlE mETHoDS FoR mASS PRoDUCTIoN (moUlD & DYE) EFFECTIvE PRoCESSES, qUAlITY CoNTRol & STANDARDIZED PRoDUCTIoN 59 d) Technology, modernization and design collaboration scope: The following chart explains step by step all the production process and their corresponding issues and scope for intervention. The flowchart is generic and applicable for most of the units. Reduce impurity, quality check, improve clay bodies Raw material Processing maximize use of solar energy Drying Finishing Upgrade with better finishes, applying engobe & glazes. new effects on the products through texture, colour & pattern can be introduced. Redesign kiln for high temperature, reduction & oxidation firing technique, can use natural resource as a fuel, glaze firing techniques. Packaging need to improve to reduce breakage, creating identity & value addition. middle man, fix price to introduce for dealers. manual process, need equipment & tools, improve clay mixing technique, quality control Improve finishing & detailing quality, better tools & clay bodies can be developed to create textures & surface variation, standardization through finishing for quality control Colour loading into the kiln Damage during loading, various size of products Firing Unloading Packaging Transportation Dealers End user Damage during unloading, use of trolley, stacking Need better logistics system, internal road improvement, to reduce breakage and save time. New product range as per market need, trends, contemporary life style etc. 60 e) Operations and process innovation from design perspective: - Introduce plaster moulds to increase production & fulfill the order on time also saves time & human energy. Better Tools to Increase Working Efficiency. - maximize the use of solar energy to get proper dryness of raw materials also use of natural resources for firing. - Better tools & material processing to control quality. - Skill up-gradation & techniques to get the quality products. - Use of waste materials- such as refractory in clay body, murals and surface development. mould and Casting Technique. mould for Decorative Work. 61 f) Design opportunity in workstation and tooling design: - The workstation should have proper light arrangement which will enhance the work efficiency, product quality and working environment. - The unit should have a proper workstation with better tools, equipment and structure. - The unit need a better facility and support to improve the unit, It will also helpful for them to complete their order on time and production capacity. - There is scope to redesigned the tools as existing tools are not up to mark for handling and finish. And for redesigning tools it is possible to use locally available materials such as- bamboo, wood, iron plate, wire etc. The plaster moulds are not proper finished and also they don’t have proper tools & equipment to make it better therefor there is possibilities to design better plaster moulds as well as tools for it. The existing tools are very old and not ergonomically convenience which slow down the production process. most of the tools have problem to hold for long time also it doesn’t provide good finish. It has not the organized working environment. The painters wheel is not proper and the balance is poor which effects their work & quality. It doesn’t have proper shade which affect the work on rainy season also insufficient light arrangement inside the working space. The workstation is unorganized and cluttered. 62 Dark, Unorganized and low Height Workstation. Balance & Rotational Problem. Poor Handle- Needs to be Redesign as per Use. Tools are Kept Unorganized- Tool Box Can be Design . old Cart Can be Redesign for Day to Day Work. 63 g) Details of market and competition study for design advantage and distinction: Competitor’s Products in the Market - The units make functional and decorative products which has low quality, unglazed & rough finishes. - Enamel paints & varnish (touch wood) are used to give glossy effects which is not durable and comes out after some times. - The product range are traditional and monotonous; therefor there is a huge scope to design new products according to contemporary market need. - low temperature glazed products can be introduced which will increase the durability of products also it’ll help to attract consumer and new market segment. Existing products Competitors products in the domestic market such as: - Glazed functional ware - Garden ware (different kind of planters) - New terracotta lamp. - Products have better quality & finishes. 64 Existing Products Competitor’s Products in the Market - New color & forms can be use to compete with new market trends. - Different texture & pattern can be use to make products more attractive. - variation in wall hangings & decorative products. - Better finish, texture & surface treatment. - Use of glaze & color engobe. - Use of engobe, color & glaze for better look & durability. - New pattern & surface decoration technique. - Different shape & size variation. 65 Existing Products - modular system. - Glazed & unglazed. - Nice surface treatment & good finish. - Different shape & size variation in planters. Competitor’s Products in the Market 66 Competitor’s Products in the Market Existing Products - Functional value should be add in the existing figurative products. - Scope for incorporate utility for different purpose. - Scope for color & glaze to create variation. 