suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti studentTa mesame sauniversiteto samecniero konferencia “mecnierebis Tanamedrove problemebi”

suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
Sukhishvili Teaching University
studentTa mesame sauniversiteto
samecniero konferencia
“mecnierebis Tanamedrove problemebi”
Third Student Scientific Inter-University Conference
"Contemporary Problems of Science"
Ggori, saqarTvelo
GGori, Georgia
2013
1
konferenciis sponsori da organizatori:
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
studentTa mesame sauniversiteto samecniero
konferenciis saorganizacio komiteti
1. valeri
suxiSvili
-
saorganizacio
komitetis
Tavmjdomare,
suxiSvilis
universitetis reqtori, profesori, soflis meurneobis mecnierebaTa doqtori
2. rusudan goxelaSvili - suxiSvilis universitetis administraciis xelmZRvaneli,
proreqtori
3. avTandil lafaCi –
suxiSvilis universitetis samecniero kvleviTi centris
xelmZRvaneli, profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori.
4. laSa ninoSvili – suxiSvilis universitetis saswavlo procesis marTvisa da
xarisxis uzrunvelyofis samsaxuris ufrosi, profesori.
5. lali qareli – suxiSvilis universitetis sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa
fakultetis dekani
6.
ana
qoTolaSvili
–
sainformacio
uzrunvelyofis centris xelmZRvaneli
da
kompiuteruli
teqnologiebiT
Kprogramuli komiteti
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
ekonomikur mecnierebaTa seqcia
avTandil lafaCi - ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis
sruli profesori
naili gagniZe
– ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis
asocirebuli profesori
socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa seqcia
avTandil tukvaZe – politikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis
mowveuli profesori
agrarul mecnierebaTa seqcia
giorgi qavTaraZe
- satyeo saqmis doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis
asocirebuli profesori
humanitarul mecnierebaTa seqcia
izolda buxuleiSvili – pedagogikis doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis sruli
profesori
naTela mosiaSvili – filologiis doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis sruli
profesori
zust da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa seqcia
laSa ninoSvili
- medicinis mecnierebaTa akademiuri doqtori, suxiSvilis
universitetis sruli profesori
dali goginaSvili – soflis meurneobis doqtori, suxiSvilis universitetis
sruli profesori
saredaqcio kolegia
1.
2.
3.
ekaterine suxiSvili - suxiSvilis universitetis reqtoris moadgile, medicinis
doqtori
nino bibilaSvili – filologiis
mecnierebaTa doqtori, suxiSvilis
universitetis profesori
ana
qoTolaSvili – sainformacio da kompiuteruli teqnologiebiT
uzrunvelyofis centris xelmZRvaneli
2
sarCevi
seqcia #1
ekonomikuri mecnierebani
1. beqa CuxrukiZe, mariam kardanaxiSvili
sabanko momsaxureobis Tanamedrove saxeebi da maTi ganviTarebis problemebi
saqarTveloSi ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....11
2. avTandil giorgaSvili
riskis Sefaseba da marTva agrobiznesSi............................................................................................................................. ....15
3. nodar oqroSiaSvili
msoflio finansuri krizisi, misi Sedegebi da masTan brZolis RonisZiebebi ........................... ....20
4. sofiko gogalaZe
turizmis biznesis ganviTareba klimatis globaluri cvlilebis fonze ...................................... ....24
5. goga demetraSvili
beTania ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....28
6. koba tabataZe
turistuli marSruti “Tbilisi-bolnisi-dmanisi” ..................................................................................................... ....32
7. maia melaZe
emuqreba Tu ara safrTxe saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis
SeTanxmebis miRwevas? ................................................................................................................................................................................. ...36
8. mari mujiriSvili
sagadasaxado reformebi da liberalizacia ................................................................................................................... ....39
9. miranda yaClavaSvili
fasiani qaRaldebis bazari da misi ganviTareba saqarTveloSi ................................................................. ....43
10. zviad maWaraSvili, diana vefxvaZe
saukeTeso “wamali” biznesisaTvis ............................................................................................................................................... ...46
11. giorgi abJandaZe
SromiTi urTierTobebis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi .............................................. ...48
12. Tamar Khurtsidze
Sightseeing of Georgia ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...51
13. Tamar bedoSvili, mari kaZilovi, qeTevan facinaSvili
Txili – potenciuri saeqsporto produqti saqarTveloSi ............................................................................. ...54
14. Teona gogiSvili
saerTaSoriso SromiTi migracia da misi Sedegebi saqarTveloSi .......................................................... ...58
15. nino olgesaSvili
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis saqmianobis Sefaseba saqarTveloSi: dadebiTi
da uaryofiTi aspeqtebi .......................................................................................................................................................................... ...64
16. nana cucqiriZe
kompaniis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiebi da miznobrivi modelebi............................... ...67
17. nino odiSeliZe
konkurenciis sabazro safrTxeebi da konkurentuli strategiebi ......................................................... ...72
18. Tamar sxirtlaZe
xolist-marketingis koncefcia ....................................................................................................................................................... ...76
19. Tamaz asaniZe
turizmis ganviTarebis strategia saqarTveloSi ....................................................................................................... ...79
20. giorgi javaxiSvili
saqarTvelos samkurnalo turistul-rekreaciuli resursebis gamoyenebis
SesaZleblobebi................................................................................................................................................................................................ ...83
21. Temur kublaSvili
Rvinisa da gurmanTa turizmi saqarTveloSi ................................................................................................................... ...87
22. giorgi arabuli, beqa TevzaZe, giorgi zaqaiZe
saqarTvelos sabanko bazris Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da sabanko konkurencia.................... ...91
23. Tamar didbariZe
danazogebi, investiciebi da finansuri sistema............................................................................................................ ...98
3
24. daviT kvirkvelia
sabanko menejmenti ......................................................................................................................................................................................... ...102
25. Smagi xijakaZe
programuli biujetirebis mniSvneloba saxelmwifo finansebis sistemis
srulyofisaTvis .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ...106
26. irine goCaSvili
makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi da ekonomikuri keTildReoba ................................................................... ....111
27. qeTevan SanSiaSvili
saqarTvelos sagareo valis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da misi Sefaseba ........................................ ....116
28. oTar vardiaSvili
antimonopoliuri regulirebis fenomeni da Taviseburebebi ......................................................................... ....119
29. nino berozaSvili, mariam gagloSvili
mcire biznesis arsi da mniSvneloba Tanamedrove sabazro sistemaSi... ............................................. ...124
30. mzia CxartiSvili
ucxouri investiciebi da globaluri ekonomika ........................................................................................................ ...128
31. mariam jRiraZe, naTia iluriZe
mwvane ekonomika da misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi............................................................................................... ...131
32. Teona gogiSvili, rusudan xeTaguri
barambos Sokoladi qarTul bazarze ................................................................................................. ..135
33. sofiko jojiSvili, mari mujiriSvili
marketinguli saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi saqarTveloSi ........................................................ ..139
34. Tornike burduli
dasaqmebis da umuSevrobis problemebi saqarTveloSi ......................................................................................... ..142
35. Teona sandroSvili, nino berozaSvili
globalizacia da erovnuli ekonomikis problemebi ........................................................................................... ..146
36. rusudan muradaSvili
turizmis roli saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi ......................................................................................................................... ..150
37. mzia CxartiSvili
Sromis anazraurebis regulirebis problemebi da maTi gadawyvetis gzebi
saqarTveloSi ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..153
38. sofo jojiSvili
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis arsi da adgili saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
sistemaSi.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ..158
39. qeTevan wiqariSvili
socialuri politikis arsi, miznebi da amocanebi.................................................................................................... ..161
40. rusudan xeTaguri
agrobiznesis makroekonomikuri regulirebis aqtualuri sakiTxebi
saqarTveloSi ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..165
41. nino babuciZe
pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi saqarTveloSi .......................................................................................................... ..170
42. mariam SavdaTuaSvili
saerTaSoriso vaWroba da miwodebis pirobebi – “inkotermsi” ................................................................. ..172
43. qeTevan SanSiaSvili
fulad-sakredito politika saxelmwifo regulirebis sistemaSi ......................................................... ..177
44. aleqsandre kaxiZe, Tornike kakulia, mixeil kuxaleiSvili
fulis masis zrda da inflacia ................................................................................................................................................. ..180
45. naTia nemsiwveriZe
biznesis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi saqarTveloSi ......................................................................................... ..187
46. Tamar sxirtlaZe
xvamlis mTis saidumlo ....................................................................................................................................................................... ..192
47. beso basiliZe
turizmis mniSvneloba qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis ....................................................................................................... ..195
4
seqcia #2
socialuri da politikuri mecnierebani
1. jambul abuseliZe
uSiSroebis sabWos reforma............................................................................................................................................................... ..200
2. salome guliaSvili
amerikuli demokratia............................................................................................................................................................................... ..203
3. levan lorTqifaniZe
partiuli politikis krizisi saqarTveloSi .................................................................................................................. ..206
4. mariam gelaZe
sakuTrebis warmoSobis samarTlebrivi problemebi sacxovrebel binaze ....................................... ...210
5. Teona mosiaSvili
omis Semdgomi periodi sazRvrispira soflebSi ......................................................................................................... ...213
6. monika Serozia
administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebis warmoeba ................................................................................ ...216
7. Tsisia Grigalashvili, Maia Sadghobelashvili
Gender equality in the Modern World ............................................................................................................................................................ ...221
8. meri mameswaraSvili, sofio suxiSvili
saerTaSoriso samarTlis warmoSobis istoria............................................................................................................ ...225
9. mariam gelaZe, zviad suxiSvili
narkomania – umZimesi seni..................................................................................................................................................................... ...228
10. jambul abuseliZe
adamianis uflebaTa pativiscema – saerTaSoriso samarTlis qvakuTxedi ....................................... ....231
seqcia #3
agraruli mecnierebani
1. Tornike abuTiZe
tyis marTvis Tanamedrove midgomebi ........................................................................................................................................ ...236
2. giorgi RviniaSvili
tyis sanitarul-higienuri mniSvneloba.................................................................................................................................. ..240
3. naTia gudaZe
nairWamia mavneblebi ................................................................................................................................................................................. ..242
4. salome xaCiZe
dindgelSi flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis gansazRvra ................................................. ..246
seqcia #4
Ahumanitaruli mecnierebani
1. laSa loria
globalizacia da konfliqturi regionebi....................................................................................................................... ...250
2. sofio mameswaraSvili
mozardebi da maTSi gavrcelebuli qceviTi darRvevebi..................................................................................... ...252
3. Teona sandroSvili
“suicidi” anu TviTmkvleloba, rogorc fsiqologiuri problema.......................................................... ...256
4. TamTa abulaZe, mariam kapanaZe
SiSebi bavSvebSi............................................................................................................................................................................................... ...260
5. salome cicqiSvili
morcxvobis problema bavSvebsa da mozardebSi ........................................................................................................... ...265
6. mariam durgliSvili
autizmi bavSvebSi ........................................................................................................................................................................................... ...274
7. nino mazaniSvili
tyuilis fsiqologia ................................................................................................................................................................................. ...277
8. xatia meliqiSvili, lana SaraSiZe
mexsierebis saidumloebani .................................................................................................................................................................. ...280
9. marika miqava
5
daltonizmi, rogorc fsiqo-fiziologiuri fenomeni ........................................................................................... .287
10. Кязымзаде Рафик, Бодурова Севда, Гусейнова Моминат
Религия- форма общественного сознания ............................................................................................................................................... .290
11. daviT Crdileli
rac ufro berdeba, miT ufro gabeduli xdeba ............................................................................................................. .294
12. bedisa dumbaZe
mxatvruli narativis kvlevis Tanamedrove meTodologia................................................................................ .297
13. ana mamulaSvili
sazogadoeba ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... .299
14. Teona mosiaSvili
inglisuri enis istoria misi periodizacia .. ................................................................................................................ .304
15. mariam demurovi, nona mosiaSvili
personalis SerCeva da maTi stimulireba .......................................................................................................................... .308
16. Nino Acharadze
Charlotte Bronte ―Jane Eyre‖ .............................................................................................................................................................................. .311
17. Nana Tsutskiridze
William Shakespeare – the Bard of Avon ..................................................................................................................................................... .312
18. mariam xaniaSvili
mixeil javaxiSvilis publicistika........................................................................................................................................... .314
19. Temur kublaSvili
okribis karstuli masivebi ................................................................................................................................................................. .319
20. dea svaniZe, sofo jaWvaZe
gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqone adamianebis sazogadoebasTan
integraciis procesSi masmediis saSualebaTa roli da mniSvneloba ............................................... .322
21. mariam arCuaZe, irina yaziSvili
qarTuli tansacmeli, fexsacmeli da Tavsaburavebi ............................................................................................... .325
22. ekaterine maruaSvili
individualur stilTa statistikuri Seswavla sintaqsur doneze ........................................................ .329
23. ekaterine maruaSvili
metyvelebis stilebi sametyvelo kvlevaSi........................................................................................................................ .332
24. mariam durgliSvili
gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia ............................................................................................................................................ .334
25. nadeJda elikaSvili
terorizmi .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. .338
26. megi mamukaSvili
fsiqologia da XXI saukunis mzardi problema - internetdamokidebuleba ................................ .344
27. naTia jojua
depresia da misi daZlevis fsiqologiuri meTodebi .............................................................................................. .348
28. Meri Koblianidze
The Earth is in Danger............................................................................................................................................................................................ .356
29. nadeJda elikaSvili
zigmund froidi – fsiqikis struqtura ........................................................................................................................... .357
30. nadeJda elikaSvili, nazibrola berkacaSvili, mariam durgliSvili
goris literatoruli cxovreba XIV-XX (natalia aziani da niko diasamiZe)
saukuneTa mijnaZe ........................................................................................................................................................................................ .362
seqcia #5
zusti da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebani
1. Tamar CilindriSvili
miokardiumis infarqti ............................................................................................................................................................................. .368
2. ani janezaSvili
podagra (nekrisis qari) ........................................................................................................................................................................... .372
3. gvanca kareliZe
6
avitaminozi ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... .376
4. ani nonikaSvili
amebiazis Taviseburebani ........................................................................................................................................................................ .380
5. nino samadalaSvili
aTerosklerozi................................................................................................................................................................................................ .382
6. ana TeTrauli
kibo ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .385
7. qeTevan kvinikaZe
antihipertenziuli saSualebebi..................................................................................................................................................... .391
8. Tamar mWedliSvili
saZile saSualebebi...................................................................................................................................................................................... .397
9. nino melqoSvili
arteriuli hipertenziis samkurnalo preparatebi .................................................................................................... .401
10. ia gociriZe
qinolizidinis nawarmi alkaloidebis Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli ................................... .406
11. lia loTiSvili
Tioglikozidebi, mati Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli .............................................................................. .409
12. lana patapovi
izoqinolis nawarmi alkaloidebis Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli ........................................... .412
13. salome xaCiZe, elene lolua, naTia kobliaSvili
sezonuri da H1N1 virusebis afeTqeba msoflioSi .................................................................................................... .416
14. Роза Бестаева. Гуранда Джалагония
Изменение климата и человек ........................................................................................................................................................................ .422
15. romeo Carkviani, nika gerliani
tyis da mcenareulobis dacva .......................................................................................................................................................... .425
16. elene lolua
genmodificirebul kulturaTa Taviseburebani ............................................................................................................ .428
17. salome xaCiZe
jinWari da misi samkurnalo Tvisebebi .................................................................................................................................. ..432
18. lali miCitaSvili, rusudan poRozaSvili, maka saaTaSvili, Tamar nadiraZe
Savi zRvis auzis ekologiuri problemebi........................................................................................................................ ..436
19. Tamar CilindriSvili, ani janezaSvili
alkaloidebis mniSvneloba medicinaSi da misi Semcveli mcenareebi ................................................ .440
20. ia gociriZe
mikroelementebis mniSvneloba adamianis organizmisaTvis............................................................................... .444
21. naTia gudaZe
navTobproduqtebis mopovebis Tanamedrove meTodebi............................................................................................. .447
22. gvanca kareliZe, nino samadalaSvili
difuzia..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..450
23. naTia kobliaSvili, elene lolua
tnt-rogorc organuli toqsikanti............................................................................................................................................. ..453
24. Tamar mamagulaSvili
turizmi da ekologia (ekoturizmi saqarTveloSi) .................................................................................................. ..457
25. mariam buziaSvili
borjom-xaragaulis erovnuli parki – pirveli parki kavkasiaSi ............................................................. ..461
26. mariam durgliSvili
eleqtronuli komercia da eleqtronuli vaWrobis formebi ..................................................................... ..465
27. nadeJda elikaSvili
kompiuteruli danaSaulis safrTxeebi da misi prevenciis sakanonmdeblo baza ..................... ..468
28. eTer miruaSvili
antivirusuli programebi ..................................................................................................................................................................... ..471
28. sofio goxelaSvili
ekologia da janmrTeloba.................................................................................................................................................................. ..474
7
gza mecnierebisaken
mecniereba qveynis ganviTarebis, ekonomikisa da inteleqtis safuZvelTa
safuZvelia. Tanamedrove kacobriobis saarsebo wyaro mxolod mecnierul
kvleva-Ziebasa da miRwevebzea damokidebuli. Aam saqmeSi erT-erTi mniSvneloba
eniWeba axalgazrda mecnierTa kadrebis aRzrdas. swored am mizans emsaxureba
studentTa sauniversiteto samecniero konferenciis Catareba suxiSvilis
universitetSi. konferenciis mizania farTod Caabas studentoba mecnierul
kvleva-ZiebaSi studentobidanve eziaron mecnieruli kvlevis meTodebs, unarCvevebis gamomuSavebas, aimaRlon mecnieruli miRwevebis done, miiRon farTo
inteleqtualuri ganaTleba.
universitetis
reqtorati yovelgvar
pirobas
qmnis
axalgazrda
mecnierTa interesis gaRvivebisa da waxalisebisaTvis, maTi pedagogebis
xelSewyobisaTvis;
am
mizniT
universitetSi
sistematiurad
tardeba
sagnobrivi samecniero konferenciebi, wamaxalisebeli RonisZiebebi da sxva.
yovelive es aris winapiroba imisa, rom gza gavuxsnaT Cvens niWier,
mzard axalgazrdobas did samecniero asparezze gamosvlisaTvis. Cveni
mizania aseTi RonisZiebebis CatarebiT gamovavlinoT niWi da miswrafeba
mecnierebisaTvis mowodebuli axalgazrdobisa momaval did samecniero
asparezze gamosasvlelad.
warmatebas gisurvebT, Cemo umcroso megobrebo, patara mkvlevarebo,
momavlis mecnierebo.
warmatebas vusurveb konferencias da mis
monawileebs.
Rrma
pativiscemiT:
valeri
suxiSvili,
universitetis
reqtori,
s/meurneobis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori, evropis reqtorTa klubis
wevri. s/meurneobis mecnierebaTa akademiis samecniero sabWos wevri.
8
The Way of Science
Science is the foundation of country’s development, economy and intellect. Livelihood of
contemporary mankind depends on scientific researches and approaches. One of the most
important issues of this is to bring up youth scientists. For this purpose, Sukhishvili Teaching
University decided to hold Student scientific inter-university conference. The aim of the
conference is to involve more and more students in scientific researchers from their student years.
They should know methods of scientific researches and skills. They should increase level of
scientific approaches and get wide intellectual education.
University administration creates all kind of conditions in order to encourage our youth
scientists and support their lecturers. For this purpose topical scientific conferences and incentive
events are systematically held in the university.
All of these are precondition for our talent, intelligent youth to settle in great scientific
space. For holding such events our aim is to reveal talent and desire of students towards science.
Good luck, our little friends, young explorers, scientists of future.
Good luck conference and its participants.
With deep respect: Valeri Sukhishvili
Rector of University, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences; Professor; Member of European
Rectors’ Club; Member of Agricultural Scientific Academy Board.
9
seqcia #1
ekonomikuri
mecnierebani
seqciis Tavmjdomareebi:
avTandil lafaCi,
naili gagniZe
10
sabanko momsaxureobis Tanamedrove saxeebi da maTi ganviTarebis
problemebi saqarTveloSi
beqa CuxrukiZe, mariam kardanaxiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-4 da me-2 kursis studenti
avTandil lafaCi
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, samecniero kvleviTi centris xelmZRvaneli
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 599 29 15 26, 577 05 13 22
komerciuli banki, rogorc safinanso bankis umniSvnelovanesi rgoli,
did rols TamaSobs sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi mcire da saSualo
biznesis ganviTarebis saWiro pirobebis Sesaqmnelad, Tumca sabanko sistemis,
kerZod ki komerciuli bankebis normaluri ganviTareba da funqcionireba
SeuZlebelia Tanamedrove, uaxlesi sabanko produqtebis danergvis gareSe.
saqarTvelos
ekonomikuri
politikis
umTavresi
prioritetia
ekonomikuri zrdis maRali da mdgradi tempebis uzrunveloyofa. aRniSnuli
miznis
misaRwevad
ekonomikaSi
sabanko
seqtoris
rolis
amaRleba
saxelmwifos erT-erTi umTavresi amocanaa. sabanko seqtoris ganviTareba
mniSvnelovanwilad aris damokidebuli qveyanaSi Seqmnil sainvesticio
klimatze, sabanko saqmianobis regulirebaze, safinanso sistemis sxva
segmentSi arsebul mdgomareobaze.
saqarTveloSi, gardamavali ekonomikis sawyis etapze, komerciuli
bankebis operaciebi ZiriTadad Semoifargleboda anabrebis mozidviTa da
mcire moculobis dakreditebiT, radgan ar gaaCndaT saTanado resursebi.
meores mxriv, saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis menejmenti ar iyo
gaTvicnobierebuli im sabanko produqtebSi,
romlebic ganviTarebul
qveynebSi iyo danergili, rac am periodis sabanko sistemis ganviTarebis erTerT Semaferxebel faqtorad gvevlineba.
aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom Tanamedrove sabanko momsaxurebebis
mniSvneloba
saqarTvelosTvis,
rogorc
transformirebadi
ekonomikis
qveynisaTvis, ganuzomlad izrdeboda.
sabanko sistemis ganviTarebis Semdgom etapze, daiwyo dasavluri
gamocdilebebis da iq gavrcelebuli sabanko produqtebis intensiuri
Semotana. am procesis sawyis etapze, Tanamedroive sabanko produqtebis
gavrceleba ukavSirdeba inteleqt banks, romelic sabanko produqtebis
bazarze gavrcelebisTvis yidda licenziebs. pirveli mniSvnelovani miRweva
am mimarTulebiT iyo saprocesingo centris Seqmna, rac gulisxmobs
mosaxleobis da samewarmeo subieqtebis angariSebis marTvas da maTze
ganxorcielebuli operaciebis aRricxvis meqanizms. saprocesingo centris
Seqmnis sawyis etapze, operaciebis moculoba mcire iyo, radgan plastikuri
11
baraTebis sargebloba mosaxleobis gauTvicnobierebis gamo ar xdeboda.
Tanamedrove sabanko mosaxurebis Semotana dakavSirebulia mniSvnelovan
problemebTan, radgan misi gavrcelebis SesaZleblobebi da bankis mier
operaciebidan mosalodneli sargebeli, SesaZloa ar iyos sasurveli donis,
an kidev bankma SesaZloa miiRos zarali. komerciuli bankis menejmentma,
gansakuTrebiT marketingis mimarTulebam, aqtiurad unda imuSaos sabazro
gamokvlevebze. maT unda gansazRvron ramdenad aris moTxovna aseT
produqtebze arsebul realobidan maTze saWiroebis mixedviT. nebismieri
momsaxureobebis Semotanisas aucilebelia konkurentebis srulyofili
Seswavla,
maTi
produqtebis
prioritetebis
analizi,
raTa
moxdes
produqtebis
saTanado
pozicioneroba.Kkonkurentuli
TvalsazrisiT,
saqarTveloSi arsebuli situacia, bankebis Tanamedrove sabanko momsaxurebis
aprobaciis procesSi, arasaxarbieloa. Ddidia
imis SesaZlebloba, rom
konkurentma Semoitanos igive produqti, Tanac resursebidan gamomdinare,
momxmarebels SesTavazos ukeTesi pirobebi, amitom bankis menejmentma unda
gaiTvaliswinos konkurentTa SesaZleblobebi.
Tanamedrove sabanko produqtebidan saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli
popularobiT sargeblobs plastikuri baraTebi. qarTuli komerciuli bankebi
momxmarebels sTavazoben yvela im saxis plastikur baraTebs, rac
gavrcelebulia ganviTarebul qveynebSi. Uukanasknel periodSi plastikuri
baraTebis gamoyeneba daiwyo gansakuTrebuli intensivobiT, rac ukavSirdeba
mosaxleobis
plastikur
operaciebTan
dakavSirebuli
sakiTxebSi
gaTvicnobierebis
zrdas.
amasTan
aRsaniSnavia
komerciuli
bankis
mastimulirebeli politika, rac gamoixateba sxvadasxva savaWro operaciebSi
fasdaklebebiT,
bankomatebis
zrdiT,
Tanxebis
marTvis
sakomisioebis
SemcirebiT, aRsaniSnavia saxelmwifo politikac, rodesac moxda samTavrobo
dawesebulebebSi personalis saxelfaso operaciebis plastikur baraTebze
gadayvana. es bankebisTvis gansakuTrebiT sargebliania, radgan ukanasknel
periodSi xelfasebi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. gamoyenebis sawyis etapze
calkeuli mimarTulebebi SesaZloa zaralianic aRmoCndes, magram bankebma ar
unda Sewyviton am mimarTulebiT momxmarebelTa stimulireba.
ekonomikurad ganviTarebul qveynebSi fulis ZiriTad nawils (80-90%) unaRdo sagadamxdelo brunva warmoadgens, romlis drosac fulis moZraoba
xorcieldeba sakredito dawesebulebebSi angariSebze gadaricxvebis saxiT da
urTierTmoTxovnaTa CaTvliT. unaRdo angariSsworeba centraluri bankis
mier dawesebuli formiT xorcieldeba.
unaRdo
angariSsworebis
ganxorcielebisaTvis
saWiro
fuladi
dokumentebi unda Seesabamebodes centraluri bankis mier dawesebuli
standartebis moTxovnebs.
unaRdo angariSsworebis dros neba darTulia gadaxdis davalebebis,
Cekebis, akreditivebisa da inkasos gamoyeneba. amave dros, myidvelebsa da
mimwodeblebs
Soris
tradiciulad
Camoyalibebuli
urTierTobebis
12
gaTvaliswinebiT, bankebs dadebuli xelSekrulebebis Sesabamisad ufleba
aqvT miiRon gadaxdis moTxovnebi. bankebi pasuxs ar ageben sauravis
daricxvaze da gadaxdevinebaze, radganac dadgenilia, rom miwodebuli
produqciis Rirebulebis araTavisdroulad gadaxdis dros myidveli (fulis
gadamxdeli) sauravs ixdis mimwodebelsa (fulis mimRebsa) da myidvels
(fulis gada-mxdels) Soris dadebul xelSekrulebaSi gaTvaliswinebuli
wesiT.
komerciuli
bankis
aqtiuri
operaciebis
erT-erT
mniSvnelovan
safuZvels dakreditebis operaciebi warmoadgens. sakredito urTierTobebis
subieqtebs sabanko kreditis sferoSi meurne subieqtebi, mosaxleoba,
saxelmwifo da TviT bankebi warmoadgenen. banki damoukidebeli sakredito
dawesebulebaa da igi Tavis sakredito politikas politikuri da
ekonomikuri
pirobebis,
sabanko kanonmdeblobis
donis,
bankTaSoriso
konkurenciis sabanko infrastruqturis ganviTarebis xarisxisa da sxvaTa
gaTvaliswinebiT axorcielebs.
sabanko dakrediteba. dakreditebis ZiriTadi principebis vadianobis,
dabrunebadobis, uzrunvelyofadobis, fasianobisa da diferencirebadobis
principebis mkacri dacviT unda ganxorcieldes. sabanko dakreditebis yvela
proncipebis praqtikulad erToblivi gamoyeneba sakredito garigebis orive
subieqtis: bankisa da msesxeblis interesebis dacvis SesaZleblobas iZleva.
nebismieri bankis marTvis efeqturobis maCvenebelia moziduli saxsrebis
marTva minimaluri SesaZlo danakargebiT da depozitebis sakmarisoba im
kreditebis dasafinanseblad, romlebsac banki sTavazobs momxmarebels.
depozitebis marTvaSi bankma unda gadaWras ori mniSvnelovani amocana:
1) saidan SeiZleba bankma miiRos saxsrebi minimaluri SesaZlo danakargebiT?
2) rogor SeuZlia bankis xelmZRvanelobas, uzrunvelyos depozitebis is
moculoba, romelic sakmarisia kreditebis sasurveli moculobisaTvis da
SesTavazos sazogadoebas sxva finansuri momsaxureba, romelzec mas aqvs
moTxovna. am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema ioli ar aris, gansakuTrebiT
dRevandeli mZafri konkurenciis pirobebSi, finansur bazaze daregulirebis
procesis kvalobaze.
didi raodenobiT im bankebisa da arasabanko institutebisaTvis
depozitebis Rirebuleba da Tanxa, romelsac isini sazogadoebas sTavazoben,
mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebulia faswarmoqmnisa da konkurentunarianobis
sqemaze. aRniSnuli bankebi da arasabanko institutebi sTavazoben iseT
momsaxurebas, rogoricaa: wilobrivi anabrebi fuladi bazris fondebSi;
fuladi angariSebi, romlebsac sTavazoben sabrokero da sadazRvevo
kompaniebi; saCeko angariSebi, romlebsac moaqvT saprocento Semosavali da
SemoTavazebulia sakredito kavSirebis mier; danazogebi da kreditebi.
bankebi, romlebic ver aswreben depozitebze fasisa da marketinguli
programebis Secvlas, kargaven rogorc klients, aseve mogebas.
depozitebis samarTavad bankebis mier SeTavazebuli momsaxurebis
13
raodenobasa da diapazons xSirad SehyavT SecdomaSi bankis klientebi.
mravalferovani depozitebis raodenoba, romelic gankuTvnilia klientis
saxsrebis mosazidad, mravalia, romelTagan TiToeul maTgans gaaCnia
Tavisebureba da mTlianad pasuxoben firmebisa da saijaro meurneobebis
moTxovnebs _ uzrunvelyon fuladi saxsrebis daculoba da saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis anazRaureba.
aRsaniSnavia, rom komerciuli bankebi sakmaod xSirad nergaven
gaviTarebul qveynebSi aprobirebul uaxles sabanko produqtebs, rac
komerciuli bankebis ganviTarebas uzrunvelyofs. danergvis siswrafe
dRevandel pirobebSi konkurentul brZolis erT-erT mZlavr iaraRad iqca
komerciul bankebs Soris, rac Cvenis azriT Zalian pozitiuri faqtoria.
magram
Tanamedrove
sabanko
momsaxureobis
Semotana
dakavSirebulia
mniSvnelovan problemasTan, radgan dabalia mosaxleobis gaTvicnobierebis
done da menejmentis mxridan Tanamedrove sabanko momsaxureobebTan
dakavSirebuli operaciebis marTvis unari. maRalia am momsaxureobebis
procesSi
kriminaluri
elementebis
da
TaRliTobebis
gamoyenebis
SesaZleblobebi, rac bolo periodSi dadasturda kidec.
Tanamedrove sabanko produqtebisa da momsaxureobebis saqarTveloSi
gavrceleba da gamoyeneba mxolod drois faqtoris sakiTxia, radgan
mosaxleobis am sferoSi gaTvicnobiereba mis gamoyenebis intensivobas kidev
ufro gazrdis, rac calsaxad xels Seuwyobs komerciuli bankebis
sargeblianobisa da Semosavlebis gazrdas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
n. mixanaSvili – saqarTvelos sabanko sistema, Tb 2006 w.
2.
gogoxia m. sabanko finansuri inovaciebi, arsi da saxeobebi,
Jurnali “socialuri ekonomika” # 1, 2007 w.
3.
gogoxia m. sabanko saqme, Tb. 2008 w.
4.
l. qoqiauri, sabanko saqmianobis safuZvlebi (sabanko saqme), II
tomi, Tb. 2004w.
Types of Bank Services and their Development in Georgia
Beka Chukhrukidze, Mariam Kardanaxishvili
Resume
The proposed work discusses contemporary types of bank service, such as: non-cash and
money transfer, importance of loan activity, phases of its development, and types of modern loan
activities, forms, crediting methods. Types of existing deposits of Georgia's banking system and their
role in the commercial banking activities are given. Also, credit cards and their establishment among
contemporary bank services are discussed. Ways of their successful implementation and solution in
Georgia are proposed. Certain conclusions and opinions are made.
14
riskis Sefaseba da marTva agrobiznesSi
avTandil giorgaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-4 kursis studenti
avTandil lafaCi
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis sruli profesori,
samecniero kvleviTi centris xelmZRvaneli
E-mail: [email protected], tel: 599 29 15 26, 577 05 13 22
qveyanSi
gatarebulma
ekonomikurma
reformebma
da
samewarmeo
saqmianobis ganviTarebis procesma dRis wesrigSi daayena da aqtualuri
gaxada sameurneo riskis Sefasebis da marTvis sakiTxebis Seswavla. dRes,
sasoflo-sameurneo mwarmoeblebi bazris stiqiasTan pirispir aRmoCdnen,
amitomac riski gaxda gardauvali faqtori, romlis gaTvaliswinebac
aucilebelia mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, arsebiTad izrdeba riskis marTvis roli misi
warmoqmnis pirobebis da wyaroebis gamokvlevis, samewarmeo struqturebis
ganviTarebis alternatiuli variantebis Sefasebis safuZvelze.
samewarmeo saqmianobas saqarTveloSi xorcieldeba situaciis mzard
ganusazRvrelobis da ekonomikuri garemos cvalebadobis pirobebSi, rac
sabazro urTierTobaTa ganviTarebis Tanamedrove donis erT-erT yvelaze
mniSvnelovan Tvisebas warmoadgens. amis gamo izrdeba mewarmeobis kavSiri
riskTan. amas ganapirobebs agreTve, sameurneo saqmianobis gaZRolis mocemuli
wesis (xerxis) TviT arsi. erTi mxriv, samewarmeo saqmianobas axasiaTebs
ganusazRvrelobisa da Sedegebis ganuWvretelobis maRali xarisxi. meore
mxriv, - aseve ganuWvreteli da ganusazRvrelia konkurentebisa da
momxmarebelTa qcevac.
riskis, rogorc mewarmeobis Sinagani Semadgenlis analizs mivyavarT
misi raobis da ekonomikuri Sinaarsis ufro Rrma gagebamde.
riskis Sesaxeb mecnierebaSi dagrovil gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiT
SeiZleba Seiqmnas misi rogorc ekonomikis Tanamedrove fenomenis koncefcia.
riskis analizi da misi marTvis SesaZleblobebis Seqmna xels uwyobs
potenciurad efeqtiani samewarmeo struqturebis Camoyalibebas da maT
mdgrad funqcionirebas.
sarisko gadawyvetilebebis miRebis meTodologiuri sqema iyofa or
msxvil blokad:
- riskis Sefaseba da/an analizi;
- riskis marTva.
pirveli blokis amocanaa safrTxeebis identifikacia, zemoqmedebisa da
15
misi Sedegebis Sefaseba, riskis daxasiaTeba da misi sxva riskebTan Sedareba,
misaRebobis xarisxis gansazRvris da marTvis prioritetebis SesamuSaveblad.
meore blokis amocanaa riskis Semcirebis da kontrolis samoqmedo
gegmebis damuSaveba, maTi efeqtianobis Sefaseba da riskis Semcirebis da
kontrolis gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba.
aseT Teoriul midgomas aSS-is mTel rig samecniero publikaciebSi
uwodeben riskis analizis meTodologias, an rac Cveni azriT ufro
marTebulia, riskis Sefasebisa da marTvis meTodologias.
amJamadac, grZeldeba mravali wlis win dawyebuli diskusiebi imis
Taobaze, Tu ras moicavs riskis analizi, riskis Sefaseba da riskis marTva.
es bunebrivicaa, radgan riskis analizi da riskis marTva axali mecnieruli
mimarTulebebia, romelTa Camoyalibebis stadia jer ar dasrulebula.
gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva meTodologiuri midgoma da sqema, romlebic aRweren
urTirTmoqmedebas riskis Sefasebis, analizisa da marTvis procedurebs
Soris.
riskis analizi farTo gagebiT moicavs sxvadassxvagvar gamokvlevas
gansxvavebuli safrTxeebis saidentifikaciod, sxvadasxva bunebis riskis
raodenobrivi da Tvisebrivi maxasiaTeblebis gansazRvras, maT Sedarebas,
dasaSvebobis da misaRebobis xarisxis gansazRvras, sistematizaciisa da
klasifikaciis problemebs da amocanaTa sxva jgufebs, romelTa ganxvavebuli
meTodebiT
gadaWra
saSulebas
iZleva
aucilebeli
informaciiT
uzrunvelvyoT riskis Semcirebis, misi kontrolis da saerTod riskis
marTvis gadawyvetilebebis miRebis rekomendaciebis SemuSavebis procesi.
riskis analizi viwro gagebiT gulisxmobs riskis daxasiaTebas da
Sefasebas, gasaanalizebeli, raodenobrivad Sefasebuli mniSvnelobebis
Sedarebas riskis sxva saxeobebTan, misaRebobis xarisxis gansazRvris da
marTvis prioritetebis SemuSavebis mizniT.
unda ganimartos riskis
midgomis termin-poziciebi.
kategoriasTan
dakavSirebuli
axleburi
riskis koncefciebi es aris SexedulebaTa sxvadasxvagvari sistema,
riskTan dakavSirebuli movlenebisa da procesebis gageba. miuxedavad imisa,
rom “riski” ukve mravali welia rac xmarebaSi Semovida da mis irgvliv bevri
gamokvlevac Sesrulda, mainc ar arsebobs misi universaluri gansazRvreba.
erTi mxriv, es ar aris gasakviri, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT, rom nebismieri
definicia TavisTavad SezRudulia da pirobiTia. magram, - meore mxriv,
SeuZlebelia raime procesis an movlenis Seswavla, kvlevis procesis sagnis
gansazRvris gareSe. qvemoT SeZlebisdamagvarad vecdebiT, riskis arsebuli
ZiriTadi koncefciebis sistematizacias da am cnebis urTierTkavSiris
gaanalizebas monaTesave kategoriebTan.
16
terminis “riski” warmoSoba bundovania. zogi mkvlevari varaudobs mis
arabul warmomavlobas. riski Zveli italiuridan (“risicare”) iTargmneba
rogorc “gabedva”. evropaSi igi ukve, Sua saukuneebis wyaroebSi gvxvdeba,
ZiriTadad zRvaosnobaSi da sazRvao vaWrobaSi. axallaTinuri “risicum” ukve
XV saukunis bolos gvxvdeba, magram literaturul wyaroebSi ufro gvian,
wignis beWvdis ganviTarebasTan erTad Cndeba: ganmartebiT leqsikonebSi
magaliTebi riskis sferodan ganekuTvneba XVI saukunis Suaxanebs germaniaSi
da XVII saukunis meore naxevars inglisSi.
qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi riski axsnilia rogorc
mosalodneli safrTxe, saSiSroeba, alalbedze moqmedeba, bedis cda,
saxifaTo mdgomareobaSi Cadgoma.
Tanamedrove inglisuri enis oqsfordis mokle leqsikonSi
ganmartebulia
rogorc
safrTxis,
danakargebis,
zaralis
an
araxelsayreli Sedegebis albaToba an SesaZlebloba.
riski
sxva
oqsfordis universitetis ekonomikuri terminologiis leqsikonSi riski
ganmartebulia rogorc situacia, roca raime moqmedebis rezultati aracxadi
da aracalsaxaa da mosalodnelia aRniSnuli rezultatis sxvadasxva, maT
Soris saxifaTo, dagvirgvineba. termini “riski” Cveulebriv gamoiyeneba
ganusazRvrelobis aRsawerad, iseT situaciaSi, roca raime moqmedebis
faqtiuri rezultati zustad ar aris cnobili da ivaraudeba, rom is
gairkveva SemTxveviTi SerCeviT ramdenime variantidan, romelTa ganawilebac
cnobilia. am ganmartebaSi mocemulia yvela is ZiriTadi elementi, romelic
Sedis riskis Tanamedrove gaazrebaSi. es aris safrTxe, ganusazRvreloba
da/an SemTxveviToba. Tu ar arsebobs safrTxe, arc riski arsebobs. riskis
arsebobisTvis
aucilebelia safrTxe an, yovel SemTxvevaSi, erT-erTi
SesaZlebeli rezultatis an situaciis ganviTarebis arasasurveloba. magram,
rezultats axasiaTebas Cveni codnis da arsebuli informaciis ukmarobasTan
dakavSirebuli ganusazRvreloba. rezultatze gavlenas axdens sxvadasxva
SemTxveviTi faqtori, romlebsac mivyavarT misi SesaZlo dagvirgvinebis
realizaciis SemTxveviTobasTan.
mokled da Tanamedrove yoveldRiur gamoyenebasa da gagebasTan
miaxloebulad aris ganmartebuli riski s.oJegovis rusuli enis leqsikonSi:
SesaZlebeli safrTxe, alalbedze moqmedeba iRbliani Sedegis molodinSi,
mosalodneli usiamovnebebis Tavis Tavze aReba.
riskis mecnieruli gamoyenebis sferoebi mravalmxrivia, amitom, xSirad,
erTi da igive cnebas sxvadasxva mecnierul disciplinebSi sxvadasxva
azrobrivi datvirTva aqvs, rasac mivyavarT riskis mecnieruli koncefciis
mravalferovnebamde. saTanado literaturaSi SeiZleba Segvxvdes riskis
Semdegi koncefciebi da ganmartebebi:
ganusazRvrelobis
(gaurkvevlobis)
17
situacia;
gadawyvetilebis
miRebasTan dakavSirebuli ganusazRvreloba; potenciuri safrTxe; moqmedeba
alternativis arsebobisas; pirobebi an pirobaTa krebuli, romlebsac Tavi
unda avaridoT; sawarmos marTvisas araxelsayreli situaciis warmoqmnis
SesaZlebloba da sxva.
Tu SevajamebT yovelive zemoTqmuls, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom riski
aris Sedegebis ganusazRvreloba, romelTa gadaWrac gavlenas moaxdens
miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis rezultatebze, rasac SeuZlia gamoiwvios
rogorc danakargebi, ise mogeba. ganusazRvreloba ki SeiZleba ganvmartoT
rogorc arasruli (arasakmarisi) codna.
riskis marTvis sakiTxebi, anu risk-menejmenti sakmaod kargad aris
Seswavlili sabanko da sadazRvevo saqmianobaSi, xolo agrarul seqtorSi
riskis marTvis Teoria jer kidev dasamuSavebelia. amasTan dakavSirebiT
dasavleTis mowinave qveynebis agrarikos-ekonomistebi yuradRebas amaxvileben
ara mogebis, aramed sarisko situaciebis marTvaze.
praqtikulad mTel msoflioSi kanonzomier movlenas warmoadgens
sasoflo-sameurneo
warmoebis
gaZRola
riskis
pirobebSi.
erovnuli
ekonomikis agrarul seqtorSi sabazro urTierTobaTa damkvidrebis pirobebSi
mwvavdeba winaaRmdegoba sasoflo-sameurneo produqciis warmoebis processa
da riskis marTvis sferoSi gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis efeqtianobas Soris.
dadasturebiT unda iTqvas, rom mmarTvelobiTi gadawyvetilebebi unda
muSavdebodes ara marto bunebrivi, aramed ekonomikuri riskis pirobebSi. am
problemis gadasaWrelad sasoflo-sameurneo mwarmoeblebs (fermerebs) unda
SeeZloT mosalodneli riskis Sefaseba da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, unda
flobdnen misi marTvis Tanamedrove xerxebsa da meTodebs.
sasoflo-sameurneo, iseve rogorc nebismieri warmoebis procesSi riskis
marTva
(risk-menejmenti)
warmoadgens
mosalodneli
Sedegis
ganusazRvrelobis donis gamovlenis process, rac iwvevs samewarmeo
saqmianobis Sedegebze SemTxveviTi faqtorebis araxelsayreli zemoqmedebis
minimizacias da warmoebis efeqtianobis amaRlebis Sansebis zrdas, riskis
Sefasebis safuZvelze gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas.
risk-menejmenti warmoadgens strategiuli menejmentis Semadgenel
nawils.
yvela
samewarmeo
struqturisaTvis
(gansakuTrebiT
soflis
meurneobaSi). riskis marTva warmoadgens (unda warmoadgendes) “kargi
menejmentis” ganuyofel nawils. es, upirveles yovlisa, imiTaa gapirobebuli,
rom samewarmeo saqmianobis warmatebuli gaZRola moiTxovs ara marto cxad
warmodgenas riskis yvela wyaros Sesaxeb, aramed imasac, rom sarisko
situaciebis gaTvaliswinebas Tan axldes maTi negatiuri zemoqmedebis
Semasustebeli RonisZiebebis damuSaveba.
amrigad, riskis Sefasebisa da marTvis Cvens mier SemoTavazebuli
meTodologiuri sqema, miuxedavad imisa, rom sistemuri xasiaTisaa, jer kidev
18
moiTxovs sagangebo samecniero samuSaoebis gagrZelebas, misi Semdgomi
srulyofisa da axali, progresuli midgomebis momarjvebuli gamoyenebis
mizniT. am sakiTxis gadawyvetas soflis meurneoba sakmaod specifikur
garemos uqmnis, romelic zedmiwevniT gaTvaliswinebas moiTxovs.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
o. qeSelaSvili, j. baJunaiSvili, “riskis Sefaseba da marTva _
meTodologiuri
sqema”
Jurnali
agrarul-ekonomikuri
mecniereba
da
teqnologiebi, #1, Tb. 2008w.
2.
3.
Tb. 2013w.
d. narmania, n. faresaSvili, “risk-menejmenti biznesSi” Tb. 2012w.
m. nikoleiSvili “risk-menejmenti agrobiznesSi” leqciaTa kursi
Risk Evaluation and Management in Agribusiness
Avtandil Giorgashvili
Resume
In the article the methodological questions of risk evaluation and management are highlighted.
The methodological scheme of the risky decisions is presented by two large blocks: 1.Risk estimate
and/or analysis; 2.Risk management.
The aim of the first block is identification of risks threats, evaluation of their impact and
results, risk characterization and comparison with other risks for determination of acceptability degree
and elaboration of management priorities. The aim of the second block is building of risk reduction
and control plans, their efficiency estimation and elaboration of recommendations for risk reduction
and control.
New approach to term-positions concerned with risk category is defined. It is regarded that risk
is possibility of not only losses, but gains as well. Hence, risk is interpreted as uncertainty of
consequences, the solution of which will influence the results of decision making that can lead both to
losses and gains.
Our methodological scheme of risk evaluation and management requires continuation of
special scientific work for its consequent elaborating and adopting new progressive approaches.
Agriculture creates specific environment for the solution of this issue and it must be taken into
consideration.
19
msoflio finansuri krizisi, misi Sedegebi da masTan brZolis
RonisZiebebi
nodar oqroSiaSvili – suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis
administrirebis specialobis me-4 kursi
avTandil lafaCi _ suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, samecniero kvleviTi centris xelmZRvaneli
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 599 29 15 26, 577 05 13 22
Tanamedrove msoflio finansur krizisad miCneulia amerikis umsxvilesi
ipoTekuri kompaniebis Fannie mae-sa da Freddie mac-is gauazrebeli da xSir
SemTxvevaSi araprognozirebadi moqmedeba, kerZod obligaciebis didi
raodenobiT gayidva, misi gaumWvirvaloba, sakredito da sainvesticio
finqciebis Serwyma-areva, ramac momxmareblebisaTvis ipoTekuri kreditebis
aReba gaamartiva da mimoqcevaSi dolaris mkveTri zrda gamoiwvia. amas mohyva
sabanko seqtoris sruli kraxi. am process Tan sdevda safondo birJis
krizisi, finansuri instrumentebis (fiuCersuli garigebebi, ofcioni, svopi,
forvardi da sxva.) araswori gamoyeneba. navTobis fasebis SesamCnevi gaZvireba,
saerTaSoriso sareitingo saagentoebis Standard & Poor’s, Fitch da Moody-is
xSirad araswori Sefasebebi da rac yvelaze mTavaria aSS-s maregulirebeli
samsaxuris (federaluri rezervebis samsaxuri) mier procesebis ignorireba,
umoqmedoba, maTi gaumarTavi da upasuxismgeblo saqmianoba. aseve msxvili
sainvesticio bankebis Bear Stearns, Goldman, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch da Morgan
Stanley-s
sakuTari kapitalis
mcire
moculoba mozidul saxsrebTan
SedarebiT, rodesac erT dolar sakuTar saxsrebze daaxloebiT 40 dolari
aqtivi modioda. 2007 wlis ivnisSi uolt stretidan gavrcelda informacia
imis Sesaxeb, rom sainvesticio bank Bear Stearns-s hqonda didi finansuri
problemebi, rac Semdeg dominos efeqtiviT gavrcelda aSS-sa da evropis
safinanso bazrebze da Tavisi sididiTa da mniSvnelobiT Zalian saSiSi iyo
dasavleTis wamyvani qveynebisaTvis. am procesebis piki 2008 wlis seqtemberSi
dadga, rodesac safondo birJaze Zalian daiZaba viTareba msoflioSi
umsxvilesi bankis Lehman Brothers-is molodinSi. 15 seqtembers Lehman-isaTvis
“Savi orSabaTi” gaTenda da iZulebuli gaxda Tavi gadaxdis uunarod
gamoecxadebina, aRaravis aRar undoda sesxis gacema, qveynebi veRar
axerxebdnen mieRoT kreditebi saerTaSoriso vaWrobisaTvis, msoflioSi
arsebuli bankebis mdgomareoba Seirya, amas Seewira uamravi samuSao adgili
da sabolood yvelaferi erTdroulad CamoiSala. Kkrizisamde aSS-Si
ipoTekuri kreditebi Zalian iafi iyo - wliuri 5%, Tanac adgilobrivi
kanonmdeblobiT, ipoTekiT datvirTuli qonebis gayidvis SesaZlebloba
arsebobs. ipoTekuri programebi sxva mxrivac Zalian mosaxerxebeli iyo.
magaliTad, momxmarebeli pirvel wlebSi Zalian mcire Tanxas ixdida. es
yvelaferi macdurad gamoiyureboda mosaxleobisaTvis da rom ara aSS-s
ipoTekuri obligaciebi, romelic qveynis mTavari safondo da saimedo
instrumentia, es krizisi SeiZleba, aseTi katastrofuli ar yofiliyo.
20
swored es obligaciebi iyides umsxvilesma finansurma institutebma da ara
marto amerikis kontinentze aramed evropaSic, dominos principiT. didi
finansuri zarali miiRes iseTma finansurma institutebma rogoricaa
germanuli banki IKB, sabanko koncerni Commerzbank, saerTaSoriso holdingi
Allianz. maT miyvnen saqsoniis miwebis banki da dublinis komerciuli banki
Ormond Quay. dazaralebulTa Soris aRmoCnda msoflios umsxvilesi banki
Deutche Bank da sxva. am krizisSi mTeli msoflios sabanko sistema aRmoCnda
CaTreuli, ramac mosaxleobaSi panika gamoiwvia da xalxma Tavisi anabrebis
masiurad moTxovna daiwyo, ramac situacia kidev ufro daamZima. oTxmociani
wlebis Semdeg aSS-Si sakredito da sainvesticio funqciebis Serwymam
gaadvila ipoTekuri sesxebis gacemis procesi myari garantiebis gareSe.
Tavidan
amiT
bankebi
Zalian
did
fuls
Soulobdnen.
amerikelebi
yidulobdnen uZrav qonebas bankis mxridan 100 procentiani dafinasebiT,
xolo mzardi saprocento ganakveTebisa da uZravi qonebis bazarze, arsebuli
krizisis gamo, kreditorebi veRar axerxebdnen kreditebis gadaxdas. is
bankebi, romlebic finansuri sistemis yvelaze Zleir mxares warmoadgendnen
TandaTan dasustdnen da maTma statusma “sainvesticio banki” mutacia
ganicada da Cveulebriv bankebad Camoyalibdnen. ori amerikuli bankis Fannie
Mae-s da Freddie Mac-is mier gacemulma ipoTekurma sesxebma saerTo jamSi 5,3
miliardi aSS dolari Seadgina. udidesi sakredito institutebi, maT Soris,
umsxvilesi amerikuli sadazRveo kompania AIG da germanuli sabanko holdingi
Hypo Real Estate, gakotrebas mxolod saxelmwifos mxridan gamoyofili
kreditebis daxmarebiT gadaurCnen. msoflios udidesi 100 banki ki iZulebuli
gaxda 520 miliardi aSS dolaris davalianeba Camoewera.
unda aRiniSnos, rom finansur kriziss garkveuli biZgi misca amerikis
mier 2000-2007 wlebSi ganxorcielebulma politikam, ratomRac
aravin
ukvirdeboda imas, rom dRevandeli krizisis gamomwvevi mizezi swored aSS-s
wina administraciis mier gadadgmuli nabijebi iyo. sxvaTa Soris, jer kidev
2004 wels cnobilma ekonimistma, nobelis premiis laureatma pol krugmanma
Tavis monografiaSi “didebuli tyuili” pirdapir mianiSna, rom amerikisaTvis
rTuli iqneboda gaberili sapensio, samedicino da samxedro programebis
momsaxureba, romelic ZiriTadad wina saarCevno programis piari iyo. Man
mkacrad gaakritika saSemosavlo da memkvidreobiT gacemuli qonebis
gadasaxadebis Semcireba, romelic ZiriTadad maRalSemosavlian fenas anu mas
Seexo, visac weliwadSi 200,000 aSS dolari qonda, dabalma da saSualo
Semosavlianma ojaxebma es SeRavaTi naklebad igrZnes da bolos ipoTekuri
obligaciebis gamoSveba, romelic Semdgom Sesyiduli iqna evropisa da
sxvadasxva finansuri institutebis mier, riTac am procesSi CaTreuli iqna
mTeli msoflio. swored am mecnierma iwinaswarmetyvela, rom es ekonomikuri
politika amerikas finansur krizisamde miiyvanda da Semdeg mTel msoflios
moereoda.
Tumca gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi aqvs amerikel mecniers, aseve
nobelis premiis laureats Josef stiglics, romelic amJamad gaerTianebuli
erebis organizaciis anti krizisul sabWos xelmZRvanelobs. is Tvlis, rom
21
swored globalizacia da erovnuli ekonomikebis urTierTgamWoloba gaxda
damatebiTi faqtori krizisis gaRrmavebis. am rekomendaciebs Soris,
mniSvnelovania, rom msoflio, erovnuli da kerZo finansuri institutebi
gaxdes maqsimalurad gamWvirvale, dacul iqnas erTiani standartebi finansur
seqtorSi, Seiqmnas valutis erTiani, msoflio rezervebi. kapitalis bazrebis
globaluri integraciis zrda xels uSlis calkeuli qveynebis mier
ekonomikiri
politikis
gatarebas,
xolo
ekonomikis
kargaxsnilobas
urTierTsapirispiro movlenebi mosdevs: erTis mxriv mimdinareobs sxvadasxva
qveynebis meurneobaTa integracia, iqmneba Tavisufali vaWrobis zonebi, xolo
meores mxriv calkeuli qveynebi amJRavneben msoflio batonobis survils.
msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciis gaRrmavebam Tavisi negatiuri mxareebi
mkafiod gamoavlina. krizisma gadainacvla TiTqmis yvela kontinentze, Seirya
sabanko seqtorebi_aziis udides qveynebSi, CineTSi, indoeTSi, iaponiaSi,
agreTve msxvil qveynebSi rogoricaa brazilia, ruseTi, kanada. krizisis
masStaburobam da gavrcelebis siswrafem mTavrobebis dabneuloba gamoiwvia.
Tavidan TiToeuli saxelmwifo cdilobda damoukideblad SebrZoleboda
krizisis procesebs, magram Semdgom yvelasaTvis naTeli gaxda, rom
avtonomiur reJimSi krizisis daZleva SeuZlebeli iyo. swored amitom
aucilebeli gaxda msoflios did saxelmwifoebs SeTanxmebulad da
sinqronulad emoqmedaT, didi oceulis saxiT.
2009-2010 webSi iyo mcdeloba, msoflios finansuri krizisisTvis Tavi
daeRwiaT, Tumca es mcdeloba arcTu ise advili aRmoCnda. aRsaniSnavia, rom
msoflios
globaluri finansur-ekonomikuuri krizisis
dros
“didma
oceulma” (sxvaTa Soris didi oceulis qveynebze modis msoflios
mosaxleobis 70%-mde, mTliani Sida produqtis 90 da msoflio vaWrobis 80%)
krizisis mZime Sedegebis maqsimalurad Sesarbileblad gadamwyveti roli
Seasrula. miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTieul qveyanas Tavisi miznebi da
amocanebi qonda gadawyvetilebis miReba erTiani konsesusiT xdeboda, rac
ZiriTadad krizisidan gamosavlis Ziebis yvela etapze Semdeg mimarTulebebs
moicavda: ekonomikis saxelmwifo stimulireba, saerTaSoriso finansuri
institutebis regulirebis gamkacreba da maTi saqmianobis gamWirvalobis
gazrda,
proteqcionizmis
minimizacia
vaWrobisa
da
ekonomikis
sxva
seqtorebSi.
Tanamedrve globaluri finansuri krizisis ganviTarebis fonze,
msofliom gverdi ver auara isev da isev miviwyebul keinsis ekonomikur
Teorias,
ekonomikis
regulirebis
aucileblobis
Sesaxeb,
ekonomikis
stabilurad funqcionirebisaTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom pirvel etapze
zogierTi evropuli qveyana Tavs ikavebda saxelmwifos mxridan ekonomikaSi
Carevaze, maT mainc mouwiaT am nabijis gadagma. amis naTeli magaliTia
germania, romelic ar apirebda miliardebis xarjvas. pirvel etapze maT
hqondaT
ekonomikis
stimulirebis 31
mlrd.evroiani gegma,
romelic
dawunebul iqna mcire moculobis gamo. SemdgomSi waradgines 50 miliardiani
stimulirebis paketi amas plus 100 miliardiani garantia saxelmwifos
mxridan im bankebisaTvis, romlebic gascemdnen kreditebs kerZo kompaniebis
22
dasaxmareblad.
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi axlad arCulma prezidentma barak obamam
finansuri krizisis dasaZlevad 800 miliardamde dolari moiTxova.
aRniSnuli gegma iTvaliswinebda Semdeg RonisZiebebs: safinanso sabanko
sistemis mowesrigebas, msxvili saavtomobilo kompaniebis daxmarebas, 4
milionze meti samuSao adgilis Seqmnas, aralikviduri aqtivebis yidvas,
garkveuli kontinentis moqalaqeebisaTvis sabanko tarifebis Semcirebas.
aRniSnul qveynebs, miuxedavad Tavisi liberaluri ekonomikisa arc
iaponia CamorCa. man 270 miliardi gamoyo bankebisaTvis mosaxleobisa da
kompaniebis mier aRebuli kreditebis vadis gagrZelebisaTvis, xolo 20
miliardi erTjeradi daxmareba saSualo da dabalSemosavlian ojaxebze.
TiTqmis analogiuri ekonomikis mastimulirebeli RonisZiebebi gaatares sxva
saxelmwifoebmac.
msoflioSi ganxorcielebulma aseTma mastimulirebelma sainvesticio
politikam udavod xeli Seuwyo ekonomikis gamococxlebas da SedarebiT
Seamsubuqes krizisis gavlena msoflioze, es pozitiuri nabiji iyo, magram
arsebobs erTi garemoeba, romelic zogadad ekonomikur TeoriaSic ki
investiciebis ganxorcielebis Tanmdevia da romelic garkveulad xelsuwyobs
inflaciur procesebs. aseTi movlena msoflioSi erTxel ukve dafiqsirda,
rodesac gasuli saukunis 40-50-ian wlebSi fulad-sakredito politikis roli
ekonomikaSi srulad ignorirebuli iqna da gavrcelda Sexeduleba, rom
investiciebsa da fulad masas Soris aris mxolod Zalzed susti kavSiri.
gamomdinare
aqedan
ekonomikuri
stabilizaciis
programebSi
mTavari
mniSvneloba mieniWa investiciebis sabiujeto stimulirebas, ramac TandaTan
daagrova inflaciuri potenciali, romelic Semdeg realurad gamovlinda 7080-ian wlebSi didi inflaciiT. eseigi aseTi didi ineqciebis SeSveba,
erTdroulad, didi doziT raTqmaunda erTis mxriv xels uwyobs ekonomikis
gamococxlebas, umuSevrobis Semcirebas, xolo meores mxriv inflaciuri
procesebis
mastimulirebelia,
romelic
dResac
saxezea.
msoflios
mravalwliani gamocdileba mowmobs, rom umuSevrobis winaaRmdeg brZola
nebismieri xerxebiT
xSirad mTvardeba inflaciis
gazrdiT,
Sromis
mwarmoeblurobis
SemcirebiT,
bazris
moqnilobis
SesustebiT,
rasac
sabolood umuSevrobis gazrdasTan mivyavarT. finansuri krizisis daZlevis
mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba iyo TviTon am sakiTxisadmi seriozuli
midgoma, swored am mizniT londonSi Sedga didi oceulis samiti, sadac
saxelmwifos liderebma SeimuSaves erTiani gza globaluri krizisis
daZlevisaTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom dafiqsirda azrTa sxvadasxvaoba mainc
moxda konsolidacia mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze kerZod: msoflio ekonomikis
gadasarCenad 2010 wlis bolomde 5 trilioni dolari iqna gamoyofili,
amasTan damatebiT trilion dolarze meti uSualod savaluto fonds
gamoeyo. gadawyda, rom savaluto fondi Raribi qveynebis dasaxmareblad
sakuTari oqros rezervebis nawils gamoiyenebda. 2502 miliardi dolari
saerTaSoriso vaWrobis stimulirebisTvis daixarja. aRsaniSnavia rom
krizisebma xeli Seuwyo calkeuli regionebis daaxloebas da ukve arsebuli
23
gaerTianebis mWidro TanamSromlobas da erTiani gadawyvetilebis miRebas.
magaliTad opekis qveynebi, romlebic msoflio sanavTobo maragSi 70%-ze mets
akontroleben, cdiloben TavianT rigebSi gaaerTianon meqsika, ruseTi da
sxva. aseve gamoikveTa msxvili transnacionaluri kompaniebis Seqmna,
magaliTad Sanxais organizacias survili aqvs evropasTan erTad Seqmnas
erTiani energetikuli bazari.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
i.mesxia “saerTaSoriso finansebi” Tb, 2012w
2.
analitikuri jgufi “konsiliumi” ”msoflio ekonomikuri krizisi,
geopolitika da saqrTvelo”. ianvari 2009w
3.
gazeTi “bankebi da finansebi” internet gamocema “msoflio
finansuri krizisi da saqarTvelo”
4.
gazeTi “24 saaTi” internet gamocema ”msoflio ekonomikuri
krizisis erTi weli” 2009w
5.
l.eliava ”sabanko krizisebis prognozireba” Tb, 2013
World Financial Crisis, Its Results and Ways of Settlement
Nodar Okroshiashvili
Resume
The proposed papers discusses about the global financial crisis, its causes and consequences on
the example of different countries. It is proposed certain measures to prevent financial crisis and
improve financial conditions on the modern stage.
turizmis biznesis
ganviTareba klimatis globaluri cvlilebis fonze
sofiko gogalaZe
turizmis specialobis II kursi E-mail: [email protected]
xelmZRvaneli: manana aladaSvili
biznes administrirebis doqtori
E-mail: [email protected], (095 32) 2292800; 59918090
dedamiwis ekologiur mdgomareobaze did gavlenas axdens rogorc
bunebrivi, aseve adamianis anTropogenuli saqmianoba, rac sxvadasxva formiT
aisaxeba msoflios sxvadasxva regionebsa da ekosistemebze.
adamianis sawarmoo saqmianobis erT-erT mavne Sedegs warmoadgens
globaluri
klimatis
cvlileba,
romlis
damRupveli
zegavlena
24
TandaTanobiT
igrZnoba ekonomikis sxvadasxva seqtorebze, gansakuTrebiT
iseT seqtorebze, romlebic ufro mowyvladni (mgrZnobiareni) arian. aseT
seqtorebs miekuTvneba turizmi da sakurorto meurneobis marTva.
adamianis samrewvelo saqmianobis Sedegad bunebaSi gamoiyofa eqvsi mavne
gazi, romelTa Soris procentulad yvelaze meti naxSirorJangia,
miiRes
saTburis gazebis saxelwodeba. aRniSnuli airebi STanTqaven dedamiwidan
atmosferoSi gaSvebul infrawiTel gamosxivebas da abruneben mas dedamiwaze.
am process `saTburis efeqti ewodeba~.
globaluri klimatis cvlilebis mimarT erT-erT yvelaze mgrZnobiare
fizikuri sistemaa kriosfero.
gasul saukuneSi dawyebulma globalurma
daTbobam gamoiwvia Crdilo naxevarsferoSi myinvarebis intensiuri dnoba.
praqtikaSi daTbobis Zlieri trendis arsebobam SesamCnevi zemoqmedeba
moaxdina
grelandiis
yinulovani
safaris
gadnobis
daCqarebaze.
es
ukanaskneli bolo 10 wlis manZilze yovelwliurad kargavs 100 mlrd kubur
metramde yinuls, rasac am aTwleulSi Seesabameba okeanis donis aweva
daaxloebiT 3mm-iT. modelurma gamoTvlebma aCvena, Tu arqtikaSi lokaluri
daTboba 1000 wlis manZilze,
Tanamedrove temperaturasTan SedarebiT
0
SenarCundeba 5,5 C-is farglebSi, es gamoiwvevs grelandiis yinulovani
safaris mniSvnelovan Semcirebas, rasac mohyveba okeanis donis 3 metriT
aweva. grelandiis yinulovani safaris ramdenime aTasi wlis Semdeg sruli
gadnobis SemTxvevaSi, msoflio okeanis done 7 metriT aiwevs.
zRvis donis aweva mniSvnelovan problemebs uqmnis saqarTvelosac Savi
zRvis sanapiro zolSi, gansakuTrebiT _ kolxeTis dablobis dasavleT
nawilSi, sadac erTdroulad mimdinareobs xmeleTis teqtonikuri daweva. am
TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebiT mowyvladia md. rionis delta, sadac, rogorc
sxvagan, zRvis donem gasul saukuneSi 20 sm-iT aiwia, xolo xmeleTma,
mezobeli regionebisgan (aWara da afxazeTi) gansxvavebiT, daiwia 50 sm-iT. es
ki ra Tqma unda xels SeuSlis turizmsa da sakurorto meurneobis marTvas.
aseve uaryofiTi Sedegebidan aRsaniSnavia:
zRvis sanapiro zonaSi zedmetad cxeli amindebisa (sicxis talRebis
gaxangrZliveba) da wvimiani dReebis moWarbeba ivlis-agvistoSi, rac am
TveebSi SedarebiT diskomfortul pirobebs Seuqmnis turistebs;
Zlieri Stormebis sixSiris zrdis Sedegad, zRvis sanapiro
zonaSi
dasvenebis pirobebis gauareseba, Zlier RelvasTan dakavSirebuli
safrTxeebis zrda; agreTve, plaJebis intensiuri warecxva da sanapiro zolis
datborva;
maRalmTian zonaSi 2050 wlamde zamTris saSualo temperaturis
TiTqmis
matebis SeTxvevaSi, mosalodneli iqneba saTxilamuro sezonis
1-1,5 TviT Semokleba, Tumca, prognozis Tanaxmad, naleqTa raodenoba amave
dros, sa¬varaudod, TiTqmis 30%-iT gaizrdeba, rac, garkveulwilad,
daakompensirebs daTbobis uaryofiT Sedegebs;
20C-iT
25
klimatis
cvlilebis
globalur
problemasTan
globalurad
sabrZolvelad, 1992 wels Seiqmna gaeros klimatis cvlilebis konvencia.
konvenciis mxareTa konferenciis mesame sesiam miiRo kiotos oqmi. 1997
wlis 1-11 dekembers mxareebi Seikribnen kiotoSi (iaponia) berlinis mandatis
procesis dasasruleblad. maT mier SemuSavebuli oqmi aris dakanonebuli
savaldebulo xelSekruleba, romlis ZaliTac industriulma qveynebma 20082012 wlebis periodisaTvis 5,2%-iT unda Seamciron eqvsi saTburi airis
koleqtiuri emisiebi.
saqarTvelo `kiotos oqms~ SeurTda 1999 wlis 16
ivniss.
kiotos oqmiT yvelaze mniSvnelovania ganaxlebadi
mzis da qaris
energiis aTviseba; romelTagan mniSvnelovania mzis energia.
saqarTvelos
mzis energiis didi potenciali gaaCnia.
miuxedavad msoflioSi mimdinare klimaturi cvlilebebisa turizmi
agrZelebs zrdas da ganviTarebas ufro mkveTrad da ufro dinamikurad,
vidre sxva mravali dargi wlebis manZilze.
cxrili 1.
saerTaSoriso turistebis Camosvlebis prognozi msoflios masStabiT
da regionebis mixedviT
regionebi
evropa
aRmosavleT azia
amerika
afrika
Sua aRmosavleTi
samxreT azia
msoflio
2000
390
116
134
27
19
6
692
2010
527
231
195
46
37
11
1,047
2020
717
438
284
75
69
19
1,602
wyaro: gaerTianebuli erebis msoflio turizmis organizacia (UNWTO)
rogorc naCvenebia cxrilSi 1, saerTaSoriso turistebis Camosvlebis
prognozi Seadgenda 1 miliards 2010 wlisaTvis da miaRwevs 1.6 miliardze met
vizitors 2020 wels, rac metyvelebs, rom yovelwliurad turistebis mateba
Seadgens 4,4%-s, xolo evropa rCeba udides maspinZel qveyanad msoflioSi.
metad mniSvnelovania, rom msoflio mogzaurobisa da turizmis sabWos
(WTTC) kvlevis mixedviT, 2020 wlisaTvis 303,0 milioni adamiani msoflioSi
dasaqmebuli iqneba samuSaoebze, romlebic iarsebeben, radgan iarsebebs
moTxovna mogzaurobasa da turizmze.
dRes msoflioSi, regionul da erovnul doneebze, mogzauroba da
turizmi qmnis 9 procentze meti odenobis pirdapir da arapirdapir
dasaqmebas. eqspertTa prognoziT, dargis ganviTareba momavalSic maRali
tempebiT
gagrZeldeba da mimdinare saukunis 20-30-iani wlebi¬saTvis
26
msoflio ekonomikis
daikavebs.
wamyvan
dargebs
Soris
erT-erT
mowinave
adgils
aRsaniSnavia,
rom
klimatis
cvlilebiT
gamowveuli masStabebis
miuxedavad, turizmSi CarTul yvela biznessa da daniSnulebis adgils
mouwevs klimatis cvlilebasTan adaptacia, raTa minimumamde Seamciron misi
Tanmxlebi riskebi da gamoiyenon axali SesaZleblobebi ekonomikuri,
socialuri da ekologiuri mdgradobis farglebSi.
turizmis ganviTareba ver iqneba mdgradi, Tu is ar aris saTanadod
dagegmili da marTuli. radganac turizmze da Sesabamisad, resursebze
moTxovna matulobs, saWiroa mdgradi ganviTarebis midgomebis gamoyeneba.
sxvadasxva saxis biznesebs Soris, turizmi yvelaze metad aris
motivirebuli - xeli Seuwyos garemosa da biznes eTikis dacvas. garemo aris
is resursi, romelsac turizmi efuZneba da misi saTanadod dacvis gareSe
ganadgurdeba is bunebrivi sanaxaobebi, romlebic uamrav turists izidavs.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
metreveli m., `garemo da ekoturizmis menejmenti~, Tb., 2012;
2.
qarTveliSvili l. ,,saqarTveloSi turizmis sainvesticio garemos
saimedoobis
Sefaseba
klimatis
cvlilebis
gaTvaliswinebiT‟‟,
mesame
saerTaSoriso samecniero konferencia, mdgradi turizmi: ekonomika da
biznesi, baTumi, 2012.
3.
mumlaZe d.,
`klimatis
cvlilebis Tanamedrove
tendenciebi~ Tb.,
1993;
4.
Tb., 2010;
pepanaSvili n., klimiaSvili l., ,,garemo da mdgradi ganviTareba‟‟,
5.
Carlz r. geldneri., “turizmi - safuZvlebi, praqtika, Teoria”,
baTumi 2013.
Developing Tourism Business in the Background of Global Climate Change
Sofiko Gogaladze
Resume
Human anthropogenic activities significantly affects earth’s ecological condition, and
one of the harmful effect represents a possible global climate warming, it is necessary to take into
account the effects of the economic sectors of the correct development of design and management
which are sensitive to climate change. It is one of those fields, which belong tourism and resort farm
management.
Because of close connections to the environment and climate, tourism is considered to
27
be highly climate-sensitive economic sector. Climate change impacts are already evident in many of
the tourist destination in the world- whether it’s a ski or sea resort.
It should be noted that, because of climate change cause, despite the impacts and the
scales, all businesses and destination places involved in tourism has to adapt to climate change, to
minimize its accompanying risks and use new opportunities within the sustainability of economic,
social and ecology.
beTania
goga demetraSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
turizmis specialobis II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: Tamar bukia-verulaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected] tel: 593 36 69 79
beTania qarTuli xuroTmoZRvrebis erT-erTi brwyinvale arqiteqturuli
Zeglia. igi Tbilisidan dasavleTiT 17 km manZilze, md. veres xeobaSi
mdebareobs, romlis irgvliv warmtaci bunebaa. Amitomacaa, rom es adgili
uamrav mnaxvels izidavs. Misi kedlebi dafarulia saukeTeso freskuli
mxatvrobiT, romelsac amSvenebs Tamaris saxe. taZari koncxze dgas. taZris
irgvliv odesrac ganlagebuli samonastro nagebobebidan TiTqmis aRarferia
darCenili. axali agebulia samxreT-dasavleTiT orsarTuliani Senoba.
mTavari taZris Crdilo-dasavleTiT, ramdenime nabijze mdebareobs
wminda giorgis saxelobis mcire darbazuli eklesia, agebuli 1196 wels. igi
taZris Zvel galavans Cvenamde ar mouRwevia, magram SemdegSi ezo sxvadasxva
nagebobis taZris Zvel galavans Cvenamde ar mouRwevia, magram SemdegSi ezo
sxvadasxva nagebobis fragmentebiT SemoufarglavT. Aaq naxavT qvis SenobaTa
CuqurTmian fragmentebs, romlebidanac, zogi taZris Tanadroulia, zogi ki
gviandel xanas miekuTvneba. aseT didebul taZars satrapezo da senakebic
saTanadod morTuli unda hqonoda. Zeglis Sesaxeb XIX da XX saukuneebis
sakmao literature arsebobs, magram maTSi uSualod taZris Sesaxeb cota ram
aris naTqvami. beTania tradiciulad warmoadgenda qarTveli feodalebis –
orbelianebis sagvareulo saZvales. taZris xelaxla aRmoCena grigol
orbelians ukavSirdeba. Aam ukanasknelma nadirobisas SemTxveviT aRmoaCina
beTaniis monasteri, romelic saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi miviwyebuli iyo. .XIX
saukunis bolos taZars restavracia Cautarda. Tanamedrove specialur
literaturaSi taZris agebis TariRs istoriul portretebs ukavSireben.
mokle istoriuli eqskursiT vecdebiT konkretuli TariRis dadgenas. taZris
CrdiloeTis kedlis qveda registrze ganlagebulia mefeebis – laSa-giorgis,
Tamarisa da giorgi III-is gamosaxulebebi. Aam kompozicias orive mxares
amTavrebs wmindanTa saxeebi. yuradsaRebia is garemoeba, rom samives gvirgvini
adgas da amasTanave, laSas xmali hkidia. xmlis Camokideba, TavisTavad, mefed
kurTxevas niSnavs. Ee.i. am mxatvrobis Sesrulebisas laSa ukve mefe iyo.
istoriuli cnobebiT ki dadgenilia, rom laSa Tamarma Tavis
28
Tanamosaydred gaixada 1207 wels, meuRlis daviT soslanis gardacvalebis
Semdeg. beTaniis kedlebis moxatva imave wels Tu ara axlo wlebSi
moxdeboda.
rac Seexeba TviT taZars, interierSi kedlebis moxatvis dawyebisas
Senoba damTavrebuli unda yofiliyo. aseTi didi taZris agebas 5-10 weli
mainc dasWirdeboda. Aaqedan gamomdinare eklesiis mSenebloba unda
dawyebuliyo araugvianes XIII saukunis pirveli wlebisa. Tu nagebobis
arqiteqturuli
proeqtis
Sedgenasac
miviRebT
mxedvelobaSi,
maSin
mSeneblobis dawyebis drod XII saukunis miwuruli, damTavrebisad ki – XIII
saukunis pirveli aTeulis meore naxevari unda miviCnioT. Ee.i. Tamamad
SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom beTaniis eklesia aSenebulia XII saukunis bolos da XIII
saukunis pirvel naxevarSi.
beTaniis taZris ZiriTadi korpusis gegma gare sworkuTxedSia
moqceuli, xolo damatebiTi sadgomebi samxreTiT da dasavleTiT mdebareobs.
taZarSi ori Sesasvlelia – dasavleTidan da samxreTidan, interieris mTavar
da rTul nawils sakurTxevlis mxare warmoadgens. igi centraluri Ria
nawilisa da gverdiTi kompartimentebisagan Sedgeba, xolo centraluri
nawili – Rrma afsidisa da ganieri bemisagan. mTlianad am sakurTxevels erTi
ganieri safexuri Semouyveba Camosasxdomad. iqve, centrSi, niSia moTavsebuli.
ganaTebis wyaros warmoadgens sami sarkmeli, romelTagan centraluri
maRalia, gverdiTebi ki – dabali. sakurTxevlis gverdis kompartimentebi ororsarTuliania. qvemoT moTavsebulia samkveTlo da sadiakvne, zemoT ki e.w.
saidumlo oTaxebi. samkveTlo da sadiakvne darbazs ganieri SesasvlelebiT
ukavSirdeba, xolo sakurTxevels – SedarebiT viwro karebiT. Ees saTavsebi
afsidebiT mTavrdeba da kamarebiTaa gadaxuruli. gverdiT kedlebSi patara
niSebia moTavsebuli. trapezi ar SemorCenila. sinaTlisaTvis orives TiTo
sarkmeli aqvs aRmosavleTidan, xolo sadiakvnes samxreTidanac aqvs patara
mrgvali sarkmeli. Mmeore sarTulze moxvedra SeiZleba sadiakvnes Crdilo
kedelSi Catanebuli xvreliT. Aaseve meore sarTulidan kibiT SeiZleba
moxvdeT konqszeda sivrceSi. Aam saTavss aRmosavleTiT gamoWrili patara
sarkmeli anaTebs. es sivrce dabali kariT ukavSirdeba gumbaTis yels,
sartylis zemoT. taZris centrSi aRmarTuli gumbaTi sakurTxevlis
kuTxeebsa da dasavleTiT or pilons. maRali cilindris yelSi Tormeti
erTgvarovani sarkmelia ganlagebuli. dasavleTis sayrdeni dabal rvagverda
pilonebs warmoadgens.
taZris ZiriTadi sivrce, romlis gegmaSic jvris formaa, aRmosavleTiT
afsidiT mTavrdeba, danarCeni sami mklavi ki – sworkuTxaa. oTxive mklavi
gadaxurulia isruli formis kamariT. Aaseve isruli moxazulobis TaRebiT
uerTdeba dasavleTis jvris mklavs gverdiTi navebi. isruli forma aqvs
sadiakvnesa da samkveTloSi Sesasvlelebis gadamxurav TaRebsac.
darbazs, gumbaTis sarkmlebis garda, jvris mklavebSi dayolebuli samsami sarkmeli anaTebs. taZris kamarebsa da TaRebs Tu isruli forma aqvs,
yvela sarkmlis TaRi naxevarwriuli moxazulobisaa.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom taZris Sida kedlebi Tavidanve Sesalesad da
mosaxatad iyo gankuTvnili, amitom ar iyo Tlili qviT Semosili. samxreTiT
29
mdebare karibWe Signidan sami nawilisgan Sedgeba. centrs, sazeimo iers
aniWebs sxivebis msgavsad damuSavebuli kamara. Ggverdis Tanatoli mklavebi
martivad, cilindruli kamarebiTaa gadaxuruli. orsafexurian cokolze
aRmarTuli taZris qveda korpusi, albaT, martivi profilis mqone karniziT
mTavrdeboda, zemoT ki Senobis oTxi mklavis gadakveTaze, gumbaTi
aRumarTavT. taZari garedan mTlianad Tlili kvadrebiTaa Semosili. rogorc
sxva qarTul taZrebze, aqac ostati naklebad icavs horizontalur rigebsa
da vertikalur nakerebs. gansxvavebuli feris qvebisagan igi zolebs an rame
formas ki ar qmnida, aramed qvas iq debda sadac mouxvdeboda. swored es
aZlevda im epoqis taZrebs ganumeorebel saxes.
beTaniis taZris fasadebidan mTavaria aRmosavleTis fasadi, romelic
sxvebTan SedarebiT mdidruladaa morTuli. mTavari aqcenti gadatanilia
centralur RerZze. aq ganlagebulia: didi sarkmlis moCarCoeba, TavsarTi da
jvari. Ffasadze mdebare xuTi sarkmlidan sami erT sistemadaa dekorirebuli,
ori ki – gansxvavebuliT. maT erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs is, rom pirvelSi
sarkmlis TaRovan xvrels TaRovanive moCarCoeba uvlis, xolo meoregan –
sworkuTxa.
niSebSi moqceul or sarkmels sworkuTxa moxazulobis farTo
CuqurTmiani arSia Semouyveba. fasadis maRla mdebare jvari dakavSirebulia
mcire sarkmelTan. Sarkmelze Semoyolebuli arSia TavisTavad jvars qmnis.
centralur RerZs aZlierebs mTavari sarkmlis TavsarTi ornamentebiani
farTo lentiT. samxreT fasadis morTulobis erTgvari gamawonasworebelia
marjvena monakveTze dasmuli medalioni, romelic Mmcire sarkmels
Semofarglavs. Ffasadis danarCeni nawili SiSvelia.
karibWe, romelsac fasadis
marcxena naxevari aqvs mokavebuli, am
mxares organulad erwymis. radgan taZarSi Sesasvleli aqedan aqvs,
momsvlels gansakuTrebiT es karibWe rCeba mexsierebaSi. karibWis centri
didi TaRiT iyo gaxsnili. karibWis samive fasadi TiTqmis erTi zomis
TaRediTaa damuSavebuli. karibWis samxreT fasadis Subli gansakuTrebiTaa
morTuli tolmklava jvrisa da mis Tavze mdebare medalioniT. karibWes
martivi profilis mqone CuqurTmiani karnizi amTavrebs.
mopirdapire CrdiloeTis fasadi samxreTis moxazulobas imeorebs,
morTulobiT ki misgan gansxvavdeba. iq Tu SuaSi jvari iyo, aq igi
uaryofilia. Mxolod TaRebs Soris medalionia, romelic, patara wriuli
sarkmlis morTulobas warmoadgens. TviT maRal sarkmlebs gars uvlis
farTo ornamentaluri arSia.
fasadis marcxena mxareze mdebare patara wriul sarkmels sworkuTxa
profilis TavsarTi axuravs. Senobis karnizi ar SemorCenila, magram
SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom karnizi yvelgan Cveulebrivi profilisaa da
CuqurTmiT iyo dafaruli.
taZris brwyinvale nawilia gumbaTi. droTa viTarebas sakmaod
dauzianebia igi, magram masSi axlac gamosWvivis Zveli didebuleba. gumbaTis
cilindrul masaSi Tormeti sarkmelia gaWrili. Tormetive sarkmels TaRedi
Semoufarglavs. gumbaTisa da taZris qveda korpussac Tavdapirveli
gadaxurva ar SerCenia, amJamad TunuqiT, xolo restavraciamde kramitiT
30
yofila gadaxuruli.
taZarSi daculia kedlis mxatvroba, romelic qarTuli monumenturi
mxatvrobis ganviTarebis garkveuli etapis, - XII-XIII saukuneebis mijnis
SesaniSnav nimuSs warmoadgens. mxatvroba gamoirCeva Sesrulebis maRali
ostatobiT. sakurTxevlis konqSi moTavsebuli iyo kompozicia “vedreba”.
sakurTxevlis afsidis kedlebze gamosaxulni arian winaswarmetyvelebi
romelTac xelSi qarTulxelnawerebiani gragnilebi uWiravT. gumbaTis
moxatuloba erTianad Selesilia. CrdiloeTi kedeli eTmoba macxovris
vnebaTa cikls, xolo samxreTi kedeli Zveli aRTqmis scenebs. dasavleTis
kedeli ekava dRis kompozicias.
religiuri Sinaarsis scenebis gverdiT, mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs
istoriul pirTa – giorgi III-is, Tamar mefisa da laSa-giorgis portretebs.
Mmoxatuloba
Sesrulebulia
Tamaris
sicocxleSi,
laSa-giorgis
Tanamosaydred gamocxadebis xanaSi, daaxloebiT 1207 wels. beTaniis
eklesiaSi arsebuli Tamar mefis freska erT-erTia saqarTveloSi arsebuli
misi oTxi freskidan.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
arqimandriti lazare - beTania - saxli siglaxakisa, Tbilisi,
2002w.
2.
3.
4.
Sesaxeb
5.
nakaduli,
6.
7.
8.
amiranaSvili S., qarTuli xelovnebis istoria, Tb., 1971;
beriZe v. - "Zveli qarTuli xuroTmoZRvreba" Tb., 1974
privalova e. XII-XIII - ss mijnis qarTuli monumenturi ferweris
CorgolaSvili m., -...TiTqos aq viyo dabadebuli..., Tbilisi,
1990w.
ciciSvili i., qarTuli arqiteqturis istoria, Tb., 1955;
ciciSvili i., qse, t. 2, gv. 268, Tb., 1977
gazeTi - sapatriarqos uwyebani, #38 (191), 2002w.
resursebi internetSi
1. http://www.orthodoxy.ge
2. http://betania.ge
3. http://www.betaneli.ge
4. http://ka.wikipedia.org
5. http://chitucio.blogspot.com
6. http://www.nplg.gov.ge
7. http://wikimapia.org
8. http://children.wanex.net
9. http://forum.gol.ge
10. http://www.iverieli.ucoz.com
11. http://www.dzeglebi.ge/galerea/betania
31
Betania
Goga Demetrashvili
Resume
Betania Monastery is a remarkable piece of architecture of Georgia. It is famous for its wall
paintings and among them - a mural of the female sovereign of Georgia - 'king of kings" Tamar. The
mural from Betania with Tamar's image is one of the four frescos in Georgia with Tamar's portraits.
The Betania Monastery was built in the XII-XIII centuries.
turistuli marSruti:
`Tbilisi-bolnisi-dmanisi~
koba tabataZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
turizmis specialobis II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: Tamar bukia-verulaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected] tel: 593 36 69 79
saqarTvelo
turizmis
klasikuri
qveyanaa,
romlis
potencials
ganapirobebs moxerxebuli sakvanZo mdebareoba kavkasiis satransportogeografiul
arealSi;
mdidari
bunebriv-rekreaciuli
resursebi
_
xelsayreli hava, mravalferovani reliefi, mineraluri wyaroebi, myinvarebi,
samkurnalo talaxi, mRvimeebi, tyiTa da endemuri mcenareulobiT dafaruli
teritoriebi,
nakrZalebi,
bunebis
unikaluri
Zeglebi,
Tvalwarmtaci
landSaftebi da peizaJebi; siZveliTa da originalobiT gamorCeuli
kulturul-istoriuli RirsSesaniSnaobebi; istoriul-geografiuli mxareebis
eTnografiuli
Taviseburebebi;
mravalsaukunovani
arqeologiuri
da
arqiteqturuli
Zeglebi;
mdidari
folklori.
aqedan
gamomdinare,
saqarTvelos realuri SesaZlebloba aqvs gaxdes maRalganviTarebuli
turizmis qveyana, turizmi ki msoflio ekonomikaSi erT-erTi yvelaze
maRalSemosavliani
sferoa.
saqarTvelosTvis,
rogorc
ganviTarebadi
qveynisaTvis, turizmis ganviTarebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs.
marSruti
saqarTvelos
dedaqalaq
Tbilisidan
iwyeba,
saidanac
mivemarTebiT samxreT-dasavleTiT, bolnisisaken. gzad mravali saintereso
istoriuli Zegli da bunebrivi landSafti Segvxvdeba, romelTagan erT-erTi
umniSnelovanesia Savnabadas eklesia, romelic Tbilisidan 7km-Si, mTavari
gzatkecilis marjvniv Savnabadas goraze mdebareobs. taZari gamoirCeva
daxvewili arqiteqturiTa da mdebareobiT, igi Sua saukuneebs ganekuTvneba.
kumisis
tba,
romelic
samkurnalo
TvisebebiTa
da
TevzTa
mravalferovnebiTaa cnobili.
sofel marabdasTan qarTveli gmirebis, cxra Zma xerxeuliZis memoriali
yvela qarTvelis siamayea.
q. marneulis SesasvlelTan dgas qarTveli qalis simbolo, - ~deda ori
SviliT~.
daba TamarisSi qeTevan dedoflis saxelobis cixe-galavani mdinareebis
32
xramisa da maSaveras SesarTavTanaa gaSenebuli.
q. bolnisis Sesasvlels amSvenebs ori lomis qandakeba da bolnuri
jvari. bolnisi qalaqs daerqva XIII-XIV s-Si. 1818 wels ruseTis imperiis
dedofalma ekaterinem aq Camoasaxla viutenbergis mxaris germanelebi
(Svabebi) da dasaxlebas katarinenfeldi uwoda, 1921 wlidan 1943 wlamde am
qalaqs erqva luqsemburgi, xolo 1943 wlidan - isev bolnisi.
q.
luqsemburgSi
mcxovrebi
germanelebi
ZiriTadad
misdevdnen
mevenaxeobas (daarses Rvinis qarxana), mexileobasa da mecxoveleobas. hyavdaT
uaRresad kvalificiuri mSeneblebi, zeinklebi, durglebi, mWedlebi, romelTa
aSenebul saxlebs dResac SexvdebiT zogierT quCaze. SemorCenilia Zveli
germanuli teqnoligiiT xorcis damuSavebis wesebi.
Svabebi
kulturis
maRali
doniT
gamoirCeodnen.
germanelebi
gadausaxlebiaT cimbirsa da yazaxeTSi. dRes q. bolnisSi cxovroben
saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis warmomadgenlebi da swored amitom bolnisel
kacs ara aqvs romelime kuTxuri aqcenti. maRalia stumris miRebis kultura,
nairferovania bolniseli kacis sufra.
qalaq bolnisSi aris kino, Teatri, dasasvenebeli parki Tavisi banakiT,
evropul doneze aRWurvili stadionebi, mxareTmcodneobis muzeumi, romelSic
eqsponatebad warmodgenilia qvemo qarTlis teritoriaze arqeologiuri
gaTxrebisas aRmoCenili mravali Zvirfasi da mniSvnelovani nivTi.
XII saukunis kuziani xidi mdinare maSaveraze axlac mkvidrad dgas.
qalaqis samxreTiT mdebare wminda giorgis mTa mcenareuli safaris
mravalferovnebiTa da bunebrivi wiaRiseuli resursebis siuxviT gamoirCeva.
bolniss ~yoranTis~ mTidan gadmohyurebs XIV saukuneSi aSenebuli
wminda giorgi saxelobis eklesia. eklesia Rame ganaTebulia da iseTi
STabeWdileba iqmneba TiTqos CrdiloeTidan varskvlavi brwyinavdes.
bolnisis raionis teritoriaze ganlagebulia 120-ze meti istoriuli
Zegli, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia bolnisis sionis taZari, romelic qalaqidan
8 kilometrSi mdebareobs.
bolnisis
sioni
gansakuTrebuli
Zeglia,
ara
marto
Tavisi
arqiteqturiT, aramed Cveni warsuli kulturis warmomCeni bevri sxva
Zvirfasi masaliTac, rogoricaa: qvaze nakveTi CuqurTma, reliefuri qandakeba,
qarTuli damwerlobis uZvelesi nimuSebi. taZris teritoria garSemortymulia
qvis masiuri ganieri galavniT, romlis SigniT, taZarTan erTad moqceulia
samreklo, agebuli XVII saukunis 80-ian wlebSi.
garedan
bolnisis
sioni
farTod
gawolili,
mZime,
damjdari
