Diagnosis of NIS and Current Comprehensive Reform for STI in China

Diagnosis of NIS and Current
Comprehensive Reform for STI in
China
ZHU Xinghua
Chinese Academy of Science and Technology for Development
Third Asia-Pacific NIS Forum
Diagnosis of NIS and Development of STI Strategies in the
Open Innovation Framework
8-9 April 2015, Bangkok, Thailand
Overview of the NIS of China
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Key Agencies of STI
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Universities
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Business Sector
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Public research institutions
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Chinese Academy of Science and CAE
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China Association for S&T (CAST)
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Technology Trading Org and Mkts
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National high-tech industrial zones
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University science parks and STBIs
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Productivity promotion centers
Overview of the NIS of China
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Government Agencies
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State Council
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Ministry of S&T (MOST) and MOE
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Natioanl Natural Science Foundation
of China (NSFC)
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NDRC, MIIT, MOC, MOA
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MOF, State IP Office etc.
Regulatory Authorities
� National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing
Committees
� Legislative Affairs Office (LAO)
Evolution of China's STI St
rategies since 2006
Strategies
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2006年,提高自主创新能力,建设创新型国家
In 2006, Indigenous innovation, innovation-oriented country
2012年,深化科技体制改革,加快建设国家创新体系
In 2012, "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Scientific and
Technological System and Speeding up the Building of a
National Innovation System" issued.
2013年,创新驱动发展战略
In 2013, the Chinese government put forward innovation-driven
development strategy.
Medium- and Long-Term Program for S&T Development
GERD(100
million yuan)
GERD/GDP(%)
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2006
2007 2008 2009
2010
2011
3003
3710
4616
5802
7062
8687
1.39
1.40
1.47
1.70
1.76
1.84
In 2013, the GERD accounted for as much as 2.08%of GDP,
reached 1.19 trillion yuan.
Structure of R&D expenditure
The share of scientific research in GERD of China is evidently lower than that in
the developed countries. It was only 17.3%, but the average level was over 35% in
the developed countries.
R&D activities in government research institutes
From 2000 to 2009, it was 11.9% for the annual growth rate of
R&D expenditure in GRIs. The share of GRIs’ R&D expenditure
in the national total R&D expenditure declined from 28.8% in
2000 to 17.2% in 2009.
R&D activities of enterprises
Enterprises can improve their technology abilities through
importing technologies from overseas. From 2000 to 2008,
technology import expenditure of industrial enterprises kept
increasing, but the ratio of technology import expenditure to
R&D expenditure had been continuously decreasing.
In order to observe the regional S&T distribution, China can be divided into four regions:
Eastern Coastal Region, Northeastern Region, Central Region and Western Region.
We selected 8 main indicators to reflect regional S&T distribution characteristics.
Eastern Coastal
Region play a leading
role in S&T
development. The 8
indicators are all
higher than the
national average level.
4. China’s S&T can not satisfy the needs of socio-economic
development
China accounts for 4.4% of the world’s total GDP, while
consuming about 25%-40% of the world’s raw coal,
steel, alumina and cement
5. Innovation capacities of enterprises is very weak
Among the 28,000 large-medium-sized enterprises,
those carrying out R&D activities took 38.4% of the
total, and only 25% of them have their own R&D
centers, with R&D input accounting for a mere 0.71% of
their total sales revenue.
6. The general feature of regional distribution on S&T
resources in China is extremly unbalanced, especially
the R&D personnel, R&D expenditure, S&T papers,
patents and hi-technology industry.
Recent Major Steps of ST
STII Reform
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Set up of Leading Group of National reform of the scientific and
technological system and establishing the national innovation system ,
enhance the top-level design of innovation-driven development
strategy and draft the thirteenth five-year plan for STI.
Guidence of Scientific research projects and funds management reform,
map out a new S&T program management model and optimize resource
allocation
Start revision of the law of transformation of scientific and
technological achievements for more creativity and vitality
Innitially formation of the national science and technology report
system, innovation survey system and science and technology
management information system
To implement regional development strategy and enhance regional
innovation.
To open wider and strengthen all-dimensional international
cooperation in science and technology innovation.
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Guidence of
Scientific research
projects and funds
management reform,
map out a new S&T
program
management model
and optimize
resource allocation
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The aim is to restructure the existing S&T program system at
national level and transform the role of S&T management played
by relevant government bodies. It is estimated that before the
reform more than 40 departments were managing over 100 S&T
programs and special projects. There were serious problems like
dispersed use of research and innovation resources and lack of
coordination.
The government will hand over managing power to a third-party
agency. The reform will set up a joint council to discuss research
fields. The reform will free the government to focus on making
regulations and macro-plans based on the State development
strategy, as well as increase supervision to the professional
institutes.
In 2017, the new S&T program management system will be
thoroughly put in place,
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Various S&T programs have been
reorganized into five different types
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National Natural Science Foundation of China
National Major Science and Technology Projects
National Key R&D Program
Technology Innovation Guiding Fund
Infrastructure and Talent Program.
Start revision of the law of transformation of scientific
and technological achievements for more creativity and
vitality
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Clear the disposal rights associated with benefits put to
universities and research institutions to eliminate the institutional
barriers impeding translation of research findings, promote the
translation of research findings into productivity, and make
colleges and research institutes better capable of starting business
and innovation.
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To implement regional development
strategy and enhance regional innovation.
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Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei collaborative innovation
community
To open wider and strengthen alldimensional international cooperation in
science and technology innovation.
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Silk Belt and Road initiative:a platform where
states, organizations and companies can make
their policies in the backdrop of regional
policies.
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Chinese economy is now shifting from labor- and
capital-driven to innovation- and productivitydriven. The shift of economic growth model offers
great opportunities to overseas talent for career
development in China.
We particularly welcome young people
worldwide to China for innovation and
entrepreneurship activities. In the meantime, we
encourage Chinese companies and research
institutes to go abroad and work with their
international partners for innovative activities.
STI Policy Trends �
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More emphasis on equality and generalized
preferential treatment
Lay more stresses on basic research
Attach more importance to people
From supports to single STI project to more
synthesis approaches, eg. supporting the
development of VCs and public technological
platforms
Pay attention to social challenges and sustained
development (inclusive innovation)
Thank you!
ZHU Xinghua
Associate Professor of CASTED
MoST
CASTED,MoST
[email protected]
[email protected]
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