67 h) Study for the need of training and skill up-gradation: - Due to the mass order the craftsman make their own moulds for production which is not properly done. So there is a need to give them training &skill up gradation in mould making and casting process. - As the whole family members are engaged in production process where only one or two members have proper skill but other lacks in it, So the end production results vary in quality & finishes. - The unit need training how to redesign their products also for new products development as they are engaged in producing only traditional products. - Due to lack of exposure & knowledge they are using only old process and method, so there is possibilities to introduce them new techniques & process for production & quality improvement. old Technique, Time Consuming Process and Effects on product detailing. Uneven Slab & mould Poor Finishing & quality 68 i) Description of ergonomic and environment factors in MSME premise: - The whole production process is manual, as the tools & techniques are old it creates physical problem in long run cause many times they have to band & stand throughout the work process. - Taking production from mould, workspace & clay mixing space, need to be upgraded with safety and health concerns. - The environment of the workstation is cluttered and ergonomically not fit, also the dust comes out during process which is unhealthy. - There is insufficient light condition which is not suitable for the eyes. Also the working space need to be neat & clean to increase work efficiency & to be hygiene. - There is no provision to take care of plaster mould waste which is harmful for the environment. - open shade creates problems during rainy season, there for its difficult to work as well as raw materials got affected. - The working surfaces are not constructed well and due to the use of water in production process makes the surface muddy. - most of the time the members work in seating posture therefore they face problems like- back pain & joints pain. So there is a possibilities to design on seating arrangement as well as some tools. Stress on Back & Joints during Clay mixing. Stress on Back & Shoulders during Picking & Keeping. 69 open Space, Difficult to Work in Rainy Season. Insufficient light. muddy Surface, Insufficient light & Unorganized Space. Stress on Back & Joints during Clay mixing. 70 j) Packaging and logistics related design opportunities: - As they don’t have proper packaging concept so there is scope to develop packaging for the products. - most of the time they put products in the plastic bag or by creating net (with rope) and dispatch it via local vehicle or hand cart which cause breakage during transportation. - visual identity can be create for branding, better image for the cluster and to create awareness about the craft to the consumer. - No proper area division for different products which took time to arrange/ shorting. local Cart Used in local Suply. Products Packed Inside the Plastic Bag. Careless Packing Which Caused Breakage. 71 k) Exhibition/Display design opportunities: - The unit does not have any concept of product display, They keep products in their house and near by places. - many times after firing they leave the fired products near the kiln. - As the village have rural tourism houses so there is a good opportunity to display the products in it which will be helpful for buyer as well as attraction for rural tourism. - As the craft has unique characters & style so, It can be displayed at art & crafts centres as well as museum or similar place. - only one or two craft person participate in exhibition so, They don’t have proper support & exposure for it. Therefor government & NGo should encourage to participate them in trade fair & exhibitions. Unorganized & Cluttered Display. Products are Stalk and covered with Plastic Near by House . Products lying on the Furnace. Product Stored Inside the Working Place. Unorganized Display. Products are Stored inside the House. 72 l) Study of infrastructure setup from design perspective: - They don’t have proper work space, most of the cases they work in their living house. - Need to be organized & systematic work space as they don’t have place for storing, stalking and to display products. - Required Precision, reduced human error by developing existing tools & equipment. - Possibility to introduce CFC (Common Facility Centre). Traditional Potters Wheel. manual Hand Cart for loading, Unloading, to Carry Raw materials and Products. living and Working Place Which is Dark & Cluttered. Firing Space and Kiln. Potter’s Painter Wheel. 73 m) Scope for design intervention for inter cluster communication: - CFC (Community facility centre). - Better cooperation and understanding between craftsman & traders can be established. - A trust worthy association or cooperative system can be develop to monitor cluster. - monthly meeting within the cluster for discussing the critical issues. - Purchasing of quality raw material in a lot scale then its distribution within cluster according to the placed ordered by individual unit. 74 Macro, Micro and Internal Environment Political – Growing political focus and pressure for health care across the world. Trade and tariff controls, Import export laws. Labor law Political- ULFA and MAOUW effects, national labor policies, Tax and exercise duties, Rural development policies and schemes, Role of DCH. Economical- GDP growth decrease, Repo rate increase, Interest on loan got increased. Economical- Global economy crisis. Social- Global trends and life style. Eco, green and organic products as a movements. Global Technological- Technological innovation for research and development to cater international market and for better production process and unit. Environmental- climate change policies, Carbon credit system, use of natural resources such as raw material and fuel. Legal- IPR issues, Global law, copy of design. Macro Environment National Social-Urban trends, Effect of globalization on life style, Cultural and traditional values and preferences. Technological- CGCRI for technical research, support and help. Environmental- Alternative policies natural gas as fuel. Forest act & use of natural resources. Legal- Mining rules, Loan policies and subsidies 75 Micro Environment Internal Environment Competitors- Internal competition due to distrust among each other, Don't have standard price increase competition and less profit as well as kind of product production adds on this issue. Other sources of work and job creates work issues. Seasonal labor. Structure - Work done by family basis, hardly any team work within different families. Don't have proper work unit therefore production capacity is restricted, Stacking space and