proporciebis masiuri Senobaa. amitom kidev ufro moulodnelia da
gasaocrad STambeWdavia taZris interieri,
- maRla aziduli, Tavisuflad
gaSlili, lakonuri da didebuli sivrce. fasadebi sruliad sada da
martivia, TiTqmis yovelgvari morTulobis gareSe. SigniT ki Senoba sakmaod
uxvadaa Semkuli: qvaze nakveTi geometriuli Tu mcenareuli ornamenti,
reliefebi cxovelTa gamosaxulebebiT. mravladaa nagebobis kedlebze
33
sxvadasxva formis
daniSnuleba aqvT.
jvrebic,
romlebsac
xSirad
mxolod
simboluri
bolnisis sionis kedlebs SemorCa oTxi sakmaod vrceli warwera,
asomTavruliT Sesrulebuli.n am warwerebis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnerloba
is aris, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze dRemde aRmoCenili yvelaze Zveli
nimuSebia, romelTa mixedviT gairkva, rom taZari aSenebulia 478-493 ww.
bolnisis sionidan samxreT-dasavleTiT 4 kilometrSi, mTis ferdobze
mdebareobs wuRruRaSenis eklesia. es tanwvrili, maRal gumbaTiani Zegli
amayad gadmoscqeris foladauris xeobas.
taZris kedlebze aRmoCenili
warweriT nageboba XIII-s-is pirvel naxevars ganekuTvneba, laSa-giorgis
mefobis xanas. gamoyenebulia sami feris qva _ moyviTalo, cisferi da
Rvinisferi. moyviTalo feriT morTulia fasadebi, Rvinisferi - qveda
rigebSia gamoyenebuli, cisferi - zedaSi, yovelive es qmnis metad harmoniul
suraTs.
Zeglis maRali gumbaTi mTlianad CuqurTmebiT aris dafaruli, romelic
Sesrulebulia muqi yviTeli qvebiT. gumbaTs mzis mcxunvarebiT oqrosferi
gadakravs, rac mimzidvel iers aZlevs taZars.
qalaq bolnisidan dasavleTiT 12 kilometriT daSorebulia sofeli
tanZia, sadac daibada da gaizarda didi qarTveli meigave da saxelmwifo
moRvawe sulxan-saba orbeliani. amJamad iq misi saxl-muzeumia, romelsac
mravali mnaxveli hyavs.
mdinare xramis xeobaSi tanZiidan 8 kilometris manZilze dgas Sua
saukuneebis arqiteqturis erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSi - fitareTis taZari.
agebulia mefe laSa-giorgis mefobis periodSi, amirejibis qavTar qajifais
Zis mier. gvian Sua saukuneebSi taZris galavani cixis rols asrulebda.
gamoirCeva Sesasvleli koSki da damxmare nagebobebidan marani, romelic
agebulia 1696 w.
gzad dmanisisaken Sua saukuneebis erT-erTi Zveli, Zlieri da lamazi
cixe-simagre – qveSis cixea gaSenebuli. mas Zalze mniSvnelovani strategiuli
adgili ukavia. aqedan Cans vrceli teritoria kazreTidan dawyebuli tanZiabolnisis CaTvliT. cixis dasavleT nawilSi, yvelaze amaRlebul adgilas
agebulia eklesia, romlis kedlebSi V-VI saukuneebis taZris bolnuri
jvrebiT Semkuli qvebia Catanebuli. cixis teritoriaze arqeologiuri
gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenilia sasoflo-sameurneo, sabrZolo da samedicino
nivTebi da wylis ormoebi _ rezervuarebi, sadac wvimis wyals agrovebdnen.
sofel qveSis dasavleTiT 5 kilometrSi mdebareobs daba kazreTi,
romelic mdidaria bunebrivi wiaRiseuliT. amJamad kazreTSi mimdinareobs
oqros mopoveba.
kazreTis teritoriaze Semonaxulia, rogorc adre Sua saukuneebSi
qristianobis gavrcelebasTan dakavSirebuli TviTmyofadi kulturis Zeglebi
– stelebi da qva-jvrebi, aseve saqarTvelos politikuri da ekonomikuri
34
aRmavlobis epoqaSi Seqmnili xelovnebis Sedevrebi _ samebisa da saTxis
eklesiebi.
samebis eklesia gansakuTrebiT lamazia garedan. moyviTalo naTali qviT
nagebi kedlebis qveda rigs baci mwvane zoli gasdevs. morTuloba
mdidrulia, magram zomieri. eklesia garSemortymulia mrgvalkoSkebiani
galavniT, romlis SigniT ramdenime Senoba dgas. maT Soris erTi saostigne,
rac imaze migviTiTebs, rom aq monasteri iyo.
md. kazreTulas marcxena napirze maRla, tyian ferdobze dgas saTxis
eklesia, Semkuli mdidruli dekoriTa da warwerebiT. igi ramdenime epoqis
Semoqmedebis nayofia, romelTagan uadresi adre Sua saukuneebs ganekuTvneba,
xolo ugvianesi XVI-XVII ss. saTxis kankeli did interess iwvevs rogorc
Tavisi mxatvruli gaformebiT, ise warwereriT, romelSic mefe laSa-giorgia
moxseniebuli da romelic XIII saukunis dasawyisiT TariRdeba.
kazreTis dasavleTiT, 30 km-Si mdebareobs dmanisis naqalaqari.
es unikaluri Zegli, romelic mdinareebis _ maSaverasa da finezauris
SesarTavTan aRmarTul koncxzea gaSenebuli, Tavis istorias iwyebs
faqtobrivad iqidan, rodesac am mxareSi vulkanuri procesebi Sewyda da
gacivebul lavaze imTaviTve daiwyo kacobriobis istoria, uZvelesi adamianis
sadgomidan dawyebuli, Sua saukeneebis Zlieri qalaqis aSenebamde. aq gaiara
civilizaciis yvela periodma, XVIII saukunis bolos sicocxlis Sewyvetamde.
dmanisi
am
bolo
periodSi
Zalze
popularuli
gaxda,
rac
ganpirobebulia aq mimdinare arqeologiuri kvlevebiT. gaTxrebis Sedegad
aRmoCenilia 1,8 milioni wlis win mcxovreb
adamianTa Tavis qalebi,
romlebmac msoflioSi saxeli gaiTqves zezvasa da mzias saxeliT.
amrigad, turistuli industria saqarTvelosTvis, ganviTarebis am
etapze, mTavar mizans unda warmoadgendes, radgan aqedan Semosuli
SemosavlebiT uzrunvelyofili iqneba rogorc mosaxleoba socialur ekonomikurad,
ise bolo moeReba ekologiur dabinZurebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
beriZe b. xelovneba. saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi.- t.. - Tb.,1979
2.
beriZe v. - saukuneebis qarTuli xuroTmoZRvreba. - Tb.,1983.
3.
beriZe v. Zveli qarTuli xuroTmoZRvreba. - Tb. - 1974
4.
gunia ir. - saqarTvelos monastrebi: enciklopediuri cnobari. Tb., 2005.
5.
zaqaraia p. qarTul cixesimagreTa istoria uZvelesi droidan s.
bolomde. - Tb., 2002.
6.
zaqaraia p. qarTuli cixe-qalaqebi, cixesimagreebi, cixe-darbazebi,
,,cixe-galavnebi koSkebi.- Tb., 2001
7.
lorTqifaniZe o. vanis naqalaqari, gam."sabWoTa saqarTvelo", - Tb.,
1973 w.
8.
saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa aRweriloba, saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa aRwerilobis redaqcia, t.2,
35
Tbilisi, 2008 w.
9.
ciciSvili ir. qarTuli xelovnebis istoria. - Tb.,1955
10.
ciciSvili ir. qarTuli arqiteqturis istoria.-Tb.,1955
Tour: Tbilisi – Bolnisi – Dmanisi
Koba Tabatadze
Resume
Lower Kartli is rich in historical and architectural monuments, churches - temples, ancient
town and a very beautiful landscape. The article discusses Bolnisi and Dmanisi region, historical architectural monuments, - Blonisi Sion, Tsugrugasheni, Pitareti, Kveshi Castle, Dmanisi Trinity,
Satkhe church, etc.
emuqreba Tu ara safrTxe saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris
asocirebis SeTanxmebis miRwevas?
maia melaZe
specialoba: sajaro mmarTveloba
jgufi da xelmZRvanelis saxeli da gvari: IV kursi
xelmZRvaneli: naTia daReliSvili
E-mail: [email protected] tel: 591 813106
Sesavali: 2003 wlis ~vardebis revoluciis~ Semdeg saqarTvelom airCia
gamoxatuli evrointegraciis kursi, Sedegad qveyenaSi daiwyo evrokavSiris
samezoblo
politikis
programis
(ENP)
implementacia.
saqarTveloevrokavSiris urTierTobebis gaRrmavebis erT-erT umniSnelovanes Sedegs
warmoadgens evrokavSirTan asocirebis SeTanxmebis (AA) miRweva, rac Tavis
TavSi gulisxmobs rogorc Rrma da yovlismomveli Tavisufali savaWro
sivrcis (DCFTA) amoqmedebas evrokavSirTan1, ise vizis fasilitaciisa da
readmisiis
SeTanxmebis
ZalaSi
Sesvlas,
rac
ukavSirdeba
savizo
procedurebis gamartivebasa da ukanono migraciis marTvas.
2012
wlis
oqtomberSi,
mTavrobis
Secvlis
fonze,
sxvadasxva
eqspertebisa
Tu
samoqalaqo
jgufebis
mier
gamoiTqva
mosazrebebi
saqarTvelo-evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis SeTanxmebis (AA) miRwevis CaSlaze.
mizezad saxeldeboda gansxvavebuli azris mqone sazogadoebriv jgufebze
Zaladobrivi qmedebebi. kvlevaSi gvsurs gavaanalizoT asocirebis SeTanxmebis
miRwevis mniSvneloba da mimovixiloT ramdenad realuria gamoTqmuli
SeSfoTeba.
kvleviTi komponentis aRwera. sakiTxis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, kvlevis
meTodad
SevarCieT Tvisebrivi kvlevis meTodebi. Tvisebrivi meTodi
gulisxmobs statistikur monacemebsa da sxvadasxva Teoriul informaciaze
(oficialur wyaroebze) dayrdnobiT saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris
1
evrokavSiri aerTianebs 27 wevr qveyanas, Tumca
xorvatiis gawevrianeba evrokavSiris erTian sivrceSi.
36
2013
wlis
zafxulSi
dagegmilia
asocirebis SeTanxmebis miRwevis TvalsazrisiT arsebuli mdgomareobisa da
mosalodneli Sedegebis analizs.
asocirebis SeTanxmebis cneba da mniSvneloba
“es aris mogzauroba, romelsac saqarTvelo axla iwyebs”,
qeTrin eStoni2
evrokavSiris samezoblo politika SemuSavda 2004 wels, evrokavSiris
gafarToebis Semdeg3. misi mizani iyo evropasa da axal mezoblebs Soris
gamyofi xazebis moxsna da stabilurobis, usafrTxoebisa da keTildReobis
uzrunvelyofa. samezoblo politika miznad isaxavs evrokavSirsa da mis
mezobel
qveynebs
Soris
politikuri,
ekonomikuri
da
kulturuli
urTierTdaaxloebis procesis mxardaWeras da misi saSualebiT evrokavSiri
Tavisi sazRvrebis garSemo demokratiis, stabilurobisa da keTildReobis
gavrcelebas uwyobs xels4.
saqarTvelosa da evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis Sesaxeb momavali
SeTanxmeba
iTvaliswinebs
saqarTvelosa
da
evrokavSirs
Soris
urTierTobebis
mniSvnelovnad
gaRrmavebas
da
TanamSromlobas
axal,
xarisxobrivad ufro maRal doneze. aRniSnuli SeTanxmeba Caanacvlebs
saqarTvelosa
da
evrokavSirs
Soris
arsebul
„partniorobisa
da
TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas" da saqarTvelos miscems evrokavSirTan
politikuri
asocirebisa
da
etapobrivi
ekonomikuri
integraciis
SesaZleblobas. garda ekonomikuri da politikuri sakiTxebisa, igi aseve,
faravs usafrTxoebis, kulturis, ganaTlebis da sxva sferoebs.
evropis samezoblo politikis farglebSi saqarTvelos yovelwliurad
gadmoecema evropis samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegma (ENP Action Plan),
sadac
prioritetuli
sferoebis
mixedviT
gawerilia
RonisZiebebi
(programebi), Sesrulebis vadebi,
pasuxismgebeli pirebi da aseve dafinansebis wyaroebi. rac Seexeba
dafinansebis princips, 2012 wlidan amoqmedda “meti ufro metisTvis” (more for
more) principi, rac gulisxmobs meti dafinansebis gamoyofas im qveynebisTvis,
romelTac meti progresi qondaT.
Tu gadavxedavT saqarTvelosTvis gamoyofil finansur daxmarebas
wlebis mixedviT, davinaxavT rom 2011-2013 wlebSi gamoyofilma daxmarebam
Seadgina 180.29 mln evro, rac aRemateba 2007-2010 wlebSi gaweul daxmarebas
(ix. diagrama #1).
2
evrokavSiris umaRlesi
sakiTxebSi.
warmomadgeneli sagareo saqmeTa da usafrTxoebis politikis
2004 wels evrokavSiris wevrebi gaxdnen litva, latvia, estoneTi, CexeTi, slovakeTi,
slovenia, ungreTi, poloneTi, malta da kviprosi.
3
4
aRmosavleTis partnioroba da saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri politika, kavkasiis
ekonomikuri da socialuri kvleviTi instituti (CIESR), Tbilisi, 2011.
37
diagrama #1
wyaro: http://www.ei-lat.ge
rac Seexeba asocirebis SeTanxmebis molaparakebebis warmarTvis
process, mTavar momlaparakebels warmoadgens daviT zalkaniani, sagareo
saqmeTa ministris pirveli moadile. molaparakebebis procesSi orive mxaris
gadawyvetilebiT, dokumenti daxurulia da konkretuli Tavebis garSemo
mimdinare molaparakebebi arasajaroa. dokumenti Sedgeba ZiriTadi teqstisa
da danarTebisagan, sadac mocemulia evropuli kanonmdeblobis nusxa,
romelTan daaxlovebac (harmonizacia) evaleba saqarTvelos.
am etapisTvis teqstis ZiriTadi nawili SeTanxmebulia mxareebis mier
da dokumentze muSaoba dasruldeba erT an or raundSi. vilniusis samitze
moxdeba teqstis parafireba da Semdeg daiwyeba Sida procedurebi, romlebiT
daaxloebiT 4-5 Tves gagrZeldeba.
gazafxulze saqarTvelos mxares gadmoecema asocirebis xelSekrulebis
samoqmedo gegma, romelic evropis samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmas
Caanacvlebs. es ukanaskneli ufro konkretuli iqneba da vilniusis samitzea
moazrebuli aseve misi damtkiceba.
daskvna: daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Sefasebebi saqarTvelosa
da evrokavSirs Soris asocirebis SeTanxmebis molaparakebebis CaSlis
Sesaxeb gadaWarbebulia.
2013 wlis vilniusis samitze moewereba xeli
zemoaRniSnul SeTanxmebas da saqarTvelos Sidaprocedurebis gavlisa da
dokumentis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg SesaZlebloba eqneba, isargeblos mTeli
rigi upiratesobebiT, romelsac evrokavSirTan ekonomikuri da politikuri
asocireba gvTavazobs.
38
gamoyenebuli literatura
 aRmosavleTis partnioroba da saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomikuri
politika, kavkasiis ekonomikuri da socialuri kvleviTi instituti (CIESR),
Tbilisi, 2011.
 Joint Declaration of the Prague EaP Summit, Council of the European Union, Brussels, 2009.
 evropis samezoblo politikis sityvari,
http://www.enpi-info.eu/main.php?id=403&id_type=2
 evrokavSiris warmomadgenloba saqarTveloSi
http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/georgia/index_ka.htm
 aRmosavleTis
partniorobis
samoqalaqo
sazogadoebis
forumis
saqarTvelos erovnuli platforma
 - http://eapnationalplatform.ge/?lang=geo
 evropuli iniciativa – liberaluri akademia, Tbilisi - http://www.eilat.ge/
Associated Agreement between Georgia and EU Under the Threat?!
Maia Meladze
Resume
It can be concluded that the Association Agreement will be signed at a summit in Vilnius in
2013. Once the internal procedures are overcome, the document will enter into force and Georgia will
be able to benefit from a number of advantages offered by the European Union's economic and
political association.
sagadasaxado reformebi da liberalizacia
mari mujiriSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
finansebis specialobis
kursis studenti
xelmZRvaneli: profesori naili gagniZe
[email protected] tel. 555 41 97 96
sagadasaxado politika yovelTvis iyo, aris da iqneba saxelmwifos erTerTi mTavari prioriteti.
Sua saukuneebamde gadasaxadis damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyo dabegvris
naturaluri forma. Sua saukuneebis agraruli wyobilebis sferoSi
gamowveuli
cvlilebani,
upirveles
yovlisa,
dakavSirebulia
fulad
meurneobaze gadasvlasTan. rac ufro mtkicdeba fuladi meurneoba, miT ufro
yovelgvari gadasaxadi, begara da sxva gamosaRebi fulad formas Rebulobs.
yvelaze adre saqonluridan fulad meurneobaze gadasvla inglisSi
moxda, sadac naturaluri gadasaxadi icvleboda gansazRvruli fuladi
rentiT.
meore
mniSvnelovani nabiji iyo sabatono begaris
(Sroma
memamulisaTvis) fuladi RaliT Secvla.
saqarTveloSi begara-gadasaxadebSi cvlilebebi moxda me-19 s. 40-iani
wlebidan.
30-iani wlebis dasawyisidan gadasaxadebis roli da arsi
39
mniSvnelovnad mcirdeba da gadasaxadebi iwyebs misTvis aradamaxasiaTebeli
funqciis Sesrulebas, gamoiyeneba rogorc politikuri brZolis iaraRi kerZo
mewarmeobis winaaRmdeg.
sabWoTa kavSirSi 1930-1932 wlebis sagadasaxado reformis arsi
mdgomareobda imaSi, rom mravalricxovani gadasaxadi dajgufebuli iqna
Semdeg
ZiriTad
saxdelebSi:
saxelmwifo
sawarmoebisaTvis
brunvidan
gadasaxadi
da
mogebidan
anaricxebi,
kooperaciuli
sawarmoebisaTvis
brunvidan gadasaxadi da saSemosavlo gadasaxadi. reformis Sedegad
gauqmebuli aqcizebis sistema da yvela sagadasaxado saxdeli (daaxloebiT
60) unificirebuli iqna or ZiriTad gadasaxdelSi, brunvidan gadasaxadSi da
mogebidan anaricxebSi. [1]
sagadasaxado
wnexis
gaZlierebasa
da
saxelmwifo
biujetSi
Semosasvleli
gadasaxadebis
Tanxebs
Soris
urTierTdamokidebuleba
warmoaCina profesorma a. laferma jer kidev me-20 saukunis meore naxevris
dasawyisSi, aago ra Tavisi cnobili laferis mrudi. a. laferis sagadasaxado
koncefciis, romlis mixedviTac sagadasaxado ganakveTi garkveul zRvramde
iwvevs sagadasaxado Semosavlebis zrdas, xolo mis zeviT gadideba
amuxruWebs Semosavlebis gadidebas da ekonomikur progress, mTavari idea
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom maRali sagadasaxado wnexi axSobs samewarmeo da
sainvesticio aqtivobas, ris gamoc ecema warmoebis zrdis tempebi, viwrovdeba
sagadasaxado baza da klebulobs sagadasaxado Semosavlebis moculoba.
sagadasaxado wnexis dausabuTebeli zrda warmoadgens mizezs ekonomikis
Crdilovani seqtoris ganviTarebisa, xolo sagadasaxado wnexis Semcireba
stimuls aZlevs samewarmeo saqmianobas. biujetis Semosavlebis zrda am
SemTxvevaSi xdeba warmoebis zrdisa da amis Sedegad dasabegri sagadasaxado
bazis gafarToebis xarjze. msoflio praqtika gviCvenebs, rom gadamxdelis
Semosavlebidan 40%-mde gadasaxadis amoReba is zRvaria, romlis iqeT iwyeba
dagrovebis Semcireba da amiT ekonomikaSi investiciebi izrdeba. Tu
gadasaxadis ganakveTebi da maTi raodenoba aRweven iseT dones, rom
gadasaxadis gadamxdelidan amoiReba misi Semosavlebis 50%-ze meti, maSin es
spobs samewarmeo iniciativas da warmoebis gafarToebis stimuls. [1]
amgvarad, warmoebis efeqtianobis amaRlebis aucilebloba mis yvela
stadiaze, disproporciebis aRmofxvra, agreTve mosaxleobis ZiriTadi
nawilis realuri cxovrebis donis amaRleba moiTxovs sagadasaxado tvirTis
Semcirebas upirvelesad ekonomikis realur seqtorze da samamulo saqonelmwarmoebelze. aucilebelia Seiqmnas xelsayreli pirobebi sawarmoTa
sabrunavi saSualebebis gasazrdelad da maTi sainvesticio saqmianobis
stimulirebisaTvis.
amasTan
mniSvnelovania
sagadasaxado
SeRavaTebis
sakiTxebi: arCevani SeiZleba iyos Semdegi saxis: bevri SeRavaTebi da maRali
sagadasaxado tarifebi an dabali tarifebi yovelgvari sagadasaxado
SeRavaTebis gareSe. sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi iseTi uaryofiTi SedegebiTac
xasiaTdeba, romelTa gamoc rTuldeba sagadasaxado sistema, Sedegad
sagadasaxado formulari Zalze gadatvirTulia.
gamocdilebidan
cxadi
xdeba, rom sagadasaxado
SeRavaTebiT ufro mdidrebi sargebloben, vidre Raribebi. sagadasaxado
40
SeRavaTebis maqsimalurad likvidaciis dadebiTi Sedegi gansakuTrebiT imaSi
iqneba gamoxatuli, rom sagadasaxado sistema gaxdeba naTeli da martivi,
xolo sagadasaxado ganakveTebi dabali. aseTi unda iyos umTavresi
mimarTuleba yoveli gonivruli sagadasaxado reformisa. [2]
sagadasaxado sferoSi saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobas pirveli msoflio
omis Semdeg Caeyara safuZveli. 1920 wels briuselSi gamarTul saerTaSoriso
safinanso
konferenciaze
pirvelad
daisva
sakiTxi
saerTaSoriso
sagadasaxado SeTanxmebis standartizaciis aucileblobaze.
erTa ligis
safinanso komitetma (funqcionirebda 1945 wlamde) moamzada ramdenime
tipiuri konvencia (SeTanxmeba), maT Soris Semosavalze da kapitalze
gadasaxadebis ormagi dabegvris Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb. 1954 wlidan
saerTaSoriso sagadasaxado TanamSromlobis centrad gadaiqca ekonomikuri
TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizacia.
sagadasaxado harmonizaciis koncefcia warmoiSva swored evropuli
ekonomikuri
integraciis
ganviTarebis
procesSi.
evrokavSiris
Camosayalibeblad.
evrokavSirSi sagadasaxado harmonizacia isaxavs iseT
miznebs,
rogoricaa:
1.
sagadasaxado sazRvrebis gauqmeba imisaTvis, rom Seiqmnas Tanabari
konkurentuli pirobebi sameurneo subieqtebisaTvis;
2.
evrokavSiris saSinao bazris gaerTianeba da unifikacia, rogorc
integraciuli procesebis ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli Zala regionSi;
3.
Tanamegobrobis
yvela
qveynebSi
sagadasaxado
sistemebis
struqturaTa, ZiriTadi saxeobis gadasaxadebis amoRebis wesis SesabamisobaSi
moyvana.
evrokavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb 1993 wlis 1 noembris xelSekrulebis
Sesabamisad, arapirdapiri gadasaxadebis harmonizaciis ZiriTad amocanebad
iqca Tanamegobrobis SigniT fiskaluri sazRvrebis gauqmeba da dRg-is
ganakveTebis Semcireba. raTa daaxloebuliyo dRg-is ganakveTebi. 1993 wlis
ianvridan SemoRebuli iqna minimaluri standartuli ganakveTi gadasaxadisa
15%. garda amisa, rig qveynebSi gamoiyeneba gadidebuli da Semcirebuli
ganakveTebi.
evrokavSiris qveynebSi dRg TamaSobs mniSvnelovan rols, vinaidan is
xels uwyobs kavSiris erT- erTi umTavresi miznis realizebas: kavSiris
farglebSi saqonlis, momsaxurebis, xalxisa da kapitalis Tavisufali
gadaadgilebis uzrunvelyofa.
amitom mimdinare periodSi sagadasaxado sistemis reformirebisas
kvlavac aucilebelia sagadasaxado dabegvris ganviTarebis istoriis da
dagrovili gamocdilebis Seswavla-analizi-gaTvaliswineba. es saSualebas
mogvcems Tavidan aviciloT Secdomebi da maqsimalurad gaviTvaliswinoT
yvela dadebiTi momenti.
SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom Cveni qveynis sagadasaxado sistema gulisxmobs
yvela ZiriTad gadasaxads, romlebic gamoiyeneba ganviTarebul qveynebSi,
magram miuxedavad amisa TviT sagadasaxado sistema mudmivi cvlilebebis da
srulyofis procesSia da aq gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens kiTxva, Tu
41
ramdenad swrafad ganviTardeba da dasruldeba garkveul doneze misi
srulyofisa da daxvewis procesi. yvela sagadasaxado sistemis formirebis
dros ZiriTadia winaaRmdegoba sagadasaxado Semosavlebis moTxovnilebasa da
maTi miRebis SesaZleblobas Soris. SeiZleba CamovayaliboT Semdegi ZiriTadi
darRvevebi sagadasaxado dabegvris principebisa:
1.
moqmedi sagadasaxado sistemis zemdeti sirTule, rogorc
gadasaxadis gadamxdelis poziciidan, ise sagadasaxado organoebis efeqturad
funqcionirebis poziciidan;
2.
sagadasaxado simZimis araTanabari ganawileba piradi dabegvris
dros;
3. uaryofiTi gavlena ganakveTebisa ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebis
miRebaze. gadasaxadis gadamxdelebi, romlebic ibegrebian SesaZleblobis
zRvarze, kargaven muSaobis stimuls da iCenen interess Crdilovani
ekonomikisadmi da a. S.
CvenTan sagadasaxado problemebi mZimdeba imiTac, rom sistema jer
kidev srulyofis procesSia, romelic garkveulwilad emTxveva saqarTvelos,
rogorc damoukidebeli saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis periods. igi SeiZleba
pirobiTad ramodenime etapad davyoT:
pirveli - 1991-1992 ww., roca xdeboda intensiuri samarTlebrivi da
organizaciuli muSaoba sabWoTa sagadasaxado sistemis reformirebisa axal
ekonomikur da politikur pirobebSi, romlis Sedegad miviReT naerTi
sagadasaxado sistema.
meore etapi - 1992-1997 ww., roca warmoebda axali sagadasaxado sistemis
funqcionireba, gamocdilebis dagroveba da uaryofiTi mxareebis gamovlena.
misi Sedegi gaxda is, rom miviReT axali sagadasaxado kodeqsi.
mesame etapi - 1997 wlidan 2005 wlamde, romlis damaxasiaTebelia mTeli
rigi uaryofiTi mxareebi: ekonomikuri krizisi, uamravi cvlilebebi SevitaneT
kodeqsSi da dRis wesrigSi dadga axali kodeqsis (sagadasaxado sistemis)
Camoyalibebis aucilebloba.
meoTxe etapi - 2005 wlidan 2010 wlamde. miRebuli iqna axali,
gadamuSavebuli sagadasaxado kodeqsi da moxda misi praqtikaSi aprobacia.
mexuTe etapi - sagadasaxado politikis reforma. axali kodeqsi ZalaSi
Sevida 2012 wlidan.
kodeqsSi Setanili cvlilebebi, romlebic miznad
isaxaven qveyanaSi axali saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebis Seqmnas,
romlebic uzrunvelyofen qveyanaSi investiciebis mozidvas, rac Tavis mxriv
xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi ekonomikuri efeqturobis amaRlebas, qveynis mdgrad
ganviTarebas,
qveynis
ekonomikuri
zrdisTvis
xelSewyobas,
qveyanaSi
saerTaSoriso safinanso centrebis Camoyalibebasa da saqarTvelos savaWrosatranzito funqciis amaRlebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
baxtaZe l., kakulia r., CikvilaZe m., sagadasaxado saqme. Tb., iv.
javaxiSilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, 2007.
2.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi Tb, 2011. -245 gv.
42
3.
saqarTvelos mTavrobis angariSi saxelmwifo biujetis 2010 wlis
Sesrulebis Sesaxeb
4.
http://www.parliament.ge/files/budget-off/gadasaxadebi/sagadasaxadoganakvetebi.pdf,
ukanasknelad iqna gadamowmebuli - 08.06.2012.
5.
http://www.mof.ge/common/get_doc.aspx?doc_id=8235 (2010 wlis
Semosavlebis statistika, wliuri angariSi) ukanasknelad iqna gadamowmebuli
- 08.06.2012.
Taxing System Reforms and Liberalization
Mari Mujirishvili
Resume
The work ―Taxing System Reforms and Liberalization‖ discusses the essence of taxing,
improving processes and phases of Georgian taxing system. Also, results of reforms, their importance
and definition for developing country in that direction. Formation principles of budget’s revenue and
main directions of Georgian Taxing system improvement represent the research objects of the work.
fasiani qaRaldebis bazari da misi ganviTareba saqarTveloSi
miranda yaClavaSvili
a(a) i.p goris saxelmwifo saswavlo
universitetis finansebis specialobis III kursis studenti
E-mail:[email protected] tel: 598 17 67 08
xelmZRvaneli: profesori naili gagniZe
[email protected] tel. 555 41 97 96
ekonomikurad ganviTarebul nebismier qveyanaSi fasiani
qaRaldebis
bazari da misi ganviTareba mniSvenelovan sakiTxs warmoadgens. efeqturi
fasiani qaRaldebis bazari gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani instrumentia
sabazro ekonomikaze gadasavlis gzaze. garkveulwilad igi warmoadgens
sabanko sistemis alternativas, radgan bevr evropul qveyanaSi fasiani
qaRaldebis bazari gacilebiT mimzidveli da efeqturia damatebiTi
dafinansebis mosapoveblad. fulis dabandebis msurvelebisTvisac sabanko
depozitis alternativad ganixileba fasiani qaRaldebis portfeli, romelic
zogjer meti mogebis saSualebas iZleva. amdenad, igi qveynis ekonomikuri
mdgomareobis umniSvnelovanesi struqturaa, amitom misi ganviTareba qveynis
ekonomikis donis pirdapiri maCvenebelia. fasiani qaRaldebis bazari is
meqanizmia, romelic
fuladi saxsrebis mimwodebelsa da momxmareblebs
Soris garigebebis dadebis saSualebas iZleva. isini wamyvan rols TamaSoben
finansuri instrumentebis yidva-gayidvaSi. [1]
fasiani qaRaldebis bazris infrastruqturis elementebia: safondo
birJa, sainvesticio fondebi, anderaiterebi, sabrokero da sadilero
kompaniebi da sxva. fasiani qaRaldebis yidva-gayidva sxvadasxva bazrebze
xdeba. magaliTad, fulad bazrebsa da kapitalis bazrebze. fulis bazarze
43
xdeba moklevadiani fasiani qaRaldebis yidva-gayidva, xolo kapitalis
bazrebze grZelvadiani fasiani qaRaldebiT vaWroben. fasiani qaRaldebiT
vaWrobas emsaxureba safondo birJebic. msoflioSi cnobilia iseTi safondo
birJebi, rogoricaa: niu-iorkis safondo birJa, amerikis safondo birJa,
londonisa da tokios safondo birJebi.maTi saqmianoba gavlenas axdens ara
mxolod am qveynebis, aramed msoflio finansur bazrebzec. [2]
sainteresoa ra situaciaa am mxriv saqarTveloSi. Cvens qveyanaSi fasiani
qaRaldebis bazari jer kidev ar aris ganviTarebuli.
Amaze metyvelebs
saqarTvelos safondo birJis saqmianobac. saqarTvelos safondo birJa(ssb)
aris erTaderTi organizebuli fasiani qaRaldebis bazari saqarTveloSi.
fasiani
qaRaldebis
bazris
instituciuti
pirobebis
Sesaqmnelad
saqarTveloSi bevri ram gakeTda, kerZod saqarTvelos parlamentis mier 1999
wlis 24 dekembers miRebul iqna kanoni fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb,
rasac moyva Sesabamisi cvlilebebi kanonebSi saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis
Sesaxeb, komerciuli bazrebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb, magram fasiani qaRaldebis
bazris ekonomikuru da instituciuri pirobebis Sesaqmnelad kidev bevri
sakiTxia gadasawyveti.
fasiani qaRaldebis bazari sTavazobs efeqtur sainvesticio meqanizms,
rogorc
adgilobriv, aseve ucxoel investorebs. ssb-is eleqtronuli
savaWro
sistema brokerebs
aTasobiT
sxvadasxva aqciiT
vaWrobis
SesaZleblobas aZlevs samuSao adgilebidan, romlebic ganlagebulia,
rogorc ssb-is savaWro darbazSi, aseve distasnciuri wvdomis daxmarebiTsabrokero kompaniaTa ofisebSi. saqarTvelos safondo birJaze savaWrod
daiSveba fasiani qaRaldebis bazris Sesaxeb kanoniT gansazRvruli is fasiani
qaRaldebi, romelTa reestris warmoeba xdeba fasiani qaRaldebis
registratoris licenziis mqone piris mier da maT miniWebuli aqvT
fasiani qaRaldebis bazris saxelmwifo maregulirebeli organos mier
fasiani qaRaldebis saidentipikacio nomeri. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos
safondo birJa daarsebis dRidan Zalian dabali aqtivobiT gamoirCeva. amitom
saqarTvelos mosaxleobis Zalian mcire nawilma Tu icis misi saqmianobis
Sesaxeb. garkveuli gardatexa moxda 2004 wels, roca birJaze daSvebuli iqna
saqarTvelos finansTa saministros saxazino valdebulebebi. am wlis
ganmavlobaSi birJis savaWro sistemaSi dadebuli garigebebis raodenobam
Seadgina 1,094, garigebebis jamurma moculobam - 30,51 mln. aqcia, xolo
jamurma Rirebulebam - 46,68 mln. lari (SedarebisaTvis 2003 wels garigebebis
raodenoba 913, garigebebis jamurma moculoba 7,9 mln aqcia, xolo jamurma
Rirebuleba 1,7 mln lari iyo). [3]
mimdinare wlis 25 Tebervali - 2 martis periodSi, saqarTvelos
safondo bazris brunvam 12 663 lari Seadgina. Tanxis 78% safondo birJis
savaWro sesiebze dadebul garigebebze modis. safondo birJis savaWro
sesiebze saqarTvelos bankis
(http://bankofgeorgia.ge/) da liberTi bankis
(http://libertybank.ge/) aqciebi gaiyida. birJis gverdis avliT e.w fiqsingis gziT
ki, bambis narTisa da eleqtroizolitis aqciebi gasxvisda. gayiduli aqciebis
jamurma moculobam 21 614 erTeuli Seadgina. saangariSo periodSi,
saqarTvelos safondo birJis indeqsi , 1.99%-iT Semcirda da 81.17 punqtzea.[4]
44
am monacemebis miuxedavad, saqarTvelos safondo birJaze mainc aris
problemebi: privatizaciis procesSi SezRudulia safondo birJis roli,
materialur teqnikuri baza mwiria, rac TavisTavad uaryofiTad moqmedebs
birJis saqmianobaze. gamomdinare iqidan, rom fasiani qaRaldebis bazris
ganviTareba
da
safondo
birJis
normaluri
funqcionireba
qvebnis
ekonomikisTvis saWiro da aucilebelic kia, aRniSnuli sakiTxi saxelmwifos
yuradRebas unda imsaxurebdes.
saqarTvelos finansTa ministris nodar
xaduris gancxadebiT, "axali mTavrobis mizani saqarTveloSi fasiani
qaRaldebis bazris ganviTarebaa".rogorc erovnuli bankis pres-samsaxuri
iuwyeba saqarTvelos erovnulma bankma fasiani qaRaldebis bazarze fasiani
qaRaldebis regulirebis funqcia erovnul komisas gadaabara. amis Sesaxeb
xadurma redisonSi mimdinare konferenciaze "kapitalis mozidva londonSi"
ganacxada. "mniSvnelovania saqarTveloSi normaluri fasiani qaRaldebis
bazari ganviTardes, raTa moxdes investiciebis ufro Tavisuflad mozidva.
samwuxarod, jerjerobiT saqarTveloSi safondo bazari mxolod Canasaxovan
mdgomareobaSia, magram Cveni mTavrobis amocanaa gaxdes msoflio fasiani
qaRaldebis da zogadad, finansuri sistemis nawili", aRniSna xadurma. [5]
marTlac, ekonomikuri warmatebis misaRwevad aucilebelia safondo
birJis ganviTareba, amitom meti yuradReba unda mieqces am sakiTxs. rameTu
dRes, Tanamedrove etapze SeuZlebelia qveynis ekonomikuri winsvla, Tu
finansuri bazari ar iqneba ganviTarebuli. amitom saxelmwifo maqsimalurad
unda CaerTos am procesSi, fasiani qaRaldebis bazris efeqtianobisaTvis
saWiroa ufro gaaqtiurdes saqarTvelos fasiani qaRaldebis erovnuli
komisia da efeqturad Seasrulos Tavisi maregulirebeli funqcia. amave
dros
gaaqtiurdes savaluto bazarze dazRvevis savaluto riskebis,
savaluto rezervebis diversifikaciisa da savaluto likvidobis Carevis
RonisZiebebi. raTa qveynisTvis umniSvnelovanesi problemis-finansuri bazris
problema gadaiWras. vfiqrob amis gareSe saqarTvelo ver gaxdeba
ekonomikurad warmatebuli qveyana.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
investirebis safuZvlebi. Lorens gitmani, maikl jonki, Harold birmani, seimor
Smidti. gadmoqarTulebuli da Sevsebuli lamara qoqiauris mier. Tbilisis
iv.javaxiSvilis universiteti. Tbilisi. finansebi
2001. Ggv 41.
2.
http://www.nplg.gov.ge
3.
http://forum.ge/?showtopic=33725713
4.
http://allbanks.ge/?p=484
5.
http://www.pirweli.com.ge/?menuid=21&id=20668.
6.
http://www.aaf.ge/index.php?menu=1&jurn=87&rubr=0&mas=1040
7.
http://www.gse.ge/default_geo.asp
45
Security Market and its Development in Georgia
Miranda Kachlavashvili
Resume
Security market is very important in economically Developed countries. Unfortunately, this
market is not highly developed in Georgia. Accordingly, the stock market is not working effectively.
In my opinion, Georgia cannot become successful and developed country without it, so it is necessary
to pay more attention in this theme.
saukeTeso ,,wamali”
biznesisaTvis
zviadi maWaraSvili, diana vefxvaZe
safinanso, sabanko da sadazRveo saqmis IV kursi
xelmZRvaneli: nino gorgaZe
tel: 551 87 02 17
saerTaSoriso sakonsultacio jguf Interbrand-is 2012 wlis reitingiT,
ukve zedized, meTormeted, msoflio mowinave brendi ,koka-kola” gaxda 72
miliardi dolaris brunviT. saukeTeso brends saTave saukuneze meti xnis win
amerikelma farmacevtma daudo, mis ganviTarebaSi ki wvlili araerTma
niWierma adamianma Seitana.
sasmeli ,,koka-kola” 1886 wlis 8 maiss, aSS-Si, jorjiis Statis
dedaqalaq atlantaSi jon stit pembertonma gamoigona. 55 wlis farmacevti
balaxeuliTa da orTqlis abazanebiT mkurnalobis momxre gaxldaT. Mmanamde
igi ,, franguli koka-Rvinos” Seqmnaze muSaobda. spirtiani sasmeli Sedgeboda
kokas foTlis, damianas foTlisa da kolas kaklis eqstraqtisagan. A
aqedan gamomdinare, pembertons, misma buRalterma frenk robinsonma
axali saxelwodeba ,,koka-kola” SesTavaza da es sityvebi Tavisi lamazi
kaligrafiiT dawera. robinsonis Seqmnili logopoti ,,koka-kolas” boTlebs
dRemde amSvenebs.
1885 wels, atlantaSi mSrali kanonis SemoRebis Semdeg, pembertonma
sasmelis ualkoholo versia Seqmna. Mman Tavisi qmnilebis ,,samedicino Cveneba”
gaaxmaura da bazarze gaitana, rogorc ,,gemrieli, gamamxnevebeli” sasmeli.
reklamas ukeTebda, rogorc tkivilgamayuCebel, nervebis damamSvidebel
saSualebas da atlantis udides afTiaqSi yidda.
erTxel farmacevtma SemTxveviT vaJini, igive sirofi, wylis nacvlad,
gaziani wyliT ganazava, sasmelma mowoneba daimsaxura da misi gayidva male
maRaziebSic daiwyes.
Tavdapirvelad axal sasmels dReSi daaxloebiT cxra adamiani
yidulobda. Ppirvel wels sasmelis warmoeba wamgebiani iyo, magram is
TandaTan popularuli gaxda da gayidvamac imata.
1887 wels pembertonma sasmelis gamoSvebis ufleba mihyida biznesmen asa
grigs kendlers 2300 dolarad da am ukanasknelma 1892 wels daarsa kompania
The Coca-cola Company, romlis sawesdebo kapitali 100 aTasi dolari iyo.
46
sasmelis warmateba didad ganapiroba kendleris agresiulma marketingma. igi
did yuradRebas aqcevda reklamas. reklama iyo yvelgan: transportze,
maRaziebis vitrinebze, restornebSi da a. S. ,, koka-kola” yovelTvis
gamoirCeoda saaxalwlod SemoTavazebuli sareklamo rgolebiT, bevr
adamianSi axali weli pirvel rigSi swored ,,koka-kolas” reklamasTan
asocirdeba. igi olimpiuri da sxva saerTaSoriso TamaSebis sistematiur
sponsorad iqca. Ggarda amisa, kendleri warmatebiT yidda ,, koka-kolas”
savaWro niSnebian saaTebs, qudebs, maisurebs, suvenirebsa da kalendrebs.
1894 wels ,,koka-kola” ukve boTlebSi Camoasxes. 1933 wels pirvelad
gamoCnda boTlis ,,koka-kolas” gasayidi avtomatebi da Sixpacks -is
eqvsboTliani Sekvra, romelic dRes ase popularulia. K kompaniam
sxva
siaxlec aiTvisa-maRaziebSi macivrebis dadgma, saidanac momxmarebels Tavad
SeeZlo sayvareli sasmeliT savse civ-civi boTlis aReba. Aase gaqra
momxmarebelsa da gamyidvels Soris arsebuli barieri-daxli.
1898 wels atlantaSi gaxsnes sam sarTuliani ofisi, romlis Tavze
ganTavsebuli Coca-cola -s uzarmazari niSani 1407 Cveulebrivi da 1906 neonis
naTurisagan Sedgeba, romlis simaRle 9 metria, sigane-8 metri, wona-12 tona.
aseve atlantaSi aris muzeumi, romelSic Sesvlis Rirebuleba 16 dolaria.
muzeumis gasasvlelSi aris oTaxi, sadac SegiZliaT gasinjoT msoflios
sxvadasxva qveynebSi warmoebuli koka-kola.
biznesis ganviTarebisaTvis aucilebelia ori ram, aRniSnavda kendleri:
kargi produqti da kargi reklama. Mman wamoiwyo ,,koka-kolas” istoriaSi
pirveli
reklama,
lozungiT--,,
dalieT
,,koka-kola”.
mSvenieri
da
gamagrilebeli!”.
kendlerma 1919 wels kompania bankirs vudrofsa da sxva investorTa
jgufs 25 milion dolarad mihyida. 1923 wels ki kompaniis saTaveSi 33 wlis
robert vudrofsi Caudga, romelsac 60 weliwadi ekava es posti. man Seqmna
korporacia ,,koka –kola eqsport korporeiSeni” biznesis mTel msoflioSi
gansaviTareblad.
,,koka-kolas” msoflio imperiaSi aTeulze meti msxvili boTlerkompaniaa, romlebic ramdenime qveyanaSi muSaoben. mzaddeba 200-mde saxis
sasmeli, sam maTgans msoflo gayidvebis moculobis 80% uWiravs--,,kokakolas”; ,,fantasa”; da ,,spraits”. kompaniis savaWro niSani yvelaze cnobilia
msoflioSi da mas dedamiwis mosaxleobis 98% icnobs. TiTqmis 200 qveyanaSi
yoveldRiurad daaxloebiT kompaniis produqciis 1 miliardi erTeuli
iyideba, sadac dasaqmebulia 140 milioni adamiani da wliuri sufTa mogeba 11
miliardia.
,,koka-kolas” qarxana 1993 wels yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSi
pirvelad saqarTveloSi gaixsna, romelsac wels daarsebidan 20 weli
Seusrulda. saTao ofisi: qalaqi Tbilisi. didubis raioni. wereTlis gamziri
#114. xelmZRvaneli: Temur Wyonia.
saqarTveloSi
warmoebul
,,koka-kolaSi”
Sedis:
wyali,
Saqari,
naxSirorJangi,feri, mJavianobis regulatori, mcenareTa eqstraqtebi, kofeini
da saidumlo ingredienti Merchandise X7.
dResdReobiT yvelaze popularuli ualkoholo gazirebuli sasmeli
47
,,koka-kola”, ,,fanta” da ,,pepsia”, romelsac momxmarebelTa 62% yidulobs.
bazarze ,,koka-kola boTlers jorjia” liderobs, romelsac bazris 47%
uWiravs,
meore
adgilzea
iberia,
romelic
saqarTveloSi
pepsikos
warmomadgenelia, misi wili 22%-ia, mesameze nataxtari-18%-iT.
da bolos, es aris istoria im kacisa, romlis damzadebelma ,,wamalma”
SeiZleba kidev saukuneebs gauZlos.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
gazeTi ,,kviris palitra”. #39.
interneti Google.ge
31. X-06. XI. 2011 weli. gv.24.
The Best “Medicine” for Business
Zviad Macharashvili
Diana Vepkhvadze
Resume
The popularity of the drink "Coca-Cola" has grown up as geometrical progress and after 50
years for Americans it became as the national icon.
SromiTi urTierTobebis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi
sxvadasxva qveynebSi
giorgi abJandaZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesis administrirebis I kursi
xelmZRvaneli: janjRava nino
E-mail: [email protected] tel. 599 15-26-40
ganvixiloT‚ riT gansxvavdeba SromiTi urTierTobani sxvadasxva
qveyanaSi.
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi. SromiTi urTierTobebis yvelaze arsebiTi
aspeqtebi regulirdeba federaluri kanonmdeblobiT‚ SromiTi urTierTobebi
mcire firmebSi – Statebis doneze. minimaluri saaTobrivi ganakveTi
xelfasisa Seadgens 3‚35 dolars. zeganakveTuri samuSaoebi (kviraSi 40 saaTze
meti) unda anazRaurdes
aranakleb
erT-naxevari zomiT;
minimaluri‚
garantirebuli anazRaurebiT Svebuleba 2 kviris tolia. profkavSirebi
ikavebs sakmaod Zlier pozicias mewarmeebTan mimarTebaSi‚ agreTve SromiTi
xelSekrulebis dadebisas. koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebi moqmedebs mxolod
rig dargebSi. bevr StatSi mewarmeni valdebulni arian gadaixadon muSaTa
dazRveva
sawarmoo
travmis
an
profesiuli
daavadebis
gamo
Sromisunarianobis dakargvasTan dakavSirebiT. es wesi vrceldeba mudmivad
mcxovreb ucxoelebzec. aSS-Si socialuri dazRveva organizebulia yovel
48
sawarmoSi‚
Tumca
gaTvaliswinebulia
Senatanebi
erovnul
socialur
sistemaSi.
didi
britaneTi.
did
britaneTSi
koleqtiur
xelSekrulebebSi
CarTulia iseTi sakiTxebi‚ rogoricaa: minimaluri xelfasi‚ samuSao dRis da
anazRaurebuli
Svebulebis
xangrZlivoba.
personals
warmoadgens
profkavSirebi
an
gaerTianebuli
sakonsultacio
komitetebi.
SromiT
xelSekruleba Seicavs monacemebs samuSao adgilis‚ samuSao drois
xangrZlivobis da Sromis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb. Sromis anazRaurebis
minimaluri done qveyanaSi ar dgindeba. SromiTi konfliqtebi wydeba
specialuri sasamarTloebiT (SromiTi tribunalebiT). sawarmoebi‚ romelTac
surT muSakis daqiraveba‚ valdebulni arian mimarTon dasaqmebis centrebs an
biuroebs. Zalian kargadaa ganviTarebuli did britaneTSi sxvadasxva donis
xelmZRvanelTa daqiravebis sistema: dReisaTvis 80%-mde xelmZRvaneli
poulobs samuSaos daqiravebis biuros saSualebiT („Tavebze monadireebad”
wodebuli). honoraris Tanxa am saxiT momsaxurebisatvis Seadgens 25-35%-s
Sesabamisi muSakis wliuri xelfasisa. daqiravebis biuro konsultaciebs
uwevs mewarmeebs daqiravebis da SromiTi urTierTobebis mogvarebis saqmeSi.
„didi ardadegebi” (Svebulebebi) did britaneTSi ZiriTadad modis 21
ivlisidan 15 seqtembramde periodSi.
germania. muSakTa interesebis dacva da koleqtiuri molaparakebebis
organizacia germaniaSi tardeba sam doneze: dargebis‚ teritoriisa da
sawarmoebis. SromiTi resursebi germaniaSi gamoirCeva maRali xarisxiTa da
kvalifikaciis doniT. SromiTi xelSekruleba SeiZleba idebodes an
gansazRvruli
vadiT‚
an
uvadod.
daqiravebul
muSakTa
dacva
uzrunvelyofilia kanoniT. socialuri dazRvevis sistema moicavs dazRvevas
avadmyofobis‚ siberis da umuSevrobis mixedviT. sadazRvevo Senatanebs ixdian
muSavebi da samuSaos mimcemni. qveyanaSi Sromis anazRaurebis done sakmaod
maRalia‚ magaliTad‚ saSualo Tviuri anazRaureba safeiqro mrewvelobaSi
Seadgens: dasavleTis miwebze – 3250 markas‚ aRmosavleTis – 1400;
eleqtromanqanaTmSeneblobaSi Sesabamisad 4056 da 1505 marka; samTomompovebel
mrewvelobaSi – 4178 da 1606 marka; qimiur mrewvelobaSi – 4569 da 1646 marka.
gansxvaveba Sromis anazRaurebaSi ZiriTadad aixsneba imiT‚ rom dasavleTis
miwebze
Sromis
mwarmoebluroba
daaxloebiT
2-jer
maRalia‚
vidre
aRmosavleTisaze. germaniaSi sawarmoebi gegmaven yovelwliur Svebulebas
gamomdinare Semdegi sami faqtoridan: a) yovel miwas an raions aqvs Tavisi
Svebulebebis grafiki‚ romelic ar emTxveva sxva miwebis grafikebs; b) yoveli
miwisaTvis es TariRebi dgindeba yovelwliurad; g) msxvil sawarmoebs gaaCnia
Svebulebebis mcocavi grafiki da amitomac ar wyveten TavianT muSaobas.
grafikebi dgeba TanamSromlebTan SeTanxmebis Sedegad yoveli wlis damdegs.
safrangeTi. ZiriTadad samarTlebriv aqtebs‚ romlebic aregulirebs
SromiT urTierTobebs‚ warmoadgens SromiTi kodeqsi da socialuri
uzrunvelyofis kodeqsi. koleqtiur xelSekrulebebSi sawarmoebsa da
49
mSromelebs Soris dafiqsirebulia Sromisa da misi anazRaurebis ZiriTadi
pirobebi. sawarmoebSi moqmedi profkavSirebi aqtiur rols asruleben
mSromelTa
uflebebis
da
interesebis
dasacavad.
yovelwliuri
anazRaurebuli Svebuleba saSualod Seadgens 5 kviras. pasuxismgeblobis
TvalsazrisiT
yvela
rCeba
„Tavisi
Tavis
patronad”.
pativiscema
profesionalizmisadmi qveynis SromiTi urTierTobis erT-erT mnivSvnelovani
Tvisebaa.
rac Seexeba saqarTveloSi arsebul situacias, unda aRvniSnoT, rom
CvenTan SromiT urTierTobebs argulirebs SromiTi kodeqsi. SromiTi
xelSekruleba SeiZleba iyos rogorc vadiani, aseve uvado. saxelfaso
ganakveTebi regulirdeba satarifo badis meSveobiT. anazRaurebadi Svebuleba
Seadgens wlis ganmavlobaSi erT Tves, romelic survilis mixedviT SeiZleba
gaiyos ramdenime nawilad. sadazRvevo sistema srulyofis procesSia da ufro
daxvewas saWiroebs. aseve gasaTvaliswinebelia ucxouri gamocdilebis
gaziareba, rac waadgeba SromiTi urTierTobebis daxvewas da Semdgom
srulyofas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
WiTanava nodar. gardamavali
problemebi. I nawili. Tb. 1997, gv 64.
periodis
socialur
ekonomikuri
2.
jibuti amiran. saxelmwifo qonebis privatizebis ekonomikuri
da
socialuri Sedegebi. saqarTvelos ekonomikur mecnierebaTa akademiis
Sromebi. 7. ,,siaxle” Tb. 2009, gv 237).
Distinctive features of Labor Relations in Various Countries
George Abzhandadze
Resume
The article deals with the differentiating features of labor relations in different countries,
namely: labor and collective agreements, rate of wages, social insurance, social taxes, a holiday
compensation, labor conflicts, employment centers, compensation of labor etc.
It also deals with the existing situation in the country and it is remarked, that is necessary
to share foreign experience, which basically stipulates improvement of labor relations and further
perfection.
50
Sightseeing of Georgia
Tamar Khurtsidze
Sukhishvili Teaching University, Tourism, I course
Supervisor: Janjgava Nino
EE-mail: [email protected] Tel.: 599 15-26-40
Georgia’s tourism potential is vast, and the growth of this industry is due to the natural
beauty and hospitable nature and warmth of our people, which compiles visitors to return over
and over for both leisure and business activities.
Georgia, with its unparalleled cultural, historical heritage and striking landscapes, is
becoming more and more popular among foreign and domestic travelers looking to savor the
essence of Georgian hospitality. There are many attractions in Georgia, for outdoor and
adventure lovers, eco-tourists, nature lovers, and discerning visitors who want to experience the
unique cultural mix of the country, and especially Tbilisi.
Being a small jewel of a country , located amid the magnificent Lesser and Greater
Caucasus mountains, at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Georgia has much to offer. The
recorded history of Georgia goes back over an 3000 years, and our culture is far older, with a set of
languages and a script of ancient roots. The legendary Silk Road, with its camels and caravan, once
ran directly through the exotic and prized country of Georgia, fairly referred to as the Eurasian
melting pot. Georgia is widely acknowledged to be a biodiversity hotspot; the alpine Caucasus
Mountains of the north, the semi-desert south, subtropical beaches, and dense forests can be found
here all within one hundred kilometers from each other. Georgians consider guests to be gifts from
god, and each region, with its ancient and distinctive traditions, offers you a uniquely Georgian
experience.
Georgia is a small country but strategically located as the connecting point between Europe
and Asia – it is, in fact, Eurasia. The great range of the Caucasus mountains stretches from the
Black Sea to the Caspian with the North Caucasus above and the South Caucasus below, with
Georgia serving at the focal point.
Georgia is an enchanting little country at the cross-roads of Europe and Asia with the
different regions which are so close to each other but are very different in so many aspects. One
will enjoy pristine nature, cultural sites and wine-producing areas. Visit farms maintaining
traditions may cultural old, meet the local people, taste organic home-made dishes and feel the
meaning of hospitable Georgian life.
Svaneti- the highest inhabited area in Caucasus with the highest populated village in
Europe- Ushguli.
51
This region is unique for its majestic high mountains, impressive nature and architecture.
As a UNESCO World Heritage site is dotted with medieval villages featuring dozens of traditional
stone-towers, mostly built from the 9th to 12th centuries. The village Ushguli is the highest yearround inhabited village in Europe (2000-2200 metres above sea level)
Adjara Autonomous Republic, along the Black Sea Coast.
This picturesque, historical region is known for the port and city of Batumi, its national
parks and protected areas with cultures-old mountain bridges. Here is located Gonio Fortress, also
known as “Asparunt”, which is an excellent example of Roman\Byzantine military architecture.
Samtskhe-Javajheti – one of the oldest parts of Georgia.
The region boasts unique examples of rock cut architecture, a number of churches and
monasteries, fortresses, mysterious cyclopean structures, terrace vineyards and remote villages .
Borjomi-Kharagauli National park, one of the largest national parks in Europe, is situated in the
region.
Tusheti- a pristine natural destination, located on the northern slopes of the Caucasus
Mountains.
The opening of the summer season in Tusheti mainly depends on the weather. Usually is
starts at the end of May and continues to the end of October. Each village in Tusheti is known for
its unusual cheese made from sheep’s milk, fine local embroidery, felt work and colourful rugs.
GEORGIAN WINES
Georgia has the oldest continuous and unbroken tradition of winemaking in the world,
stretching back over 8,000 years. Today there are more than 500 indigenous grape varieties still
cultivated in this small country surrounded by Caucasus Mountains. The art of wine-growing, or
viticulture, has been passed from one generation of Georgians to another and is considered an
intergal part of the Georgian genetic inheritance.
Many discoveries have left historians is no doubt that Georgia is the birthplace of wine.
Ancient wine vessels made of clay, bronze and silver; gold cups for drinking wine; wine dated to
the 2nd or 3rd millennium BC; and vine seeds found in ancient tombs and the Bronze Age all leave
a continuous story of the history of Georgian wine.
The traditional way of wine making- the Georgian nonmaterial cultural inheritance has
been nominated for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
Traditional Georgian wine technology is unique in the world and is probably the most
ancient marvel of Georgian culture.
Wine has been produced using the exceptional and traditional style of Qvevri – clay pots
submerged into the ground , which are used to ferment and create delicious, unfiltered, organic
52
wines.
The centre of Georgian vine-growing is the Kakheti Region, however wine production is
not limited to this region only. The famous semi-sweet wine Khvanchkara is found up in the
beautiful Racha region. Every region of Georgia can surprise you with different tastes of their
wines, colours and aromas.
Each Georgian peasant, who follows, the winemaking tradition,saves rare types of native
vine and has a special wine cellar for keeping and fermenting wine called a marani. As of today,
the marani and qvevry have been nominated for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage list.
The agency of protected Areas is dedicated to the conservation of specific areas of natural
beauty such as the unique virgin forests, and the ancient cultural sites of Georgia.
To date, there are five categories of protected areas in Georgia with a total area of 512,703
hectares – 7,3 % of the total territory.
About 75% of the Protected Areas consits of forest. However, the territory is very diverse, with
high mountain peaks, alpine and subalpine grasslands, old volcanic plateaus, fresh and mineral springs,
caves and chasms, coastal dunes and wetlands, steppes, semi-deserts and deserts.
There are more than 3,000 species of plants in these territories, with about 300 belonging to
endemic flora of the Caucasus and Georgia.
The protected Areas cover almost 90% of the fauna of the region – a great variety of
vertebrates including mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, etc. Twenty species of animals belong to globally
endangered species.
Georgia is recognized as one of the ―hot spots‖ of biodiversity in international conservation.
Ecotourism is developing rapidly. In 2012 the Georgian National Parks received 300,000
visitors and it is anticipated that this number will rapidly increase.
Look at the following:
BORJOMI-KHARAGAULI is the largest national park in Europe. It was established in
2005, and in 2007 it joined the European Network of Protected Territories – PAN PARKS. This is a
very popular park with Georgians and foreign visitors.
LAGODEKHI is known for its diversity of flora and fauna with important historal
monuments in the region.
VASHLOVANI NATIONAL PARK supports a variety of animals including leopard, striped
hyena, brown bear, lynx and wild boar, as well as a variety of rare birds including different species of
vulture, and the rare black stork. With mountain, desert and swamp landscapes, there are rare plants
including wild orchids.
IMERETI CAVES where dinosaurs left their footsteps in the dawn of time. Unique music
53
and lights, and reaching the upper part by boat, make an excursion here forever memorable.
MTIRALA NATIONAL PARK is a model protected area in Georgia projecting conservation
and mountain and ecotourism.
TUSHETI national park is hidden in the Caucasus mountains where the villages cling to dizzy
steep slopes, picturesque and precarious. Tusheti is mentioned on Yahoo Travel as one of the ten best
places you have never heard of!
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
1.
The Georgian, Tourism and Trade Guide to Georgia 2013
2.
www.Wikipedia.org. Tourism in Georgia
saqarTvelos sanaxaobani
Tamar xurciZe
reziume
statiaSi saqarTvelo aRwerilia
rogorc unikaluri qveyana Tavisi
kulturis, religiis, Tvalwarmtaci bunebisa da uZvelesi istoriis
TvalsazrisiT. is, Tu rogor saocradaa Serwymuli am patara teritoriaze
yvelaze kontrastuli, rac SeiZleba adamianma warmoidginos - maradiuli
TovliT dafaruli mwvervalebi Tu subtropikuli sanapiroebi, udabno Tu
xSirfoTlovani tye, Tanamedrove qalaqebi Tu uZvelesi soflebi TavianTi
RirsSesaniSnaobebiTa da gansxvavebulobebiT. statiaSi agreTve ganxilulia
vazis kulturis istoria, romelic mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli qarTveli eris
istoriasTan.
Txili - potenciuri
saeqsporto produqti saqarTveloSi
bedoSvili Tamar (finansebis specialoba) IV kursi
kaZilovi mari (finansebis specialoba) IV kursi
facinaSvili qeTevan (turizmis specialoba) IV kursi
a(a)ip goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universiteti
xelmZRvaneli - asocirebuli profesori naTia JoJuaSvili
Txilis mimarT msoflioSi moTxovna sul ufro matulobs da bolo
wlebis ganmavlobaSi Txili saqarTveloSic erT-erTi wamyvani kultura
gaxda. gaizarda misi warmoebac. Txilis masobrivad moyvana dedamiwaze sul
ramdenime adgilasaa SesaZlebeli. saqarTvelo ki swored aseTi baraqiani
teritoriebis SuagulSia. Sesabamisad, soflis meurneobasa da sagreo
vaWrobaSi msoflio bazarze gaCenil moTxovnis paralelurad, Txilis
bizness didi potenciali aqvs.
54
Txilis samSoblo kavkasia da mcire aziaa. saqarTveloSi Txilis
kulturas uxsovari droidan icnobdnen. istoriuli wyaroebiT dasturdeba,
rom Zv. w. VI saukuneSi qarTveluri tomebi aSenebdnen Txilis gareul
formebs, romelTa bunebrivi hibridizaciis da SerCevis Sedegad warmoiSva
garemo pirobebs Seguebuli, maRalmosavliani jiSebisa da formebis simravle.
saqarTvelosTvis Txils seriozuli ekonomikuri mniSvneloba hqonda da
mosaxleobis Semosavlis wyaro iyo. 1917 wlis revoluciamde Cveni qveynidan
didi raodenobiT Txili gadioda evropis bazrebze, magram sabWoTa periodSi
Txilis naTesebi 8-10-jer Semcirda da Sesabamisad Semcirda eqsportic.
situacia Seicvala mxolod XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi, roca dasavleT
saqarTveloSi
ganaxlda
Txilis
plantaciebis
gaSeneba
da
Seiqmna
gadamamuSavebeli sawarmoebic.
adgilobrivi warmoebis Txili saqarTvelos saeqsporto produqciis
aTeulSi
mowinave adgilzea. "saqstatis" monacemebiT, am CamonaTvalSi
pirvel
adgilze
msubuqi
avtomobilebis
eqsportia,
Semdeg
modis
feroSenadnobebi, azotovani sasuqi, Txili da kakali. qarTuli Txilis wili
mTlian eqsportSi erTi wlis manZilze gaormagda da 4 % Seadgina.
"saqstatis" monacemebiT, 2012 wlis ianvar-agvistoSi eqsportze 57,732 mln aSS
dolaris odenobis qarTuli Txili gavida, 2011 wlis ianvar-agvistoSi ki
28,887 mln aSS dolaris odenobis produqciaa eqsportirebuli.
Txilis kulturas yvelaze didi farTobi TurqeTSi ukavia. es qveyana
msoflio bazris moTxovnis 75 % akmayofilebs da evropaSic da aziis
qveynebSi msoflio bazarze mTavari konkurentia. aqedan gamomdinare, sruli
uflebiT akontrolebs Txilis fassac da Txilis bazarsac. sursaTis da
agrokulturis saerTaSoriso organizaciis monacemebis Tanaxmad, Txilis
kulturis farTobebi ZiriTad mwarmoebel qveynebs Soris Semdegnairad
nawildeba: TurqeTi - 345 aTasi ha; italia - 69 aTasi ha; azerbaijani - 19.5
aTasi ha; espaneTi 12.1 aTasi ha; aSS - 11.8 aTasi ha; irani - 11 aTasi ha;
saqarTvelo da CineTi - 8-8 aTasi ha. miRebuli mosavlis mixedviT aseve
TurqeTi liderobs - 501.6 aTasi tona, Semdeg modian italia - 112.3 aTasi tona;
espaneTi - 18.3 aTasi tona; azerbaijani - 18.6 aTasi tona; aSS - 28.5 aT. tona;
irani, saqarTvelo da CineTi - 12-12 aTasi tona.
Txils saqarTveloSi saxnav-saTesi farTobis 42.1% aqvs dakavebuli.
saqarTvelo, Txilis kulturiT dakavebuli farTobis mixedviT, ZiriTad
mwarmoebel qveynebs Soris meoTxe adgilzea TurqeTis, italiis da
azerbaijanis Semdeg. qarTul Txils qveynis sasursaTo eqsportSi 24%.
mTlian eqsportSi - 4%, msoflio bazarze ki 5% uWiravs. igi uswrebs iseT
qveynebs, rogoricaa espaneTi, irani, aSS da CineTi, romlebic aseve wamyvan
poziciaze arian Txilis bazarze.
saqarTveloSi Txili qveynis masStabiT TiTqmis yvela regionSi xarobs
(imereTi, samegrelo, zemo svaneTi, guria, raWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTi, Sida
qarTli da samaCablo, mcxeTa-TianeTi, kaxeTi, qvemo qarTli, samcxe-javaxeTi,
55
afxazeTi, aWara). TiTqmis yvela regionSi funqcionirebs Txilis Cambarebeli
punqtebi, saidanac produqti gadamamuSavebel qarxanaSi xvdeba. Semdeg ki
produqti saxmeleTo gadazidvebis meSveobiT eqsportze gadis. aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi Txilis nargavebi lagodexSi, yvarelsa da axmetaSi xarobs.
saqarTveloSi Txilis yvelaze kargi mosavali samegrelosa (plantaciebis
85%) da afxazeTSi modis. am mxriv mesame poziciazea guria, Semdeg - imereTi
da kaxeTi. saqarTvelos teritoriaze gavrcelebulia daaxloebiT 27 jiSis
Txili.
guriaSi
gavrcelebulia:
gulSiSvela,
Svelisyura,
CxikvisTava,
saivanebo, bademi_dedoflisTiTa, xaWapura, nemsa, CinCa, cxenis ZuZu,
trapezundi, berZnuli Txili.
samegreloSi:
fuTqurami,
xojiTxili,
Svelisyura,
bademi_dedoflisTiTa, trapezundi, kudriavCiki, Cerqezuli, afxazuri wvrili.
imereTSi:
bademi_dedoflisTiTa,
trapezundi, berZnuli Txili.
xaWapura,
nemsa,
vanis
wiTeli,
qarTlsa da kaxeTSi: kerasundis grZeli, aTa-baba, belaqnis, xaWapura,
kudriavCiki, furfulaki.
mosavlis yvelaze didi raodenoba megruli jiSis Txilebze modis,
romelsac mrgval anakliur jiSs eZaxian.
saqarTveloSi Txilis bazris struqtura sami mimarTulebiT viTardeba:
wamyvani poziciebi ukaviaT sadistribuco kompaniebs, Semdeg Txilis
gadamamuSavebel qarxnebs da bolos ki – fermerebs, romelTac Txilis
kultura mohyavT. Txils distributorebs ZiriTadad wvrili fermerebi
abareben. rogorc cnobilia, Txilis eqsports 10 fizikuri da 51 iuridiuli
piri awarmoebs.
qarTul Txils adgilobrivi bazari Zalian mcire raodenobiT moixmars
- 3-5%-mde. nawils yidulobs kompania „barambo“ da sxva sakonditro
sawarmoebi Txilis didi nawili - 95 % gadis eqsportze – 20 – ze met
qveyanaSi. qarTuli Txilis gasaRebis bazari
ZiriTadad
evrokavSiris
qveynebia.
evropaSi gayidvebis TvalsazrisiT produqts saukeTeso pozicia
germaniaSi uWiravs. aziis bazarze qarTuli Txili yvelaze moTxovnadi eraysa
da
avRaneTSia. eqsportze ramdenime saxeobis Txili gadis. ZiriTadad,
damuSavebuli naturaluri Txilis guli, moxaluli Txili, daqucmacebuli
Txili da Txilis fqvili. nedl da gadamuSavebul Txilis guls farTod
moixmaren sakonditro warmoebaSi. gaxexili Txilis guli gamoiyeneba mSrali
sauzmisaTvis, agreTve Sokoladis kremis warmoebaSi da sxv. Txilisgan xdian
zeTs, romelic sakveb, teqnikur da parfiumerul warmoebaSi gamoiyeneba.
mSrali Txilis gulisagan mzaddeba fqvili, romelic bavSvTa sakvebi
produqtebisaTvis gamoiyeneba da ori wlis ganmavlobaSi ar kargavs kvebiT
Rirebulebas da zeTovan Tvisebebs. ucxoeTis bazarze aseve iyideba qarTuli
warmoebis gaurCeveli Txili. naWuWiani Txili ZiriTadad, aziis bazarze
56
iyideba. saerTaSoriso bazrebze qarTuli Txilis Sesyidvas axorcieleben
rogorc brokerebi, aseve Sokoladis mwarmoebeli qarxnebi. miuxedavad rTuli
politikuri mdgomareobisa, rusul bazarze eqsportis kuTxiT ramdenime
qarTuli kompania muSaobs. wels ruseTis bazarze Txilis fasi sakmaod
maRalia. erTi kilogrami naturaluri Txilis guli 7 dolaramde Rirs.
fasSi Sedis transportireba da dRg. bazarze ramdenime qarTuli kompania
funqcionirebs: „ekopeqsi“ , „agro pliusi“ , „gulabi“ , „sio 2000“ , „Txilis
saeqsporto kompania“. adgilobriv bazarze fermerebi erT kilogram
gaurCevel Txils 3-4 larad yidian.
wels Txilis mosavali SedarebiT Semcirebulia. amis mizezad
specialistebi araxelsayrel klimatur pirobebs asaxeleben. dasavleT
saqarTvelos mosaxleoba e.w. amerikul "TeTr pepelas" uCivis, romelic
Txils
nayofis
gamotanisTanave Seesia.
Txilis
mosavlis
Semcireba
adgilobriv bazarze fasebis gazrdas gamoiwvevs da SesaZloa 5 lars
gadaaWarbos. amas garda, fermerebi Txilis biznesSi xelisSemSlel faqtorad
asaxeleben monopolias Txilis bazarze da iafi kreditebis problemas, rac
am droisaTvis garkveulwilad mogvarebadia.
migvaCnia, rom Txilis eqsportiorebma unda gaiTvaliswinon Txilis
warmoebis
arealis gafarToebis tendenciebi da meti mimRebi punqtebi
gaxsnan im regionebSi, sadac es kultura mniSvnelovnad da farTodaa
warmodgenili.
gasaumjobesebelia
Txilis
Cabareba-Sesyidvis
procesis
organizacia. rogorc eqspertebi afaseben, qarTuli Txilis saeqsporto
potenciali srulad ar aris aTvisebuli, rogorc xarisxobrivad, aseve
raodenobrivad. dResdReobiT auTvisebelia TxilisaTvis vargisi miwis
resursis didi nawili. fermerebis mxridan gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda
mieqces plantaciebSi Txilis jiSebis SerCevisa da nedleulis xarisxobrivad
erTgvarovnebis
uzrunvelyofis
organizacias.
specialistebTan
erTad
biznesmenebi unda dainteresdnen Txilis plantaciebis gaSenebis gadidebiT,
sworad
SearCion
maRalmosavlianobiT
gamorCeuli
regionebi,
Cadon
garkveuli investiciebi, rac did riskTan ar iqneba dakavSirebuli da
investiciis ukugebis efeqti maleve miiReba.
Sida rezervebis, იnovaciebis, swori strategiuli xedvis efeqturad
gamoyenebis pirobebSi Txilis biznesi kidev ufro warmatebuli gaxdeba da
mniSvnelovan rols Seasrulebs qveynis ekonomikuri potencialis amaRlebis
saqmeSi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
http://www.for.ge
http://24saati.ge
http://netgazeti.ge/GE/104/business/9450/
http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge/component/encyclopedia/?task=term&id=4923
57
Nut – Potential Export Product in Georgia
Tamar Bedoshvili
Mari Kadzilovi
Ketevan Patsinashvili
Resume
The world interest toward nut is growing day by day and recently nut has become one of the
most leading cultures in Georgia. Its industry has also become. In the conditions of inter reservations
and innovations, soon nut business will become the most successful business and it will fulfill the
important role for increasing country’s economic potential.
saerTaSoriso SromiTi migracia da misi
Sedegebi saqarTveloSi
Teona gogiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesis administrirebis specialobis me-2 kursi
xelmZRvaneli: nanuli qoqaSvili _
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 551–33 –26 –75
saerTaSoriso
SromiTi
migracia
warmoadgens
samuSao
Zalis
gadadgilebas erTi qveynidan meoreSi samuSaos povnis mizniT. SromiTi
migracia aris legaluri da aralegaluri. varaudoben, rom aSS-i
aralegalur migrantTa ricxvi aRwevs 13-milions. qveynidan wasuls ewodeba
emigranti, qveyanaSi mosuls-imigranti. wasvlis qveyanas ewodeba donoriqveyana, xolo mimRebs recipienti qveyana. migrantaT iTvleba vinc erT welze
met xans cxovrobs sxva qveyanaSi.
samuSao Zalis migracis ZiriTadi mizezebia:
_ gansxvaveba Sromis anazRaurebis doneebSi donor da recipient
qveynebs Soris; CrTiloeTis ekonomikurad ganviTarebul, mdidar qveynebSi
SromisanazRaureba ramdenime aTeuljer aRemateba SromiT anazRaurebas
samxreTis Rarib qveynebSi.
_ umuSevroba; gaeros monacemebiT msoflios samuSao Zalis daaxloebiT
30,0%, e,i. erT miliardamde adamiani umuSevaria.
_ ganviTarebul qveynebSi ekonomikis araprestiJul
dargebSi iafi
samuSao Zalis ukmarisoba.
saerTaSoriso migraciam
miiRo arnaxuli maStabebi. 2010 wlisTvis
msoflioSi Tavisi qveynis farglebs gareT cxovrobda 214 milioni adamiani,
dedamiwis mosaxleobis 3,1%. aqedan afrikaSi - 19,3 miliono, aziaSi - 61,3,
evropaSi - 69,8 milioni (evropis mosaxleobis 7,2%). SedarebisaTvis
aRvniSnavT, rom msoflio bankis monacemebiT migrantTa ricxvi msoflioSi
965 wels Seadgenda 75 milions, 2000 wels - 150-s, xolo 2010 wels - 214
milions.
samuSao Zalis eqsporti iqca msoflio donis biznesad. SromiTi
58
migrantTa dasaqmebiT miRebuli Semosavlebi
CamorCeba mxolod nedli
navTobis gayidviT miRebul Semosavals. meore msoflio omis Semdeg evropis
qveynebma farTod gauRes kari aziis da afrikis iaf samuSao Zalas, riTac
Seudgnen omisgan miyenebuli samuSao Zalis deficitis gadafarvas.
dReisaTvis
dabalkvalificiuri SromiTi migrantebi dasaqmebulni
arian araprestiJul dargebSi, romelsac adgilobrivi mosaxleoba Tavs
aridebs, magaliTad, safrangeTis da germaniis damamuSavebel mrewvelobaSi.
vaWrobaSi da momsaxurebis sxva sferoebSi dasaqmebulTa 50-60% ucxoeli
muSebia.
imavdroulad, sabWoTa kavSiris da evropis socialisturi bankis
daSlis Semdeg gaZlierda tele tvinebis gadineba, maRalkvalificiuri
samuSao Zalis emigracia.
umuSevroba,
SromiTi
bazari: evropis qveynebis umetesoba SromiTi
(ekonomikur)
migrantebs
Tvlis
Sromis
bazarze
moTxovnilebis
uzrunvelyofis aucilebel pirobad. Tumca maTi migraciuli politika
gansxvavebulia. im dros, rodesac norvegias imigrantebisTvis Caketili aqvs
sazRvari, inglisi yovelwliurad zrdis imigrantTa nakads romelmac 50
aTasidan 1985 wels, am saukunis dasawyisSi wliurad miaRwia 160 aTass.
imigrantTa ricxviT evropaSi liderobs germania (meoce saukunis meore
naxevarSi germaniaSi mudmivad Tu droebiT sacxovreblad gadasaxlda 30
milioni adamiani), msoflioSi aSS, romelmac axalgazrda, ganaTlebuli da
kvalificiuri SromiTi migrantebis dasaqmebiT miRo didi ekonomikuri
sargebeli. 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris teraqtis Semdeg, imigraciuli nakadebi
aSS-m SezRuda. rogorc donori, ise recipienti qveynisTvis SromiTi
migracias moaqvs rogorc dadebiTi ise uaryofiTi Sedegebi.
donori qveynisTvis: dadebiTi: Tavisi fuladi gzavnilebiT SromiTi
migrantebi materialurad exmarebian ojaxebs. ar SeiZleba ar daveTanxmod
qarTvel demografs T. guguSvils, rom SromiTi emigraciam saqarTvelo
gadarCina SimSilobas (igulisxmeba 1990-iani wlebis Semdgomi SromiTi
emigracia); mcirdeba daZabuloba donori qveynis SromiT bazarze.
uaryofiTi: SromiTi emigracis Sedegad qveynidan gadis rogorc wesi
axalgazrda, energiuli, iniciativiani mosaxleoba, romelTa garkveuli
nawili
ukan aRar brundeba. droebiT da zogjer mudmivadac irRveva
ojaxuri kavSirebi, mcirdeba Sobadoba.
recipienti qveynisaTvis: dadebiTi: xels uwyobs qveynis ekonomikur
winsvlas. uaryofiTi: uaresdeba kriminogenuri situacia, ase magaliTad: ar
moxda aziis da afrikis feradkaniani da araferadkaniani mosaxleobis
asimilacia adgilobriv evropelebTan, SezRudulia Sereuli qorwinebebi,
aRmocendnen
uamravi
saTvistomoebi,
romlebic
cxovroben
Tavisi
sociokulturuli tradiciebiT. mimdinareobs evropis islamizacia, Sendeba
mravali meCeTi, romelTa garSemoc grovdebian islamuri saTvistomoebi.
SeimCneva
kaTolikebisa
da
sxva
qristianebis
gadasvla
islamur
sarwmunoebaze. yovelwliurad asi aTasze meti qristiani evropeli iRebs
islamis
sarwmunoebas.
21-e
dasawyisisaTvis
safrangeTSi
cxovrobda
daxloebiT 8-mln. muslimani; germaniaSi 7-mln, inglisSi-5 mln. evropaSi
59
cxovrobs 25-30 mln. muslimani, maT ricxvSi 3 mln Turqi. ase, rom dasavleT
evropam miRo migraciis bumerangi, kerZod imkis Tavisi viwro egoisturi
migraciuli politikis nayofs, romlis mizanic iyo metis miReba da naklebis
gacema. da kidev, migrantebSi Sobadobis maRali donis Sedegad aSS da
dasavleT evropis mosaxleobis ZiriTad matebas iZlevian migrantebi, rac
iwvevs satitulo (aborigeni) mosaxleobis SeSfoTebas Tavisi nacionaluri
identobis mimarT gaeros prognozebiT 2050 wlisaTvis aSS TeTrkaniani
mosaxleobis
xvedriTi
wili Smcirdeba,
50,0%-mde.
amave
prognoziT,
evrokavSiris 25 qveyanis mosaxleoba Sermcirdeba 450-dan 400 mln.
mcxovreblamde.
am
qveynebis
socialur-ekonomiuri
ganviTarebis
(e.i.
evrokavSiris ) uzrunvelsayofad saWiro gaxdeba migraciis zrda.
saqarTvelos mosaxleobis SromiTi migracia misi moculoba da
mizezebi: saqarTvelos mosaxleoba 1992-2009 wlebSi gare migraciis
gaaqtiurebis da Sobadobis Semcirebis Sedegad 1992 wlis 5467,4 aTasidan
(yvelaze meti ricxovnoba saqarTvelos istoriaSi) 2009 wels Semcirda 4385,4
aTasamde, e.i. 1082 aTasiT, romelic gamowveuli iyo 1990-iani wlebis Semdeg
saqarTveloSi
gavrcelebuli
sayovelTao
(ekonomikuri,
politikuri,
socialuri)
krizisiT.
Sesabamisad,
1992
wlis
mimarT
saqarTvelos
mosaxleobis danaklisma Seadgina misi 19,8%. aseT mdgomareobaSi aRmoCnda
bevri yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublika. moskovSi 2001 wels Catarebul
saerTaSoriso konferenciaze _ centraluri da aRmosavleTi evropa
globaluri migraciis sistemaSi (romlis monawilecaa am striqonebis
avtori), aRiniSna, rom somxeTidan emigrirebulia 1 mln adamiani, e.i.
mosaxleobis
26,0%,
azerbaijanidan
mxolod
ruseTis
federaciaSi
emigrirebuli iyo da muSaobda 2 mln. adamiani. e.i. azerbaijanis mosaxleobis
25%-mde (a. iunusovis moxseniebidan): moldaveTidan emigraciaSi wasulia 500
aTasamde adamiani e.i. moldoveTis mosaxleobis 30%-mde.
SromiTi migracia 1990-ian wlebis Semdeg realobad iqca. aseT movlenas
sabWoTa epoqa ar cnobda, ramdenadac gare migracisaTvis sazRvrebi
saimedod iyo Caketili. amitom aRmoCnda, rom sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo
moumzadebeli iyo misi regulirebisaTvis, xolo mecnierebas ar hqondaT misi
Seswavlis gamocdileba. sirTulebs kidev aZlierebs is garemoeba, rom
qveyanaSi ar arsebobs SromiTi emigracis statistikuri aRricxvis sistema.
amitom SromiTi emigraciis Seswavlisas veyrdnobiT SerCeviT gamokvlevebs,
romeliTac arc Tu ise ganebivrebuli. SromiTi migracis SerCeviTi
gamokvlevisas arsebobs ramdenime gza: pirveli _ sazRvargareT mofi
migrantebisgan informaciis miReba uSualo kontaqtiT (rac moiTxovs
interviueris wasvlas sxva qveyanaSi, rac Zviri siamovnebaa) an sxva gziT,
magaliTad
internetiT;
meore
_
samSobloSi
dabrunebuli
SromiTi
migrantebis
gamokiTxva; mesame _ informacis miReba SromiTi migrantebis
saqarTveloSi darCenili ojaxis wevrebisagan (am meTods hqvia Semcvleli
respodentebis
meTodi), meoTxe _ informacia potenciuri migraciis Sesaxeb
SeiZleba miviRoT migrantis aq mcxovrebi ojaxis wevrebisagan.
zogierTi mecnieris gamokvleviT, SromiT migraciaSi saqarTvelodan
wasulia 300-dan 400 aTasamde adamiani. Tavdapirvelad, migraciis veqtori
60
mimarTuli iyo ruseTisa da TurqeTisaken. dReisaTvis is mimarTulia
maRalanazRaurebadi dasavleT evropisa da aSS SromiTi bazrebisaken.
ruseTis ganze gaCoCebas xeli Seuwyo ruseTis mier saqrTvelosTan savizo
reJimis SemoRebam da bolo 20 wlis manZilze Riad mtrulma moqmedebebma 2008
wlis agvistos omis da saqarTvelos teritoriebis samxedro okupaciis
CaTvliT.
SromiTi migraciis struqtura: SromiTi migracis struqtura SeiZleba
ganvixiloT sxvadasxva niSniT, rogoricaa:
__ojaxuri Semadgenloba;
__migrantTa asakobrivi struqtura;
__migrantTa ganaTlebis done;
__mosaxleobis migraciuli ganwyoba (potencialuri migracia).
migrantTa ojaxuri Semagdenloba. SromiTi migracis rigi sakiTxeibis
Sesaswavlad saerTaSoriso grantis farglebSi Cvens mier 2000 wels
Catarebuli iqna SerCeviTi gamokvleva SromiTi migrantis ojaxis wevrebis
gamokiTxvis
saSualebiT.
gamokvlevam
aCvena,
rom
SromiTi
migracia
damaxasiaTebelia didi ojaxebisaTvis. gamokvleuli ojaxebis 56,7% Sedgeboda
6 da meti wevrisagan. amasTan sxvadasxva TaobaTa da naTesavTa Tanacxovrebis
mixedviT SromiTi migracia ufro damaxasiaTebelia didi ojaxebisaTvis.
araviTar dasabuTebas ar saWiroebs didi ojaxebis cxovrebis dabali done.
sxvadasxva TaobaTa da naTesavTa Tanacxovrebis mixedviT SromiTi migrantis
ojaxi sakmaod rTuli struqturaa. kerZod, dadginda, rom SromiTi migrantis
ojaxi Sedgeba sami Taobisagan: mSoblebi: - 30,5 %, Svilebi - 27,5%,
SviliSvilebi - 6,5%. maT garda ojaxSi cxovrobdnen: migrantis meuRle 17,4%, migrantis da-Zma an sxva naTesavi - 18,1% (sul 100%) n. WeliZis
gamokvleviT SromiTi migrantTa naxevarze mets daojaxebuli mosaxleoba
Seadgens.
migraciis Teorisa da migraciis statistikis Tanaxmad istoriulad
dasabuTebulia, rom migraciaSi Sedian upiratesad axalgazrdebi. me-20-e da
21-e saukunis mijnaze migrantTa asaki gaizarda. magaliTad, statistikis
departamentis 2001 wlis gamokvleviT gare migraciaSi monawileTa Soris 40
wels gadacilebulni Seadgendnen 20,6%, xolo Cveni gamokvleviT - SromiTi
migraciaSi - 40,0%. qalebi Seadgendnen migrantTa 40,0%.
saqstatis gamokvleviT emigrantTa saSualo asakma Seadgina 36,1 weli,
xolo Cveni gamokvleviT 38, 5 weli, e.i. 2.4 wliT meti. aRniSnuli faqti
gasakviri ar unda iyos, radgan SromiTi migraciaSi monawileoben garkveuli
ganaTlebis da kvelifikacis mqone adamianebi, xolo ganaTlebis da
kvalifikaciis SeZenas dro unda. Cveni gamokvleviT aRmoCnda, rom SromiTi
migrantebidan mamakacebis 74,7% da qalebis 83,3% qonda umaRlesi ganaTleba
da saSualo specialuri ganaTleba. n. WeliZis gamokvleviT aRniSnulma
maCvernebelma orive sqesisaTvis 80,1% Seadgina.
SromiTi migrantTa 60%-mde emigraciaSi wavida im mizeziT, rom
gaeumjobesebina materialuri pirobebi, xolo 50% iyvnen umuSevrebi.
Cvens mier studentTa migraciuli ganwyobis Seswavlam mogvca Semdegi
savalalo Sedegi. sazRvargareT mudmivad an droebiT wasvlis survili
61
gamoTqva kargi materialuri da sabinao pirobebis mqone studentebis 75,1%-ma,
saSualod saSualo sabinao pirobebis mqoneTa 78,2%-ma da cudi sabinao
pirobebis mqoneTa 84,8%-ma.
imis miuxedavad, rom iseTi mcirericxovani qveynidan, rogoric
saqarTveloa, milionze meti adamiania wasuli, dReisaTvis saqarTvelodan
emigracis survili an kidev emigraciuli potenciali jer kidev maRalia, im
dros, rodesac emigracis pikma saqarTveloSi miaRwia 1991-1992 wlebSi.
erovnuli katastrofis tolfasad migvaCnia is Sedegebi, romelic Cven
miviReT studentebis gamokiTxviT. kerZod is faqti, rom studentTa 7,4%-s
surs saqarTvelodan wasvla mudmivad, xolo 58,5% droebiT praqtikulad
analogiuri Sedegi miRo n. WeliZem studentTa gamokiTxviT romelTa 61%-ma
gamoTqva saqarTvelodan emigracis survili. seriozul dafiqrebas moiTxovs.
mudmivad wamsvlelTa potenciali, 7,5% utoldeba 325 aTas mcxovrebs. es
exeba ZiriTadaT qarTvelebs, radgan n. WeliZis gamokvleviT, SromiT
emigrantebSi 80-dan 96 procentamde qarTvelia.
SromiTi migracis efeqturoba: erT-erTma ojaxma Cens mier Catarebul
gamokiTxvis anketaSi Tavisufal adgilze Cawera: imedia, rom (migranti) bedi
anabara ar migvatovebso. migracis efeqturoba gaizomeba migrantis mier
ojaxisaTvis gamogzavnili Tanxis moculobiT da am TanxiT gadaWrili
problemebiT. imavdroulad qveyana
iRebs Tanxis moculobiT sakmao
raodenobiT sazRvargareTis valutas.
SromiTi emigraciis efeqturoba
SeiZleba davaxasiaToT maCvenebelTa
sistemiT, romelTa gaangariSeba eyrdnoba SerCeviT gamokvlevebs. aRniSnuli
maCvenebelebia:
__ SromiTi migrantis xvedriTi wili, vinc Tavis ojaxs exmareba
fuladi gzavnilebiT. kvlevebiT dadgenilia rom aseTi migrantebi Seadgenen
migrantTa daaxloebiT 80,0%.
__ migrantTa fuladi gzavnilebi saSualod TveSi da saSualod
weliwadSi: qveyanaSi wlis ganmavlobaSi migrantebis mier gamogzavnili
valutis moculoba.
migrantis mier saSualo Tviuri gzavnili ganisazRvreba 178,5 aSS
dolariT. Sesabamisad saSualo wliuri Tanxa iqneba 2 142 dolari.
qveyanaSi wlis ganmavlobaSi migrantebis mier gamogzavnili valutis
moculoba ganisazRvreba migrantebis ricxvebis gamravlebiT erTi migrantis
mier gamogzavnili saSvalo wliuri Tanxis moculobaze. SromiTi migrantebis
ricxovnebad Tu aviRebT 400 aTass, saSvalo saSualo wliur gzavnils 2142
dolars, maSin qveyavnaSi Semosuli valutis moculoba wlis ganmavlobaSi
toli iqneba daxloebiT 860 milioni dolaris, rac saqarTvelos mSp-s 7,4
procentia 2005 wlisaTvis, rodesac Catarda gamokvleva.
gzavnilebis moculoba damokidebulia recipienti qveynis ekonomikur
mdgomareobaze. yvelaze dabali saSualo Tviuri gzavnilebia dsT qveynebidan.
magaliTad somxeTidan gzavnilebma Seadgina 29,8 dolari, ukrainidan-115,
xolo azerbaijanidan - 0, maSin, aSS-dan is toli iyo 397,3, israelidan - 268,5,
germanidan - 167,3 dolars.
__ migraciis xangrZlivoba da efeqturoba. udavoa, rom migraciis
62
efeqturoba damokidebulia mis xangrZliobaze. Cveni gamokvleviT migrantis
saSualo yofnis xangrZlivoba 2,7 wels Seadgenda. aseve dadgenilia, rom im
ojaxebidan, romlis wevric saSovarze imyofeba 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi, 63,6
procentma Tavisi ojaxebis mdgomareoba gaumjobesda an mniSvnelovnad
gaumjobesda, xolo im ojaxebidan, romelTa wevric saSovarze imyofeba 2
wlis ganmavlobaSi - 72,7% -ma.
__ ramdeniTaa uzrunvelyofili ojaxis biujeti sazRvargareTidan
gzavnilebiT? amisaTvis Sinameurneobis saSualo Semosavals adgilze
daemateba saSualoTviuri gzavnili, da miiReba Sinameurneobis mTliani
saSualo Tviuri Semosavlebi. amis Semdeg ganisazRvreba gzvnilis xvedriTi
wili Sinameurneobis mTlian SemosavlebSi.
magaliTad,
erTi
Sinameurneobis
saSualoTviurma
Semosavlebma
saqarTveloSi 2008 wels Seadgina 537,4 lari. gzavnilma-178,5 dolari, rac
dolaris imdroindeli kursiT tolia 266 laris
Sesabamisad, erTi
Sinameurneobis saSualoTviuri Semosavali tolia 803,4 laris, xolo
gzavnilis xvedriTi wili Seadgenda Sinameurneobis Semosavlis 69,4%, e,i.
ojaxis biujetis 69,4% uzrunvelyofili iyo gzvnilebiT, nacvlad 33,15-isa
2008 wels. Tumca 33,1% procentic mniSvnelovani maCvenebelia.
aseTi
tendecia
gamoiwvia
saqarTveloSi
Sinameurneobebis
saSualoTviuri Semosavlebis zrdam. kerZod, aRniSnuli maCvenebeli 2007-2008
wlebSi 174,8 laridan gaizarda 537,4 laramde. e.i. samjer, maSin, rodesac
gzavnilebis moculoba Semcirda kidevac saSualod 200 dolaridan 178,5
dolaramde.
__ SromiTi migrantis daxmarebiT ojaxis mier gadaWrili problemebi.
dRevandeli saqarTvelos gaWianurebuli ekonomikuri krizisis pirobebSi
sazRvargareTidan SromiTi emigrantTa fuladi gzavnilebis mniSvneloba
Seufasebelia. fuladi gzavnilebi aq darCenili ojaxebis biujets saarsebo
minimumamde avsebs da aWarbebs kidec. amasTan ar un da dagvaviwydes, rom
SromiTi emigranti TviTon ikmayofilebs adgilze misTvis aucilebel
moTxovnebs.
rac Seexeba migraciis efeqtianobas, Cveni gamokvleviT dadginda, rom
gamoikiTxulTa 31,2% - ma sazTRvargareT myofi axloblebis materialuri
daxmarebiT gadaWra kvebisa da Cacmis problema. 24, 6%_ma sabinao pirobebi,
13,1%_ma janmrTelobaze zrunvis problemebi, 4,9%_ma daiwyo biznesi, 8,2%_ma
SeiZina avtomobili an sxva nivTebi. araviTari problema ar gadauWria
ojaxebis 18,0%_s.
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom mocemuli gamokvleviT migraciis efeqturoba
aRwevs 82,0%, araefekturoba 18,0%.
unda
aRiniSnos,
rom
miigracis
efeqturobis
maCveneblebi
gansxvavdebodes sxvadasxva gamokvlevebiT, ramdenadac isini rogorc wesi,
tardeba sxvadasxva dros. gansxvavebis meore mizezic SeiZleba gaxdes
erTdroulad an drois axlomdgom monakveTSi Catarebuli gansxvavebuli
meTodologia.
gamoyenebuli literatra
1.
m. xmalaZe, T. zubiaSvili, “statistika ekonomikasa da biznesSi”
63
gamomcemloba merani 2011 weli.
2.
naTia WeliZe,
dasax. naSromi gv.76-77, 78, 80, 105, 106, 107, 122.
gamomcemloba Tbilisi 2006 weli.
International Labor Migration and its results in Georgia
Teona Gogishvili
Resume
The work discusses forms and types of international labor migration, caused reasons of it,
structure and its results on the example of Georgia. The work proposes methods of effective
accounting of labor migration and ways of its improvement.
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis saqmianobis Sefaseba saqarTveloSi:
dadebTi da uaryofiTi aspeqtebi
nino olgesaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
safinanso, sabanko da sadazRvevo
saqmis specialobis meoTxe kursi
xelmZRvaneli: nanuli qoqaSvili mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 551–33 –26 –75
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi saerTaSoriso organizaciaa, romelsac
gaerTianebuli
erebis
organizaciis
specializirebuli
dawesebulebis
statusi aqvs miniWebuli, igi miznad isaxavs globalur finansuri sistemis
uzrunvelyofas
ucxouri gacvliTi kursebis da sagadamxdelo balansis
monitoringis meSveobiT. is aseve teqnikur da finansur
daxmrebas sTavazobs
saWiroebisamebr bevr qveyanas.
saerTaSoriso
kapitalisa
savaluto
fondis
da dagrovebis xarjze.
resursebi
yalibdeba
ZiriTadi
kapitali ganisazRvreba kvotebiT – ssf–
is wevri qveynebis SenatanebiT. kvotiT dgindeba qveynis xmebis raodenoba da
resursebis gamoyenebis limiti.
150,3
mln
SDR-s
Seadgens,
saqarTvelos
rac
gaTvaliwinebiT, Cven qveyanas fondSi
wili kvota ssf–Si
mTliani
moculobis
amJamad
0,07%–ia.
amis
gaaCnia 1,753 xma (mTliani xmebis 0,08%)
64
aTi yvelaze didi kvotis mqone saxelmwifoebis monacemebi:
qveyana
aSS
iaponia
kvota (mil
SDR)
37,149,3
13,312,8
kvota (%)
xmebis
raodenoba
xmebi (%)
17.09
6.12
371,743
133,378
16.74
6.01
germania
13,008,2
5.98
130,332
5.87
didi britaneTi
safrangeTi
CineTi
italia
10,738.5
10,738.5
8,090.1
7,055.5
4.94
4.94
3.72
3.24
107,635
107,635
81,151
70,805
4.85
4.85
3.65
3,19
saudis arabeTi
kanada
6,985.5
6,362
3.21
2.93
70,105
63,942
3,16
2.88
ruseTi
5,944
2.73
59,704
2.69
yvelaze meti kvota da Sesabamisad, xmis uflebac, ssf–Si aSS–s
gaaCnia. amis gamo, mas TiTqmis yovelTvis SeuZlia gamoiyenos vetos ufleba
gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas. moncemebis analizis safuZvelze irkveva, rom
kvotebis moculoba mxolod mTliani Sida produqtis moculobaze araa
damokidebuli. amas
mowmobs
merve
adgilze
myofi saudis arabeTi,
romelic mSp–is moculobis mxriv msoflioSi 26–e adgilzea.
saqarTvelo ssf–is wevri mxolod 1992 wels gaxda.
1994
wlidan
dRemde saqarTvelos xelisuflebisaTvis ssf–is rekomendaciebis Sesruleba
aucilebeli xdeba.
1994 wlidan dRemde saqarTvelom fondisagan oTxi krediti miiRo. ssf–
is pirveli krediti
TanxiT 55,5 mln SDR (75,32mln. aSS dolari)
saqarTvelosa da ssf–s Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebis
safuZvelze
warmoiSva.
meore krediti (Stand by) TanxiT 22,2 mln. SDR ( 30.13 mln. aSS
dolari). ssf–s mesame krediti TanxiT 138,75 mln. SDR (188,31mln aSS dolari)
warmoiSva saqarTvelosa da
ssf–s Soris
dadebuli xelSekrulebis
safuZvelze (ESAF). krediti gamiznuli iyo struqturuli gardaqmnebisaTvis.
ssf–s meoTxe krediti
(Stand by)
TanxiT 747 mln. SDR damtkicebuli
iqna 2008 wlis 15 seqtembers. kreditis mizani iyo saqarTvelos mTavrobis
ekonomikuri politikis mxardaWera, romelic qveynis makroekonomikuri
stabilurobisken iyo mimarTuli. programis dasrulebis vada dadginda 2011
wlis 14 ivnisamde.
2010 wlis 31 oqtombris mdgomareobiT, sul saxelmwifos mier da
saxelmwifos
garantiiT
aRebuli
kreditebis
saerTo
moculobam
3,835,637,000 aSS dolari (6,819,762,000 lari) Seadgina. aqedan saerTaSoriso
savaluto
fondis wili 1,075,733,000 aSS dolari (684,400,000 SDR) iyo.
aRniSnuli maCvenebliT igi meore adgilzea msoflio bankis Semdeg.
Tanamedrove etapze saqarTvelosa da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis
urTierTobebi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania. aRniSnulma sakiTxma
meti
aqtualoba
2008 wlis
msoflio finansuri krizisisa da
ruseT–
65
saqarTvelos Soris omis Semdgom SeiZina. savaluto bazarze mkveTrad iklo
ucxouri valutis mowodebam da gaizarda zewola gacvliT kursze. mxolod
agvistos TveSi qveynis saerTaSoriso rezervebi 23%– iT Semcirda, bankis
depozitebi –14%–iT. amis Semdeg periodulad xdeba ssf–is warmomadgenelTa
vizitebi, romlebic saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan erTad ganixilavda Semdgomi
kreditis miRebis pirobebs.
Semdegi misia saqarTveloSi 2010 wlis 7–22 ivliss imyofeboda. misiis
farglebSi miRweul iqna SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos mTavrobis TxovniT
sapasuxod ssf–is mier damatebiTi Tanxebis gamoyofis Sesaxeb 2010–2011 wlis
sagadamxdelo balansis mosalodneli deficitis dasafinanseblad. fondis
misia daTanxmda damatebiT 270 mln.
SDR gamoyofas. finansuri paketis
gazrdam da programis vadis gagrZelebam xeli Seuwyo saqarTvelos
mTavrobis ekonomikuri politikis gatarebas da im ekonomikuri da finansuri
riskebis ganeitralebas, romelic gamowveuli iyo saerTaSoriso finansuri
krizisiT da ruseTTan konfliqtiT.
ssf–is
saqarTvaloSi ocwliani miRvaweoba nayofierad SeiZleba
Sefasdes. misi iniciativiT Tu mxardaWeriT ganxorcielebul proeqtebs bevri
gulSematkivari gamouCnda, Tumca bevri iyo mowinaaRmdegec.
saqarTveloSi ssf–is saqmianobis mTavar dadebiT Sedegad unda
CaiTvalos Cvens qveyanaSi safinanso sistemis formireba da makroekonomikuri
stabilurobis miRweva,
ssf–ma
didi wvlili Seitana qveynis
safinanso
mowyobis sakanonmdeblo bazis SeqmnaSi, romelic
fulad sakredito da
sabiujeto procesebs aregulirebs.
ssf –is rekomendaciiT saqarTveloSi
Camoyalibda
orsafexuriani
sabanko
sistema,
romelic
nebismieri
civilizirebuli saxelmwifos aucilebeli atributia. ssf–ma didi roli
iTamaSa aseve, sagareo vaWrobis liberalizaciisa da ucxouri valebis
restruqturizaciis procesSi. man Ria mxardaWera
gamoucxada msoflio
bankis rekomendacias sabiujeto xarjebSi jadacvisa da ganaTlebisaTvis
prioritetis miniWebis sakiTxs.
miuxedavad saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis
mier saqarTveloSi
miRweuli mniSvnelovani warmatebebisa
ara erTi Secdoma iqna daSvebuli,
1992 wels ssf-ma saqarTvelos mTavrobas urCia darCeniliyo e.w.
„rublis
zonaSi“ da ar SemoeRo sakuTari erovnuli valuta. yovelive amas ruseTis
mxridan fuladi
banknotebis
arastabiluri mowodeba mohyva, ris gamoc
qveyana mZime viTarebaSi aRmoCndა
savaluto fondma saqarTvelos
mTavrobas mouwoda,
rom brunvidan
gadasaxadi Seecvala d R g–is
gadasaxadT, rac Sesabamisi sagadasaxado sistemis ararsebobis pirobebSi
metad rTuli gansaxorcielebeli iyo.
ssf–is Secdomad unda CaiTvalos, is rom man xelisuflebas mosTxova
gaeuqmebina arsebuli sagadasaxado SeRavaTi, romelic mewarmeebis mogebis im
nawilis
mogebis gadasaxadidan ganTavisuflebas iTvaliswinebda romelic
reinvestirebas xmardeboda.
amrigad,
miuxedavad
zemoT
CamoTvlili
Secdomebisa
ssf–ma
mniSvnelovani
roli iTamaSa siRaribesTan brZolisa da makroekonomikuri
stabilurobis miRwevaSi, erovnuli valutis SemoRebaSi da SemdgomSi misi
66
stabilizaciis xelSemwyobi RonisZiebebis gatarebaSi, qveynis
safinanso
mowyobis sakanonmdeblo bazis SeqmnaSi, romelic fulad sakredito da
sabiujeto
procesebs
aregulirebs.
ssf–is
aqtiuri
mxardaWeriT
mimdinareobda
makroekonomikuri
RonisZiebebi,
romlebic
inflaciuri
procesebis
daregulirebasa
da
stabiluri
ekonomikuri
zrdis
SesanarCuneblad ganxorcielda.
ssf–is mxardaWeram aseve didi roli
iTamaSa 2008 wlis ekonomikuri krizisisa da rusuli intervenciis uaryofiTi
Sedegebis aRmofxvraSi.
ssf saqarTvelosaTvis
pirvel rigSi unda
ganvixiloT, rogorc erT–erTi umsxvilesi kreditori.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
babuxardia a. Secdoma Tu danaSauli? nawili IV 2009 w.
gv.10. 2
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis misia saqarTveloSi, Tbilisis
damoukidebeli universiteti „ gorgasali“ Tb., 2010. gv., 55
3. strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centri, biuleteni N105,
saqarTvelos sagareo vali, noemberi 2007, gv. 15.
4. papava v. saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi saqarTveloSi miRwevebi da
Secdomebi 2000.
5. wyaro: http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2008/pr08208.htm
International Monetary Fund and its Relationship with Georgia
Nino Olgesashvili
Resume
In the article, The International Monetary Fund and its relationship with Georgia
highlights the evaluation of the International Monetary Fund activities in Georgia and its positive and
negative aspects, also scientests’ and experts’ evaluations on these issues. By results of the
abovementioned survey analysis, the authors consider that in spite of the mistakes made during
twenty-year working experience in Georgia, the International Monetary Fund can be described as
prolific.
Kkompaniis ganviTarebis marketinguli strategiebi
Dda miznobrivi modelebi
nana cucqiriZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
xelmZRvaneli: levan lazviaSvili
gayidvebis da mogebis gadidebis mizniT kompanias SeuZlia mimarTos
intensiuri zrdis, integraciuli zrdis da diversifikaciuli zrdis
strategiebs. Mmarketingis strategia gulisxmobs konkretul sabazro
situaciasTan kompaniis SesaZleblobebis SesabamisobaSi moyvanas, radgan
uzruvvelyofili iyos marketing-miqsis „4P“ da “4C“ programis warmatebuli
67
realizacia.
intensiuri
zrda
Seesabameba
matricas:
“saqoneli/bazari”.
Igi
gulisxmobs kompaniis intensiur ganviTarebas sakuTari SesaZleblobebiT da
sabazro
winadadebis
uzrunvelyofas
anu
ganaxorcielos
efeqturi
pozicionireba. es strategia moicavs bazarze SeRwevis, bazris ganviTarebis,
saqonlis srulyofis da diversifikaciis mimarTulebebs.
a)
bazarze SeRwevis strategia – ukavSirdeba bazarze farTod
danergvas. Kkompania iRebs gadawyvetilebas bazris wilis gafarToebis
Sesaxeb
da
erTi
saxis
produqtis
realizacia
sawarmoebs
erT
bazarze.Bbazarze SeRwevis strategias Tavis mxriv Seesabameba miznobrivi
marketingis modeli – Zalebis koncentracia erTaderT segmentze.
Bbazari 1
bazari 2
Bbazari 3
Pproduqti 1
Pproduqti 2

Pproduqti 3
koncentrirebuli marketingi gulisxmobs riskis maRal xarisxs. arCeul
sabazro segmentze arsebobs safrTxe imisa, rom am segmentze Semovides axali
Zlieri konkurenti, xolo meores mxriv arsebobs safrTxe imisa, rom
Semcirdes moTxovna mocemul produqtze.
b)
bazris ganviTarebis strategia – ukavSirdeba bazris sazRvrebis
gafarToebas. Kkompania axorcielebs mocemuli erTi saxis produqtis
realizacias ramdenime axal sabazro segmentze. kerZod, kompania iRebs
gadawyvetilebas gavides lokalur da globalur bazrebze. saerTaSoriso
bazrebze gasvlis strategiebidan SeiZleba davasaxeloT: arapirdapiri,
pirdapiri da sakuTari eqsporti; licenzireba / sruli, gansakuTrebuli,
martivi da sublicenziebi /,rac ukavSirdeba sakontraqto urTierTobebs
licenziarsa da licenziats Soris; erToblivi sawarmoebis Seqmna, rac Tavis
mxriv ukavSirdeba benC markingis procesis uzrunvelyofas; pirdapiri
investireba – daxnuli da dauxnavi mindvris strategiebis gamoyeneba.
aRniSnul strategias ukavSirdeba miznobrivi marketingis modeli –
sasaqonlo specializacia.
Bbazari 1
Bbazari 2
Bbazari 3