packaging problem, work place and environment not up to the mark Intermediaries- Traders and middleman as a big threat. Have the negotiation power, very few craftsmen dose B2C marketing that's also only local level market. Cash flow - financial problem , always borrowing money either from middleman or from other financiers. Supplier – same supplier for raw material creates kind of monopoly and holds the negotiation power. Similar raw material gives same kind of quality products therefore no improvement on material quality. Consumers- Due to contemporary life style trends and more variety of products needed. Sells and marketing link up is desirable. B2C selling should be increase. Huge Energy consumption(Wood). Employees - Labor problem. Young generation open to change their work for better life style. Lack of marketing and management efficiency. Material - Use of locally available materials , not specified and improved. Fuel and energy is big issue. No reuse or recycle of waste material. Don't have equipment to process the material or production. 76 Scope of unconventional energy resources of the cluster Right now the craftsmen are using wood as the source of energy for firing which can be replace by electric firing process by using electricity or coal or gas which is widely available there, apart from this the natural gas can be useful as a alternative energy source. All the above mention energy sources can be use for the alternatives source and its possible to design firing kiln according to chosen source. Scope for special purpose machine based on conventional energy and manual source. By keeping in mind the skill and traditional working process and qualities it has possibilities to develop machine according to need and situation. For the clay processing one can use high dense mesh to sieve the clay and other materials. On the place of traditional potter's wheel there is a possibility to design kick wheel and paddle wheel. For the turning and finishing of the product one can use locally available wood and metal to design more effective tools for the production. So far these craftsmen are using traditional method and kiln for firing which is responsible for energy wastage and limitation for the product development, quality and effects it can be replace by design wooden fire kiln for low and high temperature. It will help to do quality products and lot of variations and effect on the ware which can be unique and create new market for the cluster. Spot remedial solution provided to MSME unit during the surveyDuring the survey I observed that craftsmen are facing problem with the raw material, its quality and plasticity so did suggested them to buy a high dense mesh approximately 120 to 220 and sieve the clay by mixing water and store it in a drum or tub for few days to increase plasticity and remove impurities. Later on they can put it on plaster slab or in jute bag to dry the clay as per requirement. For making plaster slab I have suggested them to make at least 5 to 6 inches thick to dry the clay and for the durability of the slab. As it is observed that they don't have proper clay modeling and turning tools to finish the products well this also create some problem due to handling the tools later on they face pain in their backbone, hands ,wrist and fingers so have shown them few design which they can make it in locally available wood and metal to solve the finishing and increase the work efficiency as well as solve the ergonomic issues. From the tradition they are using only traditional firing and not aware of other style of firing due to lack of technical knowledge therefore I explain them the other techniques such as reduction & oxidation and kiln which they use such as gas fired kiln, coal fired kiln and electric kiln. As well as how they can improve their product range and quality by using these facility. On the same time they don't understand how packaging can help to increase the value of the product as they don't have any packaging system so I explain them how we can add value through packaging and increase the price to get more profit and to attract consumer. Most of the craftsmen are trapped in middlemen's strategy and they wanted to know how they can approach to market directly and break the trap therefore I explain them about MSME scheme as well as the involvement of IIE and NID to development of the cluster, all the financial help from the government as per my knowledge on the same time I explain them about e marketing and use of internet. As per marketing prospective have also explain the craftsmen how we can create & establish Asharikandi terracotta as a brand which will be helpful for better future of the cluster. For this I suggested them to use social networking sites as well as electronic and print media. From the decades these craftsmen are making all traditional functional ware and decorative products which is getting outdated when I ask them why they don't make new products for market they said they don't know how to approach for new areas as they don't have much market expose and technical knowledge so I have shown them the contemporary products in the market and the different areas which they should explore like handmade tile, glazed earthenware, low temperature crockery, garden ware etc. as well as about market trends and how it works. 77 SWOT Analysis Strength ? The craftsmen are very good at their traditional skills like throwing and beating. ? The artisans learn the pottery from their forefathers and they have evolved an idiom of work which has its own identity. ? Vast number of craftsmen are available in the village which is good for production. ? Easily available raw material from nearby places. ? Whole Craftsmen family is involve in their area of work as per their expertise. ? The village have electricity and other required facilities. ? This place is connected with the national highway and other mode of transportation therefore provides great condition to grow the cluster. ? As its very old cluster and craftsmen are in this business as a tradition so they understand their market and its situation well. ? The products are low priced also customization of the product is possible. ? The craft have unique handmade characteristics in their products. ? The village have adequate space for studio or manufacturing unit set up. Weakness ? The Weakness would include limited product range, limited surface finishes and quality in the products. ? Use of traditional equipments leads to less production and less quality also creates the concern for ergonomically issues. ? The craftsmen have ego and less trust on each other therefore creates competitions for themselves which gives negotiation power to buyers which effects their profit, therefore the livelihood and society. ? The craftsmen are not updated with latest technology and working process. They Don't have proper storage facility to store the raw material and fired products which maximize the production breakage. ? They don't have quality control system for their products. Still using the old traditional packaging which is not up to the mark and cause for transportation breakage. They are still making the same traditional products which are getting out dated. ? Production process is lengthy due to old technique and equipment. Most of craftsmen selling their products locally or via traders therefore they lack in making product pricing as per the market demand and supply. ? The craftsmen are lacking of adequate knowledge of market trends and urban life style. ? There financial condition is not up to the mark. ? Opportunities ? Asharikandi terracotta as a brand needs to be developed by maintaining their characteristics and excellent work. ? Terracotta craft has substantial market demand and customer for its unique value. ? Considering the skill of artisans, environment and temperament it has tremendous opportunity to develop the cluster. ? Taking into consideration the unique characteristics of Asharikandi terracotta there is possibilities of lunching new products for domestic as well as global market. ? Technical intervention and product diversification for sustainable growth and contemporary market. ? Aadvantage from the government and banks as they are providing leverage in their finance option. ? Number of local NGO's are working for the uplifting the condition of the craftsmen. ? Golokganj port is under construction (will provide route to international markets). ? The area attracts religious tourists and has tourism infrastructure available 78 Threats ? The craftsmen trapped in the traders and middlemen's strategy therefore not getting the right value and money for their work. ? New generation is looking for other source of income rather than their traditional work for their livelihood. ? Local source of raw material in disputed area (due to settlement of migrants resulting in craftsmen needing to buy clay at exorbitant prices). ? Wood is the basic firing material which is used by tradition can face the environmental law in coming future. ? The area is flood prone due to which makes the situation bad during rainy season. ? Due to the technological development different kind of cheap and durable material introduced in the market. Step by Step Concern Issues and Intervention Possibilities For Future Development Raw materiallow Quality & not specified, contain impurities, don't have proper storage place, manual process to make clay body. Required equipment to process and making clay body as well as technical help from CGCRI for clay specification and development. Lab facility can be created Terracotta clay,low temperature,lot of impurities and stored in open space. CGCRI, Kolkata 79 Raw material processing equipments Lab facility at CGCRI Ball MillTo grind materials Pug Mill Filter Press 80 Ergonomically designed tools Tools The Asharikandi craftsmen are making their own tool by using local resource which not only lacks in quality but also effects the production and finishing of the products, therefore good opportunity to introduce ergonomically designed tool. Existing tools 81 Process of making products Different Types of Potter’s Wheel On traditional wheel by throwing also use the beating, coil and mould technique, quality control needs to be done also required using different equipment to increase production and decrease physical labor. Traditional Wheel Electric wheel with regulator Painter’s Wheel -Badly manufactured Electric Wheel with paddle control Poor quality control,Finishing Problem 82 Kick Wheel Painter’s Wheel Slab Roller Kick Wheel 83 Tiles Manufacturing machine- Manual Tiles Manufacturing machine - electrical Gigger and Jolly for mass production 84 Working place They don't have proper studio or working unit most of them either using open bamboo shed or doing it in their home. It's too dark as they don't have good lighting inside also don't not have enough space to store the raw products. Working inside the house is creates lot of health issues which is a big concern for craftsmen. Ergonomically design working unit or studio with required space and proper light arrangements should be introduce. A good working environment not only increase the production but also will be beneficial for health concern. Poor light, ventilation & congested space Proper Working studio Broken shed, less space and cluttered working arrangement 85 Firing Kiln and Techniqu Different types of kiln All the craftsmen are using traditional open firing technique and they have traditional low temperature kiln which destroyed easily and have limitations to increase the temperature therefore hard to create variation in terms of clay body, effects, glaze and surface finish. So there is a possibility to create high temperature kiln which will gives the enormous possibility to create new and better products also better result, production, less breakage, new techniques to do firing as well as alternative source of energy like gas, electrics etc. Electric Kiln Low temperature traditional kiln, Poor Shed & badly maintained Gas Kiln 86 Storage Space and Packaging They don't have any storage place where they can store their fired products so most of the time its lie down