Pproduqti 1
K
Pproduqti 2
Pproduqti 3
68
kompania
flobs
saimedo
mimwodeblis
reputacias.Mmagram
aseTi
midgomisas arsebobs riski, rom mocemul produqtze Semcirdes moTxovna da
igi bazridan gamoidevnos axali da ufros rulyofili – inovaciuri
produqtiT.
gsaqonlis srulyofis strategia – ukavSirdeba axali saqonlis
damuSavebas anu kompania romelime sabazro segments sTavazobs ramdenime
saintereso
produqts.
Mmocemul
strategias
ukavSirdeba
miznobrivi
marketingis modeli – sabazro specializacia, roca kompania orientirebulia
imaze, rom daakmayofilos arCeuli momxmarebelTa jgufis moTxovnilebebi.
Bbazari 1
Pproduqti 1

Pproduqti 2

Pproduqti 3

Bbazari 2
Bbazari 3
aseTi midgomisas arsebobs riski, rom am bazarzeSemovides Zlieri
konkurenti da Semcirdes momxmarebelTa biujeti.
d) diversifikaciis strategia – ukavSirdeba saqmianobis gafarToebas da
kompania ramdenime saxis produqtis realizacias axdens ramdenime sabazro
segmentze. Mmocemul strategias Seesabameba miznobrivi marketingis modeli –
arCeviTi specializacia anu TiTo saxis produqtis realizacia TiTo
bazarze.
Bbazari 1
produqti 1
Bbazari 2
Bbazari 3


produqti 2

produqti 3
aRniSnuli modeli kompanias aZlevs SesaZleblobas gaanawilos riski
ramdenime mimarTulebiT.
Aaqve mizanSewonilia ganvixiloT miznobrivi marketingis modeli –
bazris sruli mocva anu sasaqonlo nomenklaturiT gasvla yvela segmentze /
samomxmareblo da saqmian bazrebze /.am modelis ganxorcieleba Tavis mxriv
dakavSirebulia kompaniis finansuri resursebiT mdgrad uzrunvelyofasTan.
69
Bbazari 1
Bbazari 2
Bbazari 3
Pproduqti 1