on nearby open space. For packaging just use rice straw and plastic bag which leads to transport breakage therefore have opportunity to design storage room to store fired products also have possibilities to design innovative packaging for the contemporary market and hassle free transportation. Products are stack up on kiln Products are stack up in home Safety issues with traditional packaging Products are stored in working area Poor packaging leads to breakage 87 Marketing as most of them selling their products via middleman (self- in local market and very few in fairs) so got trapped in their strategy and negotiation therefore profit is minimum which has become a big threat for the growth of this cluster. A marketing and sells channel is required to break this scenario also it will help to create Asharikandi terracotta as a brand which will help to generate more value and awareness in the market as well as demand and trust. Their own web site and E-marketing will be also useful for future growth and direct contacts with the craftsmen. Later on it can lead to have their own MIS system for this cluster. E- Marketing 88 End user So far end users are getting all old and traditional products very few new design , creates kind of monotonous which affects the demand therefore it has tremendous opportunity for the product diversification as per the market need, trends and contemporary life style. Also as the craftsmen have great skill gives the opportunity to look into new product areas like terracotta tiles ,garden products and lifestyle products etc. Mural by André Léonard Apart from this Skill up gradation training to cope up with new technology & technique along with design process inputs and innovation management, so that craftsmen can come out with contemporary innovative products for the market is needed for sustainable growth of the cluster. A common facility center should be introduce which can be use by all craftsmen and it will be easy to install new equipments there such as raw material processing equipments, lab testing equipment, firing kiln, skill up gradation and training place. It has to be build up in such a place which can be reachable by everybody. Terracotta tiles Mural By Mr;Jinan 89 Vision To re-establish and develop the cluster in such a way that in the beginning, it provides financial security to the craftsmen and then later on creates a global market for them. To provide different opportunities to this cluster for a better livelihood of the craftsmen. To sensitize and create an awareness among the artisans, by which they can generate ideas for new products. Development Plans The cluster development plan aim will be to reincarnation the existing craft and improve the social - economical conditions of the craftsmen. The need assessment survey of the Asharikandi Terracotta and its analysis brings out sufficient insight into the current status of this cluster. The basic primary issue facing by the craftsmen are a financial security and need a sustained program of activities for their development. Quality improvement, new product development, skill up gradation, marketing linkages and strategies are which would need attention. A sustained development initiative would get into new and contemporary product range, this would fulfil market demand and market strategies would stretch the market span. PROPOSED COMMON FACILITY CENTER The LocationThe location of the common facility center could be at Asharikandi where craftsmen could have easy access to the center for their needs. The Activities of the CFC The common facility center would be the focal point for the cluster development programmed. The main activities of the CFC will be: Product development and new product innovation. Meeting the market demand. Training for glaze and glaze making. Training programs for skill up gradation Material testing for quality sustenance. Market information collection and linkages. Publicity planning. The significance of all the activities to be carried out at CFC will be of equal importance. All the activities are to be carried out in coordination. All the areas of function will work in harmony and will be supported by others. The designer should be well connected with the artisans and his requirement all with the market to understand the needs and transfer it to create new products continuously. The designer should also be well connected to all the departments of the CFC. PROPOSED WORKSHOPS AND TRAINING Objective Redesigning of the existing product range Value adding to the existing product range in terms of finishes, color, glazes & decoration. Looking into the existing range of products and making necessary changes as per the market requirement. Product diversification & Product development for future growth. Finances involved Machinery and Equipment, Test Kilns to develop glazes and colors .Color and Glaze grinding equipments, Weighing equipments, Tools required for the color and glaze application, Tools required for the plaster model and mold making, process, raw materials. Proposed Inputs Up gradation of skill in terms of quality & technique. Design development for different range of products. Various techniques of finishes & decoration Prototype of new designs. Use of design thinking for development of new products. Market trend and urban life style knowledge. Establish research and development process. Quality controls and standardization of products. Production process management. Importance of identity and branding. Marketing strategy and possibilities. Use of new technology for sustainable growth. 90 Improvement & opportunity areas: Raw material improvement: Reduce impurity, quality check, improve clay bodies. Product improvement: Product diversification, redesign existing products, up-gradation, New innovative product range as per the market trend waste material reused in other products like- murals & decorative products etc. Process improvement: Traditional techniques need to modernize with better practices & precision, moulds, better tools & equipment to reduce hard labour, new techniques training needed such as- mould making/casting, reduction-oxidation firing, glazing and surface decorating techniques etc. Production process improvement: Clay body preparation: Clay body should be prepared in a lot & stored for further production. Form & finishing improvement: Traditional forms required value addition to compete in the market, traditional figurative & decorative products can be redesign by incorporating functional value in it to be more useful, finishing is time consuming needs focused attention, traditional tools implies the human error, rough finish works, time consuming, improvise the skill for mould casting & surface treatment. Drying improvement: Weather (rainy season) cause moisture and aging decrease the material quality, drying time cause reduced production concern and need to avoid it by- improving the clay body (adding grog or fillers). Surface improvement: Different texture, pattern, engobe as a colour can be use to make products more attractive, different glaze technique can be use for surface improvement i.e.- majolica, feathering etc. Colour application improvement: Dipping, pouring, spraying, brush & wax colour application techniques, various colour and patterns can be develop keeping in mind usages and market trends. Packaging improvement: Lack of proper packaging, no visual identity, grading and quality, so possibility to redesign packaging for products which can also create brand identity for the cluster as well as awareness about the craft to consumer. Loading & transportation improvement: Hand cart can be redesign for loading purpose, transport and roads condition are not good enough, need to avoid improper loading which caused the damage of the products, internal roads need to be metalled. Exhibition & displays improvement: Display system can be introduce at rural tourism place in the cluster, only one-two units have display racks, need to understand display and have to be proper awareness regarding visual merchandising and its effectiveness. Cluster need to be encourage to participate in national & domestic level trade fair and exhibitions. 91 Conclusion The NSA for Asharikandi terracotta, Dubri, Assam have enriched my experience and knowledge from the scratch to their final products, throughout the process, characteristics of the work, their life style, culture, tradition, environment and thinking everything gives me a new understanding not only for this craft but also for the reality of life and facts. With the strategic development planning and right approach one can take this cluster to a new platform for a stainable growth and great handmade skills of the craftsmen will provides the enormous possibilities to develop not only the new products but also gives new area of product line to expand their market. These craftsmen should get exposure to contemporary market and urban cities for their understanding of current situation of the market, trends as well as consumer preferences and likings. Also they required time to time basis design , technology and skill up gradation workshops or seminars to break their mind set up and continuous growth. On the same way they should also get more opportunity and facility to attend trade fairs and exhibitions with the help of government or NGOs or any other body with the possible financial help will update them to analyze their market stand as well as it will keep up date them latest happenings. Market link up , formations of group or cooperation will be help full to tackle the middlemen and traders. With the help of government initiative link ups with design, craft, entrepreneurs institutes as well as craft council and other departments, organizations and tie up with experts in different field will act as a catalyst for the sustainable growth and development of the vary craft cluster. 92 References Form and Many Forms of Mother Clay by Haku Shah Indian Terracotta Art by Ordhendra Coomar Gangoly Traditional pottery in India by Susan Peterson http://assam.gov.in/ http://www.assamtourism.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assam http://aakritingoindia.wordpress.com http://www.assam.org/ http://newsblaze.com http://dhubri.nic.in http://www.onefivenine.com/india/villages/Dhubri/Debitola/Asharikandi http://newsblaze.com/story/20100413070836shan.nb/topstory.html http://www.telegraphindia.com/1111102/jsp/northeast/story_14694530.jsp DESIGN CLINIC WORKSHOP REPORT For Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Held on 07th March to 11th March 2013 at Asharikandi, Dhubri, ASSAM Organized by- Indian Institute of Enterpreneurship, Lalmati,Basistha Charali, GUWAHATI-29, Assam,India. Conducted by- Mr. RAKESH SAH (Design Expert) along with Guest SpeakerMiss. Sukanya B Saikia In Co-ordination withNational Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad Supported byMINISTRY OF MICRO SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSME) DESIGN CLINIC WORKSHOP SCHEDULE for Asharikandi Terracotta,Dhubri,Assam: Date- 7th March to 11th March 2013 Day 1 - 7th March 2013 PRESENTATION/NATURE OF WORK Time -11am to 4pm ? ? Inauguration and Welcome byMr.A.B.Siddiqui and Mr.D.N.Paul. ? A brief information about MSME Presented by - Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Various issues and concern in the cluster by the participants. ? Future Trends & Design development for the cluster by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 2 - 8th March 2013 ? Details on packaging by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. ? A Brief talk on Branding and Identity, its need, purpose and benefits by Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 4 - 10th March 2013 ? Talk on value addition to attract consumer by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? A brief about consumer behavior and contemporary market as well as strategy by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 5 - 11th March 2013 ? New products in the market (competition) by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? New areas for product development and new market possibilities for further growth by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Use of Technology for the development of the cluster ByMr. Rakesh Sah. ? Closing Ceremony by Mr.D.N.Paul. Lunch Time - 12.30pm to 01pm Every Day. ***************************************** Day 3 - 9th March 2013 ? A detailed talk on Design Thinking and its importance for the cluster By Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? Design Process, how do we find opportunity areas for development and further how to get benefitted from it by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? Discussion on Design and Design process. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Time Duration of All Guest / Member Presence 1234567- Mr.A.B.Siddiqui (Guest) for 1day. Mr.D.N.Paul (Guest) for 2 days. Mr.Nath (IIE) for 1 day. Miss Sukanya B Saikia (Guest) for 2 days. Miss Nilufar (NID) for 2 days. Mr. Rakesh Sah (Design Consultant) for 5 days. Mr. Devdas Paul(Artist) for 5 days. Activities during Five Days (7th March to 11th March, 2013) Design Clinic Workshop Date: 7th March 2013 1. At the outset Mr. Devdas Paul artist and coordinator from Asharikandi village welcomed the participants and introduced Guest Speaker, Design Experts and other invited guests in the opening ceremony of Design Clinic Workshop. 2. The traditional Gamcha were presented to Mr. A.B.Siddiqui (President gram sabha panchayat), Mr. D.N.Paul (National award winning artist), by the craftsmen. 3. Then the seminar were inaugurated by Mr. A.B.Siddiqui, Mr. D.N.Paul, Miss. Sukanya B Saikia (Invited Guest Speaker) and Mr. Rakesh Sah by acknowledging the participants in a traditional manner . 4. Mr. Devdas Paul in his address delivered brief information about workshop schedule and activities for the next five days. Also he appealed the cluster to take part with their full presence in the deliberation of the Design Experts to make the programme success. He has also promoted the scheme enthusiastic for taking it further as an initiative. 5. Mr. Rakesh Sah delivered detail speech on MSME and explained how participants can get benefited from it. 6. The participants presented their issues and concern in the cluster. 7. Presentation and Discussion upon Future Trends & Design development for the terracotta cluster by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia (Guest Speaker). Date: 8th March 2013 1. Details on terracotta product packaging and possibilities which is not only important for avoid breakage but also important for look & feel to attract consumer by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. 2. Presentation & Discussion by- Mr. Rakesh Sah on “Branding and identity especially focus on why we need it, the purpose behind it as well as how cluster will get advantage from it. 3. One to one interaction with the participants and discussion regarding the covered topic so far. Date: 9th March 2013 11. A brief talk on Design Thinking and its importance byMr. Rakesh Sah , . 12. Presentation on Design process, to identify opportunity areas and how to get advantage from it by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 13. Discussion On design Process and how to implement it. 14. After the discussion participants started to create some product with their idea. Date: 10th March 2013 15. Talk on value addition to the product, consumer behavior, contemporary market and marketing strategy by Mr. Rakesh Sah. 16. Discussion upon the topic as well as on the new created products (during the workshop) for value addition, refinement, material issues, technical and mechanical lacking, new design intervention, quality control and marketing strategy. Photo of Banner- Date: 11th March 2013 17. Presentation – about the new products in the market example - discussion by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 18. New areas for product development, new market to foster the business and use of technology for further growth of the cluster by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 19. Discussion on prototype for better result and implementation of design. 20. Mr. Rakesh Sah have presented about the design clinic scheme and further design project application process and its details. 21. Concluding Session, "feedback, Suggestion and Future Direction for the Cluster". 22. A warm thanks giving speech by the Artist Mr. D.N.Paul. Detail Profile of Guest Speaker & Topic Covered: 1. Name : Sukanya B Saikia Edu. Qualification : GDPD Industrial Design (Specialized in Product Design)From NID,Ahmedabad,India. Working Experience : 5 years Topic Covered: · Future Trends & Design development for the terracotta cluster. · Details on packaging Photographs of workshop (61 Photos are enclosed): Designer's fee statements Designer's fee statement (Mr.Rakesh Sah): Sl. No. - Mode of payment - Amount - %payment by organization. 01 -Cheque ( 040461 from Bank of Baroda - Rs-45000/- 30% of fees payable(Rs.150,000/-) Received 02 -Cheque ( 065993 from Bank of Baroda - Rs-45000/- 30% of fees payable(Rs.150,000/-) Received - Rs- 60000/- 40% of the payable(Rs.150,000/-) Not yet received. 03 Registration/list and details of participants for Asharikandi Terracotta DCS workshop. Kindly attach.(Name of the participants and address) . Expenses Bills for Workshop. Kindly attach. DESIGN CLINIC WORKSHOP REPORT For Asharikandi Terracotta Cluster Held on 07th March to 11th March 2013 at Asharikandi, Dhubri, ASSAM Organized by- Indian Institute of Enterpreneurship, Lalmati,Basistha Charali, GUWAHATI-29, Assam,India. Conducted by- Mr. RAKESH SAH (Design Expert) along with Guest SpeakerMiss. Sukanya B Saikia In Co-ordination withNational Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad Supported byMINISTRY OF MICRO SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (MSME) DESIGN CLINIC WORKSHOP SCHEDULE for Asharikandi Terracotta,Dhubri,Assam: Date- 7th March to 11th March 2013 Day 1 - 7th March 2013 PRESENTATION/NATURE OF WORK Time -11am to 4pm ? ? Inauguration and Welcome byMr.A.B.Siddiqui and Mr.D.N.Paul. ? A brief information about MSME Presented by - Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Various