Pproduqti 2



Pproduqti 3



zogadad
saerTaSoriso
marketingis
strategias
mimarTaven
eTnocentruli, policentruli da geocentruli kompaniebi, romlebic
eyrdnobian Sida bazris gafarToebis da mraval nacionaluri bazris
koncefciebs.
e) calke gamovyoT miznobrivi marketingis modeli – kastomerizacia anu
personaluri – eqskluziuri marketingi. Aam dros kompania orientirebulia
individualur momxmarebelze da axorcielebs misTvis aRniSnuli produqtis
adaptacias da momxmarebels aqvs SesaZlebloba CaerTos produqtis dizainis
Seqmnis procesSi. Kastomerizacia miekuTvneba partnioruli marketingis
efeqtur formas.
2. integraciuli zrda – aris kompaniebis gaerTianebis procesi. masSi
gamoiyofa regresuli, prigresuli da horizontaluri integraciebi.
a) regresuli integraciis dros mwarmoebeli kompania yidulobs
nedleulis momwodeblis aqciaTa sakontrolo pakets, radgan ganaxorcielos
sruli kontroli mis saqmianobaze. aRniSnuli strategiis mizania, rom
kompaniis gankargulebaSi iyos sakuTari sanedleulo baza. b)progresuli
integraciis dros mwarmoebeli kompania yidulobs ganawilebis arxis –
sadistribucio qselis aqciaTa sakontrolo pakets, radgan ganaxorcielos
sruli kontroli mis saqmianobaze. aRniSnuli strategiis mizania, rom
kompaniam sakuTari produqtis realizacia ganaxorcielos
Suamavlebis
gareSe damoukideblad da monitoringi daawasos misi realizaciis process.
Amis paralelurad produqti iqneba ufro xelmisawvdomi momxmareblebisTvis.
g) horizontaluri integraciis dros mwarmoebeli kompania yidulobs
konkurenti kompaniis aqciaTa sakontrolo pakets, radgan ganaxorcielos
sruli kontroli mis saqmianobaze. Mmocemuli strategiis mizania bazris
wilis gadideba da bazarze dominirebuli da Zlieri konkutentuli poziciis
dakaveba.
3. diversifikaciuli zrda – am strategias azri aqvs im SemTxvevaSi,
roca menejmenti darwmunebulia kompaniis zrdis perspeqtivebSi, rac
jerjerobiT ar arsebobs kompaniis portfelSi.SesaZlebelia diversifikaciis
sami tipi:
a) koncentrirebuli diversifikaciis strategiis dros kompaniam
SesaZloa miiRos gadawyvetileba axali produqciis gamoSvebis Sesaxeb,
70
romelic Seesabameba arsebul teqnologiur xazs da orientirebulia
myidvelTa sxva jgufze.
b) horizontaluri diversifikaciis strategiis
dros SesaZlebelia axali produqtis gamoSveba, romelic araa dakavSirebuli
arsebul teqnologiur
xazTan.
g) konglomeraciuli diversifikaciis
strategiis dros kompaniam SeiZleba yuradReba SeaCeros saqmianobis axal
sferoze, romelic araa dakavSirebuli arc arsebul teqnologiebTan, arc
kompaniis produqciasTan da arc aTvisebul bazrebTan. Kkonglomerati
kompania sakuTar saqmianobas axorcielebs erTdroulad warmoebis da
momsaxurebis sferoSic anu erTi kompaniis sakuTrebaSia warmoebis, sabanko
da sadazRvevo sferoebi. Kkompaniebs unda SeeZloT ara marto ganaviTaron
strategiuli mimarTulebebi, aramed aseve Seamciron zogierTi mimarTuleba
anu
ganaxorcielon
divesticiis
strategia,
kerZod
moaxdinon
araperspeqtiuli saqmianobis likvidacia anu biznesis gayidva. Ddivesticiis
strategiis mizania aucilebeli resursebis gamonTavisufleba da kompaniis
xarjebis Semcireba da es resursebi umjobesi iqneba, rom mimarTos
perspeqtiuli sferoebis ganviTarebaze. Bbazris arCevisas kompaniam unda
gaiTvaliswinos bazris mimzidvelobis xarisxi da kompaniis gankargulebaSi
arsebuli resursebi.
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2009 w.
b.mRebriSvili–marketingis
safuZvlebi.
gamomcemloba
“universali”
2. g.SublaZe–marketingis safuZvlebi. გamomcemloba “universali“ 2009 w.
3. келлер.котлер – маркетинг менеджмент. Изд. Питер 2012 г.
Marketing Strategies and Target Models for Developing Company
Nana Tsutskiridze
Resume
The work speaks about marketing strategies for developing company. Modern companies use
these strategies for functioning on the local and global market. Strategic directions of intensive growth,
integrative growth and diversification growth are evidently characterized. The work is full of target
marketing models that are discussed parallel with marketing strategies and risk factors related to them.
It should be mentioned that the out coming strategies of external markets are given. To
consider them is very important either for theoretical or for practical point.
71
konkurenciis sabazro safrTxeebi da
konkurentuli strategiebi
nino odiSeliZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
xelmZRvaneli: levan lazviaSvili
Kkonkurenciis
sabazro
koncefcia
mdgomareobs
konkurentebad identificirdebian is kompaniebi, romlebic
erTnair msyidvelobiT moTxovnilebas.
imaSi,
rom
akmayofileben
ganvixiloT konkurenciasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxeebi:
1. intensiuri metoqeobis safrTxe – sabazro segmenti fasdeba rogorc
aramimzidveli, Tu masze funqcionireben Zlieri da agresiuli konkurentebi,
romlebic dainteresebulni arian daikavon dominirebuli poziciebi am
segmentze. aseTi konkurentebi axorcieleben kontrols sxva kompaniebis
qmedebebze, maT SeuZliaT wamoiwyon damoukidebeli aqciebi sxva firmebisgan
damoukideblad,
floben
saqmianobis
ganviTarebis
strategiul
SesaZleblobebs da ukaviaT iseTi pozicia, rom saSualeba aqvT SeinarCunon
finansuri mdgradoba grZelvadiani poziciebis TvalsazrisiT;
floben
konkurentul upiratesobas da pozitiur sabazro perspeqtivas. intensiuri
metoqeobis pirobebSi bazrisTvis damaxasiaTebelia safaso da sareklamo
SebrZolebebi da aucilebelia axali saqonlis damuSaveba da misi
pozicionireba bazarze, rac ukavSirdeba didi raodenobis danaxarjebs.
2.
bazarze
axali
monawilis
gamoCenis
safrTxe
–
segmentis
mimzidveloba damokidebulia bazarze Sesvlis da bazridan gamosvlis
barierebze anu Sesabamisad biznes-saqmianobis dawyebaze da damTavrebaze. B
bazarze
Sesvlis
barierebidan
SeiZleba
davasaxeloT
Semdegi
kriteriumebi: moTxovnileba investiciebze
/apitalze /, licenziis miRebis
aucilebloba, kompaniis warmoebis dislocirebasTan dakavSirebuli siZnele,
nedleulisadmi xelmisawvdomoba. Gganawilebis arxebisadmi xelmisawvdomoba,
saTanado reputaciis qona anu kompaniis efeqturi komunikacia miznobriv
auditoriasTan; masStabis efeqti – romelic Tavis mxriv ukavSirdeba
kompaniis saqmianobis lokalizaciis da globalizaciis dones.
bazridan gamosvlis barierebidan SeiZleba davasaxeloT Semdegi
kriteriumebi:
iuridiuli
da
moraluri
valdebuleba
myidvelebis,
kreditorebis da personalis winaSe; saxelmwifo SezRudvebi; teqnologiebiT
uzrunvelyofis dabali xarisxi; alternatiuli SesaZleblobis ararseboba;
emociuri barieri da vertikaluri integraciis
maRali xarisxi
–
vertikaluri
integraciis
dros
xorcieldeba
warmoebis,realizaciis
sferoebSi dasaqmebuli kompaniebis kooperireba, romlis drosac adgili aqvs
72
maT urTierTdamokidebulebas. sqemis saxiT ganvixiloT sabazro barierebTan
dakavSirebuli Semosavlebi.
bazarze Sesvlis dabali
Bbazarze Sesvlis maRali barieri
barieri
Bbazridan dabali
gamosvlis Semosavali
dabali
barieri
stabiluri maRali stabiluri Semosavali
Bbazridan dabali
gamosvlis Semosavali
maRali
barieri
sarisko maRali sarisko Semosavali
3. substituti saqonlis gamoCenis safrTxe – bazris segmenti kargavs
mimzidvelobas,roca masze konkurireben Semcvleli produqtebi an arsebobs
maTi gamoCenis realuri safrTxe. substitutebis arseboba zRudavs fasebis
da mogebis dones, amitom firmebi valdebulni arian mkacri Tvalyuri
ganaxorcielon safaso tendenciebze.
4. myidvelis sabazro Zalauflebis gaZlierebis safrTxe – segmenti
fasdeba rogorc aramimzidveli, Tu myidvelebi floben Zlier da mzard
sabazro Zalauflebas.myidvelis sabazro Zalaufleba izrdeba im SemTxvevaSi,
roca: maTi ricxvi mcirea da isini arian kargad organizebulni anu ician
saiT
mimarTon
sakuTari
finansuri
resursebi;
amasTan
produqtebi
aradiferencirebulia. am dros kompania valdebulia mimarTos realur
repozicionirebas / cvlilebebis Setana savaWro markaSi /, fsiqologiur
repozicionirebas / momxmareblebis loialobis uzrunvelyofa da maTi
dadebiTi ganwyobis SenarCuneba produqtTan mimarTebaSi /; da konkurentul
repozicionirebas / momxmareblebis cnobierebaSi konkurenti saqonlis
Sesaxeb negatiuri STabeWdilebis Camoyalibeba /.
5. mimwodeblis sabazro Zalauflebis gaZlierebis safrTxe – produqtis
mimwodebeli firmebis ricxvi mcirea da maT SeuZliaT garkveuli cvlilebebi
SeiTanon safaso strategiebSi da myidvelebs Sesabamisad ara aqvT farTo
arCevani, radgan sasaqonlo nomenklaturis ricxvi mcirea.
konkurenciis Tematikis mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgens konkurentis
tipebis daxasiaTeba:
1. auCqarebeli konkurenti – mas aqvs Senelebuli reaqcia konkurentis
qmedebebze. isini ar amCneven cvlilebebs maT taqtikaSi, radgan ar floben
sakmaris finansur resursebs.
73
2. momTxovni konkurenti – isini reagireben konkurentis qmedebebidan
mxolod erT-erT mimarTulebaze, mag. Ffasebis cvlilebaze, an momxmarebelTa
servisis gaumjobesebaze, an gayidvis stimulirebaze, an sareklamo kampaniebis
warmarTvaze.
3. Kkonkurenti – vefxvi – mizanmimarTulad reagirebs konkurenti firmis
yvela qmedebaze.
4. Aamoucnobi konkurenti – Znelia warmoidgino aseTi tipis kompaniis
qmedeba.isini arian TavSekavebulni, Tu xvdebian, rom konkurencia jdeba
Zalian Zviri da ewevian Semxvedr brZolas, Tu amis nebas aZleven sakuTar
Tavs.
5. Zlieri da susti konkurentebi – aseTi tipis kompaniebi fasdebiab maT
gankargulebaSi arsebuli fuladi saSualebebiT.
6. Kkargi da cudi konkurentebi – kargi konkurentebi icaven bazris
wesebs,romelic miRebulia mocemul dargSi. isini gamodian dargobrivi
potencialis zrdis realuri Sefasebidan da maT mier dawesebuli fasi
asaxavs danaxarjebis realur dones. maT interesSia mogebis da bazris wilis
saSualo done da Semoifarglebian garkveuli segmentiT. cudi konkurentebi
cdiloben ara gamoimuSaon, aramed iyidon bazris wili da meti procenti
moicvan bazarze.isini midian did riskze da bazarze gadian dempinguri fasiT
anu produqtis TviTRirebulebaze dabali fasiT.
daskvnis saxiT unda aRiniSnos,rom kompania bazarze saqmianobis
procesSi orientirebuli unda iyos momxmarebelzec da konkurentzec da
koncentrirebuli
unda
iyos
momxmareblebTan
pasuxismgebluri
da
partnioruli urTierTobebis formirebaze. Kkonkurentebis da momxmareblebis
Sesaxeb informireba saSualebas iZleva, rom kompania uzrunvelyofili iyos
grZelvadiani mogebiT. am procesSi kompaniebi TanamSromloben sindicirebul
da viwrospecializirebul firmebTan, romlebic dakavebulni arian bazris
monitoringiT.
rac Seexeba konkurentul strategiebs, bazris lideri cdilobs
SeinarCunos dominirebuli mdgomareoba da igi iswrafvis imisaken, rom
gaafarTovos mTliani sabazro moTxovna da gazardos produqtis moxmarebis
intensivoba, daicvas da gazardos bazris wili. aseTi kompania aris novatori
da bazars sTavazobs axal produqts, romlis Seqmnasac esaWiroeba didi
raodenobiT finansebi. TavdaviTi strategiebidan igi mimarTavs: poziciur
Tavdacvas, flangebis dacvas, kontrieriSs, mobilur Tavdacvas, iZulebiT
Semcirebas.
liderobis pretendentic miznad isaxavs bazris wilis gafarToebas da
mimarTavs
ieriSs
Tavis
konkurentebze
da
amas
axorcielebs
im
SemTxvevaSi,roca misi konkurentebi arian an rTuli finansuri mdgomareobis
pirobebSi, an sxvadasxva valdebulebebis Sesrulebis procesSi an ver
akmayofileben momxmareblebis moTxovnilebebs. Igi mimarTavs frontalur
74
Tavdasxmas, SemovliT manevrs, garemocvis strategias. Kkonkurentuli
ieriSebi ukavSirdeba cvlilebebs:
fasebis, saqonlis xarisxis, sareklamo
kampaniebis intensivobis, momsaxurebis, novaciebis, ganawilebis arxebis
sferoebSi.
bazris mimdevari cdilobs SeinarCunos Tavisi bazris wili da igi
asrulebs imitaciis rols anu bazars awvdis lideri konkurentis
produqciasTan misadagebul produqts garkveuli cvilebebis Setanis
gaTvaliswinebiT.Kkonkurentuli
strategiebidan
gamomdinare
mimdevari
kompania SeiZleba iyos mekobre, oreuli, imitatori, Semguebeli.
maSasadame, novatori kompania eweva didi raodenobiT xarjebs axali
produqtis damuSavebaze, misi gavrcelebis organizaciaze da bazris
informirebaze da amis jildod gamodis lideruli sabazro poziciis
dakaveba.
konkurenciul brZolaSi imarjveben is kompaniebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT
daakmayofilon momxmareblis moTxovnilebebi anu SesTavazon maT faseuli
saqoneli, misaRebi fasi da efeqturi komunikacia.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. b.mRebriSvili – marketingis safuZvlebi. gamomcemloba “universali”
2009 w.
2. g.SublaZe–marketingis safuZvlebi. გamomcemloba “universali“ 2009 w.
3. келлер.котлер – маркетинг менеджмент. Изд. Питер 2012 г.
Market threats and competitive strategies of Competitiveness
Nino Odishelidze
Resume
Presented work is related to problems of competitiveness in the market conditions.
Competitive threats are characterized: Threat of intensive competition, threat of appearing new
participant on the market, threat of goods, strengthening of customer’s market power and deliver’s
market power. The work also discusses barriers and related incomes of market entering and
exiting. The work characterizes the role of market leader and its priority. Competitive defense
strategies are offered.
75
xolist-marketingis koncefcia
Tamar sxirtlaZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
xelmZRvaneli: levan lazviaSvili
xolist – marketingi anu erToblivi marketingi efuZneba marketinguli
programebis da RonisZiebebis damuSavebasa da danergvas. xolist – marketingi
moicavs
Semdeg
komponentebs:
1.
kavSirurTierTobis
marketingi.
2.
integrirebuli marketingi. 3. Sida marketingi. 4. socialurad pasuxismgebeli
marketingi.
kavSirurTierTobis anu partnioruli urTierTobis marketingi – aris
kompaniis sabazro partniorebTan / myidvelebi, nedleulis momwodeblebi,
distributorebi / grZelvadiani urTierTsasargeblo da privilegirebuli
kavSirurTierTobis formirebis praqtika. kavSirurTierTobis marketingi
mimarTulia partniorebTan mWidro ekonomikuri da socialuri kavSirebis
dawesebaze.
partniorTa
sami
jgufi
arsebobs:
kompaniis
personali,
marketinguli partniorebi / ganawilebis arxebi, momwodeblebi, sareklamo da
bazris kvlevis saagentoebi/, da finansuri sazogadoebis wevrebi /
investorebi, aqcionerebi, analitikosebi /.
kavSirurTierTobis marketingis mizania kompaniis unikaluri aqtivis –
marketinguli partnioruli qselis
formireba. kompaniasa da mis
dainteresebul jgufs Soris efeqturi urTierToba aris kompaniisTvis
mogebis miRebis garanti.
integrirebuli
programas.
Kkompaniis
marketingi
moicavs
4P
marketing-miqsis
Mmyidvelis
“4P“
da
“4C“
4C
saqoneli
moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba
fasi
misaRebi da realuri fasi
adgili
xelsayreloba
imiji
efeqturi komunikacia
marketing-miqsi
mimarTulia
miznobrivi
bazrisken
anu
kompaniis
samoqmedo bazrisken, romelsac unda SesTavazos faseuli saqoneli. Marketing
- miqsi aris Semdegi marketinguli instrumentebis erToblioba.
76
saqoneli
fasi
adgili
imiji
Nomenklatura
preiskuranti
komp. dislokacia
gayidvis
stimulireba
xarisxi
Ffasdakleba
ganawilebis arxi
reklama
Ddizaini
Gkrediti da
kompensacia
bazris dislokac. kavSiri
sazogadoebasTan
Ggarantia
gadaxdis
periodi
nedl. momwodeb.
Ppirdapiri
marketingi
integrirebuli marketingis Tanaxmad kompaniaSi integrirebuli unda
iyos moTxovnis marTvis, resursebis marTvis da partnioruli qselebis
marTvis sistemebi.
Sida marketingi ukavSirdeba doqtrinalur marketings anu marketingis
samsaxuris efeqtur funqcionirebas. igi moicavs personalis daqiravebas da
maT stimulirebas, radgan swored maT unda uzrunvelyon momxmareblebTan
momsaxurebis maRali done.
marketinguli urTierTobebidan SeiZleba davasaxeloT:
1. sabaziso marketingi
produqtis realizacias.
–
kompania
axorcielebs
momxmareblebze
2. reaqciuli marketingi kompania saSualebas aZlevs momxmarebels
mimarTos mas garkveuli problemebis warmoSobisas anu momxmarebels SeuZlia
gamoxatos reklamacia da kompania valdebulia ganixilos aRniSnuli
pretenzia.
3. Pproaqtiuri marketingi – kompania miznobriv auditorias mimarTavs
informaciiT ufro srulyofili saqonlis Seqmnis Sesaxeb.
4. Ppasuxismgebluri marketingi - kompania TviTon interesdeba imiT, Tu
ramdenad aris kmayofili momxmarebeli nayidi produqtiT anu ramdenad
Seesabameba momxmareblis molodini realur Sedegs.
5. Ppartnioruli marketingi – kompania da momxmarebelTa klubi erTad
TanamSromloben da eZeben saqmianobis ganviTarebis axal gzebs.
socialurad
pasuxismgebeli
marketingi
–
aris
marketinguli
programebis da RonisZiebebis etikuri, samarTlebrivi da socialuri
konteqstis gageba da igi moicavs mTlianad sazogadoebas. kerZod, socialuri
marketingis mizania: realuri momxmareblis Seqmna da misi interesebis
gaTvaliswineba mogebis miRebis paralelurad, miznobriv auditoriasTan
77
efeqturi
komunikaciebis
damyareba
da
saboloo
jamSi,
mTlianad
sazogadoebis keTildReobis uzrunvelofa da zogadi faseulobebis dacva.
Teoriuli faseulobebi
WeSmariteba.
racionaluri azrovneba.
Eekonomikuri
faseulobebi
Ppolitikuri faseulobebi
sargeblianobis
uzrunvelyofa.
simdidris dagroveba.
kompaniis
reputacia da aRiareba.
kompaniis
qoneba.
xelsayreli sainvesticio klimati.
valdebulebis
socialuri faseulobebi
Sesruleba.
konfliqtis
xelmZRvanelobasa
Soris.
gunduri
da
ararseboba
personals
muSaoba.
socialuri
pasuxismgebloba
pozitiuri urTierTobebi.
esTeTikuri faseulobebi
da
Kkompaniis eqsterieri da interieri.
Pproduqtis dizaini da xarisxi.
religiuri faseulobebi
eTika da morali.
Tanxmoba msoflmxedvelobaSi.
maSasadame, xolist-marketingi aris Tanamedrove marketingis koncefcia,
romelmac safuZveli unda daudos marketinguli strategiebis da gegmebis
damuSavebas, momxmareblebTan loialur urTierTobas, Zlieri savaWro markis
anu faseuli saqonlis Seqmnas, sabazro winadadebis damuSavebas da saboloo
jamSi, kompaniis grZelvadiani zrdis uzrunvelyofas.
78
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. b. mRebriSvili–marketingis safuZvlebi. gamomcemloba “universali”
2009 w.
2. g. SublaZe–marketingis safuZvlebi. გamomcemloba “universali “ 2009 w.
3. келлер.котлер – маркетинг менеджмент. Изд. Питер 2012 г.
Holist-Marketing Concept
Tamar Skhirtladze
Resume
The work presents and characterizes structural elements of holist-marketing. Interrelations,
Doctrinal, Integrated and socially responsible marketing. Basic, Reactive, Partnership, proactive and
Responsible marketing relations are underlined.
The work reflects those general values and their consider and defense are precondition of
providing company’s reputation in the society of target auditory. Also, for further developing of its
work in the conditions of modern market.
turizmis ganviTarebis strategia
saqarTveloSi
Tamaz asaniZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
turizmis specialoba II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: naili melanaSvili
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori
qveynis ekonomikur prioritetTa sistemaSi gansakuTrebul adgils
ikavebs
turizmis
ganviTareba.
am
bolo
periodSi
turizmisadmi
saxelmwifoebrivma midgomam mkafiod gamokveTili prioritetuli saxe miiRo.
gamoikveTa misi ZiriTadi miznebi da amocanebi, Sida prioritetuli
mimarTulebebi.
turizmis
prioritetulobasTan
mimarTebaSi
garkveul
specifikas aqvs adgili. saqme imaSia, rom oficialurad turizmis dargi
saqarTvelos
samTavrobo
dokumentebSi
didixania
rac
prioritetul
mimarTulebad moixseneba, Tumca, qmediTi xasiaTis praqtikuli nabijebi am
bolo dromde ar gadadgmula. SemuSavda
`saqarTveloSi turizmis
ganviTarebis strategiis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi~.
turizmis
ganviTarebis
axali
strategiis
79
SemuSavebis
aucilebloba
nakarnaxevia imiT, rom am bolo or weliwadSi ganxorcielda mTeli rigi
axali
turistuli
proeqtebis
realizacia
da
uaxloes
momavalSi
gaTvaliswinebulia kidev ufro farTomasStabiani programebis realizacia,
romelic Zireulad Secvlis turistuli industriis adre moxazul
traeqtoriebs. axali strategiis SemuSavebas safuZvlad unda daedos ukve
arsebuli strategiis is nawilebi, romelic Seexeba ucxoeli turistebis
mozidvis meTodur safuZvlebs:

savizo, sasazRvro da sabaJo momsaxurebis

Sida turizmis ganviTarebas,

turizmis calkeuli mimarTulebebis ganviTarebas,

doneze,
donis amaRlebas,
turizmis menejmentis srulyofas centralur da regionul

kadrebis momzadebas da gadamzadebas da SigniT ganxorcielebuli
da mosalodneli ekonomikuri gardaqmnebidan gamomdinare.
aranairi strategia ar aris mudmivi da ucvleli, ara Tu gardamavali
ekonomikis, aramed stabilur da ganviTarebul qveynebSic ki. turizmis
ganviTarebis koncefciis SemuSaveba moiTxovs arsebuli mdgomareobis
Seswavlas,
misi Zlieri da susti mxareebis gamovlenas,
ucxouri,
warmatebuli gamocdilebisa da msoflio prognozebis siRrmiseul Seswavlas.
turizmi,
rogorc ekonomikis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani dargi,
unda
viTardebodes sxva dargebTan dabalansebulad da proporciulad. turizmis
dargis arc metismeti gadaWarbebuli Sefaseba da arc misi saTanado doneze
Seufasebloba SeiZleba saziano gaxdes. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba,
rom saqarTvelos turizmis ZiriTadi sferoebi ZiriTadad mainc bunebasTanaa
dakavSirebuli – zRva da mTa. bunebasTan dakavSirebuli turizmi
maRalriskiania, radgan bunebis qceva maRali turbulentobiT gamoirCeva.

SeiZleba mcire Tovli movides an saerTod ar movides,

SeiZleba zRvispireTSi dasvenebis,

sezoni zedmetad naleqiani aRmoCndes,

rac mkveTrad amcirebs turistebis raodenobas.
magram es ar niSnavs,
rom saqarTvelom Tavisi unikaluri bunebrivi
pirobebiturizmisaTvis ar gamoiyenos. cnobilia, rom soflis meurneobac
maRalriskiani dargia da bunebis qcevaze didadaa damokidebuli, magram am
dargze arc erT qveyanas xeli ar auRia. meore mxriv, Cveni azriT, turizmis
aRiareba qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis umTavres dargad, ar iqneba swori.
igi unda iqnas ganxiluli rogorc qvenis ekonomikis erT-erTi prioritetuli,
Semavsebeli dargi,
radgan turistebis qceva araa stabiluri da
80
damokidebulia mraval risk-faqtorTan. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom saqarTvelo
geografiulad
maRalkonkurentul
turistul
zonaSi
mdebareobs
(gansakuTrebiT TurqeTi),
rac,
Tavis mxriv,
Zalian maRali servisuli
standartebis
miRwevas
moiTxovs.
es
ki
mokle
droSi
rTuli
gansaxorcielebelia.
gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba,
rom qveynis
soflis meurneoba,
romelic infrastruqturasTan erTad,
mWidrodaa
mibmuli turizmTan,
Tavisi ganviTarebis doniT da masStabebiT bevrad
CamorCeba sxva dargebisa da sferoebis ganviTarebas.
saqarTveloSi
Semosuli ucxoeli turistebis mier, kvebis produqtebis moxmareba niSnavs
amave ucxoelis mier sxva qveynis muSaxelis dasaqmebas, radgan qveynis
sasursaTo kalaTaSi TiTqmis 80
procentamde importirebuli produqtia.
turizmis ganviTarebis tempebis Sesabamisad erovnuli soflis meurneobis
ganviTareba uzrunvelyofs dabalansebas qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi da
dasaqmebis donis zrdas. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom turistebis
TiTqmis 70 procenti modis aWaris ar, danarCeni Tbilisze da sxva turistul
zonebze.
es niSnavs,
Semosavlis akumulirebas calkeul regionalur
wertilebSi,
rac,
Tavis mxriv aRrmavebs regionTaSorisi ekonomikuri
ganviTarebisa da cxovrebis donis uTanabrobas. manam sanam, turistuli
infrastruqtura ar dadgeba fexze,
mocemuli situacia unda iqnas
ucvlelad SenarCunebuli, xolo Semdgom etapebze saxelmwifos SeuZlia mis
xelT
arsebuli
ekonomikuri
berketebiT
moaxdinos
Semosavlebis
gadanawileba qveynis sxvadasxva regionSi.
saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTareba mxolod ambiciuri proeqti ar
aris, igi gaTvlilia ekonomikur warmtebebze. Tu vimsjelebT ukanaskneli 3
wlis
ganmavlobaSi
saqarTveloSi
Camosuli
ucxoeli
moqalaqeebis
raodenobidan gamomdinare,
SeiZleba iTqvas,
rom am mxriv zrdis maRal
tempebTan gvaqvs saqme.
magaliTad, 2008
wels saqarTveloSi Camosuli
ucxoelebis raodenobam 1 291 aTasikaci Seadgina, 2009 wels – 1 500 aTasi.
xolo 2010 wels – 2 033 aTasi kaci, anu 2010 wels wina welTan zrdam 36
procenti Seadgina. navaraudevia, rom 2013 wels saqarTveloSi Camova 3
milioni, xolo 2015 wlisaTvis 5 milionamde ucxoeli moqalaqe. amrigad,
mocemuli statistika aSkarad migvaniSnebs imazed, rom turizmis sferoSi
ganxorcielebuli saxelmwifoebrivi Zalisxmeva sakmaod efeqtiania da mas
didi perspeqtiva gaaCnia.
yvelaze didi raodenobiT moqalaqeebi Camodian uaxlesi mezobeli
qveynebidan. mag., 2010 wels azerbaijanidan saqarTveloSi Semovida 499 aTasi
kaci, rac saerTo Camosulebis 24,5 procents Seadgens.
saqarTveloSi
CamosulTa raodenobis mxriv meore adgilzea somxeTi, saidanac gasul wels
Camovida 547 aTasi kaci, anu sul Camosulebis 26,9 procenti. 2010 wels wina
welTan SedarebiT azerbaijanidan CamosulTa raodenoba gaizarda 19
procentiT, xolo somxeTidan – 56 procentiT. amrigad, turistebis yvelaze
did nakadi saqarTveloSi Camodis azerbaijanidan da somxeTidan (mTlianad
Camosulebis 51 %).
am qveynebidan momaval 2-3
weliwadSi CamosulTa
ricxovnoba gaizrdeba,
magram SedarebiT Semcirebuli tempebiT,
radgan
81
mobiluri mosaxleobis ricxovnoba TandaTanobiT iwureba. sxva qveynebidan
turistuli mizniT mosaxleobis Camosvla saqarTveloSi gaizrdeba, magram
ara iseTi maRali tempebiT, rogorc am ukanasknel wlebSi dafiqsirda. amas
ganapirobebs saqarTvelos turizmis dRevandeli specifika,
misi dabali
konkurentunarianoba maRali fasebisa da dabali servisuli momsaxurebis
gamo. amas emateba isic, rom sxva qveynebidan turistebi Sor manZilze
gadaadgilebisagan Tavs ikaveben mudmivad mzardi satransporto xarjebis
gamo. turizmis ganviTarebis prognozirebisas gasaTvaliswinebelia Cveni
mezobeli maRalkonkurentunariani turistuli qveynis – TurqeTis turizmis
ganviTarebis done, turistul momsaxurebaze dabali fasebi, maTi didi xnis
gamocdileba da kreatiuli midgomebi turizmis teqnologiaSi.
turizmis ganviTarebis prognozirebisas mTavaria imis dadgena, Tu ra
gavlenas moaxdens turistuli nakadebis zrda qveynis makroekonomikaze.
rogorc wesi, turizmis ganviTarebam xeli unda Seuwyos umuSevrobis donis
Semcirebas,
radgan turistuli infrastruqturis reabilitacia-mSenebloba
moiTxovs damatebiTi samuSao Zalis gamoyenebas. am SemTxvevaSi inerciuli
prognozebis SemuSaveba dauSvebelia imis gamo, rom gasul wlebSi
turistuli nakadebis zrdas dasaqmebis zrdis nacvlad,
Tan axlda
umuSevrobis zrda, risi dasabuTeba SeuZlebelia dRemde cnobili arc erTi
ekonomikuri kanoniT. erTaderTi, risi varaudis daSveba SeiZleba – Cveni
erovnuli statistika sworad ver iTvlis an turistebis ricxovnobis an
umuSevrobis
dones.
meore
mniSvnelovani
momenti,
romelic
unda
daprognozdes turizmis ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSavebis wina etapze,
mdgomareobs imis gansazRvraSi, ra gavlenas axdens turistebis nakadis zrda
inflaciur procesebze.
mcire
zomis
qveyanaSi
ZviradRirebuli
turistul
obieqtebze
daxarjuli investiciebis srulad amogebas Zalian didi dro dasWirdeba,
rac Tavis mxriv, maRal riskTanaa dakavSirebuli. swored amiT unda aixsnas
is garemoeba, rom ganviTarebuli qveynebis investiciebi naklebad Semodis
saqarTvelos turistul seqtorSi.
investiciebi warimarTeba SedarebiT
iaffasian turistul obieqtebze naklebad ganviTarebuli an kidev mezobeli
qveynebidan. turizmis ganviTarebis strategia da prognozi gverds ver auvlis
qveynis politikuri viTarebis Sefasebas grZelvadian periodSi. am kuTxiT,
saqarTvelo dRevandeli gadasaxedidan pozitiurad ver gamoiyureba, radgan
ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris arsebuli daZabuli politikuri da ekonomikuri
urTierTobis daregulireba ar aris SesaZlebeli uaxloes momavalSia.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
metreveli m. turizmis ekonomika da politika Tbilisi,2011.
2.
metreveli m. turizmisa da stumarmaspinZlobis safuZvlebi.
Tbilisi, 2008.
3.
saqarTvelos statistikuri weliwdeuli 2011. saq. statistikis
departamentis krebuli. Tbilisi 2011.
4. SublaZe v. saqarTvelo da turizmi 2004
82
5. xelaSvili s. turizmis marketingi. Tbilisi. 1992.
http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/highlights.htm.
http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/indicators.htm.
http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/economy.htm.
http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/publication.htm.
http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/methodological.ht
Strategy of Tourism Development in Georgia
Tamaz Asanidze
Resume
On the modern stage the development of infrastructure, agriculture and tourism is set as the
essential priority direction of Georgian economic policy related to the economic and social goals of the
country – economic growth, rise of level of employment and improvement of life quality. However,
the aforementioned priorities are not adequately evaluated and the effect of outcome of their practical
realization on social and economic development of the country in long-term period is not yet
sufficiently studied. The country has no entire strategy on economic and social progress taking longterm views and development trajectories for the enhancement of priority of these fields.
saqarTvelos samkurnalo turistul – rekreaciuli resursebis
gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi
giorgi javaxiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
turizmis specialobis me–4 kursi
naili melanaSvili
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 595144629
kurorti
sityvasityviT
"samkurnalo
adgils"
niSnavs,
sadac
mkurnalobis
ZiriTadi
saSualeba
kurortuli
faqtoria.
ZiriTadi
kurortuli faqtorebia mineraluri da samkurnalo wyali, klimati da
talaxi. Tumca kurortuli faqtoris arseboba yovelTvis rodi niSnavs, rom
es adgili sakurortoa. bunebriv faqtorebs Seiswavlis medicinis specialuri
dargi, romelsac kurortologia ewodeba. imis dasazusteblad, ramdenad
gamodgeba esa Tu is adgili sakurortod, aucilebelia kurortuli faqtoris
efeqtis mravalmxrivi Seswavla, dadgena imisa, ra gavlenas axdens is
adamianis organizmze da rogoria misi gamoyenebis areali. kurortologebTan
erTad
amaSi
udidesi
wvlili
SeaqvT
klimatologebs,
qimikosebs,
dietologebs, fizikosebs, hidrogeologebs. yovelive es imisTvis keTdeba,
rom sakurorto faqtori maqsimalurad iqnes gamoyenebuli adamianTa
mkurnalobis, profilaqtikisa da reabilitaciisTvis. ukanasknel xans
kurortma saxe icvala. igi aRar warmoadgens mxolod im adgils, sadac
bunebrivi faqtorebi adamianTa janmrTelobis sasikeTod gamoiyeneboda.
83
kurorti, Tanamedrove gagebiT, aris keTilmowyobili samkurnalo kompleqsi
parkebiT, sanatoriumebiTa da pansionatebiT, fizioTerapiuli kabinetiT,
fitnesklubiTa da aerosolariumiT. rekreaciuli zonisgan aseTi kurorti
imiT gansxvavdeba, rom aRWurvilia teqnikuri da samedicino-organizaciuli
resursebiT, samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri dawesebulebebiT, rac iZleva
SesaZleblobas, aq sanatoriul-kurortuli daxmareba gaewios sxvadasxva
profilis daavadebaTa mqone pacientebs. rekreaciul zonebs ki mxolod
bunebrivi gamajansaRebeli resursebi gaaCniaT da qronikulad moavade pirTa
gajansaRebasa da profilaqtikazea gaTvlili. adamianis janmrTelobisTvis
dasasvenebeli adgilebis ukeT gamoyenebas emsaxureba medicinis kidev erTi
dargi - valeologia. igi bunebrivi faqtorebis adamianis janmrTelobaze
gavlenas Seiswavlis.
Zvel saberZneTSi samkurnalo adgilebs, romlebsac eskulapes taZrebs
uwodebdnen, iseT adgilebSi aSenebdnen, sadac samkurnalo wyaroebi, kargi
klimati da lamazi buneba iyo, radgan yovelive es gamojansaRebas uwyobda
xels. romis imperiaSi legionerTa gasajansaReblad da gamosawrTobad
mineralur wyalsa da klimatur faqtorebs iyenebdnen, ramac didad Seuwyo
xeli romSi kurortologiis ganviTarebas. Zvel egvipteSi nilosis talaxiT
mkurnalobdnen. balneologiaSi dRemde iyeneben samkurnalo talaxiT
mkurnalobis egviptur meTods. saqarTvelo kurortebis qveyanaa. CvenTan
moipoveba yvela tipis mineraluri wyali da zogierTi iseTic, romlis
analogi sxvagan ar aris. Cveni qveynis mravalferovan klimatsa da
mikroklimats
ganapirobebs
misi
rTuli
geografiuli
reliefi
myinvarwveridan zRvis subtropikul sanapiromde. aq SexvdebiT klimatis
yvela tips, garda tropikulisa. aqedan gamomdinare, gasakviri ar unda iyos,
rom
bunebrivi
faqtorebiT
saqarTveloSic
aqtiurad
mkurnalobdnen.
borjomis mineralur wyals Cveni welTaRricxvis pirveli saukunidanve
iyenebdnen, danarCenebs ki - meSvide-merve saukuneebidan.
saqarTvelo uZvelesi tradiciebisa d kulturuli memkvidreobis mqone
qveyanaa,sadac xeluxlebeli saxiT aris SemorCenili veluri bunebis
unikaluri Zeglebi. Cveni qveyana gamiorCeva mcenareuli safaris da cxovelTa
samyaros
arnaxuli
mravalferovnebiT,
Tumca
adamianis
ukontrolo
zemoqmedeba bunebaze TandaTan masStabur xasiaTs iZens, rac savalalo
Sedegis momtania, rogorc bunebisTvis, asave adamianebisTvis. dResdReobiT
saqarTvelos dacul teritoriebSi erTiandeba 15 saxelmwifo nakrZali, 5
erovnuli parki, 3 bunebis Zegli da 9 aRkveTili. daculi teritoriebis erT–
erT proritets warmoadgens saqrTveloSi ekoturizmis ganviTareba, romelic
niSnavs adamianis mogzaurobasa da dasvenebis ekologiurad sufTa da
bunebriv garemoSi samecniero–SemecnebiT da rekreaciuli mizniT.
amrigad, saqarTvelos daculi teritoriebi warmogidgenT Semonaxul
xeluxlebel bunebasa da uZvelesi kulturis umSvenieres samyaros, axal
samogzauro
adgilebs,
romelsac
Tanamedrove,
ganviTarebuli
infrastruqtura sxvadasxva vizitorTaTvis sainteresosasa da mimzidvels
xdis.
mogzaurobis
moyvarulebs
mravalferovani
da
saintereso
SesaZleblobebi eZlevaT saqarTveloSi yofnisas, rogorc ardadegebis
84
gatarebis, aseve moklevadiani vizitebis TvalsazrisiT. aq SesaZlebelia
sxvadasxva saxis turis organizeba: salaSqro, sacxenosno, sanaosno
(raftingi), saganmanaTleblo turebi, frinvelebze da cxovelebze dakvirveba.
mniSvnelovania Camoyalibdes im sakurorto adgilebis klasifikacia,
romelic warmoadgens saqarTveloSi
samkurnalo turizmis ganviTarebis
mniSvnelovan resursebs. amisaTvis saWiroa moxdes erTgvarovani samkurnalo
kurortebis dajgufeba, Semdeg maTi mniSvnelobis gansazRvra samkurnalo
turizmis ganviTarebis saqmeSi.
adgilobriv doneze turistuli resursebis aTviseba gansxvavebul
kvals tovebs landSaftze. es naTlad Cans ganviTarebuli qveynebis
kurortebze, romlebmac turistebis moTxovnilebebis sapasuxod ganicades
evolucia. isini dagegmarebiT da saqalaqo landSaftiT sxva saqalaqo da
sasoflo
dasaxlebebisgan
gansxvavdebian.
aSS-Si,
magaliTad,
termini
kurorti, Cveulebriv, sastumros an dasasvenebel kompleqss niSnavs. mxolod
dasavleT evropaSi 400-ze meti kurortis identificirebaa SesaZlebeli: spa,
zamTris sportis kurortebisa da kulturuli/istoriuli centrebis CaTvliT
sxvadasxva zomis sanapiro kurortebTan erTad, romelTa klienturis
diapazoni popularulidan eqskluziuramde icvleba. istoriuli qalaqebi,
Cveulebriv, mravalfunqciuria da turizmi iq dagvianebiT ganviTarda. aseTi
adgilebi turistul centrebs warmoadgenen. namdvil kurortebze turizmi
arsebobis wyaroa, Tumca mogvianebiT, rodesac kurorti simwifes miaRwevs,
sxva funqciebis damatebaa SesaZlebeli.
turistuli raionis sasicocxlo cikli ase gamoiyureba:
Seswavla
–
saTavgadasavlo turistebis
umniSvnelo raodenoba,
ZiriTadi atraqcia aris sufTa garemo an kulturuli Taviseburebebi;
CarTuloba – adgilobrivi iniciativebi uzrunvelyofen ganTavsebis
saSualebebs da garkveul reklamas. amas mosdevs vizitorebis meti
raodenoba, turistuli sezonisa da saxelmwifo seqtoris CarTva;
ganviTareba – turistebis didi raodenoba; kontroli lokaluridan
erovnul an saxelmwifo kompaniebisken gadadis. destinacia garegnulad
icvleba. SesaZloa daiwyos gadaWarbebuli gamoyeneba;
konsolidacia – am etapze destinacia turistuli industriis
srulyofili nawili xdeba. vizitorebis zrdis tempi mcirdeba. cnobadi
rekreaciuli biznes raioni aRmocenda;
stagnacia – vizitorebis ricxvma piks miaRwia da destinacia
ekologiuri, socialuri da ekonomikuri problemebis gamo moduri aRar aris.
ZiriTadi
sareklamo
Zalisxmeva
turistebis
arsebuli
raodenobis
SenarCunebaze unda iyos orientirebuli;
daqveiTeba – vinaidan destinaciam daqveiTeba ganicada, turistebi axla
ufro axal sasoflo kurortebs stumroben. is damokidebulia mxolod
ganmeorebiT vizitebze;
ganaxleba – aq xelisufalni axali saSualebebiT uzrunvelyofis gziT,
axali
bazrebis
mozidviTa
da reinvestirebiT,
cdiloben „xelaxla
aamoqmedon“ destinacia.
kurorti - ewodeba adgils, bunebrivi samkurnalo faqtorebiT mdidar
85
adgils, romelsac gaaCnia Sesabamisi infrastruqtura dasvenebisa da
samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri
miznebisaTvis
aRniSnuli
faqtorebis
gamosayeneblad.
saqarTveloSi dReisaTvis aRiricxeba 102 kurorti da 182 sakurorto
adgili. Cvens qveyanaSi gamovlenilia 2 aTasze meti mineraluri wyali. maTi
raodenobiT gamoirCeva wyaltubos, borjomis, javis, yazbegis raionebi. aseve
aRsaniSnavia samkurnalo talaxi axtalasa da kumisSi. Cveni qveyana buneba
saukeTeso saSualebas iZleva ganviTardes, rogorc sazafxulo, aseve zamTris
turizmis saxeobebi. saqarTvelos mTagoriani reliefi, sxvadasxva sirTulis
mwvervalebi da garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi mdgradi Tovlis safaris
arseboba, zamTris sportuli saxeobebisa da alpinizmis ganviTarebis karg
SesaZleblobas
qmnis.
turistul-rekreaciuli
meurneobis
ganviTareba,
mniSvnelovanwilad
damokidebulia
qveyanaSi
arsebul
ekonomikur
mdgomareobasa da politikur situaciaze.
rekreaciul resursebze msjelobisas, uwinares yovlisa yuradRebas
iqcevs hava da klimati, rogorc dasvenebisa da mkurnalobis umniSvnelovanesi
faqtorebi.
Cvens qveyanaSi reliefis didi amplitudebi arcTu iSviaTad wlis
garkveul periodSi qmnis xelsayrel pirobebs e.w "komfortuli klimatis"
warmosaqmnelad.
aq
havis
specifikas
gansazRvravs
mzis,
radiaciis,
atmosferuli cirkulaciis da rTuli reliefis urTierTgavlena. mzis
integraluri da gansakuTrebiT, ultraiisferi radiaciis yvelaze maRali
maCvenebeli SeimCneva mTian raionebSi, rac mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs mTis
havis samkurnalo Tvisebebs.
saqarTvelos Tvalwarmtaci, momajadoebeli buneba, mravalferovani
landaSfti, mudmivi TovliTa da myinvarebiTa dafaruli kavkasionis qedi,
SavizRvispireTis xaverdovani subtropikuli zona, wyaluxvi mdinareebi da
egzotikuri CanCqerebi, originaluri karstruli mRvimeebi, mTis zonisa da
zRvispira kurortebi, uZvelesi kulturis Zeglebi, saerTod, mdidari
rekreaciuli resursebi friad xelsayrel pirobebs qmnis sakurorto
meurneobis
ganviTarebisaTvis.
saqarTvelos
teritoria
warmoadgens
geografiuli landSaftebis vertikaluri zonalobis klasikur qveyanas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
babunaSvili g., xutaSvili m. _ zogadi ekologia da garemos
dacva, Tsu gamomcemloba, Tb., 2003.
2.
barkalaia b. _ saqarTvelos erovnuli parkebis socialurekonomikuri efeqtianoba, (sadisertacio naSromi ekonomikur mecnierebaTa
kandidatis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad), Tb., 2002.
3.
birJakovi m. _ turizmis Teoria (Targmani rusulidan m.
metrevelis
mier),
Tbilisis
kulturisa
da
xelovnebis
saxelmwifo
universiteti, Tb., 2004.
4.
burkaZe T. _ turizmis adgili saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi da misi
ganviTarebis perspeqtiva, J. «ekonomika», ¹7-8, 2004.
86
5. metreveli m. _ turizmi da garemos dacva (ekoturizmis safuZvlebi),
Tbilisis kulturisa da xelovnebis saxelmwifo universiteti, Tb., 2004.
6.saqarTvelos kanoni kurortebisa da sakurorto adgilebis sanitaruli dacvis zonebis Sesaxeb (miRebulia 1998 wlis 15 ivliss)
7.International Tourism: A Global Perspective, WTO, 1999, WTO Tourism Education and
Training Series, Editor: Chuck Y. Gee, Eduardo Fayos-Sola.
8.Lockley L. - History and Development of Marketing Recearch, s.1, p4 of Robert Ferber, ed.,
Handbook of Marketing Research, Copyright 1974.
9.Marketing Tourism Destinations Online: Strategies for Information Age, WTO, Madrid,
1999.
Medical Tourist - Recreational Resources of Georgia and Their Usage
George Javakhishvili
Resume
Protected areas of preserved nature and ancient culture, presents a marvelous world, travel to
new places, in the modern, developed infrastructure and a variety of interesting and attractive for
visitors. Trip for lovers of varied and exciting opportunity in Georgia, as holiday spending, but also in
terms of short-term visits.
Rvinisa da gurmanTa turizmi saqarTveloSi
Temur kublaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
II kursis studenti
xelmZRvaneli: ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori naili melanaSvili
E-mail:[email protected] 595144629
turizms safuZveli XIX saukuneSi Caeyara, mis fuZemdeblad iTvleba
Tomas kuki. turizmis arnaxuli zrda erT-erTi Semadgenelia globalizaciis
saerTo procesis, romlis ZiriTad ganmsazRvrel pirobebs warmoadgens:

sazRvrebis gaxsniloba,

qveynebis ekonomikuri sistemebis konvergencia (Serwyma),

globaluri
Camoyalibeba,

mimarT.
interesis
sainformacio,
zrda,
safinanso
adgilobrivi
satransporto
kulturebis,
mcire
sistemis
eTnosebis
turizmis erT-erT saintereso saxes warmoadgens
Rvinisa da
gurmanTa turizmi.
Rvinis turizmi saukeTeso saSualebaa qveynis gaasacnobad. is, rogorc
gamorCeuli da axali turizmis saxeoba safrangeTSi jer kidev 1980 wlidan
arsebobs, Tumca turizmis es seqtori evropaSi popularuli mxolod 2005
wlidan gaxda. mis centrad bordo iTvleba, romelic yovelwliurad uamrav
turists
maspinZlobs.
turizmis
am
seqtorSi,
safrangeTis
garda,
87
popularulia italia (gansakuTrebiT sardinia), espaneTi (rioxa), portugalia
- portus xeoba da jgufi Sogrape vinhos, romelic cnobil Rvinos Sabdeman-s
awarmoebs. magaliTad, Tu saukeTeso franguli Sato laturis an Sato margos
Rvinoebis dagemovneba gsurT, maSin bordoSi unda gaemgzavroT, Tu TeTri
burgundiuli Chablis-i gnebavT burgundias miaSureT,
namdvili portveinis
gasasinjad portugalias unda ewvioT da a. S.
yovelwliurad izrdeba Rvinis turizmSi monawile qveynebis sia, sadac
axlaxan saqarTveloc gamoCnda. es e.w. Rvinis "voiaJebi" fantastikuri
siswrafiT gamravalferovnda da daiqsaqsa. Rvinos TiTqmis yvela qveyana
awarmoebs, magram msoflioSi arsebobs Rvinoebi, romelTa gamo namdvilad
Rirs qveynis erTi kidedan meoremde misvla. dRes TiTqmis nebismier qveyanaSi
SegiZliaT Rvinis turiT dainteresdeT. jerjerobiT yvelaze popularuli
qveyana am tipis turizmisTvis safrangeTi da italiaa. meRvineobis cnobili
regionebia piemonti da toskana, bordo da burgundia, Sabli da Sampani,
sadac pirdapir kasrebidan SegiZliaT daagemovnoT Rvino. Tu yvelaze grZeli
Rvinis marnis da didi miwisqveSa cixesimagris naxva gwadiaT, SegiZliaT
qalaq bonSi gaeSuroT. aseve popularuli qveyanaa espaneTi - rioxa,
Sveicaria, sadac aucileblad unda moinaxuloT vale, germania, argentina,
axali zelandia, urugvai, Cile. magaliTad avstriaSi, rogorc sxva
germanulenovan regionebSi, sadac Rvinos wamyvani adgili uWiravs, yidvagayidvis 25% swored Rvinis turizmTanaa dakavSirebuli. aseve cnobil Rvinis
mwarmoeblebad iTvlebian moldaveTi, bulgareTi, ukraina, saqarTvelo.
qarTuli Rvino istoriiT erT-erTi uZvelesia evropaSi. saqarTveloSi
575-ze meti vazis jiSia cnobili da meRvineoba-mevenaxeobis kulturas Zalian
Zveli da mdidari istoria aqvs, daaxloebiT 8000 weli.
erTxans, Rvinis samSoblod SuamdinareTi iyo miCneuli, magram
saqarTveloSi warmoebulma arqeologiurma gaTxreba ufro Zvel da unikalur
masalas miagno, ris Sedegadac, sworedac rom, saqarTvelo iqna aRiarebuli
meRvineoba-mevenaxeobis istoriul samSoblod.
aqedan gamomdinare kargi safuZveli gvaqs imisaTvis, rom saqarTveloSi
ganviTardes Rvinis turizmi. bolo periodSi, turizmis sferosadmi
gansakuTrebulma interesma biZgi misca turizmis gamococxlebas kaxeTis
regionSi. turistebis mosazidad am regions iseTi upiratesobebic aqvs,
rogoricaa kulturul-istoriuli Zeglebis simravle, vaSlovnis, TuSeTis,
bawara-babaneuris da lagodexis teritoriebi, araCveulebrivi bunebrivi
pirobebi, rac SesaniSnavi safuZvelia eko da saTavgadasavlo turizmis
ganviTarebisaTvis. yovelives amis gaTvaliswinebiT, kaxeTi, kerZod siRnaRi,
SesaZloa, male eko-turizmis erT-erT mniSvnelovan centrad iqces. turizmis
zrda kargi winapirobaa ucxoeli turistebis mosazidad. Tbilisidan mokle
turebis
ganviTarebisTvis
idealuri
iqneba
siRnaRis
da
Telavis
infrastruqturis Semdgomi reabilitacia. Rvinis turebSi, degustaciis garda,
venaxebis, Rvinis marnebis monaxuleba Sedis. xSirad aseTi turistuli sqemebi
Rvinis
festivalebiT
da
sxvadasxva
specialuri
dResaswaulebiTaa
88
gajerebuli.
evropaSi Rvinis festivalebis gamarTvis Zveli tradicia kargad aris
SenarCunebuli.
seqtember-oqtomberSi
nebismier
mxares
rom
waxvideT,
aucileblad waawydebiT gancxadebas meRvineTa Sekrebis Sesaxeb romelime
sofelSi an apelasionSi. amgvar festivalebze xSirad gamoaqvT tradiciuli
adgilobrivi sakvebi da xelnakeTi nivTebi,
romlebic Rvinis istoriulgeografiul konteqstSi dagemovnebaSi dagexmarebaT.
saqarTveoSic Caeyara Rvinis festivals safuZveli da is ukve meoTxi
weliwadia yoveli maisis meore SabaTs imarTeba, mas ukve Tamamad SegviZlia
vuwodoT qarTuli Rvinis tradiciuli dResaswauli.
es aris saqarTveloSi yvelaze warmomadgenlobiTi da amave dros
yvelaze xalxmravali Rvinis festivali. igi, erTi mxriv, aerTianebs msxvil
kompaniebs, mcire da ojaxur marnebs, romlebic am festivalisTvis sagangebod
emzadebian, raTa Rvinis gurmanebs TavianTi axali Rvinoebi gaacnon. meore
mxriv ki, festivalis stumrebic sxvadasxva gemovnebisa da Sexedulebebis
adamianebi arian, romlebic erTi saerTo Rirebulebis - qarTuli Rvinis
garSemo ikribebian. axali Rvinis festivali gulisxmobs axali, anu bolo
mosavlis Rvinoebis gamofenas. am gziT Rvinis mwarmoeblebi da gurmanebi
erTad afaseben, Tu rogori Sedegi miiRes meRvineebma bolo rTvelis Semdeg
da ra potenciali aqvs maT axal Rvinoebs. bolo mosavlis Rvinoebis
dagemovnebis garda, axali Rvinis festivalze SesaZlebelia qarTuli
meRvineobis ZiriTadi tendenciebis Sefaseba. am kuTxiT festivalze wlidan
wlamde TvalSisacemia:
- qarTuli Rvinis gaumjobesebuli xarisxi,
- kompaniebisa da ojaxuri marnebis meRvineTa Tamami eqsperimentebi,
- qvevris Rvinoebis raodenobis zrda,
- jiSebis mravalferovneba da sxva siaxleebi.
cneba "Rvinis turi" srulebiTac ar niSnavs imas, rom mxolod "Rvinis
rukis" mixedviT imogzaurebT. Tumca Rvinis turis dros erT-erTi saWiro
atributi marTlac aris Rvinis atlasi, sadac Rvinis yvela - klasikuri Tu
axali regionis Sesaxeb saWiro informaciaa mocemuli.
arsebobs
individualuri
Rvinis
turebic,
raTa
Tqvens
Rvinis
mogzaurobas ufro meti pikanturi detalebi SematoT. turis dagegmvisas
pirveli is aris, Tu dReSi romel Rvinis sawarmoSi gegmavT stumrobas.
specialistebi gvirCeven, rom Tavidanve CamovyalibdeT, Tu ramden regionSi
waxvalT, raTa mogzauroba Zalian xangrZlivi da damqancveli ar gamogivideT.
idealuria oTxi an naklebi regionis monaxuleba (maT Soris manZilsac
gaaCnia). profesionalebs 6-idan 8-mde Rvinis punqtSi stumrobac SeuZliaT,
radagan isini miCveulni arian bevri Rvinis swraf da efeqtur degustacias.
specializebuli "Tematuri degustaciebis" organizebas ki meRvineebi da
enologebi gegmaven.
mniSvnelovani detalia sadegustacio turizmSi sruliad axali da
popularuli mimarTuleba Rvinis Terapia. turistebs saSualeba eZlevaT ara
marto daagemovnon cnobili Rvinoebi, aramed isini tanzec ki "icxon". Rvinis
89
abazanebis Semdgom sxeulis sasiamovno SegrZnebebTan erTad mogonebebic
ufro msuye da mravalSriani geqnebaT.
90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi burgundia-normandia-SampaniSi an provansSi
Rvino-gastronomiuli turizmis farglebSi stumroba ocnebis sfero iyo.
eqspertebis TqmiT ki, dRes safrangeTSi turebis daaxloebiT 5%-s swored
Rvinis turi Seadgens. es niSnavs, rom turistebis didi nawili daiRala Zviri
da xmauriani megapolisebiT, DdRes maTTvis patara, myudro qalaqebi da
sastumroebi ufro mimzidvelia, romelTa mepatroneebic Tavad maspinZloben
sakuTar stumrebs.
Rvinis turebis msurvelebi pirobiTad SeiZleba sam gjufad davyoT.
pirveli - es momxmarebleblebis sakmaod farTo wrea, romelTa fokusSic
ufro mogzauruli STabeWdilebebia moqceuli, anu maTTvis Rvino da
gastronomia ar aris mTavari Tema. isini e.w. "ekonom" klasis momsaxurebas
sjerdebian.
meore jgufSi SegviZlia is turistebi gavaerTianoT, romelTac surT
sruliad
sxva
rakursiT
dainaxon
maTTvis
nacnobi qveyana.
amgvar
mogzaurTaTvis mizanSewonilia Tematuri jgufuri turebi.
mesame jgufi aris yvelaze popularuli mas SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT is
adamianebi, romelTa profesia swored RvinosTan da gastonomiasTan aris
dakavSirebuli. es turistebi mzad arian soliduri Tanxa gadaixadon
eqskluziuri "sanaxaobisTvis". maTTvis mTavaria "Seexon" TviTon process monawileoba miiRon mosavlis aRebaSi, gaakeTon sakuTari Rvinis kupaJi. isini
namdvili "Rvinis turistebi" arian, romlebsac mTavari siamovneba swored
Rvinis gzaze eliT.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
gamoyenebuli literatura
m. metreveli ,,turizmisa da maspinZlobis menejmenti‟‟, Tb. 2008
n. kvaracxelia ,,kulturuli turizmi‟‟, Tb. 2010
ucnauri.com
www.bfm.ge/business/490-qartuli-gvino.html
www.civil.ge/geo/article.php
24saati.ge
vinoge.com
Wine and Kitchen Tourism in Georgia
Temur Kublashvili
Resume
There is a tremendous resource for the development of wine tourism in Georgia recently Areas
within the special interest tourism has triggered a revival of tourism in the region. To attract tourists to
this region also has advantages such as cultural - historical monuments, Vashlovani, Tusheti, Batsara Babaneuri and Kakheti regions, an unusual natural conditions, that is an excellent basis for the
development of eco and adventure tourism.
90
saqarTvelos sabanko bazris Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da sabanko
konkurencia
giorgi arabuli, beqa TevzaZe, giorgi zaqaiZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
biznesis administrirebis II kursi, jgufi I
nikoloz nacvliSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli maswavlebeli
E-mail: [email protected]; tel. +995 (599) 511415
saqarTveloSi saxelmwifoebrivi aRmSeneblobis Tanamedrove etapze
gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT dadga ekonomikuri reformis yovelmxrivi da
Tanmimdevruli gatarebis aucilebloba. saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi sabazro
urTierTobebi damkvidrda, Sesabamisad Seicvala erTiani ekonomikuri
sistemis calkeuli elementebi, maT Soris sabaნko-sakredito sistemac.
swored es sfero moiTxovs seriozul yuradRebasa da zrunvas, rom man ar
Seaferxos qveynis ekonomikis krizisidan gamosvlis procesi da erovnuli
meurneobis dinamiuri ganviTareba.
qveynis safinanso sistemis erT-erT mniSvnelovan berkets warmoadgens
sabanko sistema. Mmisi funqcionireba udides gavlenas axdens erovnuli
ekonomikis ganviTarebaze, mis tempebsa da MmasStabebze. Bbankebis warmoSoba
dakavSirebuli
iyo
saqonelwarmoebisa
da
vaWrobis
ganviTarebasTan.
sasaqonlo urTierTobis GganviTarebis gansazRvrul etapze saWiro gaxda
fuladi saxsrebis Tavmoyra da maTi sesxis saxiT, sargeblis gadaxdis
pirobiT, rac bankebis, rogorc saSuamavlo safinanso institutebis,
saqmianobis safuZveli gaxda.
banks uwodeben fulad-sakredito dawesebulebas, romelic axorcielebs
qveynis masStabiT Tavisufali Ffuladi saxsrebis akumulacias, dakreditebas,
agreTve iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebis naRd da unaRdo angariSworebas.
Tanamedrove sabazro ekonomikaSi moqmedebs bankis ori, principled
gansxvavebuli tipi – centraluri da komerciuli. Tanamedrove msoflios
umetesi qveynebis sabanko sistema (maTSoris saqarTvelos erovnuli
(centraluri) bankebi, meoreze ki – komerciuli bankebi da sxva sakredito
dawesebulebebi.
komerciuli
banki
ganisaRvreba,
rogorc
fulad-sakredito
dawesebuleba, romelic imyofeba oriarusiani sabanko sistemis meore
safexurze da misi saqmianobis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens mogebis miღeba,
rac
xorcieldeba
Tavisufali
fuladi
saxsrebis
akumulirebiთ
misi
efeqtiani
dabandebiT.
Kკomerciuli
bankebis
saqmianoba
imdenad
mravalferovania da imdenad swrafad viTardeba, rom maTi funqciebis zustad
gansazRvra da Mმaთ mier Sesrulebuli operaciebis zustad CamoTvla,
praqtikulad SeuZlebelia
Kkomerciuli bankis saqmianobis warmatebebi
damokidebulia იmaze, Tu rogor moawyobs bnaki aqtiuri da pasiuri, aseve
91
sxva operaciebis organizacias, ramdenad gamarTulad imuSavebs igi
konkretul
GgaremoSi.
amitom
gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba
eniWeba
Tavisufali saxsrebis mozidvisa da maTi ganTavsebis swor organizacias,
marTvas.
Tanamedrove sabanko sistemis erT-erTi ZiriTadi Tavisebureba aris, is
rom sabazro sistemaa. cxadia rom nebismieri sabazro koniuqturis maT Soris
sabanko sistemis konkurenciis sfero misi bazari sadac monawileobas
Rebuloben
bankebi,
sabanko
momsaxurebis
realizaciisa
da
sabanko
saqmianobisTvis resuresbis yidvebis CaTvliT.
sabanko bazarze ZiriTadi konkurencia mimdinareobs komerciul anu
sabanko sistemis meore iarusze mdgom – klienturis mosamsaxure bankebs
Soris. Pპirvel iarusze მყოფი, anu centraluri bankebi klienturis
momsaxurebis uSualo konkurenciaSi, rogorc wesi ar monawileoben.
sakonkurencio urTierTobebSi Cabmul am or ZiriTad jgufs Soris gamoyofen
universalur da specializirebuli bankebis jgufebs. bolo periodSi sabanko
konkurenciis
gamwvavebis
pirobebSi
Camoyalibda
miswrafeba
sabanko
saqmianobis univesalizaciisken, TandaTan qreba zRvari specializirebul da
universalur sabanko struqturebis saqmianobas Soris. aseTi miswrafebis
mizezi mxolod erTia – universaluri banki ufro metad aris dazRveuli
komerciuli riskebisგაn, vidre specializirebuli.
nebismieri konkurencia zogadad SeiZleba ganisazRvros Semdegnairad:
konkurencia eს aris iseT mxareTa metoqeoba, romlebic dainteresebulni
arian miaRwion erTsa da imave mizans, miiswrafian TavianTi mowinaaRmdegis
gamovlinebasa da masze gamarjvebisaTvis. Tu pirdapir ganvixilavT sabanko
konkurenciis subieqtebi mxolod komerciuli bankebi unda iyvnen, magram es
as ear aris, radgan yovel calke aRebul banks saqme aqvs ukiduresad
araerTgvarovan iseTi konkurentebis masasTan, romlebic yidian sabanko
momsaxurebas. aseTi konkurentebis erT-erT jgufs ganekuTvneba TviT
komerciuli bankebis jgufi. ase magaliTad, amerikis komerciul bankebs,
droebiT Tavisufali saxsrebis mozidvis sferoSi, seriozul konkurencias
uweven sasesxo-Semnaxveli asociaciebi, sesxebis gacemisas ki – sakredito
kavSirebi. miuxedavad imisa rom es struqturebi formalurad bankebad ar
iTvlebian, magram momxmareblebs bazris subieqts sTavazoben bankebis
identur momsaxurebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom sxva qveynebis sabanko bazrebzec
amerikis msgavsi konkurentuli garemoa, rac ganpirobebulia mravalricxovani
sainvesticio institutebis,
sasesxo valdebulebebis, emitentebisa da
analogiuri struqturebis funqcionirebiT. amrigad, sabanko konkurenciis
subieqtebi ara marto bankebi, aramed sabako bazris monawile sxva safinanso
da arasafinanso dawesebulebebia.
sabanko momsaxureba ar aris standartuli. momsaxurebis bevri saxe
individualuri xasiaTisaa, rac dakavSirebulia bankebis momsaxurebaSi
arsebuli konkretuli klientebis finansuri problemebis gadaWrasTan. amis
klasikuri magaliTia dakrediteba, roca yvela konkretul SemTxvevaSi, sesxis
92
gacemisa da dafarvis pirobebi ganisazRvreba sakredito xelSekrulebiT. aq
adgili aqvs saxeobriv konkurencias. ufro metic, ekonomikisa da sabanko
saqmis ganviTarebiT masiuri asortimentis momsaxurebamac SeiZleba dakargos
Tavisi erTgvarovneba. magalitad sxvadasxva bankis mier gaweuli erTi da
igive momsaxureba, xSirad momxmareblis TvalSi gansxvavebulad Cans, rac
aixsneba ama Tu im bankis imijiT. bunebrivia rom sxva yvela თanabar
pirobebSi klienti gadava ufro maღali reputaciis mqone da ufro saimedo
bankis momsaxurebaSi. amrigad, sabanko saqmeSi Sigasabanko konkurencia
ZiriTadad xorcieldeba saxeobrivi konkurenciis saxiT. es ki, konkretuli
strategiis TvalsazrisiT, niSnavs imas, rom momsaxurebis axali saxeobebis
SeTavazebა arsebulis farglebSi, jer kidev ar
upiratesobas, Tu ki aseTi saxis momsaxureobaze
moTxovna.
niSnavs konkretul
jer kidev ar aris
sabanko sferoSi fasebiT konkurenciis Tavisebureba gamoixateba imaSi,
rom
am seqtorSi ar arsebobs mkveTri urTierTkavSiri saqonlis (sabanko
momsaxurebis) samomxmareblo Rirebulebasa da mis fasebs Soris. amasTan
dakavSirebiT, am sferoSi zRvari fasebiT aSkara da farul konkurencias
Soris, praqtikulad ar arsebobs, da sfero, romelSic bankebs SeuZliaT
fasebis mniSvnelovani manevrireba – es aris saprocento ganakveTebi,
momsaxurebaze sakomisio gadasaxdelebi da sxva tarifebi. amave dros, sabanko
momsaxurebis myidvelebs (momxmareblebs), gansakuTrebiT ki bankis mudmiv
klienteb,
molaparakebebis procesSi, SeuZliaT zegavlena moaxdinon
momsaxurebis fasebze da miaRwion arsebiT fasdaklebas.
am TvalsazrisiT pirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos,
rom saprocento
ganakveTebi SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros saxelmwifos zemoqmedebas – rogorc
pirdapiri SezRudvis (centraluri bankisagan miRebul sesxebze minimaluri
da maqsimaluri saprocento ganakveTebis, garkveuli kategoriis msesxeblebze
SeRavaTebis an kidev zRvruli marJis dawesebiT), ise iribi regulirebis
gziT (magaliTad saaRricxvo politikis gatarebiT, komerciul bankebze
refinansirebis saxiT gacemul sesxebze saprocento ganakveTebis SecvliT da
a.S.).
gasaTvaliswinebelia aseve, rom fasebis Semcireba yovelTvis ar aris
momsaxurebaze moTxovnis zrdis garanti. piriqiT, aseTma politikam zog
SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba ganaviTaros uaryofiTi tendenciebi – momxmareblebma
dakargon ndoba bankis mimarT. ase magaliTad, ekonomikis ganviTarebis
Sesabamisad, mosaxleoba (depozitarebi) erkveva procesebSi da misTvis ama Tu
im sakredito dawesebulebaSi saxsrebis ganTavsebis safuZvlad arasakmarisia
mxolod maRali saprocento ganakveTebis SeTavazeba. garda amisa, ar aris
gamoricxuli, rom mosaxleobis elitarulma fenam, prestiJis amaRlebis
mizniT, sabanko momsaxurebisaTvis mimarTos ufro ZviradRirebul, e. w.
“prestiJul” bankebs. yvelaferi es adasturebs, rom sabanko konkurencia sul
ufro da ufro iZens fasebis gareSe konkurenciis formas.
konkurencia
fasebis
gareSe
–
efuZneba
93
saqonlis
xarisxobriv
gaumjobesebasa da produqtis diferenciaciis (sareklamo kompaniis CaTvliT)
mizanmimarTuli politikis gatarebas. am formis konkurenciis mizania
sabanko momsaxurebis myari momxmareblebis Camoyalibeba.
sabanko saqmis Taviseburebaa is faqti, rom bankis ZiriTadi saqoneli –
krediti –TaviTavad ver daeqvemdebareba diferenciacias; danarCeni sabanko
momsaxureba ki konkurentebis mier advilad aRwarmoebadia, radgan sapatento
dacva masze ar vrceldeba. swored amis Sedegia is, rom bankebis umetesoba
momxmareblebs sTavazobs met-naklebad msgavsi saxis momsaxurebis pakets.
amave dros, banks SeuZlia Tavisi momsaxurebis diferenciacia, misi xarisxis
gaumjobesebis gziT. momsaxurebis maRali xarisxi pirdapir kavSirSia sabanko
dawesebulebis rentabelobasTan, radgan xarisxis gaumjobeseba izidavs
klientebs, rac TavisTavad ganapirobebs momsaxurebis moculobis gazrdas; es
ki TavisTavad aisaxeba bankis mogebis zrdasa da danaxarjebis SemcirebaSi.
amerikeli ekonomistebis azriT, kvalificirebuli da megobruli momsaxureba
aris ZiriTadi kriteriumi umetesi momxmareblisaTvis momsaxure bankis
arCevanis gasakeTeblad.
aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, fasebis gareSe sabanko konkurenciis
ZiriTadi iaraRia momsaxurebis xarisxis gaumjobeseba; amasTan, momsaxurebis
xarisxis gaumjobesebis kriteriumebis gansazRvra aris Tanamedrove sabanko
Teoriisa da praqtikis aqtualuri problema.
ekonomistebis umetesoba emxroba im azrs, rom produqciis xarisxis
maxasiaTeblebi SeiZleba iyos misi saimedooba, gamZleoba, usafrTxoeba,
sasargeblo efeqti, moxmarebis xarjebi, garegnuli saxe, momsaxureba da sxva.
amasTan dadgenilia, rom sabanko momsaxurebis xarisxis kriteriumebis
gansazRvra SedarebiT Znelia. am sakiTxis Seswavlisas gasaTvaliswinebelia,
rom dRemde ar aris Camoyalibebuli erTiani mosazreba Tu ra aris sabanko
momsaxurebis xarisxis cneba. amerikul ekonomikur literaturaSi, mravali
wlis ganmavlobaSi damkvidrebuli iyo azri imis Sesaxeb, rom sabanko
momsaxurebis xarisxi – es aris momsaxurebis Tavazianoba.
magram, am
problemaze yuradRebis miqcevis zrdis kvaldakval, Camoyalibda sxvadasxva
midgoma sabanko momsaxurebis xarisxis gansazRvris Sesaxeb. magaliTad,
zogierTi ekonomisti Tvlis, rom momsaxurebis xarisxi ganisazRvreba
momxmarebelTa moTxovnisa da sabanko momsaxurebis SesabamisobiT.
sabanko momsaxurebis xarisxze azrTa sxvadasxvaobis arseboba ar aris
gasakviri, radgan: sabanko momsaxurebis xarisxi (iseve, rogorc nebismieri
sxva saxis momsaxurebisa) ganekuTvneba subieqtur kategorias. am problemaSi
mniSvnelovania gamoikveTos ori aspeqti da, Sesabamisad xarisxis Sefasebis
kriteriumebis ori sistema:
- Sefaseba bankis poziciidan;
- Sefaseba klientis poziciidan.
94
specialistebis azriT, bankis muSaobis xarisxianobas gansazRvravs Sida
samuSao procesebis siswrafe, gaweuli xarjebisa da daSvebuli Secdomebis
gasworebis done, samuSao procesebis efeqturoba, momuSaveTa motivaciis
done, Sromis mwarmoebluroba, sakredito riskebis xarisxi da sxva, romlebic
TanafardobaSia sabanko momsaxurebze gaweul danaxarjebTan.
klientis
TvalsazrisiT
ki,
sabanko
momsaxurebis
xarisxis
ganmsazRvreli kriteriumebia momsaxurebis siswrafe, operaciebis Sesruleba
xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebul vadebSi, Secdomebis arseboba, bankis
muSaobis saaTobrivi reJimi,, konsultaciebis gawevis xarisxi (misi aqtiuri
Tu pasiuri xasiaTi),
bankTan piradi damokidebuleba da sxva. sabanko
momsaxurebis xarisxs klientebi upirispireben momsaxurebis fasebs.
rasakvirvelia, bankebma TavianT saqmianobaSi unda gaiTvaliswinon
konkurenciis es orive saxe, magram maT Soris konkurenciis gamZafrebis
pirobebSi wamyvani mniSvneloba eniWeba klientebis Sexedulebas ama Tu im
bankze. am mdgomareobam asaxva pova sabanko momsaxurebis xarisxis
koncefciaSi, romlis arsi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom xarisxi ganisazRvreba ara
ubralod
sabanko momsaxurebis ama Tu im Tvisebebis erTobliobis
TanafardobiT momxmareblebis molodinTan, aramed sabanko momsaxurebis
xarisxis SesabamisobiT momxmareblebis moTxovnasTan.
sabanko sostema qveynis centralus banks, 20 komerciul banksa da sxva
arasabanko sakredito dawesebulebebs aerTianebs. bankebis muSaobis veqtori
mimarTulia
saqmianobis
universalizaciisaken.
TiTqmis
yvela
bankis
ganviTarebis
strategiuli
mimarTuleba
sabanko
produqtebis
mravalferovnebis zrda, momsaxurebis goegrafiuli arealis gafarToeba da
misi xarisxis srulyofaa. yvela banki cdilobs momxmareblebs Sestavazos
sul ufro da ufro axali sabanko produqti, momsaxutrebis maTTvis
xelsayreli pirobebiT. ixveweba sabanko teqnologiebi da igi sul ufro da
ufro uaxlovdeba saertaSoriso standartebs. bankebSi TandaTan inegreba
korporaciuli marTvis saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi arsebuli
sauketeso
meTodebi, rac TavisTavad ganapirobebs investorTa ndobis mopovebas da
qminis ucxouri kapitalis saqarTveloSi Semodinebis winapirobas.
Tavis yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi banki erTdroulad kreditoricaa da
msesxebelic, anu mas SeuZlia yoveldRiurad miiRos sxvisi resursebi da
magis paralelurad gasces Tavisi. dRes moqmedi komerciuli babkebi
universaluria, anu maT SeuZliaT Caataron nebismieri saxis operacia da ar
arian erTi saxis operaciaze daspecializebulni.
amJamad aucilebelia xeli Seewyos saqarTvelos bankebis formirebaganviTarebas, raTa radikalurad Seicvalos maTi muSaobis stil- meTodi da
maT klientebs SeeqmnaT komerciisa da mewarmeobis ganviTarebis pirobebi,
imitom rom bankis klientebi daculni iyvnen maTi Tanxis dakargvisagan da
maqsimalurad efeqtianad ganaTavson maTi Tanxebi.
sabanko saqme dinamiuri biznesia da amitomac bankebs Soris konkurencia
95
daundobelia, radgan TiToeuli cdilobs iyos saukeTeso, amitomac biznesSi
ar arsebobs dandobis fufuneba.
wlebis win saqarTvelos komerciulma bankebma gadadges nabijebi
sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi. maT marTalia gauWirdaT
konkurenciis pirobebSi arseboba, Tumca msoflio ekonomikur krizisamde
sakmaod efeqtianad axorcielebdnen TavianT saqmianobas, magram maT
gauWirdaT konkurenciis gaweva ucxoeTis ara Tu Zlieri, aramed patara
bankebisTvisac ki, vinaidan AaSS-Si yvelaze patara bankis kapitali 100
milioni dolaria, evropis qveynebSi ki mcire bankebis kapitali 50 milion
dollars Seadgens.
imisaTvis rom saqarTveloSi komerciuli bankebi sicocxlisunarianni
iyvnen, maT konkurencia unda gauwion ucxoeTis bankebs da unda gaaumjobeson
TavianTi saqmianobis stili da SeimuSaon moqnili strategia.
komerciuli banmkebis usafrTxod da saerTaSoriso standartebis
doneze saqmianobis mizniT, mizanSewonilad mimaCnia Semdegi RonisZiebebi
gatareba:
1.
depozitebis
darRvevis
fondis
Seqmna,
meanabreebis interesebs da Seamcirebs sabanko sadepozito
romeli
riskebs;
daicavs
2.
sabanko riskebis marTvis moqnili sistemis Seqmna; aseve msoflio
masStabiT kargad aprobirebuli saeqsporto praqtikis TavianT saqmianobaSi
danergva;
3.
bankebma maqsimalurad unda Seafason riskis xarisxi da Seqmnan
Sesabamisi rezervebi, sesxis SesaZlo danakargebiT miRebuli zaralis
ganeitralebis mizniT;
4.
aucilebelia SeirCes maRalkvalificiuri kadrebi, raTa Semcirdes
riskis sidide;
5.
usafrTxod saqmianobis mizniT, aseve prestiJisa da bazarze
mopovebuli segmentis SenarCunebis mizmiT unda ganxorcieldes sakredito
politikis Zireuli reforma.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi sakmaod dinamikuria da sistemurad icvleba
komerciuli bankebis marTvis struqtura, sabanko saqmianobis praqtikaSi
inergeba bevri siaxle, rogorc momsaxurebis saxeebis mravaferovnebis, ise
operaciebis ganxorcielebis Sesrulebis teqnologiuri TvalsazrisiT.
saqarTveloSi Seiqmna da moqmedebs sabazro ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli Ffulad-sakredito sistema, raSic mniSvnelovani roli
Seasrules, rogorc qveynis centralurma (erovnulma) bankma, ise komerciulma
sabanko seqtorma.
saqarTvelo
cvlilebebs
da
dRes
ar
ganicdis politikur, ekonomkur
gaaCnia
iseTi
samewarmeo
da
96
da socialur
sakanonmdeblo
infrastruqtura, rogorc arsebobs ganviTarebuli sabazro ekonomikis mqone
qveynebSi.
mudmivad krizisul situaciaSi, aseve arastabilur politikur garemoSi
saqmianobis
gamo,
saqarTveloSi
warmoebuli
sabanko
operaciebi
dakavSirebulia seriozul riskebTan, romlebmac SeiZleba gavlena iqonion
saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis momaval saqmianobaze da Qqveynis saerTo
ekonomikis ganviTarebaze.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. gogixia m. - ,,sabanko saqme” Tbilisi 2006w.
2. kovzanaZe i. - ,,saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis funqcionirebis
problemebi da maTi srulyofis gzebi”, Tbilisi 2003w.
3. mixanaSvili n. - ,,saqarTvelos sabanko sistema” Tbilisi 2006w.
4. saqarTvelos kanoni ,,erovnuli bankis Sesaxeb” Tbilisi 2001w.
5. saqarTvelos kanoni ,,komerciuli bankebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb”
Tbilisi 2001w.
6. qoqiauri l. - ,,sabanko saqmianobis safuZvlebi” 1-2 tomi, Tbilisi
2005w.
7. caava g. - ,,sabanko saqme” Tbilisi 2005w.
8. caava g. - ,,Tanamedrove fuladi da sabako sistemis problemebi”
Tbilisi 2002w.
Present state of the Georgian Banking Market and Banking Competition
George Arabuli
Beka Tevzade
George Zakaidze
Resume
Nowadays banks offer wide variety of products and high-quality services that comply with
European standards and hold a leading position in the business sector. Banks bring their customers
delights by offering new products and services through innovative forms that are broadly discussed in
the paper. In georgia the bank system is in high level of developing nowadays. They are slowly
inculatinf their places in world bank system. In a high challange condition, banks are renovating their
working styles and extent of service, they are offering new produce to their costumers.
97
danazogebi, investiciebi da finansuri sistema
Tamar didbariZe – suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis
administrirebis specialobis me-2 kursi
besarion nayofia _ suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 599 71 63 57
mocemuli Sedegebis mixedviT, qarTuli axalgazrdobis did
nawils
(52%) kviris biujeti 20 larze meti ar aqvs, rac aiZulebT met-naklebad
xelmomWirneni iyvnen, anu zogaven sxvadasxva resurss (fuli, dro, energia,
nervebi). umravlesoba fuls zogavs garTobis xarjze (40%), zogi-sakvebis(11%)
da moduri tansacmlis (23%) xarjze.
fulis dazogva dadebiTi movlenaa, radgan ufro didi raodenobis
(dazogili) fuli adamians SeuZlia gamoiyenos maSin, rodesac yvelaze metad
sWirdeba, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom gamokiTxulTa mxolod 25% sargeblobs
anabrebiT, rac bunebrivi movlenaa, radgan axalgazrdobis did nawils ar
aqvs stimuli da albaT, ndoba, Tanxa grZelvadian (erT welze meti) anabarze
Seitanos, maTi gi ufro adre sWirdeba, vidre banki iZleva am fulisgacemis
saSualebas.
kargi
iqneba
Tu
bankebi
da
finansuri
subiqetebi
gaiTvaliswineben Seqmnil mdgomareobas, maqsimalurad Seuwyoben xels
studentebis stimulirebas danazogebTan mimarTebaSi.
"is, rasac dRes zogierTebi inflaqcias da deflaqcias uwodeben,
fulis miwodebis didi zrda an Semcireba ki aRaraa, aramed am qmedebaTa
gardauvali Sedegi, samomxmareblo saqonlis fasebisa daxelfasebis zrda an
kleba." (ludvig fonmizesi)
ekonomikis
avstriuli skolis
mixedviT,
fulis
masis
mkveTri
gafarToeba saprocento ganakveTebs amcirebs, rac astimulirebsbi znes _
moaxdinos grZelvadiani da kapitaltevadi investiciebi. problema isaa, rom
Semcirebuli saprocento ganakveTebi ara saxavs momxmareblebis droiT
upiratesobebs, anu kerZo moxmareba gacilebiT naklebi procenti izrdeba,
vidre investiciebi.
moklevadian periodSi moxmareba da investicia urTierT Semcvlelia.
Tu ekonomika Tavisi sawarmoo SesaZleblobebis zRvarze funqcionirebs, maSin
moklevadian periodSi momxmareblebi moixmaren
mets da akeTeben nakleb
investicias,
anpiriqiT.
finansuri
bazrebis
ganviTarebis
yvelaze
mniSvnelovani sazomia e.w. finansuri siRrme –– globaluri finansuri
bazrebis saerTo Rirebulebis Tanafardoba globalur ekonomikasTan, raci
zomeba, rogorc mSp. (mTliani Sida prodiqti) dReisaTvis globaluri
finansuri bazrebi samjermetia msoflio mSp–ze. finansuri siRrme ekonomikis
siZlieresa rniSnavs: finansuri siRrme holandiaSi orjer metia italiis
maCvenebelze, magram oriveqveyanas erTnairi mSp aqvs erTsul mosaxleze,
anpiriqiT, germaniis da tailandis finansuri siRrme Tanabaria, magram maTi
Semosavlebis done gansxvavebulia.
98
milton fridmani fulis miwodebis Semdeg wess icavs: fulis masis
yovelwliurad izrda 3–4%–iT.
ararsebobs raime jadosnuri politika, romelic uzrunvelyofs
qveynisekonomikis aRmavlobas. politika, romelic unda gatardes produqciis
bazarze, SeTanxmebuli unda iyos Sromis bazarze gasatarebel politikasTan,
iseve rogorc finansuri bazris
da samTavrobo seqtoris reformebTan.
reformis gatareba sasaqonlo bazarze, calkeaRebuli es politika
namdvilad ar iqneba warmatebuli. reforma unda iyos masStaburi. azri ara
aqvs zogierTi sferos gaumjobesebas, maSin, rodesac sxva sferoebi
xeluxlebeli rCeba. depresias fulis masis Semcireba ki ar iwvevs, aramed
danazogebis Semcireba. Tu danazogebi klebulobs, erovnuli banki, rac ar
unda warmatebiT ebrZodes fulis mimoqcevis da amoRebas, depresiis
aRmofxvras, igi mainc ver SeZlebs.amasTanave, Tu danazogebi klebulobas
araswori monetaruli politikis Sedegad, fasebisa da inflaqciuri
molodinis
SenarCuneba,
romc
moxerxdes,
ekonomika
mainc
ver
gamococxldeba.erovnuli bankis iafi fulis politika da nawilobrivi
sabanko rezervireba iwvevs resursebis araswor gadanawilebas,rac Tavismxriv
dagrovebis process anelebs da amdenad, danazogis Seqmnas aferxebs. es ki
imas niSnavs,rom depresiis mizezi erovnuli bankis iafi fulis politika da
sabanko depozitebis rezervirebis praqtikaa. kerZo sakuTreba aris is
safuZveli, romelzedac adamianebis TanamSromloba igeba (mizezi)sabazro
ekonomikis fuZemdebluri principia masebis uzrunvelyofisTvis saWiroa
masiuri warmoeba. swored masebis mxardaWera ganapirobebs warmoebis
zrdas.sazogadod
sabazro
ekonomikaSi
adamiani
mbrZanebelia,
is
momxmarebelia,
romelic
yovelTvis
marTalia.
(mizesi)socialurad
pasuxismgebeli bazris idea Zalian moswondaT Cikagos ekonomikuri skolis
warmomadgenlebs.
bolodros
saerTaSoriso
organizaciebi
yuradRebas
amaxvileben
maRal
xarjebze
da
dabal
danazogebze.
sayovelTao
SefasebiT,saqarTveloSi dRes samomxmareblo xarji sakmaod maRalia – mSp-s
80%. msoflio ganviTarebis indeqsis (WDI) monacemebiT, 1990-ian wlebTan
SedarebiT, es maCvenebeli saSualod 20%-iT gaizarda. maRali xarji iqneba es
samomxmareblo Tu samTavrobo – avtomaturad niSnavs mcire raodenobis
danazogebs. danazogebis arseboba, Tavis mxriv, did wilad ganapirobebs
kapitalis Semdgom investirebas da momaval ekonomikur zrdas. Tu danazogi
ar arsebobs,valdebulebebi unda dafinansdes an pirdapiri ucxouri
investiciebiT, anvaliT. orive SemTxvevaSi matulobs ucxour kapitalze
damokidebuleba, rac krizisul periodSi qveynis riskebs zrdis. miuxedavad
imisa, rom globaluri finansuri krizisis Semdeg samTavrobo xarjebma
Semcireba daiwyo, samomxmareblo xarjebi mainc maRali rCeba. kvleviTma
organizaciam – ACT Research – saqarTveloSi danazogebis mimarT
damokidebuleba da dazogvis praqtika Seiswavla: • ufro xSirad da ufro
mets zogaven is adamianebi, visi ojaxis Semosavalic TveSi 700 larze metia. •
dasaqmebuli adamiani ufro zogavs, vidre umuSevari da Tan, didi albaTobiT,
fuls bankSi inaxavs. • adamiani, visi xelfasic bolo erTi wlis
ganmavlobaSi gaizarda, ufro zogavs bankSi, vidreis, visi xelfasic igive
99
darCa an xelfasi Seumcirda. • adamiani, romelsac fuls ucxoeTidan
ugzavnian, ufro zogavs, vidreis, vinc ucxoeTidan fulad gzavnilebs
ariRebs.is, vinc mainc zogavs fuls, amas ori ZiriTadi mizniT akeTebs:
uZraviqonebis SesaZenad da SvilebisTvis ganaTlebis uzrunvelsayofad.
amasTan, uZrav qonebaSi meti abandebs, vidre Svilebis ganaTlebaSi. Svilebis
ganaTlebaSi fulis dabandeba, rogorc wesi, Tbilissa da did qalaqebSi
prioritetia. soflad fulsumetesad socialuri pirobebis gaumjobesebisTvis
zogaven. TbilisSi da did qalaqebSi fuls bankebSi inaxaven, xolo soflad
upiratesobas
saxlSi
arsebul
egreTwodebul
samalavebs
aniWeben.
sainteresoa isic, rom respondentebis 15%-ma am kiTxvas ar upasuxa. maTi didi
wili soflidanaa. bankis arCevans ZiriTad saprocento ganakveTebis odenoba
gansazRvravs. soflad upiratesobas larSi da zogvas aniWeben, radgan larze
saprocento ganakveTi ufro maRalia.TbilisSi da didqalaqebSi ki dolarSi
anevroSi gaxsnili depoziti ufro metia. mTeli qveynis masStabiT,
momxmareblebi ufro iseT depozitebs xsnian, saidanac Tanxis gatana
nebismier dros aris SesaZlebeli. 2004 wlidan moyolebuli danazogebi
sulmcirdeboda.maRali ekonomikuri zrdis pirobebSic ki – 2006-2007 wlebSi –
adgilobrivi danazogebi 6-7%-iT Seikveca. da es miuxedavad imisa, rom maSin
Semosavlebiszrda mSp-s zrdas aRemateboda. WDI-s monacemebiT, saqarTvelos
danazogebi am periodSic dabali Semosavlebis mqone qveynebis doneze
iyo.statistikuri monacemebis
analizi aCvenebs,
rom
maSin xarjebis
dafinanseba pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebiT xdeboda, ris gamoc sabiujeto
deficiti sakmaod maRali iyo. globaluri finansuri krizisis fonze,
Semcirda pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi. amdenad, Tu saqarTvelos unda,
rom momdevno aTwleulSi maRali ekonomikuri zrda hqondes, ucxouri
kapitalis mozidvis paralelurad, masze damokidebuleba unda Seamciros.
amis erT-erTi gza danazogebis raodenobis gazrdacaa.
cnobilia, rom kapitalis umTavresi maxasiaTebeli
mflobelisaTvis
mogebis motanaa, xolo misi grZelvadiani dabandeba anu investireba am
saSualebis gamoyenebis erT-erTi formaa. investors anu kapitalis mflobels
SexedulebiT.
investirebis
arsi mdgomareobs
„‟res‟‟
mogebaze
uaris
Tqmaze‟‟xval‟‟ sanacvlod. investireba bankis mier sesxis gacema analogiuria.
Sesabamisad, kapitalis, grdzelvadiani dabandebis
gadawyvetilebis
misaRebad aucilebelia
iseTi
informaciis floba, romelic ama Tu im
droneze amtkicebs or fuZemdebel debulebebs:
1)
Cadebuli fuli aucileblad, mTlianad unda iyos amoRebuli.
2)
am operaciis Sedegad miRebulma mogebam unda aanazRauros
sesxebis droebiT gamouyenebloba, da aseve is riski, romelic, warmoiqmdeba
saboloo
Sedegisgaurkvevlobis
gamo..
amgvarad,
investiciebze
gadawyvetilebis miReba mdgomareobs movlenaTa savaraudo ganviTarebis
gegmis SefasebaSi im TvalTaxedviT, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba saboloo miznis
gegmis Sinarsi da misi ganviTarebis SesZlo Sedegebi. saerTo azriT,
sainvesticio proeqti ewodeba kapitalis dabandebis gegmas Semdgomi mogebis
100
miRebis mizniT.
finansebi (laT. financia - fuli, Semosavali) — yvela
materialuri resursis erToblioba, moqceuli calkeuli piris, organizaciis
an saxelmwifos mmarTvelobaSi. arsebobs aseve amave saxelwodebis vrceli
mecniereba - finansebi. sityva finansebi yofierebaSi xSirad ixmareba, rogorc
fulis aRmniSvne lisityva. zmna dafinanseba niSnavs «fulis miwodebas».
finansebis sferos umniSvnelovanesi cnebaa - biujeti.finansebi, rogorc
mecnierebis
dargi
Seiswavlis
fuls
da
socialur-ekonomikur
urTierTobebs, romelebic ukavSirdeba materialuri resursebis formirebas,
ganawilebas da moxmarebas. finansebi — es aris ekonomikuri, gamoyenebiTi
disciplina.finansebi, tradiciulad iyofa - sazogadoebriv da kerZo
kategoriebad.pirvel
jgufs
miekuTvneba:
saxelmwifo
finansebi
da
adgilobrivi, municipaluri finansebi. meore jgufs miekuTvneba:
piradi da ojaxis finansebi; mcirebiznesis, korporaciuli (sawarmoebis
da
biznesis
finansebi),
sabanko
(sabako
saqme)
da
arakomerciuli
organizaciebis finansebi.
sazogadoebriv finansebSi pirveladi ganxilvis sagania ”gasavlebi”,
ramdenadac
am
saxis
organizaciis
mier
xorcieldeba
mkacrad
reglamentirebul sazogadoebriv amocanaTa finansireba. kerZo finansebisTvis
pirveladi Semosavlis miReba d asaqmianobis srulad warmarTva am
Semosavlis misaRebad, romelic ganapirobebs mogebas da romelic, Tavis
mxriv ixarjeba misi mflobeli piris (pirebis) gaTvaliswinebiT.
finansebis marTvas (zogadad) da SeiZleba iTqvas marTvis xelovnebas,
swavlobs mecniereba - finansuri menejmenti. sabanko finansebis marTva
Seiswavleba sabanko saqmis mecnierebis farglebSi. finansur bazrebs
swavlobs mecniereba, romelsac ewodeba finansuri ekonomika. statistikis
mcire, Tanamosaxele nawili Seiswavlis finansur statistikas. finansuri
informaciis damuSavebis meTodebs Seiswavlis gamoyenebiTi maTematikis
mecniereba. finansuri nakadebis kontroli Seiswavleba finansuri kontrolis
disciplinis farglebSi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1 gregori menqiu Tb. 2010w.
2 sajaro finansebi. i. mesxia; d. WiotaSvili. Tb. 2012 weli.
Savings, Investments and Financial System
Tamar Didbaridze
Resume
The work discusses issues of savings and investments and generally - financial system.
Appropriate analysis is made and ways of improving financial system are proposed.
101
sabanko menejmenti
daviT kvirkvelia – suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis
administrirebis specialobis me-4 kursis studenti
besarion nayofia _ suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 599 71 63 57
sabanko
menejmentis
arsi
da
elementebi,
roca vsaubrobT sabanko
saqmianobis marTvaze, erTmaneTisagan unda ganvasxvavoTmisi ori mWidrod
dakavSirebuli nawili:
1. mTlianad sabanko sistemisa da misi calkeuli elementebis
marTva centraluri bankisa da sabanko sferos centralizebuli marTvis sxva
specializebuli organoebis mxridan;
2. komerciuli bankebisa da sxva safinanso-sakredito organizaciebis
mier Tavisi saqmianobis marTva.cntraluri
bankisa
da
sabanko sferos
centralizebuli marTvis sxva specializebuli organoebis mier sabanko
saqmianobis
marTva
moicavs:
sakuTari saqmianobis,
rogorc
sabanko
sistemis mTavari elementis, yovelmxriv marTvas;qveynis mTeli sabanko
sistemis ganviTarebis strategiul marTvas; yvela komerciuli bankis da
arasabanko safinanso-sakredito organizaciebis mimdinare saqmianobisa
da
ganviTarebis marTvas(operatiul saqmianobaSi Caurevlad),funqcionirebis
yvelasaTvis savaldebulo konkurentuli wesebisa da mTeli rigi umTavresi
parametrebis(raodenobrivi
da
xarisxobrivi
SezRudvebis)formulirebis
gziT; agreTve maTTvis saTanado meToduri daxmarebis gaweviT, im
gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, romlebic kanonmdeblobiT centraluri bankis
da Sesabamisi organizaciebis normatiuli aqtebiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli
da
ar ewinaaRmdegeba kanonmdeblobas_ calkeuli safinanso-sakredito
organizaciebis saqmianobis operatiul marTvas.
marTva, romelsac axorcieleben ara garedan da ara bankis mimarT gare
subieqtebi,aramed TviT sabanko sistemis elementebi, aris TviTmmarTveloba_
bankis
mier Tavisi
Tavis
marTva.
am
dros
isini
xelmZRvaneloben
sakuTari
mosazrebebiT,SefasebebiT,
interesebiT
da
iyeneben
maTTvis
misaRebsa
da
xelmisawvdom meqanizmebs. am dros marTva or doneze
xorcieldeba_ mTlianad sabanko sistemis(an misi im msxvili nawilebis,
romlebic
sakredito
organizaciebis
masStaburi
asociaciebiT
an
kavSirebiTaa warmodgenili) an calke aRebuli bankebis doneze.bankebis mier
TviTmmarTveloba da garedan bankebis marTva sabanko sistemis arcerT
doneze ar xorcieldeba avtonomiurad da paralelurad. piriqiT, yovel
maTganze xdeba garedan marTvisa da TviTmmarTvelobis elementebis
erTmaneTTan Serwyma-Sexameba.
garedan
marTva
da
TviTmmarTveloba
sabanko sferoSi iseTi procesebia, romlebic mWidro da ganuyofel
kavSirSi
imyofebian
erTmaneTTan, gadadis erTmaneTSi da erTmaneTisagan
102
aris warmoebuli.
mTlianad sabanko TviTmmarTveloba da calke aRebuli bankis
doneze ganxorcielebuli
TviTmmarTveloba
SegviZlia
warmovidginoT
moqmedebaTa garkveuli
derefnis
farglebSi
im
mmarTvelur
gadawyvetilebaTa
miRebis procesad, romlis parametrebis ganmsazRvreli
faqtorebi ar eqvemdebareba TviT bankebs(iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda). aseTi
faqtorebi uamravia, magram maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania Semdegi:
erovnuli ekonomikis arsebuli mdgomareoba da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi;
saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politika; centraluri bankis damoukideblobis
xarisxi; erovnuli valutis stabiluroba; sazogadoebas, ekonomikasa da
sabanko
sferoSi
martlwesrigis
done;
sabanko monopolizaciis done;
centraluri bankis sakanonmdeblo aqtebisa da komerciul bankebTan
misi
damokidebulebis xarisxi da sxv. TiToeuli am faqtorTagani mudmivad
icvlis Tavis intensivobas, mimarTulebasa da niSnebsac ki, Tanac es
iSviaTad xdeba SeTanxmebulad, Sedegad xdeba e.w. «TamaSis wesebis» metnaklebad seriozuli ganaxleba.
sabanko saqmianobis marTvis sistemaSi mniSvnelovania misi xarisxisa da
donis sakiTxi. marTvis xarisxi unda gvesmodes, rogorc im arsebiTi
Tvisebebis erToblioba,
romlebic
axasiaTebs
marTvis
unars,
daakmayofilos
samarTavi obieqtis
moTxovnilebebi,
am
konkretul
SemTxvevaSi_ bankis saqmianobis procesSi gaCenili moTxovnilebebi. sabanko
marTvas mis nebismier aspeqtSi yvelaze zogadad SegviZlia wavuyenoT
Semdegi xarisxobrivi moTxovna_ igi im miznebisa da amocanebis adeqvaturi
unda iyos, romlebic marTvis obieqtis moTxovnilebebs upasuxebs da marTvis
organoebis winaSe dgas.
marTvis xarisxi sabolood Semdeg maxasiaTeblebSi vlindeba:
•
socialur-ekonomikuri (rentabeloba, ekonomikaSi integrireba,
klientebTan urTierTobis xasiaTi);
•
organizaciuli
(saimedoba,
organizaciuloba,
Semguebloba
da
sxv.);
•
teqnologiuri
(formalizaciis
done,
profesionalizmi, inovaciuroba, avtomatizaciis done);
kadrebis
•
socialur-fsiqologiuri (korporatiuloba, kulturis done,
socialur-fsiqologiuri
klimati,
xelmZRvanelobis
stili,
xelmZRvanelTa qcevis eTikuroba).
sabanko
menejmenti
SeiZleba ganisazRvros,
rogorc
sakredito
resursebis moZraobis uwyvetobisa da Tanadroulobis uzrunvelsayofad
Sesabamisi saorganizacio struqturebis mier miRebuli
mmarTvelobiT
RonisZiebaTa
sistema,
romelTa
mizans
warmoadgens mikro da
makroekonomikuri prioritetebis miRweva.
103
mikroekonomikur prioritetebs miekuTvneba: sabanko dawesebulebebis
saimedooba simyare, bankisa da misi klientebis resursebis daculoba
da Semosavlianoba.
makroekonomikuri
prioritetebi
devs
erovnuli
fuladi erTeulis stabilizaciis, ekonomikaSi materialuri da fuladi
resursebis gamoyenebis maqsimaluri aqtivizaciis sferoSi.
xarisxian, efeqtur da adeqvatur sabanko menejments ZaluZs ara
mxolod w in aRudges negatiuri makro da mikroekonomikuri faqtorebis
zemoqmedebas, ara mxolod gaaneitralos is, aramed xSir SemTxvevaSi
gamoiyenos
is
Tavisi miznebisaTvis.
amitomac
bankis
mier
amgvari
menejmentis
ganxorcieleba warmoadgens misi simyaris, saimedoobis da
efeqturi muSaobis ZiriTad pirobas da garants.
maCveneblebi,
romelTa
iyofa Semdeg kategoriebad:
mixedviTac
fasdeba
sabanko
•
raodenobrivi da xarisxobrivi(m.S. socialuri);
•
obieqturi da subieqturi;
•
formaluri da araformaluri.
menejmenti,
•
im SemTxvevaSi, roca bankis menejmenti uxarisxod xorcieldaba,
is xSirad xdeba sabanko krizisis mTavari mizezi, misgan gamomdinareobs
bankebisa
da
misi klientebis
zarali
da
bolos
ekonomikuri
disproporciebi.
aseTi«cudi»
menejmentis
aRsaniSnavad
arsebobs
termini«mismenejmenti»_ menejmentis saxe, romlisTvisac
damaxasiaTebelia,
rogorc uneblie Secdomebi, aseve bankis personalis winaswarganzraxuli
kanonsawinaaRmdego
moqmedebebi,
saWiro kontrolis
ararseboba,
zedamxedvelobis araadeqvaturi uflebamosilebani da a.S. makrodoneze
mTlianad
ekonomikuri
sistemis
gamanadgurebeli
saerTo finansuri
krizisis
pirobebSi
mismenejments
mivyavarT
zaralis
gadidebis,resursebis arasworad ganlagebis, operaciebis gaumarTlebeli
riskis
da saprocento
ganakveTis
gadidebis
xarjze
inflaciis
gaZlierebis gamo bankebis krizisis gaRrmavebamde.
mismenejments
yofen
bankis
krizisis
maxasiaTebel oTx jgufad (kategoriad):
•
teqnikuri mismenejmenti;
•
kosmetikuri mismenejmenti;
•
avantiuruli mismenejmenti;
•
TaRliToba.
etapobrivi
gaRrmavebis
teqnikuri
mismenejmentisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia
bundovani
mizandasaxulobani,
misTvis
niSandoblivia
realuri
situaciisaTvis
araadeqvaturi zomebis miReba, magram teqnikuri mismenejmentis yvelaze
104
naTeli gamovlinebaa_ araadeqvaturi
politika,
Sida
kontrolis
nakleboba da susti dagegmareba, personalis gaumarTlebeli zrda da
a.S.kosmetikuri
mismenejmentisas
banki
faravs
wina
da
amJamindel
danakargebs imisaTvis, rom SeinarCunos misdami ndoba, moigos dro da
ipovos
gamosavali
arakeTil-saimedo
situaciidan.
kosmetikuri
mismenejmentis mizania, Seqmnas banksi normaluri
viTarebis
arsebobis
STabeWdileba
saangariSgebo
dokumentaciaSi mTeli rigi sakvanZo
maCveneblebis, mag., bankis aqcionerebisaTvis dividendebis gacemis ucvlelad
datovebis, angariSis sxva maCveneblebTan manipulaciis xarjze,rasac araferi
aqvs
saerTo
realur
monacemebTan.
kosmetikuri
mismenejmenti
saSisroebas
warmoadgens
bankis
klientebisa
da
partniorebisaTvis,
qmnis problemebs maTze zemoqmedebis mxriv, radgan Zneli xdeba Seqmnil
situaciaze reagireba.
«avanturuli» mismenejmenti (krizisuli mmarTveloba) warmoadgens
operaciaTa kompleqss,
romelsac
bankis
menejmenti
mimarTavs
maSin,
roca
kosmetikur menejments ukve aRar ZaluZs kapitalis dakargvisa da
dividendebis Semcirebebis damalva. am operaciebis mizania_ SesaZlebloba
misces banks, Tundac mokle droiT koncentracia
gaukeTos
resursebs,
moigos
dro
da
xelsayrel
garemoebaTa wyalobiT
gamoasworos
mdgomareoba.
TaRliToba warmoadgens sazogadoebisaTvis yvelaze saSiS
mismenejmentis saxes.TaRliTobas vxvdebiT sabanko krizisis sxvadasxva
stadiaze, magram metwilad ara ukanasknel stadiaze. mTeli rigi xerxebis
meSveobiT(fiqtiuri firmebisa da yalbi pirebis dakreditebiT, korporaciis
SigniT«monaTesave» firmebSi saxsrebis«gadaqaCviT» da a.S.), xdeba bankebidan
Tanxebis amoReba da klientTa da meanabreTa samarTliani
pretenziebis
dakmayofilebis
nacvlad
midian sakuTari
finansuri mdgomareobis
TaRliTuri gaumjobesebis gziT.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
sabanko saqme v.mosiaSvili, f.lomiZe, f.qoqosaZe
2.
sabanko saqmianobis safuZvlebi l.qoqiauri,
3.
sabanko menejmenti r.beriZe.
Bank Management
David Kvirkvelia
Resume
The work discusses theoretical principles of bank management, its forms and methods. Some
ways for their improving and developing are offered in Georgia.
105
programuli biujetirebis mniSvneloba saxelmwifo finansebis sistemis
srulyofisaTvis
Smagi xijakaZe
suxiSvilis universitetis biznesis administrirebis III kursis studenti
ivane oqromWedliSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori
E- mail: [email protected] Tel: 599 11-55-07
msoflio ekonomikis arastabilurobis da SezRuduli resursebis
pirobebSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens saxelmwifo finansebis marTvis
xarisxis da sabiujeto xarjebis efeqtianobis amaRleba. amis
miRweva
SeuZlebelia saxelmwifo sabiujeto procesis ganviTarebis da srulyofis
gareSe.
saxelmwifo biujeti warmoadgens finansur gegmas, romelic moicavs
saxelmwifo seqtoris dawesebulebebs, romelTa dafinanseba ZiriTadad xdeba
gadasaxadebis xarjze.
programuli
(Sedegze
orientirebuli)
biujetireba
warmoadgens
biujetis formirebis (Sesrulebis) sistemas, romlis erTerT umTavres
princips warmoadgens urTierTkavSiri dagegmil (gaweul) sabiujeto xarjebsa
da mosalodnel (miRweul) Sedegebs Soris. es aris saxelmwifo finansebis
marTvis xarisxis gaumjobesebis mZlavri instrumenti, romelic iZleva
saSualebas
movaxdinoT
dafinansebis
koncentrireba
prioritetul
mimarTulebebze, mivaRwioT dasaxul miznebs da miviRoT dagegmili Sedegebi.
programuli biujetirebis ZiriTadi mizani mdgomareobs sabiujeto
xarjebis socialuri da ekonomikuri efeqtianobis zrdaSi. tradiciulTan
SedarebiT, programuli biujetirebis upiratesobas warmoadgens fiskaluri
mdgradobis amaRleba, dargobrivi uwyebebis saqmianobis efeqtianobis zrda,
biujetis ufro mWidro kavSiri strategiul amocanebTan.
programuli biujetirebis safuZvels warmoadgens xarjebis programuli
klasifikacia, romlis struqtura ganisazRvreba socialur-ekonomikuri
politikis miznebiT da amocanebiT. programuli biujetis formirebisaTvis,
saministroebis da uwyebebis
xarjebi unda daiyos maT winaSe mdgari
saxelmwifo amocanebis Sesasruleblad gansaxorcielebeli saqmianobis
saxeobebis mixedviT. saqmianobis yvela saxeobisaTvis SemuSavdeba programa. is
unda moicavdes miznebis da amocanebis, maT misaRwevad saWiro resursebis
aRweras, aseve programis Sesrulebis Sedegianobis maCveneblebs da maTi
Sefasebis procedurebs. sabiujeto ganacxadebis Sedgena programuli
biujetirebisas xdeba miznebis da programebis WrilSi.
106
tradiciuli biujetis Sedgena xdeba ,,qvemodan-zemoT”. uwyebrivi
biujetebis jami (qveda done) iZleva mTavrobis biujets (zeda done). am
SemTxvevaSi rTulia mTeli biujetis, misi saldos da sxva monacemebis
gakontroleba; rTulia sabiujeto saxsrebis ganawilebis gakontroleba
seqtorebs Soris (erovnuli Tavdacva, ganaTleba, jandacva da sxva).
programuli biujetis Sedgena xdeba ,,zemodan_qvemod”. pirvel rigSi,
mTavroba ,,uSvebs” xarjebis agregirebul limitebs: ramdeni daixarjeba sul,
ramdeni _ investiciebze, rogori iqneba inflacia, sabiujeto deficiti da a.
S. meore rigSi, mTavroba ,,uSvebs” seqtorul limitebs, anu anawilebs xarjebs
ZiriTad seqtorebs Soris, amasTan, seqtoris CarCoebSi axali iniciativebi
SesaZlebelia dafinansdes Zveli programebis xarjze. mesame rigSi, mTavroba
adgens Sidaseqtorul limitebs _ ,,Werebs” uwyebrivi biujetebisaTvis. da
bolos, mTavrobas SeuZlia pragramebis calkeuli komponentebis limitirebac,
magaliTad mimdinare xarjebis (romlebsac uwyebebi aniWeben upiratesobas
kapitaluri xarjebis sazianod).
programul
biujetirebaze
warmatebuli
gadasvla
Sedgeba
ori
principisagan _ ndoba da angariSvaldebuleba _ da oTxi elementisagan _
lideroba, swori finansuri menejmenti, monawileoba da instrumentari.
ndoba _ programuli biujetirebis fuZemdebeli principia. aRniSnul
konteqstSi es sityva niSnavs imas, rom mTavrobas da uwyebis xelmZRvanelobas
sjeraT programebis menejerTa SesaZleblobebis, miiRon saWiro Sedegebi
yvelaze efeqturi da ekonomiuri saxiT (fasis da xarisxis saukeTeso
kombinaciiT). saWiro Sedegebis miRebis SesaZlebloba damokidebulia
aRniSnuli miznisaTvis xelmisawvdom resursebze, da uwyeba mzad aris
gadasces isini programebis menejerTa gankargulebaSi.
angariSvaldebuleba _ programis menejerebma unda agon pasuxi sakuTar
gadawyvetilebebze, moqmedebebze da maT Sedegebze. maT unda hqondeT motivi
iyvnen angariSvaldebulebi. sasjelebis da waxalisebebis sistemis gareSe
programuli biujetireba ar iqneba warmatebuli.
lideroba _ programuli biujetirebis danergvisas aucilebelia Zlieri
liderobis gamomJRavneba yvelaze maRal doneze. mTavrobam unda ganacxados
Tavisi gadawyvetileba xmamaRla da mkafiod da mTlianad CaerTos sabiujeto
reformaSi. finansTa saministrom unda miuTiTos moqmedebis mimarTulebebi da
Caudges saTaveSi uwyebebis gadasvlas programul biujetirebaze, xolo
uwyebebi unda gayvnen liders.
monawileoba _ programuli biujetirebis danergva moiTxovs yvela
saxelmwifo moxelis, gansakuTrebiT programebis menejerebis monawileobas.
es ar aris ubralod sistemuri cvlileba. es aris axal paradigmaze
gadasvla: aprioruli kontrolis nacvlad _ ndoba, pasiuri molodinis
nacvlad _ uwyebrivi kreatuloba. administraciuli sistema unda iyos
107
moqnili da imavdroulad SeeZlos mkafio politikis da mkacri direqtivebis
SemuSaveba.
swori finansuri menejmenti _ unda iyos prioritetuli finansuri
informaciis kompiuterizebuli sistemis, saimedo da yovlismomcveli sakaso
menejmentis, sabuRaltro aRricxvis da fiskaluri reportaJis ganviTareba.
swori finansuri menejmentis ZiriTadi elementebis gareSe ver miiRweva
programebis menejerebisa da saprogramo miznebis angariSvaldebuleba.
instrumentari _ axali instrumentebis danergva ar aris yovelTvis
SesaZlebeli, magram yovelTvis sasurvelia. programuli biujetireba
moiTxovs informaciis did moculobas da axdens mis generirebas, rac
saWiroebs saimedo da farTo informatikul infrastruqturas.
programuli
biujetirebis
principebis
danergva
warmoadgens
saqarTvelos mTavrobis erTerT umTavres prioritets, vinaidan sabiujeto
dagegmvis tradiciuli modeli ar pasuxobs qveynis mimdinare moTxovnilebebs.
gasul periodSi gadaidga mniSvnelovani nabijebi saxelmwifo seqtoris
finansebis da biujetis marTvis gaZlierebis mimarTulebiT. 2004 wlidan
sabiujeto procesebis gasaumjobeseblad saqarTvelos mTavroba muSaobs
biujetis marTvis saerTaSoriso praqtikis da GFS 2001 klasifikaciis
gaTvaliswinebiT. sabiujeto sistemis gaZlierebisaTvis saqarTvelos finansTa
saministrom 2005 wlidan daiwyo MTEF-is (saSualo vadiani xarjebis CarCo)
principebis
danergva.
aRniSnuli
procesi
amkvidrebs
strategiuli
biujetirebis midgomas fiskalur politikaSi da qmnis process, romelmac
unda uzrunvelyos resursebis saxelmwifo prioritetebisken mimarTva da
unda Seqmnas stabiluri mravalwliani dafinansebis paketi saxelmwifo
programebisaTvis. strategiuli biujetirebis procesma sabiujeto procesSi
daamkvidra ZiriTadi monacemebisa da mimarTulebis dokumenti (BDD).
aRniSnuli dokumenti aerTianebs saxelmwifo prioritetebs da saxelmwifo
programebs da gansazRvravs 4 wlian finansirebis Werebs maTTvis. ZiriTadi
mimarTulebebisa da monacemebis dokumenti mniSvnelovnad daixvewa misi
SemoRebis Semdeg da dReisaTvis aerTianebs yvela mxarjavi dawesebulebis
programebs da prioritetebs. 2007 wlis sabiujeto xarjebis ganawileba moxda
funqciuri sferoebis mixedviT, ramac SesaZlebeli gaxada gansakuTrebuli
ekonomikuri mniSvnelobis xarjebis calke Cveneba. amiT dagegmvis procesi
gaxda ufro detaluri, gamWvirvale da mizanmimarTuli. 2008 wlis 1 ianvridan
saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujetis fuladi saxsrebis nawili srulad
Seesabameba GFS 2001 klasifikacias.
strategiuli biujetirebis procesis mxardasaWerad gatarebul iqna
mniSvnelovani sakanonmdeblo RonisZiebebi. 2009 wlis 25 dekembers miRebul
iqna sabiujeto kodeqsi, romelmac Secvala mTeli rigi arsebuli kanonebisa
da erT sakanonmdeblo dokumentSi gaaerTiana sabiujeto kanonmdebloba.
sabiujeto
kodeqsSi
gaTvaliswinebulia
saerTaSoriso
gamocdileba
108
strategiuli biujetirebis procesSi. sabiujeto sistemaSi moxda programuli
da kapitaluri biujetebis danergva. kodeqsis Tanaxmad, programuli biujeti
aris mxarjavi dawesebulebis mier dasaxuli prioritetebis misaRwevad
gansaxorcielebeli programebis, proeqtebis, RonisZiebebis da biujetebis
mosalodneli Sedegebisa da Sefasebis indikatorTa erToblioba, xolo
kapitaluri biujeti aris sainvesticio xasiaTis programuli biujeti.
saqarTvelos mTavrobis 2010 wlis 10 martis #284 gankargulebiT
damtkicda programuli biujetis danergvis gegma, romlis
Tanxmad,
saqarTvelos
saxelmwifo
biujetis
dafinansebaze
myofma
mxarjavma
dawesebulebebma unda moaxdinon etapobrivad programul biujetirebaze
gadasvla. aRniSnuli gankargulebiT damtkicebuli gegmiT gaTvaliswinebuli
RonisZiebebis zedamxedveloba da gegmis Sesrulebis saerTo koordinacia
daevala finansTa saministros.
2012 wlidan saxelmwifo biujeti srulad gadavida programul
dagegmarebaze, rac imas niSnavs, rom sabiujeto xarjebis gaweva unda moxdes
ara romelime saministros konkretuli xarjisaTvis, aramed konkretuli
programisTvis.
programuli biujetirebis erTerT mTavar Tvisebas warmoadgens
mxarjavi dawesebulebebisaTvis sabiujeto asignebebis aTvisebis procesSi
Tavisuflebis miniWeba xarjebis ekonomikuri klasifikaciis muxlebs Soris
Tanxebis gadanawilebis sakiTxSi. aqcenti am SemTxvevaSi keTdeba Sedegebze,
romelTa miRwevas apirebs dawesebuleba, da ara xarjebis muxlebis detalur
kontrolze da procesebze, romelTa meSveobiTac saministro asrulebs
dagegmil amocanebs. aRniSnuli midgoma gulisxmobs saministroebisaTvis da
iq momuSave menejerebisaTvis meti Tavisuflebis miniWebas miznebis misaRwevad
saWiro sawyisi resursebis SerCevis sakiTxSi. am pirobebSi aucilebelia
miRweuli SedegebisaTvis angariSvaldebulebis maRali xarisxi.
saqarTvelSi programuli biujetirebis danergvis process Tan axlavs
garkveuli xarvezebi da sirTuleebi, rac ar aris gasakviri, vinaidan es
procesi moiTxovs dros da masSi CarTuli yvela mxaris did Zalisxmevas.
magaliTad, safrangeTSi axali safinanso kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebasa da
miRebas dasWirda 10 weliwadi. Zalian mniSvnelovania am procesSi finansTa
saministros roli. man unda moaxdinos Sesabamisi saxelmZRvaneloebis,
instruqciebis SemuSaveba da treningebis Catareba. biujetis dagegmva iwyeba
mxarjav dawesebulebebSi da Sesabamisad,
saministroebsa da uwyebebSi
menejmentis Tanamedrove sistemis danergvis, organizaciuli struqturis
srulyofis, buRaltruli aRricxvis sistemis programuli biujetirebis
moTxovnebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanis, praqtikuli codnis, gamocdilebis da
meTodologiis daxvewisa da personalis kvalifikaciis amaRlebis gareSe
programuli biujetirebis danergva SeuZlebelia. arc finansTa saministro da
arc sxva romelime organizacia
ar marTvas regularul treningebs da
samuSao Sexvedrebs adgilebze, romlebzec mxarjavi dawesebulebebis
109
personals
da
ministrebis
pasuxismgebel
moadgileebs
auxsnian
da
Seaswavlian programuli biujetis Sedgenis meTodikas. mizanSewonilad
migvaCnia finansTa saministroSi Seiqmnas specialuli samsaxuri, romelic
gardamaval
periodSi
aRmouCens
mxarjav
dawesebulebebs
praqtikul
daxmarebas
programuli
biujetebis
Sedgenis
sakiTxSi
da
aseve
ganaxorcielebs arsebuli programebis Sesrulebis monitorings.
programul biujetirebaze gadasvlam xeli unda Seuwyos qveynis
safinanso sistemis srulyofas, biujetis fokusirebas socialur-ekonomikuri
ganviTarebis
miznebze,
arsebuli resurebis
optimalurad gamoyenebas
dasaxuli strategiuli miznebis misaRwevad, unda gaamartivos biujetis
struqtura, gazardos misi gamWvirvaloba da xelmisawvdomoba yvela
dainteresebuli pirisTvis. amasTan, programuli biujetirebis danergvisas
aucilebelia gaTvaliswinebul iqnas ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdileba
aRniSnul sakiTxSi, raTa maqsimalurad avicilod Tavidan mosalodneli
sirTuleebi.
Importance of program budgeting for improvement of State finance system
Shmagi Khidjakadze
Resume
State budget policy represents the main part of the country’s finance policy. Sustainability of
the state finance system mainly is defined by condition of the budget process, and by planning,
validation and implementation rules in expenditure part of the state budget, and also by controlling its
accomplishment.
We should consider budget practice improvement as an important tool for increasing State
finance effectiveness.
The strong tool for improving budget process and general public finance management quality is
establishment of program budgeting principles in the state finance management system, and its main
goal is to increase social and economical effectiveness of expenditures.
Comparing to the traditional ways, the program budgeting advantage includes fiscal stability
raising, perfection of department’s branch effectiveness, and tight connection between the state budget
and the strategic missions.
Transition to the program budgeting should assist in improvement of state finance system,
budget focusing on social-economical development aims, optimal use of available resources for
achievement of assigned strategic aims; it should simplify the budget structure, and increase its
transparency and availability for every concerned person.
M
110
makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi da ekonomikuri keTildReoba
irine goCaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis
biznesis administrirebis me-3 kursi
lali osaZe
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori
nebismieri qveynis ekonomikuri zrda-ganviTareba miiRweva warmoebisa da
kvlavwarmoebis
safuZvelze.
Tavis
mxriv,
ekonomikuri
ganviTarebis
gardauvali Sedegia mosaxleobis cxovrebis donis amaRleba. erTi romelime
ekonomikuri
maCvenebliT
mosaxleobis
cxovrebis
donis
gamoxatva
SeuZlebelia da amisaTvis gamoiyeneba socialur-ekonomikur maCvenebelTa
kompleqsi,
igi
asaxavs
sazogadoebis
ganviTarebis
mocemul
etapze
mosaxleobis erT sulze materialuri dovlaTisa da momsaxurebis moxmarebis
donesa da xarisxs.
nebismieri ekonomikuri sistemis dros, nebismier qveyanaSi ekonomikuri
zrdis saboloo Sedegebs gviCvenebs iseTi makroekonomikuri maCveneblebi,
rogoricaa:

mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep)

wminda erovnuli produqti (wep)

mTliani Sida produqti (mSp)

erovnuli Semosavali (eS)

wminda ekonomikuri keTildReoba (wek)

erovnuli simdidre (es)
mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep) gviCvenebs nebismieri qveynis
ekonomikis ganviTarebis saboloo Sedegebs drois garkveul monakveTSi
mTliani erovnuli produqti (mep) aris wlis ganmalobaSi ama Tu im
qveynis
SigniT
mTeli
warmoebuli
saqonlisa
da
momsaxurebis
da
sazRvargareT wasul fizikur da iuridiul pirTa Semosavlebis sabazro
Rirebulebis jami.
dReisaTvis cnobilia (mep)-is gamoTvlis sami meTodi.

warmoebis anu xarjebis mixedviT;

Semosavlebis anu ganawilebis mixedviT;

saboloo moxmarebis mixedviT
warmoebis anu xarjebis mixedviT gamoTvlili mTliani erovnuli
produqti aris wlis ganmalobaSi qveyanaSi warmoebuli mTeli saqonlisa da
111
momsaxurebis da sazRvargareT wasul fizikur da iuridiul pirTa
Semosavlebis sabazro Rirebulebis jams gamoklebuli Sualeduri moxmarebis
produqciis Rirebuleba. anu mep - Sualeduri moxmarebis produqciis
Rirebuleba
Semosavlebis anu ganawilebis mixedviT gazomili (mep) aris faqtoruli
Semosavlebis jami (muSakebis xelfasi, sargebeli firmis mogeba, renta
sazRvargareT warmoebuli wminda faqtoruli Semosavlebis jami)
saboloo moxmarebis mixedviT gamoTvlili (mep) aris im mTliani
saqonlisa da momsaxurebis sabazro Rirebulebis jami, romelsac iZenen
saojaxo meurneobebi, firmebi da mTavroba.
(mep)-is RirebulebiTi maCvenebeli damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor
icvleba fulis kursi da ganvmartoT. am momentis gamo aRniSnuli meTodebiT
gaangariSebuli (mep) ver asaxavs realur mdgomareobas, amitom realuri
mdgomareobis asaxvisaTvis mimarTvaen mep-is gamoTvlis2 meTods

nominaluri mep-i

realuri mep-i
nominaluri mep-i gaiangariSeba mimdinare sabazro fasebiT.
realuri
fasebiT.
mep-i
gaiangariSeba
sabaziso
wlis
Sesadari
(ucvleli)
mosaxleobis erT sulze gaangariSebuli mep-is raodenoba gviCvenebs
mosaxleobis keTildReobis dones, magram mTlad zustad ver gviCvenebs
qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa sazogadoebis keTildReobis dones Semdegi
garemoebebis gamo:

mepi-iT gaiangariSeba saboloo produqciis moculoba sabazro
fasebiT, romelic xSirad icvleba da amitom ver gamoxatavs
realur mdgomareobas

mep-Si araa gaTvaliswinebuli qveynis Semosavlebis doneTa
uTanabroba. im qveyanaSi, sadac mep-i qveynis moqalaqeebs Soris uTanabrod
aris
ganawilebuli,
am
maCveneblis
mixedviT
mTeli
mosaxleobis
keTildReobaze laparaki mTlad safuZvliani ar aris, radgan dabalia
socialuri viTareba mep-is uTanabro ganawilebis gamo.

saboloo produqtze fasebi swrfad icvleba. Tu aviRebT or
iseT qveyanas sadac mep-is moculoba erTnairia, davinaxavT rom im qveynebSi
sadac fasebi SedarebiT dabalia sazogadoebis keTildReobis done maRalia
da piriqiT

mep-is maCvenebels erTi erTi xarvezic aqvs – igi moicavs
ZiriTad kapitals, Senoba-nagebobebis aRsadgen amortizaciis anaricxebs, rac
112
xelovnurad zrdis mis moculobas
wminda erovnuli produqti
odenobis gamosaxatavad gamoiyeneba.
(wep)
saboloo
produqtis
realuri
wminda erovnuli produqti (wep) aris sxvaoba mTlian erovnul
produqtsa da saamortizacio anaricxebis sidides Soris. igi SeiZleba
gamoisaxos Semdegi formuliT:
wep = mep _ a (amortizaciis Tanxebi)
mTliani Sida produqti (mSp) aris qveynis teritoriis SigniT drois
garkveul periodSi mxolod am qveynis warmoebis faqtorebis gamoyenebiT
warmoebuli saqonlisa da momsaxurebis mTliani moculobis sabazro
Rirebulebis jami.
mSp gviCvenebs ojaxis mier miRebul mTlian Semosavals da ekonomikaSi
warmoebul saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze gaweuli xarjebis moculobas
mTlian Sida produqtSi, iseve rogorc mep-Si Sedis mxolod axali
warmoebis Sedegebi da masSi ar Sedis adre warmoebuli produqciisa da
momsaxurebis gayidvidan miRebuli Semosavlebi. mTlian Sida produqtSi ar
Sedis, agreTve, Sualeduri moxmarebis produqciis Rirebuleba.
mSp moicavs xarjebis oTx komponents:

moxmarebis xarjebi

sainvesticio xarjebi

saxelmwifo Sesyidvebze gaweuli xarjebi

wminda saeqsporto xarjebi
moxmarebis xarjebi Sedgeba saojaxo meurneobebis mier saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis SeZenaze gaweuli xarjebisagan
sainvesticio xarjebis gaweva saWiroa Senobebis, mowyobilobebis da
sxva sainvesticio saqonlis SeZenisaTvis
saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis xarjebi moicavs adgilobrivi Tu feodaluri
mTavrobis mier saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenis xarjebs
wminda saeqsporto xarjebi wrmoadgens ucxoelTa mier erovnul
saqonelsa da momsaxurebaze gaweul xarjebsa da am qveynis moqalaqeTa mier
ucxour saqonelsa da momsaxurebze gaweul xarjebs Soris sxvaobas
mSp-s moculoba gamoixateba mimdinare da mudmivi fasebiT, mSp-is
moculobas, gamoxatuls mimdinare fasebiT nominaluri mSp-i ewodeba, xolo
mudmivi fasebiT gamoxatuls realuri.
diagramis saSualebiT gamoxatulia saqarTveloSi mSp-s struqtura da
113
mSp-s ganviTarebis dinamika 2003-2011 wlebSi.
bolo
aTwleulSi
STambeWdavi
ekonomikuri
zrdis
miuxedavad,
saqarTveloSi kvlav progresis nakleboba igrZnoba, zogierT wamyvan sferoSi.
magaliTad, adamianuri ganviTarebis indeqsis mixedviT, saqarTvelo amJamad 75e adgilzea 187 qveyanas Soris (gaeros adamianuri ganviTarebis angariSebi,
2011).
amave dros, ,,cxovrebis xarisxis” msoflio kvlevis mixedviT, romelic
sxvadasxva
qalaqebis politikur, ekonomiur da socialur-kulturul
mdgomareobas iTvaliswinebs, Tbiliss yvelaze dabali reitingi hqonda
evropul qalaqebs Soris da 214-e adgilze iyo (www.mercer.ge).
erovnuli Semosavali aris erovnuli warmoebidan mirebuli yvela saxis
faqtiuri Semosavlis jami _ mogeba, sargebeli, renta, xelfasi.
wminda ekonomikuri keTildReoba aris erovnuli warmoebis iseTi zusti
maCvenebeli, romelic moicavs moxmarebisa da investiciebis zrdis amsaxvel
zogierT metad mniSvnelovan muxls.
(wek)-i SedarebiT axali maCvenebelia ekonomikur mecnierebaSi. aq
yuradReba eqceva cxovrebis xarisxobriv mdgomareobas, mas kompleqsuri
xasiaTi aqvs. adamianTa keTildReobis donis daxasiaTebisaTvis gamoiyeneba 37
114
maCvenebeli. esenia: pirovnuli Tavisufleba, kaloriebis moxmareba, bavSvTa
sikvdilianobis done, dasaqmebis done, energetikis moxmareba erT sul
mosaxleze, wyliT uzrunvelyofa da a.S.
msoflioSi (wek)-is maCvenebeli gaiangariSeba, rogorc mep-s damatebuli
fuladi formiT gamoxatuli arasabazro saqmianoba (Crdilovani ekonomika)
da Tavisufali dro. wek-s yvelaze zustad gviCvenebs Semdegi maCveneblebi:
mosaxleobis Semosavali erT sulze gaangariSebiT, sicocxlis saSualo
xangrZlivoba da ganaTlebis done.
erovnuli simdidre aris sazogadoebis ganviTarebis mTeli istoriis
manZilze Taobebis mier Seqmnili da dagrovili is materialuri da sulieri
dovlaTi da kvlavwarmoebis procesSi CarTuli bunebrivi resursebi,
romelsac flobs sazogadoeba mocemuli peroidisTvis. erovnuli simdidris
ZiriTadi struqturuli elementebia:qveynis ekonomikaSi arsebuli kapitali,
materialuri maragebi da rezervebi, sacxovrebeli fondebi,kulturuli da
socialuri
daniSnulebis
Senoba
nagebobebi,
xangrZlivi
gamoyenebis
sayofacxovrebo danisSulebis sagnebi, benebrivi resursebi (CarTuli
brunvaSi), mosaxleobis piradi qoneba, sazogadoebis mier dagrovili codna,
muSakTa sawarmoo gamocdileba.
rogorc aRvniSneT,Oqveynis
ekonomikuri ganviTareba mTliani Sida
produqtis (mSp) raodenobis mixedviT ganisazRvreba, Tumca, igi ekonomikuri
keTildReobis
specifikur
maCveneblad
aris
miCneuli,
radgan
is
mxedvelobaSi ar Rebulobs iseT mniSvnelovan aspeqtebs, rogoricaa
Tavisufali dro, garemos mdgomareoba, Tavisufleba an socialuri
samarTlianoba.
cxovrebis donis saerTaSoriso SedarebisaTvis xSirad erT sul
masaxleze mSp-s maCvenebels- msyidvelobiTi unaris paritets(ppp), iyeneben.
msyidvelobiTi unaris pariteti saSualebas iZleva, dadgindes, ramdeni fulia
saWiro erTi da imave odenobis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SesaZenad,
sxvadasxva qveyanaSi. Aamrigad, ppp yvelaze obieqturi sazomia sxvadsaxva
qveynis cxovrebis standartebSi gansxvavebis Sesadareblad, radgan es sazomi
iTvaliswinebs qveyanSi cxovrebis Rirebulebas da inflaciis maCvenebels da
ara gacvliT kurss, romelic SeiZleba ar iyos warmomadgenlobiTi sazomi
Semosavlebs
Soris
realuri
gansxvavebebis
Sesaswavlad.
2011
wlis
mdgomareobiT saqarTvelo, romlis erT sulze mSp-is maCvenebli (ppp) 5,459
saerTaSoriso dolars Seadgenda me- 11-e adgilze iyo 181 qveyanas Soris. Ees
maCvenebeli bevrad Camouvardeba msoflios saSualo mSp-s erT sulze (ppp),
rac amJamad 10,700 saerTaSoriso dolaris tolia. sxva sityvebiT Tu vityviT,
saqarTveloSi cxovrebis done msoflios saSualo standartze dabalia.
115
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.menqiu g. ekonomikis principebi, gamomcemloba“diogene”, Tb.2008w
2. saqarTvelos statistikuri ganviTarebis maCveneblebi-2011w, Tb.2012w
3. gaeros adamianuri ganviTarebis angariSebi, 2011, Tb.2012w
4. www.eprc.ge
5.www.geostat.ge
6.www.mercer.ge
Macro Economical Index and Economical Welfare
Irine Gochashvili
Resume
Above mentioned article is about the development of the country that is determinable
according the quantity of inner product, though it is considered as a special index of economical
welfare. For comparing of international living standard a one inhabitant, the capacity of buying parity
(p.p.p) is used.
saqarTvelos sagareo valis Tanamedrove mdgomareoba da
misi Sefaseba
qeTevan SanSiaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-4 kursis studenti
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 77 07 72
ioseb falelaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, ekonomikis doqtori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 599 70 40 26
qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReobis gazomvaSi sagareo vals erT-erTi
wamyvani adgili uWiravs. sagareo vali warmoadgens drois garkveuli
momentisTvis saxelmwifo seqtoris (mTavrobis, centraluri da adgilobrivi
samTavrobo organizaciebis agreTve, actonomiuri danyofebis, saxelmwifo
organizaciebis sawarmoebisa da sxva dawesebulebebis) mier gamoyenebul
magram daufarav savalo valdebulebaTa jams.
sagareo vali sajaro valis erTerTi Semadgeneli nawilia. igi
warmoiSveba maSin roca
mTavroba
imaze bevrs xarjavs vidre
gadasaxcadebidan iRebs. saqarTvelos xelisufleba gvevlineba rogorc
msesxeblis aseve kreditoris da garantis rolSi. misi saqmianoba
116
regulirdeba 1998 wlis 5 martis saqarTvelos kanoniT „saxelmwifo valis
Sesaxeb.“
sakredito urTierTobebi viTardeba aramarto qveynis SigniT aramed
qveynis gareTac anu saxelmwifoTa SoriTac. saerTaSoriso krediti
saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sferoSi sasesxo kapitalis
moZraobis formaa.
saqarTvelos sagarareo valebi moicavs rogorc xelisuflebis mier
aRebul kredits aseve misi garantiT aRebul kreditsac. Tavis mxriv,
xelisuflebis mier Rebuli krediti ori nawilisagan Sedgeba: 1. mravalmxrivi
krediti; 2. ormxrivi krediti. mravalmxrivi kreditis kreditorebi arian:
saerTaSoriso sakredito- safinanso organizaciebi, xolo ormxrivi kreditis
- sxvadasxva qveynebis mTavrobebi da iuridiuli pirebi.
dReisaTvis saqarTvelos 17 kreditori hyavs, romelTa mimarTac qveynis
davalianeba sxvadasxvaa. es qveynebia: avstria, azerbaijani, TurqmeneTi, irani,
ruseTi, uzbekeTi, somxeTi, ukraina, yazaxeTi, CineTi, niderandebi, germania,
iaponia, quveiTi, aSS, safrangeTi, TurqeTi.
saxelmwifo biujetis dasafinanseblad saxsrebis moZieba saerTaSoriso
bazrebzec
SeuZlia.
dafinansebis
metad
gavrcelebul
saSualebebs
warmoadgenen msoflio banki da saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi. aseve evro
gaerTianeba, soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso fondi, evropis
rekonstruqcisa da ganviTarebis banki, azis ganviTarebis banki, msoflio
banki-ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso asociacia, msoflio banki-rekonstruqcisa
da ganviTarebis saerTaSoriso asociacia, evropis sainvesticio banki,
saxelmwifo sagareo vali xan zrdis tendeciT xasiaTdeboda xanac
klebiT raTqmaunda sxvadasxva wlebSi. 2003 wlidan saxelmwifo vali
koeficientebi mniSvnelovnad Semcirda, Semdgom
wlebSi amas mohyva
koeficientebis droebiTi zrda 2008-2010 wlebSi globaluri finansuri
ekonomikuri krizisis fonze, romelmac uaryofiTaT imoqmeda ekonomikuri
zrdis tempebze, aramarto saqarTveloSi aseve 2008 wlis agvistos ommac
imoqmeda saqarTvelos ekonomikaze, romelmac
qveyana ukan daswia
ekonomikuri siZlieris TvalsazrisiT. valis koeficietebis klebis tendecia
gagrZelda 2011 wlidan saqarTveloSi ganaxlebuli swrfi ekonomikuri zrdis
pirobebSi saxelmwifo valis gonivruli marTvidan gamomdinare, romlis
mizania saxelmwifo valis SenarCuneba saTanado limitis farglebSi.
saxelmwifo kreditis marTvis qveS igulisxmeba saxelmwifos saqmianoba,
romelic dakavSirebulia sasesxo kapitalis bazarze axali sesxebisaTvis
koniuqturis Seswavlasa da am sesxebis pirobebis damuSavebasTan. igi mocavs
agreTve sesxebis konversiisa da konsolidacis, maTi formebisa da sesxebis
saxebis gansazRvris, sargeblis procentisa da obligacis kursis dadgenis,
axlad gamoSvebuli fasiani qaRaldebis kreditorebs Soris ganTavsebis,
momsaxurebis xarjebis, daricxva anazRaurebis Taobaze dokumentacis
momzadebis, vadadamdgari sesxebis dafarvis wyaroebis gansazRvris da mraval
sxva sakiTxs.
saxelmwifo
valis
SefasebisaTvis
gamoiyeneba:
qveynis
gadaxdisunarianobis da likvidurobis maCvenebeli. gadaxdis unarianobaSi
117
igulisxmeba debiTori qveynis unari da SesaZlebloba aRebuli sesxebis
maRalefeqtiani gamioyenebis gziT ekonomikis zrdis maRali da stabiluri
tempis uzrunvelyofa, razec uSualod damokidebulia saxelmwifo valis
drouli gadaxda. rac Sexeba likvidurobas aq igulisxmeba gansazRvruli
periodis Semdeg qveyanaSi sakmarisi fuladi saxsrebis arseboba, raTa man
droulad dafaros mimdinare savalo valdebulebebi. misi Sefaseba xdeba
saxelmwifo valis mimdinare gadasaxdelebis sididesa da qveuanaSi
likviduri saxsrebis (saeqsporto Semosavlis, oqrosa da ucxouri valutis
rezervebis da sxva) arsebul moclobas Soris SefardebiT.
2013 wlidan saqarTvelos mTavroba didi fiskaluri gamowvevis winaSe
dgas. 2013 wels iwyeba sagareo valebis momsaxurebis gadaxda, rac moiTxovs
biujetSi Sesabamisi Tanxebis arsebobas. finansTa saministros monacemebiT
2012 wlis 31 oqtombris mdgomareobiT qveynis sagareo vali 4.373.121 000 aSS
dolari iyo. mTliani sagareo validan 3.948.848 000 aSS dolaria mTavrobis
sagareo vali, xolo 424.273 000 aSs dolari ki saqarTvelos erovnuli bankis.
erovnuli bankis mTliani vali saerTaSoriso savaluto fondze modis. garda
amisa, 2013 wels saqarTvelos saxelmwifos rogorc Sida ise sagareo
valdebulebebi 818 mln lariT gaizrdeba. amis Sesaxeb qveynis 2013 wlis
saxelmwifo biujetis Sesaxeb kanon-proeqtis ganmartebiT baraTSia naTqvami.
misi mixedviT 2013 wlisaTvis valdebulebebis cvlileba 281.7 mln lars
Seadgens, maT Soris valdebulebebis zrda- 818 mln lars. maTgan sagareo
wyaroebidan miRebuli kreditebi 718.0 mln lariT aris gansazRvruli,
saidanac 650 mln lari sainvesticio proeqtebis dasafinanseblad miRebuli
grZelvadiani SeRavaTiani kreditebia 68 mln lari ki - msoflio bankis
sabiujeto daxmareba. rac Seexeba valdebulebebis klebas igi 536.3 mln
lariT aris gansazRvruli, saidanac 473 mln lari sagareo valis dafarvaze
miemarTeba, xolo 63.3 mln saSinao valdebulebebis Sesrulebaze. mouxedavad
imisa, rom saxelmwifo sagareo valis mdgradoba saqarTvelos suverenuli
sakredito reitingis Zlieri mxarea, rac aRiarebulia saqarTvelosTan
momuSave sareitingo saagentoebis standard a p&rs-is, fitch-is da moody’s-is mier.
eqspertTa SefasebiT, mdgomareoba mainc sayuradReboa da xelisuflebam Tu
Sesabamisi RonisZiebebi saswrafod ar gaatara, SeiZleba evropis bevri qveynis
msgavsad saqarTveloc savalalo mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndes.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
malxaz Ciqobava, nazira kakulia - ,,makroekonomika~, Tb. 2009 w.
2.
a. jibuti – ,,sajaro finansebi~, Tb. 2009 w.
3.
samecniero – analitikuri Jurnali - ,,saqarTvelos ekonomika~
#-11 (176) 2012 w. gv. 5-7.
4.
mof.ge
118
Modern Condition of Georgia‟s External Debt and its evaluation
Ketevan Shanshiashvili
Resume
One of our country - a long-term priority of a market economy based on sustainable rates of
economic growth reach a significant role in the regulation falls within the national debt.
State the functions of the executed process often finds himself in a situation when their
financial resources are not sufficient to set goals and assignments. Under these conditions the use of
domestic and foreign loans to cover the budget deficit, which in turn leads to binding debt tsarmobas.
The rapid growth of the national debt has become a major problem in the modern market economy.
Hence, the present conditions of study and assessment of external debt, our country is an
important issue.
The plan was produced by the author of the accounting and paktorbrivi data allows the correct
conclusions, which are properly fulfilled its author.
antimonopoliuri regulirebis fenomeni da Taviseburebebi
oTar vardiaSvili
Tbilisis saswavlo universitetis bakalavri
[email protected]
solomon pavliaSvili
ekonomikur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
sabazro urTierTobaTa sistemis regulireba, romlis formirebac xdeba
dReisaTvis
Cvens
qveyanaSi,
xorcieldeba
rogorc
stiqiurad,
ise
mizanSewonilad. stiqiuri regulireba (anu TviTregulireba) efuZneba
obieqtur kanonebs, pirvel rigSi ki moTxovna-miwodebis kanons, aRiarebulia,
rom sazogadoebis socialur-ekonomikuri interesebis TvalsazrisiT am
kanonebis zemoqmedebas yovelTvis ar moyveba sasurveli dadebiTi efeqti.
amitom, sabazro stiqiis negatiur gamovlinebaTa Semcirebis mizniT,
aucilebelia
TviTregulirebis
koreqtireba
da
misi
mizanmimarTuli
zemoqmedebis zomebiT Sevseba. aseTi zegavlena xorcieldeba ekonomikis
saxelmwifoebrivi regulirebis daxmarebiT, romlis erT-erT mniSvnelovan
saxes warmoadgens samarTlebrivi antimonopoliuri regulireba. Mmisi
umTavresi daniSnulebaa konkurenciis stimulireba, ekonomikuri procesebis
monawileTa
mxridan
konkurentuli
brZolis
meqanizmis
xelmyofi
samarTalsawinaaRmdego saqmianobis Tavidan acileba da aRkveTa. Mmizezs,
romelic ganapirobebs saxelmwifos mxridan antimonopoliuri regulirebis
zomebis realizebas, warmoadgens sabazro urTierTobaTa konkurenciuli
safuZvlebis mxardaWeris aucileblobisadmi sajaro interesi.
119
qveyanaSi
srulyofili
sabazro
ekonomikis
Camosayalibeblad
aucilebelia konkurenciis dacva, xelSewyoba da ganviTareba. swored amitom,
msoflios
ganviTarebul
saxelmwifoTa
erT-erT
upirveles
amocanas
warmoadgenda da dResac warmoadgens samarTlebrivi regulirebis iseTi
meqanizmebis SemuSaveba, romlebic uzrunvelyofen Sesabamis sasaqonlo
bazrebze
dominirebuli
mdgomareobis
borotad
gamoyenebis
faqtebis
gamovlenasa da aRkveTas da keTilsindisieri konkurenciis xelSewyobas.
saxelmwifos mxridan konkurenciis mxardaWera obieqturad qmnis
monopoliis
ganviTarebis
winapirobebs.
Aamgvari
paradoqsaluri
urTierTkavSiri SemCneulia jer kidev ekonomikuri Teoriis klasikosebis
mier,
romlebic
amtkicebdnen,
rom
monopoliis
niSnebiT
trestebis
umravlesoba
iqmneboda
damoukidebel
sawarmoTa
SeerTebis
gziT.
A
aucilebelia, rom saxelmwifom aramarto xeli Seuwyos keTilsindisier
konkurencias, aramed aRkveTos iseTi ekonomikuri saqmianoba, romelic
mimarTulia monopolizirebisa da arakeTilsindisieri konkurenciisaken.
monopoliebi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobisa da adamianTa saqmianobis
sxvadasxva sferoSi jer kidev antikur epoqaSi arsebobda, magram is Sinaarsi,
,,ekonomikuri aRnagoba‟‟ da funqcionirebis xasiaTi, romelic amJamad aqvT, am
gaerTianebebma mxolod XX saukuneSi SeiZines.
cnobilia
bazris
struqturis
Semdegi
tipebi:
srulyofili
konkurenciis, monopolisturi konkurenciis, oligopoliuri da monopoliuri
bazari.
sameurneo erTeulTa horizontaluri integrirebis anu dargobrivi
monopoliebis ZiriTadi organizaciuli formebia: karteli, sindikati, tresti,
koncerni.
monopoliis
dros
fasi,
rogorc
wesi,
ufro
maRalia
vidre
konkurenciis dros (monopoliuri fasi zRvrul fasze maRalia), xolo
produqciis
warmoeba
naklebia.
Mmagram
monopolists
ar
SeuZlia
ganusazRvrelad gazardos fasi, mas moTxovnis elastiuroba zRudavs.
monopoliebis warmoSobas mravali yveyana ewinaaRmdegeba.
amJamad monopolia arakanonierad iTvleba, Tumca zogierT monopolias
kanoni arsebobis nebas rTavs, maT bunebrivi monopoliebi ewodeba. bunebrivs
miekuTvneba sazogdoebrivi sargeblobis sawarmoebi.
arasrulyofili
konkurencia
bazris
iseTi
struqturaa,
sadac
gamyidvelebs fasebis dawesebis ufro meti Tavisufleba aqvT, vidre
srulyofili konkurenciis dros. Tumca, amasTan erTad, maT ufro naklebi
Tavisufleba aqvT, vidre wminda monopoliis dros. Aam Tavisuflebis
winapirobaa is, rom saqoneli iyideba monopolisturi konkurenciis an
oligopoliis pirobebSi.
monopoliebis ekonomikuri potencialisa da gavlenis zrdis kvalobaze
120
sul ufro Zlierdeba maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli negatiuri procesebi.
Sesabamisad,
Zlierdeba
sazogadoebis
interesebisadmi
monopoliebis
dapirispireba da ekonomikur progresze maTi uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba. Aamitom,
saxelmwifo iZulebuli xdeba Caerios sameurneo cxovrebaSi. igi sxvadasxva
RonisZiebebs
axorcielebs
srulyofili
konkurenciisaTvis
(misi
maxasiaTeblebisaTvis) mxardaWeris da monopoliebis Zalmomreobisagan misi
dacvis mizniT. Aam RonisZiebaTa erTobliobaSi vlindeba saxelmwifos
maregulirebeli funqcia, romelic Sesabamisi instanciis mier SemuSavebul
da damtkicebul kanonebs emyareba. maT Soris gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba
eniWeba e.w. antimonopolias da antitrestul kanonebs, normatiul aqtebs da
sxva samarTlebriv dokumentebs.
monopoliebis funqcionirebas negatiurTan erTad pozotiuri aspeqtebic
aqvs, maT Soris, samecniero-kvleviTi muSaobis masStaburi programebis
dafinanseba, mowinave teqnikisa da progresuli teqnologiis farTo danergva,
Sromis mecnieruli organizaciisa da sxva siaxleTa gamoyenebis safuZvelze
warmoebis
efeqtianobis
zrda
da
a.S.
amitom,
antimonopoliuri
kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebisas saxelmwifo emyareba am sapirispiro aspeqtebisa
da Sesabamisi Sedegebis Tanafardobas. Tu monopoliebis mier srulyofili
konkurenciisaTvis
miyenebuli
ziani
aRemateba
antimonopoliuri
kanondeblobis
Sesabamisad maTi funqcionirebis
SezRudviT gamowveul
zians, maSin aseTi kanonmdebloba da saxelwifos antimonopoliuri politika
efeqtiani da ekonomikurad gamarTlebulia, xolo Tu piriqiT xdeba, maSin
mizanSewonilia
antimonopoliuri
kanonmdeblobisa
da
saxelmwifos
Sesabamisi politikis gadasinjva.
optimaluri
antimonopoliuri
regulireba,
rogorc
ekonomikuri
politikis sabazo komponenti, Tavisi arsiT, moiTxovs Zalian faqizi
balansis dacvas regulirebis tvirTsa da sazogadoebriv interesebs Soris.
ucilebelia ucxouri praqtikis Seswavla da Tavisufali konkurenciis
rolis
Sefaseba
ekonomikuri
politikis
warmatebaSi,
agreTve
im
indikatorebis gamovlena, romlebic adekvaturad asaxaven warmatebis xarisxs
2(60).
antimonopoliuri kanonmdebloba ver iqneba momxmarebelTa uflebebis
dacvis
universaluri
instrumenti,
magram,
igi
Seavsebs
dargobriv
regulaciebs swored arasabazro konkurenciis meTodebis negatiuri gavlenis
dasaZlevad. Uufro metic, samomxmareblo uflebebis dacvis Tanamedrove
koncefciebi ar Semoifargleba mxolod ,,paternalisturi‟‟ midgomiT, romlis
farglebSi, momxmarebeli ganixileba rogorc susti subieqti, romelsac
sistematuri mxardaWera sWirdeba misi interesebis dasacavad.
bevria argumenti, Tu ratom aris xSir SemTxvevaSi regulireba
aucilebeli
mdgradi
ganviTarebis
miznebis
misaRwevad,
Tumca,
am
argumentebis miRma kvlavac aqtualuri rCeba kanonzomiereba _ rac ufro
aqtiuria saxelmwifos maregulirebeli Careva ekonomikaSi, miT ufro didia
Secdomis albaToba da ufro savalalo am Secdomis Sedegebi. Aaraefeqtianma
121
regulirebam an mikerZoebulma gadawyvetilebam SeiZleba imaze meti negatiuri
efeqti gamoiwvios, vidre absoluturma deregulaciam. amitom, Tamamad
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tavisufali konkurenciis xelSewyobis sferoSi yvelaze
warmatebuli mxolod minimaluri aucilebeli Carevis strategia SeiZleba
iyos 2(65). Mmagram, iq, sadac Careva aucilebelia, dauSvebelia arasruli an
Sualeduri politikis gatareba. piriqiT, mxolod gaazrebuli, srulfasovani
da Tanmimdevruli politika SeiZleba iyos warmatebuli.
arasabazro konkurenciis praqtika 4 jgufad SeiZleba daiyos:

horizontaluri garigeba _ rodesac bazris ramdenime moTamaSe,
romelic msgavs produqts awvdis momxmarebels, Tanxmdeba fasis an
produqciis arasabazro moculobis dadgenaze;

vertikaluri garigeba _ rodesac miwodebis jaWvis sxvadasxva
doneze myofi subieqtebi Tanxmdebian produqciis an momsaxurebis SeZenis da
realizaciis arasabazro pirobebze;

sabazro
Zalauflebis
arakeTilsindisieri,
monopoliuri
gamoyeneba _ rodesac gansakuTrebuli sabazro Zalauflebis an bunebrivi
monopoliis mflobeli awesebs arasabazro fass;