issues and concern in the cluster by the participants. ? Future Trends & Design development for the cluster by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 2 - 8th March 2013 ? Details on packaging by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. ? A Brief talk on Branding and Identity, its need, purpose and benefits by Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 4 - 10th March 2013 ? Talk on value addition to attract consumer by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? A brief about consumer behavior and contemporary market as well as strategy by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Day 5 - 11th March 2013 ? New products in the market (competition) by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? New areas for product development and new market possibilities for further growth by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. ? Use of Technology for the development of the cluster ByMr. Rakesh Sah. ? Closing Ceremony by Mr.D.N.Paul. Lunch Time - 12.30pm to 01pm Every Day. ***************************************** Day 3 - 9th March 2013 ? A detailed talk on Design Thinking and its importance for the cluster By Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? Design Process, how do we find opportunity areas for development and further how to get benefitted from it by Mr.Rakesh Sah. ? Discussion on Design and Design process. ? Question-Answer & Discussion. ? Refreshments (Tea / Snacks Break). Time Duration of All Guest / Member Presence 1234567- Mr.A.B.Siddiqui (Guest) for 1day. Mr.D.N.Paul (Guest) for 2 days. Mr.Nath (IIE) for 1 day. Miss Sukanya B Saikia (Guest) for 2 days. Miss Nilufar (NID) for 2 days. Mr. Rakesh Sah (Design Consultant) for 5 days. Mr. Devdas Paul(Artist) for 5 days. Activities during Five Days (7th March to 11th March, 2013) Design Clinic Workshop Date: 7th March 2013 1. At the outset Mr. Devdas Paul artist and coordinator from Asharikandi village welcomed the participants and introduced Guest Speaker, Design Experts and other invited guests in the opening ceremony of Design Clinic Workshop. 2. The traditional Gamcha were presented to Mr. A.B.Siddiqui (President gram sabha panchayat), Mr. D.N.Paul (National award winning artist), by the craftsmen. 3. Then the seminar were inaugurated by Mr. A.B.Siddiqui, Mr. D.N.Paul, Miss. Sukanya B Saikia (Invited Guest Speaker) and Mr. Rakesh Sah by acknowledging the participants in a traditional manner . 4. Mr. Devdas Paul in his address delivered brief information about workshop schedule and activities for the next five days. Also he appealed the cluster to take part with their full presence in the deliberation of the Design Experts to make the programme success. He has also promoted the scheme enthusiastic for taking it further as an initiative. 5. Mr. Rakesh Sah delivered detail speech on MSME and explained how participants can get benefited from it. 6. The participants presented their issues and concern in the cluster. 7. Presentation and Discussion upon Future Trends & Design development for the terracotta cluster by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia (Guest Speaker). Date: 8th March 2013 1. Details on terracotta product packaging and possibilities which is not only important for avoid breakage but also important for look & feel to attract consumer by Miss. Sukanya B Saikia. 2. Presentation & Discussion by- Mr. Rakesh Sah on “Branding and identity especially focus on why we need it, the purpose behind it as well as how cluster will get advantage from it. 3. One to one interaction with the participants and discussion regarding the covered topic so far. Date: 9th March 2013 11. A brief talk on Design Thinking and its importance byMr. Rakesh Sah , . 12. Presentation on Design process, to identify opportunity areas and how to get advantage from it by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 13. Discussion On design Process and how to implement it. 14. After the discussion participants started to create some product with their idea. Date: 10th March 2013 15. Talk on value addition to the product, consumer behavior, contemporary market and marketing strategy by Mr. Rakesh Sah. 16. Discussion upon the topic as well as on the new created products (during the workshop) for value addition, refinement, material issues, technical and mechanical lacking, new design intervention, quality control and marketing strategy. Photo of Banner- Date: 11th March 2013 17. Presentation – about the new products in the market example - discussion by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 18. New areas for product development, new market to foster the business and use of technology for further growth of the cluster by- Mr. Rakesh Sah. 19. Discussion on prototype for better result and implementation of design. 20. Mr. Rakesh Sah have presented about the design clinic scheme and further design project application process and its details. 21. Concluding Session, "feedback, Suggestion and Future Direction for the Cluster". 22. A warm thanks giving speech by the Artist Mr. D.N.Paul. Detail Profile of Guest Speaker & Topic Covered: 1. Name : Sukanya B Saikia Edu. Qualification : GDPD Industrial Design (Specialized in Product Design)From NID,Ahmedabad,India. Working Experience : 5 years Topic Covered: · Future Trends & Design development for the terracotta cluster. · Details on packaging Photographs of workshop (61 Photos are enclosed): Designer's fee statements Designer's fee statement (Mr.Rakesh Sah): Sl. No. - Mode of payment - Amount - %payment by organization. 01 -Cheque ( 040461 from Bank of Baroda - Rs-45000/- 30% of fees payable(Rs.150,000/-) Received 02 -Cheque ( 065993 from Bank of Baroda - Rs-45000/- 30% of fees payable(Rs.150,000/-) Received - Rs- 60000/- 40% of the payable(Rs.150,000/-) Not yet received. 03 Registration/list and details of participants for Asharikandi Terracotta DCS workshop. Kindly attach.(Name of the participants and address) . Expenses Bills for Workshop. Kindly attach.
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