arasabazro gaerTianeba da STanTqma _ rodesac kompaniebi
erTiandebian,
an
STanTqaven
konkurents
gansakuTrebuli
sabazro
Zalauflebis an monopoliis mopovebis mizniT.
antimonopoliuri regulirebis Tanamedrove praqtikaSi, erT-erTi
ganxilvis sagania karteluri SeTanxmebis monawileTa winaaRmdeg adekvaturi
sanqciebis gansazRvra. naTelia, rom Tu amgvari sanqcia srulad ar
Seesabameba
ekonomikisaTvis
miyenebuli
zaralis
odenobas,
maSin
antimonopoliuri regulirebis Rirebuleba sagrZnoblad mcirdeba, radgan
kvlav
rCeba
ekonomikuri
sargeblianobis
faqtori.
Mmeore
mxriv,
maregulirebeli valdebulia gaiTvaliswinos monopoliis arapirdapiri
negatiuri efeqtis Rirebulebac. zogierT SemTxvevaSi, antimonopoliuri
organos amocana SeiZleba iyos ara marto karteluri garigebebis monawileTa
dajarimeba, aramed dazaralebul momxmarebelTa xelSewyoba individualuri
davebis sawarmoeblad.
rogorc wesi, karteluri garigebebi oligopoliur sabazro sistemas
axasiaTebs,
sadac,
xSir
SemTxvevaSi,
xelisuflebasTan
afilirebuli
ramdenime kompania axerxebs saerTo enis gamonaxvas arasabazro fasebis
dadgenis mizniT.
nebismier SemTxvevaSi, miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra konkretul gamovlinebas
poulobs arasabazro meTodebis gamoyeneba, Sedegad vRebulobT gazrdil
,,tvirTs‟‟ sazogadoebasa da, zogadad ekonomikaze.
2003 wlidan saqarTveloSi antimonopoliuri samsaxuris saqmianoba
Seferxda da SemdgomSi gauqmda. 2004 wlamde saqarTvelo sabazro ekonomikis
regulirebis iseT institucionalur bazas ayalibebda, romlis msgavsic
evropaSi an amerikaSi iyo. saqarTvelos nakisri aqvs valdebulebebi, sakuTari
122
kanonmdeblobis evrokavSiris kanonmdeblobasTan harmonizaciis Sesaxeb,
amdenad evropuli modelidan gadaxveva, qveynis miswrafebas, sakuTari
Rirseuli adgili daikavos evropul ojaxSi, seriozuli safrTxis winaSe
aynebs.Aantimonopoliuri
samsaxuris
gauqmebis
miznad
bazarze
konkurenciisaTvis xelSewyoba dasaxelda. Aargumenti ki is iyo, rom
monopolia investorisaTvis signalia, rom dargi momgebiania da isini
(investorebi) swored amgvar dargebSi ganaTavseben investiciebs.
dRes realurad aravin kamaTobs imaze, rom bazari resursebis
ganawilebis saukeTeso saSualebaa da rac ufro metad ereva saxelmwifo
bazris funqcionirebaSi, miT ufro cudad anawilebs bazari resursebs da
resursebis nawili korufciul garigebebs xmardeba. Aamave dros, bazris
funqcionirebas axasiaTebs e.w. ,,vardnebi‟‟ da bazari resursebs xSir
SemTxvevaSi efeqtianad da, ufro xSirad ki, samarTlianad ver anawilebs,
amitom saxelwifos mxridan Careva gardauvalia.
Aam
yvelafris
miuxedavad,
saqarTvelos
parlamentma
gaauqma
saqarTvelos antimonopoliuri kanonmdebloba da mis nacvlad miiRo kanoni
,,Tavisufali vaWrobisa da konkurenciis Sesaxeb‟‟.
Uunda aRiniSnos, rom sabazro Zalauflebis mqone subieqtTa arseboba
gamonaklisi sulac ar aris da aseT sawarmoebs, realurad, ekonomikis bevr
sferoSi SevxvdebiT. saqarTvelos bazari ki imdenad pataraa, rom romelime
ucxouri gigantis dainteresebis Sansi mcirea, patara sawarmo ki,
konkurencias ver gauwevs ukve Camoyalibebul Zlier kompaniebs. Sedegi
sabazo Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba da momxmarebelTa uflebebis
darRvevaa.
G
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
gogiaSvili S., fetelava s., konkurencia da antimonopoliuri
regulireba, Tb., 2007.
2.
Eekonomikuri problemebis kvlevebis centri, Centre for Economic
Problems Research, 2012.
3.
xaduri
n.,
saqarTvelos
ekonomikis
deregulirebis
makroekonomikuri aspeqtebi, Jurn. ,,ekonomisti‟‟ #1, 2009.
Phenomenon and peculiarities of antimonopolic regularities
Otar Vardiashvili
Resume
Holding the competition within the civilized framework is the main priority of the state and the
antimonopolic organs. Antimonopolic service is obliged to prevent the occurrence of antisocial
monopolism and to count out dishonest methods of competition.
The dominant state of economic agent in Georgia’s judicatory system and the existence of
market power are not aganst the law. What is aganst the law is the monopolic activity, i.e. if the
economic agent takes advantage of his market power in order not to admit or to restrict competition.
123
mcire biznesis arsi da mniSvneloba Tanamedrove sabazro sistemaSi
M
nino berozaSvili, mariam gagloSvili
sajaro mmarTvelobis I kursis studentebi
Mmedea pavliaSvili
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, asocirebuli profesori
Email: [email protected], Tel: 595 771 55
jer kidev uZvelesi droidan adamianebis marTvაs miiCnevdnen yvelaze
rTul da amaRlebul xelovnebad. marTlac dReisaTvis mewarmisa da
biznesmenis profesia metad rTuli saqmea.
am
profesias
uwodeben
kompleqsurs, imitom rom is adamianisagan moiTxovs mravali da gansxvavebuli
siaxleebis SemuSavebisa da winaswarxedvis unaris flobas. warmatebuli
biznesis Seqmnis ambiciis mqone adamianma unda icodes TiTqmis yvelaferi _
dawyebuli marketingisa da menejmentis saidumloebebidan _ finansuri
mecnierebis niuansebamde, Tanamedrove warmoebis organizaciis meTodebidan adamianis fsiqologiis saidumloebebamde. adamianTa yoveldRiur yofaSi
damkvidrda
sityva
`biznesi~,
romelsac
aqvs
mravali
saintereso
etimologiuri
ganmarteba.
`biznesis~ısamSoblod aRiarebulia amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi.
dReisaTvis am terminma mTeli msoflio moicva da uamravi monaTesave
terminTa mniSvneloba SeiTavsa; is aris profesia, saqme, mewarmeoba, garigeba,
saqmiani wreebi, saqmiani cxovreba, ubralod Semosavlis wyaro da a.S.
amdenadĐ`biznesi~
niSnavs
saqmianobas,
romelic efuZneba mravalmxriv
urTierTobebs da iZleva mogebas, Semosavals. es aris adamianis potencialis
realizacia ekonomikur aspeqtSi.Bbiznesmenis saqmianobis ZiriTadi motivia
mogebis miReba, romelic gviCvenebs biznesmenis saqmianobis efeqtianobas.
Aarsebobs sxvadasxva mosazrebebi, romlis Tanaxmad:
_ biznesi _ es aris saqmis gaZRolis sistema da adamianebisaTvis
saWiro produqciisa da momsaxurebis warmoeba. biznesi - sxva araferia, Tu
ara samrewvelo, sasoflo-sameurneo, vaWrobis, sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis,
sabanko, iuridiuli konsultaciis, samecniero kvleviT da sacdelsakonstruqturo dawesebulebis, sagamomcemlo, saswavlo-saaRmzrdelo da
sxva saxis sawarmos Tu dawesebulebis Seqmna. `biznesi aris saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis warmoeba (ganawileba, gacvla, moxmareba) mogebis miRebis
mizniT~. (oTinaSvili 2010:133). biznesi warmoebis organizaciis, marTvisa da
analizis axali safexuria, warmoebis organizaciis uaxlesi stadiaa,
romelic dakavSirebulia kerZo sakuTrebis arsebobasTan, xorcieldeba
konkurenciis pirobebSi da dakavSirebulia riskTan~. (erqomaiSvili 2007: 14).
`biznesi aris sameurneo saqmianoba, romlis Sedegad dovlaTi an misi
nawili iwarmoeba ara sakuTari moxmarebisaTvis, aramed gasacvlelad da am
gziT raime sargeblis miRebisaTvis. ufro mokled, biznesi farTo gagebiT
aris saqonelwarmoeba~. (samadaSvili 2009: 19). `biznesi aris damoukidebeli,
sakuTari riskiT ganxorcielebuli saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia mogebis
sistematiur miRebaze qonebis gamoyenebis, saqonlis gayidvis, samuSaos
Sesrulebis an momsaxurebis gawevis gziT im pirebis mier, romlebic
124
daregistrirebulni arian dadgenili wesis Tanaxmad.”(mesxia 2011:21).
Cven migvaCnia, rom biznesi aris winaswar gaazrebuli saqmianoba,
urTierTobaTa erToblioba, romelsac moaqvs individis materialuri da
sulieriı moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaTvis garkveuli Semosavali, is
amavdroulad
sazogadoebrivi
sargeblianobis
Tvisebis
matarebelicaa,
radganac
yoveli
ıindividis
kanonieri
interesebis
dakmayofileba
aucileblad iTvaliswinebs sazogadoebis interesebsac.
`biznesi~ da `ekonomika~ urTierT dakavSirebuli cnebebia. ,,ekonomika~
ufro farTo cnebaa, vidre ”biznesi”, is moicavs mikro, makro, mezo da
megaekonomikur doneebs.. `biznesi~ aris ekonomikur urTierTobaTa ufro
konkretuli forma, romelic viTardeba gansazRvrul subieqtebs Soris,
individualuri da jgufuri konkurenciis safuZvelze. `ekonomikisaTvis~ ara
aqvs mniSvneloba konkurentul urTierTobaSi myofi subieqtebis xasiaTs. igi
yuradRebas afiqsirebs am urTierTobaTa mxolod arsebobaze, SemoisazRvreba
miTiTebebiT konkurenciis aucileblobaze. “biznesisaTvis” ki mniSvnelovania
konkurenciaSi gasamarjveblad konkretuli brZolis meTodebis gamoyeneba.
“ekonomika”
mxolod
afiqsirebs
samarTlebrivi
normebis
arsebobas,
“biznesisaTvis” isini warmoadgenen moqmedebis ZiriTad faqtors.
bizness gaaCnia strategia da taqtika. biznesis strategia mdgomareobs
mogebis maqsimizaciaSi, misi eTikuri da samarTlebrivi normebis dacvis gziT.
taqtikuri mizania strategiuli mimarTulebis realizacia konkretuli
xerxebis da meTodebis gamoyenebiT.
biznesSi yvelaze mniSvnelovan komponentebs Seadgenen misi subieqtebi,
romlebSic, iuridiuli TvalsazrisiT, igulisxmebian biznesis uflebebisa da
movaleobebis matareblebi:
_ mewarmeebi, anu is pirebi, romlebic axorcieleben iniciativianinovaciur saqmianobas, TavianTi riskiT, iuridiuli da ekonomikuri
pasuxismgeblobiT;
_ samewarmeo asociaciebi da mewarmeobrivi koleqtivebi; produqciisa da
momsaxurebis individualuri da koleqtiuri momxmareblebi, momxmarebelTa
kavSirebi da asociaciebi; saxelmwifos is struqturebi, romlebic biznesis
procesSi SemkveTis rolSi gamodian. (Sengelia 2008:32)
unda aRiniSnos, rom terminebi “biznesi” da “mewarmeoba” Sinaarsobrivad
erTmaneTTan axlos dganan. AamasTan, cneba “biznesi” gacilebiT ufro
farToa, vidre “mewarmeoba”. biznesis amosavali wertilia mewarmeoba.
dReisaTvis Zalzed rTulia da TiTqmis arc arsebobs mewarmeobis
aRiarebuli gansazRvreba. Sumpeteris azriT `iyo mewarme niSnavs akeTo is,
rasac sxvebi akeTeben da ara ise, rogorc sxvebi akeTeben, aramed, mewarme
aris Semoqmedi, mngreveli, romelic amsxvrevs Zvel wesebs, magram
amavdroulad qmnis axals.~ (Sumpeteri 2007: 48)
Tanamedrove menejmentis mamis p. drukeris azriT mewarmeoba araa arc
mecniereba da arc xelovneba. esaa konkretuli saqmianoba, romlis mizania
mogebasTan erTad siaxleebis danergva, misi moRvaweobis yvela sferoSi.
(drukeri 1992:36). Mman gamijna erTmaneTisagan cnebebi mewarmeoba da biznesi.
Tu pirvels man miakuTvna SemoqmedebiTi, siaxleebis matarebeli saqmianoba,
125
meores miakuTvna Sablonuri rutinuli saqmianoba.
ekonomikur literaturaSi ganixileba biznesis sami ZiriTadi zoma:
mcire, saSualo da msxvili, Tumca msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciam
Seqmna biznesis sruliad axali forma, saerTaSoriso, anu globaluri
biznesi. amdenad, dRes sabazro ekonomikis qveynebSi biznesi funqcionirebs
mcire, saSualo, msxvili da globaluri biznesis formiT. biznesis Aam
formebs
Seesabameba
mcire,
saSualo,
msxvili
sawarmoebi
da
transnacionaluri korporaciebi. (abesaZe . . .2008: 9)
biznesis mocemul formaTagan mcire biznesi Tavisi moculobiT
ekonomikis
erT-erT
umsxviles
seqtors
warmoadgens.
Đigi
rogorc
biznessistemis, aseve mTeli ekonomikuri sistemis formirebis, ganviTarebisa
da stabilurobis erT-erTi pirvelwyaroa. nebismieri qveynis aRorZineba
SeuZlebelia ekonomikis mocemuli seqtoris Sesabamisi ganviTarebis gareSe,
radganac mcire mewarmeoba warmoadgens im mZlavr segments, romelic
SemdgomSi iwvevs qveynis ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebas. mcire
biznesis ganviTareba pasuxobs moqnili Sereuli ekonomikis formirebis
zogadmsoflio tendenciebs, sakuTrebis sxvadasxva formebisa da maTi
adekvaturi meurneobis modelebis SeTanawyobas, romlebSic realizdeba
konkurenciuli sabazro meqanizmisa da msxvili, saSualo da mcire
sawarmoebis saxelmwifo regulirebis rTuli sinTezi.
mcire biznesi, rogorc termini, warmodgeba ara iqidan, rom mcire
biznesi erTobliobaSi produqciis mcire raodenobas qmnis, aramed iqidan,
rom mis organizaciul formas warmoadgens mcire sawarmo. ganviTarebuli
qveynebis monacemebi mowmobs, rom mcire biznesSi iwarmoeba am qveynebis mSp-is
naxevarze meti. sakmarisia aRiniSnos, rom amJamad aSS-sa da germaniaSi mcire
biznesis sferoSi iqmneba mTliani Sida produqtis 50-52%, iaponiaSi – 52-55%,
safrangeTSi – 55-62%, did britaneTSi – 50-53%, italiaSi_ 57-60%,
evrokavSiris qveynebSi – 63-67%; mcire da saSualo sawarmoebze modis
mrewvelobis gayidvaTa saerTo moculobis 50%, momsaxurebis sferoSi 67%,
mSeneblobasa da vaWrobaSi – 90%. Aaranakleb sayuradReboa, rom mcire
biznesis sferoSi dasaqmebulia mosaxleobis sagrZnobi nawili. kerZod
germaniaSi mcire sawarmoebSi muSaobs samuSao Zalis 46%, did britaneTSi –
49%, safrangeTsa da aSS-Si -54%, italiaSi– 73%, iaponiaSi – 78,8%. (SurRaia
2010:141).
pirveli werilobiTi wyaro mcire biznesis Sesaxeb gaCnda 4000 wlis win.
es iyo imis aRwera, Tu rogor iZleodnen bankirebi sesxs procentiT. am
droidan moyolebuli mewarmeebma uTvalavi dro daxarjes, raTa TavianTi
produqcia da momsaxureba miewodebinaT momxmareblisaTvis. (siropolisi 1996:
37) mcire biznesi TiTqmis yvela uZveles kulturaSi yvaoda. arabebi,
babilonelebi, egviptelebi, ebraelebi, berZnebi, finikielebi da romaelebi
gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeodnen am saqmeSi. 1980-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi mcire
biznesis prestiJma mTels msoflioSi daiwyo amaRleba, rac gamowveuli iyo
mis mier axali teqnologiebisa da axali samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis unariT.
saqarTveloSi 2002 wlis 4 ivliss miRebuli kanoniT `mcire sawarmoTa
mxardaWeris Sesaxeb~ mcire sawarmod iTvleboda yvela saxis organizaciul126
samarTlebrivi formis sawarmo, romelSic dasaqmebulTa raodenoba ar
aRemateboda 20 kacs da wliuri brunva Seadgenda 500 000 lars. aRniSnuli
kanoni gauqmda 2006 wels da 2011 wlamde saqarTveloSi ar moqmedebda
normatiuli aqti, romelic gaiTvaliswinebda mcire biznesis ganviTarebis
xelSewyobas.
TumcaRa
kanonSi
`saqarTvelos
erovnuli
sainvesticio
saagentos Sesaxeb~ mocemuli iyo mxolod mcire biznesis definicia. 2011
wlis pirveli ianvridan saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsSi Setanili
cvlilebebis Tanaxmad, mcire bizness miekuTvneba fizikuri piris saqmianoba,
romlis wliuri brunvac ar aRemateba 100 aTas lars.
sabazro meqanizmis sferoSi mcire biznesis roli imaSi vlindeba, rom
igi axerxebs brZolas monopoliasTan, rasac aRwevs cvalebad sazogadoebriv
moTxovnaze swrafi reagirebis SesaZleblobiT.
mcire biznesis amocanaa, xeli Seuwyos saqonlisa da momsaxurebis
srulyofili bazris Camoyalibebas. igi aris sabazro sistemis pirvelwyaro,
romelic funqcionirebs ekonomikis nebismier seqtorSi da mniSvnelovnad
gansazRvravs ekonomikuri zrdis tempebs, mTliani erovnuli produqtis
struqturas, dasaqmebis zrdas, saqonlisa da momsaxurebis axali saxeebis
warmoSobasa da momxmarebelze miwodebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
abesaZe ramaz, kakulia eTeri, “mcire biznesis makroekonomikuri
regulirebis
meqanizmi
saqarTveloSi”.
Paata
guguSvilis
ekonomikis
institutis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi.; 2008
2.
globalizacia
da
saqarTvelos
ekonomikuri
ganviTareba:
gamowvevebi da SesaZleblobebi, gamomcemloba “universali” Tb.;2008
3.
erqomaiSvili gulnazi, “mewarmeobis formirebisa da ganviTarebis
Taviseburebani saqarTveloSi”, Tb.;2004
4.
mesxia
i.
xmalaZe
k.
“mcire
da
saSualo
mewarmeobis
makroekonomikuri problemebi”, Tb.;2007
The sence and Importance of Small Business in the Contemporary market System
Nino Berozashvili, Mariam Gagloshvili
Resume
Georgia will develop purposeful and oriented on result economic and social politics at all
stages of political developing. Its directions foresee country and separate regional level to increase the
gross domestic product of country, to use potential optimal of regional enterprise, to increase
purchasing ability of population, to improve international image.
On the contemporary level in Georgia developing social programs, which are directed to
overcome poverty, it is natural, that by one-time compensations and helpings it is impossible, it must
implement by actual employment, which relates to expedited development of business and raising.
According to above mentioned, we consider, that the main function of Georgian State is to
contribute of business. According to geographic and farming features of country, natural resources
diversity, take into account traditions, we consider, that to develop small business it is perspective.
127
ucxouri investiciebi
da globaluri ekonomika
mzia CxartiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesis administrirebis III kursi
xelmZRvaneli: medea pavliaSvili
ekonomikis akademiuri doqtori, asocirebuli profesori
Email: [email protected], Tel: 595 771 553
ekonomikis globalizacia Tanamedrove moflios erT-erTi ZiriTadi
Taviseburebaa. igi erTmaneTTan aaxloebs da urTierTdamokidebuls xdis
qveynebs. Gglobalizaciis pirobebSi izrdeba qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis
SesaZleblobebi. Aam procesSi mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba adgilobrivi da
ucxouri
kapitalis
Tavisufal
moZraobas
,mis xelmisawvdomobas, misTvis sasurveli garemos Seqmnas. globalizacia
sameurneo cxovrebis internacionalizaciis Tanamedrove rTuli formaa.
swored bolo wlebSi, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi dagrovilma raodenobrivma
cvlilebebma gamoiwvia Tvisebrivi naxtomi, ekonomikurma cxovrebam axali
Sinaarsobrivi datvirTva SeiZina. Uucxouri inveticiebis dros kapitali
gadis qveynis sazRvrebs gareT. E procesi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba saqonlis
gadadadgilebisagan, romelic sxvadasxva siZneleebTanaa dakavSirebuli. Mmag,
sabaJo formalobaTa Sesruleba, transportireba da sxva. aRniSnulis gamo,
ucxouri investiciebi sul ufro aqtiurad gamoiyeneba saerTaSoriso
praqtikaSi. gamoyofen ekonomikuri saqmianobis globalizaciis Semdeg
ZiriTad formebs:
1. saerTaSoriso vaWroba (saqonlis, momsaxurebiT, teqnologiebiT,
inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis obieqtebiT);
2. warmoebis faqtorebis saerTaSoriso moZraoba (pirdapiri ucxouri
investiciebis
saxis
mqone
kapitals;
samuSao
Zalis
–
rogorc
arakvalificiuri da naklebad kvalificiuri muSebis stiqiuri migraciis, ise
`gonebis gaJonvis~ saxiT);
3. saerTaSoriso
finansuri
operaciebi
(portfeluri
ucxouri
investiciebi, kreditebi, sawarmoo finansuri instrumentebi: fiuCersebi,
opcionebi, savaluto operaciebi).
rogorc cnobilia, bolo wlebSi arsebiTad Seicvala aRniSnul
formebs Soris Tanafardoba. mkvlevarTa erTi nawili miiCnevs, rom aRniSnul
sam mimarTulebas Soris yvelaze swrafad izrdeba saerTaSoriso finansuri
operaciebis moculoba, Semdeg – kapitalis saerTaSoriso moZraoba
(pirdapiri investiciebi) da, bolos, saerTaSoriso vaWroba. ekonomikis
globalizaciaSi wamyvan rols TamaSobs ara saerTaSoriso finansuri
operaciebi,
aramed
swored
kapitalis
saerTaSoriso
moZraoba.
globalizaciis safuZveli, misi mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala da mTeli
Tanamedrove
saerTaSoriso
ekonomikis
xerxemali
transnacionaluri
korporaciebia
(tnk).
maTi
pirdapiri
sazRvargareTuli
investiciebi
umniSvnelovanes rols TamaSoben mravali erovnuli meurneobis SeerTebaSi
da integrirebuli internacionaluri sawarmoo sistemis – globalizebadi
128
msoflio ekonomikis mwarmoebluri birTvis SeqmnaSi. transnacionaluri
korporaciebi Seqmnilia erTi qveynis kapitaliTa da mmarTvelobiTi
kontroliT. tnk-is meTauri kompania ganlagebulia bazirebis qveyanaSi, xolo
Svilobili kompaniebi da filialebi _ mTel msoflioSi. Ppirdapiri ucxouri
investiciebi tnk-is ucxoeTSi saqmianobis safuZvelia. TviT tnk-is warmoqmna
da
swrafi
ganviTareba
SesaZlebeli
gaxda
pirdapiri
investiciebis
farTomasStabiani eqsportisa da amis safuZvelze saerTaSoriso warmoebis
aRmocenebis Sedegad. Ppirdapiri investiciebi gamoiyeneba axali sawarmoebis
asaSeneblad
da
arsebulis
Sesasyidad
an
STanTqmisaTvis.
tnk-is
maxasiaTebeli niSnebia: wliuri brunva (gayidvebis moculoba) 1 miliard
dolarze meti; filialebi ara nakleb 6 qveyanaSi; ucxouri aqtivebis wili
yvela aqtivis mTlian RirebulebaSi-ara nakleb 25-30 %; sagareo operaciebis
moculoba saqonelbrunvis mTlian moculobaSi anu realizacia rezidenti
qveynis farglebs gareT ara nakleb 1/5 _ 1/3. tnk-ebma Tavisi arsebobis
periodSi seriozuli evolucia ganicades. amJamad viTardebian mexuTe Taobis
tnk-ebi, romlebic ara marto msoflio meurneobis damoukidebeli subieqtebi
arian, aramed, agreTve, saxelmwifosagan damoukideblad moqmedeben.
kapitalis gatana daiwyo mTavrobebisa da firmebisaTvis kreditebis,
mowyobilobebis miwodebiT da investorebisaTvis mimzidveli, sazRvargareT
arsebuli sawarmoebis, sasargeblo wiaRiseulis sabadoebisa da a.S. SeZeniT.
man istoriulad mokle vadaSi arsebiTad gaafarTova Tavisi formebisa da
mimarTulebebis
wre.
ucxouri
investiciebis
yvelaze
`energiulad~
ganviTarebadi formaa ama Tu im qveyanaSi transerovnuli korporaciebis
filialebis Seqmna. amJamad maTi jamuri kapitali fantastikuri TanxiT – 9
trln.
dolariT
fasdeba,
dagrovili
pirdapiri
sazRvargareTuli
investiciebis mTlianma Tanxam ki jer kidev 1996 wels gadaaWaraba 3,2 trln
dolars.
amrigad, ucxouri investiciebi uzarmazar gavlenas axdenen ekonomikis
mdgomareobaze, misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebsa da zrdis tempebze. aseve
aSkaraa maTi urTierTkavSiri, rac araerT aspeqtSi vlindeba:
1. ucxouri investiciebi dRes sagareo bazrebze saqonlisa da
momsaxurebis mowodebis mTavari instrumenti da saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri
urTierTobebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sferoa. isini sul ufro mzard
gavlenas axdenen msoflio kavSirebis masStabebze, mimarTulebebsa da
struqturaze. aseT viTarebaSi sagareo vaWrobaze did gavlenas axdens
ucxouri investiciebis regulirebac;
2. ekonomikuri ganviTarebis procesSi ucxouri
investiciebis rols
sul ufro meti qveyana aRiarebs. amave dros, ucxouri
investiciebis
nakadebis masStabebze, mimarTulebebsa da struqturaze gavlenas axdens
sagareo vaWroba da sagareo savaWro politika.
sagareo vaWrobisa da ucxouri investiciebis urTierTkavSiri vlindeba
internacionalizaciis procesSi. ekonomikis realur seqtorSi firmebi,
rogorc wesi, saqmianobas iwyeben saqonlis warmoebiT da saSinao bazarze
misi realizaciiT. internacionalizaciisken gadadgmuli maTi pirveli
129
nabijia saqonlis eqsporti, gamsaRebeli filialebis Seqmna sazRvargareT,
licenzireba da ucxour partniorebTan sakontaqto urTierTobaTa sxva
formebi. mxolod amis Semdeg xdeba sazRvargareTul warmoebaSi pirdapir
investirebaze gadasvla. ucxouri investiciebis gamoyeneba mravalwaxnagovani
movlenaa.
pirdapiri
ucxouri
investiciebi
ucxouri
sesxebisa
da
kreditebisgan gansxvavebiT damatebiT sawarmoo moTxovnas warmoqmnis
erovnul bazarze da xels uwyobs finansuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobis
stabilizacias recipient (mimReb) qveyanaSi. ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis
msoflio praqtikis Sesabamisad, miznobriv normativad, rogorc wesi,
investiciebis mTlian moculobaSi maTi xvedriTi wonis 10%-s iReben. amas
gansazRvravs kapitalis msoflio bazris mdgomareoba, mZafri konkurencia da
ekonomikuri usafrTxoebis sazRvrebi.
cnobilia,
rom
pirdapiri
ucxouri
investiciebi
farTodaa
gavrcelebuli
ganviTarebul
qveynebSi:
maTze
modis
sazRvargareT
dabandebuli kapitalis 91%, TviT am qveynebSi ki ucxour investiciaTa 70%-ia
dabandebuli. Tumca aqve aRvniSnavT, rom bolo wlebSi, ganviTarebad
qveynebSi meti dabandebebi xorcieldeba, vidre adre. saerTaSoriso
korporaciebi eZeben iseT bazrebs, romlebic xelsayrelia da maT aqcionerebs
maRal Semosavals hpirdeba, Tumca am qveynebs stabiluri demokratiuli
ganviTarebis didi istoria ara aqvT da, SeiZleba iTqvas, igi Canasaxovan
mdgomareobaSia. Ggardamavali
ekonomikis mqone qveyanaSi, iseTi rogorc
saqarTveloa, nela viTardeba mcire da saSualo biznesi, maRalia
umuSevrobis done, dabalia Sromis mwarmoeblurobis maCvenebeli da
Sesabamisad Sromis anazRaureba, rac ganapirobebs mosaxleobis danazogebis
simcires
da
qveyanaSi
mwiri
adgilobrivi
kapitaldabandebebis
ESesaZleblobas. dRes, mimdinare kapitalis moZraobis saerTaSoriso procesi
mWidro kavSirSia mowinave teqnologiebis, sxvadasxva dargSi mecnieruli
miRwevebis gavrcelebasa da danergvasTan, rac aucilebelia saqarTvelos
ekonomikis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis.
Aarada, msoflioSi mimdinare
globalizacia xels uwyobs calkeuli qveynis am procesSi sxvadasxva
saSualebebiT CarTvas. aseTi saSualeba investiciebia, romelic qveynis
ekonomikis ganviTarebis stimulad unda iqces.
Lgamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
yorRanaSvili
l.,
samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi. Tb,
saerTaSoriso
2006
biznesis
organizaciul-
2. Sengelia T., biznesi da globalizacia. Tb, 2011
3. Sengelia T., saerTaSoriso biznesi. Tb, 2012
4. grifini p., pastei m., saerTaSoriso biznesi. inglisuridan Targmani.
2006.
5. Mpoliakova v., msoflio ekonomika da saerTaSoriso biznesi. 2008
130
Foreign Investments and Ghlobal Economics
MMzia Chkhartishvili
Resume
At the time of attracting foreign investments the country should use flexible politics, which will
combine effective control with awarding measures. Such control means purposeful formation of
organizational-legal prerequisites of convenient investment environment.
mwvane ekonomika da misi ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi
mariam jRiraZeM
goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universiteti
sabuRaltro da sagadasaxado saqme
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 54 12 55
naTia iluriZe, biznesis administrireba da marTva
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 89 97 77
xelmZRvaneli: asoc.profesori maka sosaniZe
gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis farglebSi arsebuli garemos
progrmis
Tanaxmad,
mwvane
ekonomika
adamianebis
keTildReobisa
da
socialuri Tanasworobis mTavari Sedegia, rameTu is aris ekonomikuri
ganviTarebis is modeli, romelic damyarebulia mdgrad ganviTarebasa da
ekologiuri
ekonomikis
codnaze.
Mmwvane
ekonomika
ekonomikis
sxva
dargebisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom pirdapir afasebs qveynis bunebriv
kapitals, romelsac aqvs ekonomikuri Rirebuleba. mwvane ekonomika qmnis
mwvane samuSao adgilebs, uzrunvelyofs realur, mdgrad ekonomikur
ganviTarebas da amcirebs garemos dabinZurebas, globalur daTbobas, garemos
degradacias da aferxebs resursebis gamolevis saSiSroebas. Mmwvane
ekonomika stimuls aZlevs da mitivacias uqmnis bizness, awarmoos mwvane
produqti da momsaxureba.
mwvane ekonomika saxelmwifo da kerZo seqtors erTmaneTisagan ar
mijnavs. igi cdilobs moZebnos ekonomikuri gadawyvetilebis pozitiuri
alternativa. Mmwvane ekonomikis mTavari regulatori ara saxelmwifo an
kerZo biznesia, aramed sazodadoeba, romelic irCevs da Tavad marTavs mas.
mravali specialistis azriT, mwvane ekonomika eqvs mTavar seqtors moicavs:
1.
ganaxlebadi energia (mzis, qaris, geoTermuli, sazRvao, maT Soris
talRebis, biogazis da siTburi ujredebis energia);
2.
mwvane
Senobebi
produqtebi da masalebi);
(energies
mwvane
modifikatorebi,
mwvane
3.
sufTa
trasporti
(alternatiuli
sawvavi,
sazogadoebrivi
transporti, hibriduli da eleqtro satransporto saSualebebi);
4.
wylis
menejmenti (wylis
da wvimis gamwmendi sistemebi,
131
Sida
wylis landSafti, wylis gamoyeneba);
5.
narCenebis menejmenti (utilizacia, municipaluri narCenebis
masalebis gamoyeneba, niadagis nayofierebis gaumjobeseba, gawmenda);
6.
miwis menejmenti (organuli soflis meurneoba, urbanuli tyeebi
da parkebi, tyis ganaSenianeba).
gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis garemos programis farglebSi 2008
wels Seiqmna mwvane ekonomikis iniciativa, romelic ramdenime komponents
moicavs. maTi erToblivi mizani mwvane seqtorSi mimdinare sainvesticio da
reformebis politikis makroekonomikuri analizia.
mocemuli iniciativis farglebSi dagegmilia ramdenime saxis saqmianoba,
kerZod:
1.
mwvane ekonomikis angariSis momzadeba, sadac gaanalizebuli
iqneba
mwvane
seqtorSi
Cadebuli
investiciebis
Sedegebis
gavlena
makroekonomikasa, mdgrad ganviTarebasa da siRaribis Semcirebaze;
2.
sakonsultacio momsaxurebis ganxorcieleba
calkeuli komponentebis gaumjobesebis mizniT;
mwvane
ekonomikis
3.
samizne kvlevebis Catarebis mizniT, mravali mxaris CarTulobis
uzrunvelyofa, maT Soris arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, biznesisa da
nebismieri daiteresebuli partniorobisa.
ekonomikis
gamwvaneba
mniSvnelovnad
uwyobs
xels
ekonomikur
gajansaRebas, samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas, socialuri uTanasworobisa da
garemos
gamowvevebis
aRmofxvras.
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis
warmomgidgenT
ramdenime
ganviTarebadi qveynis magaliTs,
sadac
,,mwvane
ekonomika‟‟
warmatebiT ganxorcielda:
ganaxlebadi energia CineTSi. CineTSi warmatebulad xorcieldeba
ganaxlebadi energies wyarobis moZieba. Aam sferoSi mniSvnelovani moculobis
investiciebi iqna mimarTuli. Ggegmis Tanaxmad, CineTis mTavroba imedovnebs,
rom 2020 wlisaTvis ZiriTadi energiis daaxloebiT 16%-s swored rom
ganaxlebadi wyaroebi awarmoeben.
organuli soflis meurneoba ugandaSi. ugandaSi mniSvnelovani nabijebi
gadaidga soflis meurneobis warmoebis organuli fermeruli meurneobiT
Canacvlebis mizniT, rac Zalzed momgebiania rogorc qveynis ekonomikisaTvis,
aseve sazogadoebisa da garemosaTvis. Uuaryofilia iseTi sinTetikuri
masalebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa Sxam-qimekatebi, pesticidebi da sasuqi.
uganda aseve yvelaze mcire raodenobis sasuqs moixmars msoflioSi.
ekologiurad sufTa infrastruqtura indoeTSi. indoeTis urbanuli
ganviTarebis saministros mier xorcieldeba specialuri programa, romelic
gamiznulia
ekologiurad
sufTa
infrastruqturis
Seqmnasa
da
gaumjobesebaze.
132
tyeebis marTva nepalSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom nepalis teritoriis
(xmeleTis) daaxloebiT 40%-s tyebi moicavs. qveyanaSi Seqmnilia satyeo
meurneobis specialuri jgufi, romelic marTavs da Tvalyurs adevnebs
satyeo resursebs.
organuli meurneoba kubaSi. aSS-sa da kubas Soris arsebuli embargos
Sedegad kubaSi navTobis, pesticidebisa da sasuqis naklebobaa. Amitomac
meurneobebi Tavad zrunaven sakuTar produqciaze. aRniSnuli ekonomikuri
faqtorebis gamo isini bevrad ufro ,,mwvane meurneobas‟‟ axorcieleben.
globaluri ekonomikuri krizisis dros, gaeros globaluri programis
farglebSi, saxelmwifoebs rekomendacia gaewiaT moexdinaT ekonomikuri
transformacia mwvane ekonomikisaken. Seiqmna ekonomikuri stimulirebis
paketebi, rac ramdenime komponents iTvaliswinebs: ganaxlebad energiaze
gadasvla; mdgradi satransporto saSualebebis gazrda; mdgradi soflis
meurneobis, organuli warmoebis mxardaWera; ekologiuri infrastruqturis
gaumjobeseba.
naTelia rom mwvane ekonomika ar arsi abstraqtuli koncefcia, is
realobaa, rasac namdvilad samuSao adgilebis Seqmnisa da ekonomikuri
zrdisken mivyavarT. sufTa energies gegmis SemuSavebsas, amerikis SeerTebul
StatebSi, kerZod kaliforniis StatSi 500,000 axali mwvane samuSao adgili
Seiqmna. rogorc vxedavT, msoflio finansuri krizisis drosac ki mwvane
seqtorSi samuSao adgilebi iqmneba.
mwvane ekonomika aqtiurad vrceldeba mTel msoflioSi, aucilebelia
yvela qveyana aqtiurad Caebas am uwyvet procesSi, Soris saqarTveloSic.
saqarTvelosaTvis mwvane zrda niSnavs misi mdidari bunebrivi,
kulturuli
da
adamianuri
kapitalis
gaxsnas
axali
biznesSesaZleblobebisaTvis, romlebic ekonomikuri zrdisa da ganviTarebis
mamoZravebel Zalas warmoadgenen da imavdroulad, imis uzrunvelyofas, rom
es aqtivebi ar Sewyveten resursebisa da momsaxurebis miwodebas, rasac
emyareba Cveni keTildReoba.
mwvane zrdis iniciativa warmoadgens Semdgom nabijs mdgradi
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis gzaze, rac xels uwyobs rogorc ekonomikur zrdas
da siRaribesTan brZolas, aseve globaluri sazogadoebrivi sikeTeebis
dacvas (mag. Bbiomravalferovnebis dacvisa da klimatis cvlilebasTan
brZolis saSualebiT). swored amitom rogorc mimdinare tendenciebi aCvenebs,
msoflios bevri qveyana aqtiurad miiswrafis mwvane ekonomikis danergvisaken.
mwvane ekonomika aris 21-e saukunis biznes SesaZlebloba. Ggamomdinare iqidan,
rom msoflios mosaxleoba mudmivad izrdeba, maSin rodesac bunebrivi
resursebis moculoba igive rCeba da mcirdeba kidec, mwvane biznesis
ganxorcieleba aqtualuria rogorc arasodes.
G
133
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis garemos
ekonomikis angariSi (2010) oficialuri veb-misamarTi:
programa.
mwvane
http://www.unep.org/GreenEconomy/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=JvDFtjopXsA%3d&tabid=135
0&language=en-US
2.
gaerTianebuli
erebis
organizaciis
garemos
ganviTarebuli qveynebis magaliTebi (2010). veb-misamarTi:
programa.
http://www.unep.org/pdf/GreenEconomy_SuccessStories.pdf
3.
mwvane
ekonomikis
http://greeneconomics.org.uk
instituti.
oficialuri
veb-misamarTi:
4.
saerTaSoriso Jurnali mwvane ekonomikis Sesaxeb. Ooficialuri
veb-gverdi: http://www.inderscience.com/ijge
5.
mwvane
ekonomisti.
http://www.greeneconomist.org
6.
Ooficialuri
veb-gverdi:
mwvane saqarTvelo: http://greengeorgia.ge/?q=ka/about
Green economy and the prospects of its development
Mariam Jgiradze
Natia Iluridze
Resume
Green economy is the main result of human well-being and social equity. Green economy
creates green jobs, provides real, sustainable economic development and reduces environmental
pollution, global warming, and environmental degradation. It stimulates and creates an incentive for
businesses to produce green products and services. A green economy are distributed around the world,
all countries need to actively engage in a continuous process. Green growth means to open of its rich
natural, cultural and human capital for new business opportunities For Georgia.
134
barambos Sokoladi qarTul bazarze
Teona gogiSvili, rusudan xeTaguri
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesi da marTva II kursi
E-mail: [email protected]
xelmZRvaneli: asoc. profesori maka sosaniZe
mas
xSirad
moixsenieben
rogorc
mefeTa
sasmels.
misi
dagemovneba
yvelas surs da dagemovnebis Semdeg kidev da kidev am aromatis SegrZneba.
saerTaSoriso
Sokoladis
kakaos
gayidvebi
organizacia
msoflioSi
miaxloebiTi
2009
wels
angariSiT
iyo
74.45
adgens,
mlrd.
rom
dolari.
Sokoladis moxmareba erT sulze qvynebis mix 2009w (kg/weliwadSi): germania 11.12kg, belgia - 11.03kg, Sveicaria - 10.74 kg, gaerTianebuli samefo - 10.22 kg,
avstria - 9.43 kg. evropis masStabiT
Sokoladis yvelaze didi bazrebia: gaerTianebuli samefo, germania,
safrangeTi.
2009 wlis monacemebiT erTi adamianis mier gaweulma xarjma Sokoladze
saSualod Seadgina: SveicariaSi - $206, inglisSi - $106, belgiaSi - $90, aSS-Si
- $55, argentinaSi - $35.
Cvens qveyanaSi bolo periodamde qarTuli Sokoladis bazari
mxolod importuli produqciiT iyo warmodgenili.mesame welia, rac qarTul
bazarze sakonditro qarxana «barambo» gamoCnda. Tumca qarTuli Sokoladis
istoria mxolod «baramboTi» ar Semoifargleba.
2009 wels «barambos» qarxnis mSenebloba 100%-iT qarTuli investiciiT
ganxorcielda, ramac 30 mln. dolari Seadgina, xolo manqana-danadgarebi
ZiriTadad germaniidan Camoitanes.
Sokoladis
«barambo»
xazi
belgiuria,
xolo
SesafuTi
masalebi
italiuri.
Tanamedrove evropuli teqnologiebis mqone pirveli sakonditro
kompaniaa amierkavkasiaSi, romelic mravalferovani asortimentiT gamoirCeva.
igi 2009 wlis 11 marts daarsda, xolo bazarze 2010 wlis 8 Tebervals
gamoCnda. qarxana sofel nataxtarSi mdebareobs.
ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed mTel amierkavkasiaSi ar arsebobs
aseTi simZlavrisa da teqnologiebiT aRWurvili Sokoladisa da tkbileulis
fabrika, rogoric "baramboa".
«barambos»
produqcia
nebismieri
momxmarebelzea orientirebuli.
dolaris
Rirebulebisaa,
asakisa
Tu
Semosavlebis
adgilobrivi tkbileulis bazari 100mln.
romelic
TiTqmis
produqcias ekava «barambos” gamoCenamde.
mTlianad
importirebul
TiTqmis 15-wliani pauzis Semdeg
bazarze isev gamoCnda adgilobrivi warmoebis Sokoladi da karameli, amitom
"barambom" swrafad daipyro momxmareblis guli da bazris didi wili.
135
TiTqmis
karameli,
yvela
amitom
bavSvs
yvela
uyvars
tkbileuli,
ocnebobs
erTxel
Sokoladi
mainc
iqneba
moxvdes
es
iq,
Tu
sadac
tkbileulis uricxvi raodenobaa, Tumca aseTi survili SesaZloa ufrosebsac
hqondeT.
sulxan-saba
orbelianis
mixedviT,
barambo
“tkbili
mols,
futkarTmolis niSnavs anu esaa adgili, sadac Sromismoyvare mwerebi Taflis
damzadebaze
muSaoben
-
es
adgili
zedmiwevniT
zustad
amarTlebs
mis
saxelwodebas, oRond im gansxvavebiT, rom aq adamianebi amzadeben TafliviT
tkbilsa da sasargeblo produqcias qarTuli saxelwodebiT - "barambo".
“barambmo” gamoirCeva Tavisi mravalferovani asortimentiT: Sokoladis
fila, Sokoladis batoni, sxvadasxva Sokoladis kanfeti, asorti, karamelis
kanfeti da sxv.
Catarebuli iqna qarTuli Sokoladis bazris mdgomareobis gamokvleva.
gamokiTxul iqna orasamde adamiani ,maT Soris rogorc uSualod kiTxvarebiT
agreTve onlain gamokiTxviT saitze conference.ge kvlevis
Sedegebi aseTia:
1) Sokoladis nawarmis yidvis intensivoba
yoveldRe - 10%; kviraSi 3-jer - 36%; kviraSi erTxel - 20%; iSviaTad 30%;
saerTod ar vyidulob - 4%.
2) saSualoTviuri danaxarji Sokoladis nawarmze
3) gamokiTxulTa loialuroba brendebis mimarT
«alpen goldi» - 21%; «nestle» - 16%; «barambo» - 7%; «korona» - 3%;
«roSeni» - 2%; sxva brendebi - 1%.
4) barambos yidvis intensivoba yoveldRe - 10%; kviraSi 3-jer - 6%;
kviraSi erTxel - 14%; iSviaTad - 48%; saerTod ar vyidulob - 22%.
5)gamokiTxulTa damokidebuleba «barambos» nawarmis mimarT
momxmarebeli ufro metad loialuria adgilobrivi warmoebis mimarT
garkveul
wilad
barambos
ukeTes
mdgomareobaSi
ayenebs,
Tumca
momxmarebels mxolod patriotuli grZnobebis gamo ver SeinarCuneb. «barambo»
am
mimarTulebiT
bevrs
muSaobs
da
cdilobs
srulad
daakmayofilos
mravalferovani momxmareblis mravalferovani moTxovnilebebi.
efeqtiani sareklamo kampania «barambos» warmatebis erT-erTi mTavari
ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. pirvelma reklamam «ra aris barambo», romelic
intensiurad gadioda satelevizio eTeriT,
momxmarebelSi didi interesi
gamoiwvia. Cveni informaciiT
misi mizani iyo 8 dReSi mosaxleobis 60%-s
codnoda ra
miuxedavad imisa,
sazeimod
aris
gaxsna
«barambo».
da
es
yvela
wamyvani
rom
prezidentma qarxana
telekompaniis
eTeriT
gaSuqda
sazogadoebaSi am sareklamo kampaniis dawyebamde brendis cnobadoba mxolod
5% iyo. «ra aris barambo» im 8 dRis ganmavlobaSi pasuxebis 12 gverdi gaCnda
guglSi. forumebi savse iyo «baramboze» saubriT. pirvelma saimijo reklmam
gamoiwvia
arnaxuli
Sedegi,jamSi
20
dReSi
136
cnobadobam
miaRwia
80%-s
TbilisSi.
Semdgomi
reklama«barambosi»
iyo
personaJebi,
romlebic
ganasaxierebdnen ama Tu im asortiments.
es
reklama
negatiurad
iqna
sazogadoebis
aRqmuli,
mxridan,
kerZod
ZiriTadad
fraza
«nu
mSoblebis
daujerebT
mier
mSoblebs».
mosalodneli Sedegi kompanias kargad hqonda gacnobierebuli, Tumca isini
darwmunebulebi
iyvnen,
rom
Tuki
momxmareblebi
gasinjavdnen,
imdenad
moewonebodaT «barambos» produqti, rom ufrosebs negativi daaviwydebodaT,
patarebs ki saerTod arc gasCeniaT, piriqiT personaJebis saxiT SeiZines
megobrebi.
sareklamo
fsiqoloogiis
erT-erTi
principi
gulisxmobs,
rom
«ar
SeiZleba reklama Seicavdes arafers iseTs, rac ewinaaRmdegeba sazogadoebaSi
damkvidrebul eTikur-fsiqo normebs» aRniSnuli principis darRveva aris
swored «barambos» sareklamo kampaniis mowodeba «nu daujerebT mSoblebs».
es firmis imijze Zalian cudad aisaxa. kompania mudmivad exmareba sxvadasxva
saqvemolmoqmedo organizacias, bavSvTa saxlebsa da socialurad daucvel
pirebs. aseve, ewyoba sxvadasxva marketinguli da PPR aqciebi.
kompanias,
rodesac
grZevadian
funqcionirebaze
aqvs
pretenzia,
mniSvnelovania Seqmnasa da SeinarCunos dadebiTi imiji, rac SemdgomSi mis
saqmianobaze
pozitiurad
aisaxeba.
Cveni
azriT
reklamis
yvelaze
mniSvnelovani maxasiaTebeli, rac gamorCa «barambos» aris is, rom reklama
konkretuli mesijis matarebeli unda iyos.
masSi unda iyos gamokveTili is upiratesoba, riTac jobia konkretuli
produqti konkurentisas. maT reklamis saSualebiT unda gamokveTon da
daamtkicon maTi gamorCeuloba, ratom unda SeviZinoT «barambo» im
fasad ra fasadac gvTavazoben. momxmarebelSi yvelaze did ukmayofilebas
iwvevs
fasebi.
gamokiTxulTa
mixedviT
«barambos»
fasisa
da
xarisxis
Sesabamisoba Semdegnairad gamoixateba.
«barambos» marketingis menejeris gancxadebiT «iqedan gamomdinare, rom
,,CvenTvis
swored
Tavidanve
prioritets
maRali
xarisxi
warmoadgenda,
fasebic
produqciis xarisxis Sesabamisia, Cven gadavxedeT bazarze arsebul
fasebs da vecadeT maT farglebSi CavmjdariyaviT, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom
Cveni produqciis xarisxi ufro maRalia vidre bazarze arsebuli saqonlisa».
«barambo»
yovelgvari
masobriv
marketings
segmentirebisa
pozicionirebis
garaSe
konkurenciis pirobebSi.
da
axorcielebs,
upiratesobis
cdilobs
daikavos
yvelaferi
warmoCenis
Tavisi
-
yvelas
gareSe,
adgili
anu
maRali
«barambo» bazris 20% is dakavebas gegmavda, Tumca
misi marketingis menejeris gancxadebiT, Sedegma molodins gadaaWarba da
isini ukve Sokoladis bazris 25%s ikaveben. maT gaxsnisTanave ganacxades, rom
mxolod
saqarTvelos
bazriT
ar
Semoifarglebodnen.
137
pirveli
qveyana,
romelSic“barambo”-m produqcia gaitana azerbaijania,radgan iq, Sokoladis
moxmarebis mxriv ufro didi
bazaria vidre saqarTveloSi da karamelis moxmarebiTac ramdenjerme
aRemateba.
2011wels nayinis bazarze kompania "barambos" saxiT axali moTamaSe
gamoCnda
da
agresiuli
sareklamo
kampaniiT
Tu
farTo
sadistribucio
qseliT maleve daikava bazris mniSvnelovani wili. nayinis mwarmoeblebsac
safiqrali gauCndaT: isedac Semcirebuli realizaciis fonze, "barambom" maT
momxmareblebis
konkurents
nawili
produqciis
waarTva.
xarisxs
marTalia,
ar
adgilobrivi
uwoneben,
magram
mwarmoeblebi
Tavad
kompaniaSi
miaCniaT, rom bazris moTxovnebs zedmiwevniT akmayofileben da ambicia aqvT,
rom male mTeli bazris naxevari daikavon.
kompania am etapze oTxi saxeobis nayins awarmoebs, xolo gemovnuri
Tvisebebis
mixe"ekopalitram"
ki
gamokiTxva
moawyo
internetportalze
"ambebi.ge", romelSic 13-dan 17 ivnisis CaTvliT 2751-ma internetmomxmarebelma
miiRo monawileoba. daisva SekiTxva: romeli mwarmoeblis nayins aniWebT
upiratesobas? gamokiTxvis monawileTa yvelaze meti xma kompania "gurjaanis
nayinma" moagrova. kompania "barambos" meore adgili ergo. mas mohyvebian
"Tolia", "ioli", "kampara" da sxv.dviT asortimenti 15 aRwevs.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
mRebriSvili b, Todua n.
www.barambo.ge
www.Commersant.ge
www. conference.ge
- marketingis safuZvlebi‟‟
- 2009w
“Barambo” chocolate in Georgian Market
Teona Gogishvili
Rusudan Khetaguri
Resume
Georgian chocolate market in our country until recently was only imported products. Three years
ago the market for confectionery factory «Barambo» opened. The paper discusses, Bar ambo''-s
marketing strategy, by which it achieved great success.
138
marketinguli saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi saqarTveloSi
sofiko jojiSvili
mari mujiriSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesis administrirebis II kursi
maka sosaniZe
suxiSvilis universitetis asocirebuli profesori
saqarTveloSi sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlam ganapiroba kerZo,
komerciul, saxelmwifo da sxva sawarmoTa struqturebSi marketinguli
midgomebis Camoyalibeba. sabazro urTierTobebze saqarTvelos ekonomikis
gadayvanisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeba marketingis Teoriasa da praqtikaSi
sazRvargareT, pirvel rigSi aSS-Si dagrovil gamocdilebas. am gamocdilebis
codna aucilebelia ara marto ekonomikuri mecnierebisaTvis, aramed biznesis
yvela sferosaTvis.
unda aRiniSnos is, rom Cveni sawarmoebi jer kidev saTanadod ver
floben axal pirobebSi muSaobis principebs, formebsa da meTodebs,
specialur RonisZiebaTa kompleqss, rac uzrunvelyofs maT warmatebul
saqmianobas bazarze. bazarze saqmianobis Teoria da praqtika, romelsac erTi
saukunea iyeneben dasavleTis qveynebi, aris marketingi. sazRvargareTis
gamocdileba mowmobs, rom marketingi yovelmxriv uwyobs xels ara marto
ekonomikis calkeuli sferos sawarmoTa saqmianobis srulyofas da efeqtian
funqcionirebas, aramed mTeli erovnuli ekonomikis aRorZinebas da
ganviTarebas.
Cveni mizania SeviswavloT da gamovikvlioT, Tu ra mdgomareobaa
saqarTveloSi marketingis praqtikulad gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT da ra
perspeqtivebi aqvs mas momavalSi.
amJamad, saqarTveloSi 90-ian wlebTan SedarebiT gaizarda interesi
marketinguli saqmianobis mimarT. sabazro urTierTobebi moiTxovs aqtiur
marketingul saqmianobas, romlis SesaZleblobebi ganpirobebulia Semdegi
garemoebebiT: jer erTi, aucilebelia sawarmoebis mier bazarze efeqturad
muSaobis me-Todebis aTviseba; meore, marketingi, rogorc sabazro saqmiano-ba,
damaxasiaTebelia rogorc gajerebuli ise gaujerebeli bazrisTvis.
saqarTveloSi, sadac jer kidev `gamyidvelis bazaria‟‟ gabatonebuli,
bevri
mwarmoebeli ignorirebas ukeTebs marketings. amasTan
is
darwmunebulia, rom momxmarebeli mainc SeiZens mis saqonels, vinaidan
arCevanis SesaZlebloba ar aris.
saqarTveloSi
marketinguli
saqmianobis
ganviTarebisa
da
srulyofisaTvis saWiroa samrewvelo da savaWro sawarmoebSi Seiqmnas
marketingis samsaxurebi. aseTi samsaxurebi dRei-saTvis bevr sawarmoebSi
arsebobs, Tumca zogi maTganis saqmianoba formalur xasiaTs atarebs.
Cven
SevecadeT
gamogvekvlia
139
ra
RonisZiebebi
tardeba
marketinguli saqmianobis mimarTulebiT. gamokiTxul iqna q. Tbilisis, goris
da rusTavis 50-mde samrewvelo da savaWro sawarmoTa xelmZRvaneli muSakebi
da specialistebi.
gamokiTxul sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebi da specialistTa erTi nawili
aRiarebs, rom sawarmoSi marketinguli samsaxuris arseboba da marketinguli
saqmianobis gaSla aucilebeli da sasargebloa.
gamokiTxulTa didi nawili aradamakmayofileblad afasebs aseTi
samsaxuris kvalificiuri kadrebiT uzrunvelyofis mdgomareobas. maTi 90%
Tvlis, rom aRniSnuli samsaxuris muSakebi srulyofilad ver arTmeven Tavs
TavianT saqmes, xolo gamokiTxulTa 100% Tvlis, rom sabazro ekonomikis
moTxovnilebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT saWiroa marketingis samsaxuris Seqmna da
muSakTa kvalifikaciis amaRleba.
dasavleTis mowinave gamocdilebis Sesabamisad sawarmoebi kiTxvaze,
axdenen Tu ara sawarmoebi gasaRebis bazris gamokvlevas, dadebiTad upasuxa
gamokiTxulTa 43%-ma. amasTan, am sawarmoTa umravlesobaSi am xaziT gaweuli
saqmianoba ZiriTadad momxmarebelTa moTxovnis Seswavlis, momgebianobis
gansaz-Rvris da gasaRebis bazris Ziebis RonisZiebebiT amoiwureba.
kidev ufro cudi mdgomareobaa sawarmos saqmianobis gamokvlevis
sferoSi. saTanado yuradReba ar eqceva
aseve sawarmos saqmianobis
strategiis, taqtikis SemuSavebasa da realizacias.
gamokiTxul sawarmoTa marketinguli saqmianoba ZiriTadad amoiwureba
sareklamo RonisZiebebiT, rasac isini axorcieleben masobrivi informaciis
saSualebebis meSveobiT. bevri sawarmo aseve iyenebs gasaRebis stimulirebis
meTodebs, rogoricaa: fasdaklebebi, saqonlis premialuri gayidvebi.
sabednierod,
saqarTveloSi
saqmianobaSi aqtiurad iyeneben
saqmianobis warmatebas bazarze.
arseboben
marketings,
firmebi,
romlebic Tavis
rac uzrunvelyofs maTi
bolo wlebSi saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis bazarze
gamoCnda uamravi sazRvargareTuli literatura biznesis, marketingis da
menejmentis Sesaswavlad. Tu sazRvargareTul Teoriebs, xerxebsa da
meTodebs adgilobrivi mewarmeebi qarTuli specifikis gaTvaliswinebis
gareSe, pirdapir gamoiyeneben, am faqts dadebiT SedegebTan erTad negatiuri
Sedegebic SeiZleba moyves. amitom samamulo sawarmoebSi maTi danergvisas
aucilebelia gaTvaliswinebuli iyos saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo baza,
erovnuli xasiaTi, adamianTa wes-Cveulebebi, maTi samomxmareblo da yofiTi
qcevis stereotipebi, anu yvelaferi is, rasac ewodeba qarTuli mentaloba.
TviT marketingis fuZemdebeli f. kotleri aRniSnavs, rom marketingisaTvis
sruliad ar aris ucxo erovnuli Taviseburebebi dakavSirebuli qveynis
unikalurobasTan, mis ekonomikasTan, konkurenciis mdgomareobasTan, CvevebTan
da adamianTa moxmarebis standartebTan. es yvelaferi mxolod fuWi sityvebi
rodia, sazogadoebis erovnuli samamulo sawarmoebisaTvis erT-erT yvelaze
140
sust mxared SeiZleba CaiTvalos maTi daSoreba momxmarebelTan.
aRsaniSnavia, rom Cvens sawarmoebSi faqtiurad ar xdeba momxmarebelTa
moTxovnis detalurad Seswavla, xolo sawarmoo da kvleviTi programebi ar
moicavs sabazro koniunqturis cvlilebis analizs, ris gamoc mniSvnelovnad
izrdeba maTi komerciuli warumateblobis riski saqonlis realizaciisas.
amitom yvela samamulo sawarmom unda Seqmnas specialuri marketinguli
qvedanayofebi mosaxleobis moTxovnis Seswavlisa da prognozi-rebisaTvis. am
sabazro monacemebis safuZvelze Sedgenili sawarmoo programebi gamorCeuli
iqneba Tavisi realurobiT, xolo sawarmoSi maT realizaciaze gaweuli
Tanxebi ar iqneba tyuil-ubralod gaxarjuli.
imis gamo, rom samamulo sawarmoTa umetesi nawili ar funqcionirebs,
qveyanaSi ZiriTadad realizdeba importuli saqoneli. am sazRvargareTulma
saqonelma aqtiuri sareklamo kompaniis fonze samamulo saqonelTan
SedarebiT Seiqmna mSvenieri imiji, miuxedavad imisa, rom samamulo produqcia
xarisxobrivad realurad aRemateba importuls.
amitom qarTvelma mewarmeebma samTavrobo struqturebTan erTad unda
izrunon samamulo produqciis imijzec, raSic daexmareba maT aqtiuri
reklama da gasaRebis stimulirebis meTodebis gamoyeneba.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. marketingi _ saxelmZRvanelo prof. g. SublaZis re-daqciiT, Tb. 1999;
2. “marketingis safuZvlebi”
xaraziSvili, Tb. 2005;
_
r.
javaxiSvili,
n.
oqruaSvili,
n.
3. “marketingis safuZvlebi”- n.Todua, d.mRebriSvili 2009;
4. «Маркетинг» - под ред. Н. Эриашвили, Юнити 2005;
The main directions of the marketing activities in Georgia
Sofiko JoJishvili
Mari Mujirishvili
Resume
The transition to a market economy has led Georgia to private, public and commercial
structures and marketing approaches. The paper discusses the situation in Georgia in terms of
marketing practice.
141
dasaqmebis da umuSevrobis problemebi saqarTveloSi
Tornike burduli
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
sajaro mmarTveloba
lali sreseli
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli maswavlebeli
umuSevroba
Tanamedrove
sazogadoebis
centraluri
problemaa.
umuSevrobis maRali done niSnavs resursebis nawilobriv gamoyenebas da
mosaxleobis dabal Semosavlebs. es amwvavebs socialur situacias, ojaxur
urTierTobebs da amasTan sazogadoebaSi emociur daZabulobas zrdis.
Ekonomikuri ciklis bazebis mixedviT umuSevrobis done xan dabalia, xan
maRalia, xan ki-normaluri, e.i iseTi rogorsac bunebrivs uwodeben.
gardamaval periodSi Seqmnil problemebs Soris dasaqmebis problema
yvelaze mwvavea da Tavisi masStaburobiT sazogadoebaSi feTqebad saSiS
xasiaTs iZens. Warmoebis donis mkveTrad dacemam, bunebrivia, dasaqmebis
problemebisadmi adre socialisturi ekonomikis fonze Camoyalibebuli
stereotipebis
(midgomebis)
Secvla
gamoiwvia.
Sabazro
principebis
damkvidrebis procesSi sazogadoebaSi adamianTa qcevis sruliad axali
formebi
gamoikveTa,
sxvadasxva
interesTa
dapirispirebam
socialuri
dazabuloba gaaRrmava. Saxelmwifom ver SeZlo dapirispireboda ekonomikuri
krizisis gamowvevebs da dasaqmebis regulirebis procesi, saxelmwifos erTerTi ZiriTadi funqcia, TviTdinebaze miuSva.
saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, dasaqmebulad iTvleba fizikuri
piri, romelic pirad da sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis
mizniT ewva saqmianobas, romelic akrZaluli ar aris da iRebs anazRaurebas
fuladi an materialuri formiT. rac Seexeba umuSevars, igi gansazRvruli
samuSao asakis Sromis unariani piria, romelsac ar aqvs samuSao, eZebs mas da
mzad aris samuSaos SesrulebisaTvis.
ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba 2008 wels Sedgenda 1917,8 aT.kacs,
dasaqmebuli --- 1601,9aT.kacs,
umuSevari --- 315,8aT.kacs,
umuSevrobis done --- % ---Si—16,5 %.
2009 wels ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba ---1991,8 aT kacs.
dasaqmebuli --- 1656.1 aT kacs.
umuSevari --- 335,6 aT kacs.
umuSevrobis done ---%---Si 16,9 %
2010 wels ekonomikurad aqtiuri mosaxleoba Seadgenda 1944,9 aT.kacs.
142
dasaqmebuli --- 1628,1 aT.kacs.
umuSevrobis done ---16,3 %
saqarTveloSi umuSevrobis donis maCvenebeli 2010 wels 2009 wlis
analogiur maCvenebelTan mimarTebaSi 0.6 procentuli punqtiT Semcirda. 2008
wlis agvistos omisa msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis Sedegad 2008-2009 wlebSi
umuSevrobis done saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovnad gaizarda. 2010 wels
umuSevrobis
donis
Semcireba
ekonomikis
stabilizaciis
erT_erTi
maniSnebelia.
umuSevrobis
donis
SemcirebasTan
erTad
ariniSna
mosaxleobis
aqtiurobisa da dasaqmebis doneebis zrda. 2010 wels 2009 welTan mimarTebaSi
aqtiurobis da dasaqmebis doneebi, sesabamisad 0,6 da 0,9 procentuli punqtiT
gaizarda. aRniSnuli maCveneblebis zrda ZiriTadad ganpirobebuli iyo
qalaqis tipis dasaxlebebSi Sesabamisi maCveneblebis zrdiT.
tradiciulad, dasaqmebulebSi Warbobs TviT dasaqmebulTa wili, Tumca
2010 wels 2009 welTan mimarTebaSi daqiravebiT dasaqmebulTa raodenobis
zrda da TviT dasaqmebulTa raodenobis Semcirebam aRniSnuli Tanafardoba
2 procentuli punqtiT Secvala.
iqidan gamomdinare, rom soflis mosaxleobis afsoluturi umravlesoba
eweva
SromiT
saqmianobas
sakutar
mamulSi,
meurneobaSi,
Sromis
saerTaSoriso organizaciis meTodologiis mixedviT samuSao Zalis arsebiTi
nawili TiTqmis ucvlelad aris
dasaqmebuli. Aaqedan gamomdinare,
umuSevrobis done gacilebiT dabalia soflis mosaxleobaSi, vidre qalaqis
mosaxleobaSi. amasTan qveyanaSi umuSevrobis donis kleba ZiriTadad
ganpirobebulia qalaqis tipis dasaxlebebSi Sesabamisi maCveneblis klebiT
(1,6 punqtiT) vinaidan soflis tipis dasaxlebebSi umuSevrobis done
praqtikulad ar Secvlila.
rac Seexeba umuSevrobis donis maCvenebels regional WrilSi,
aRsaniSnavia misi kleba aWaris avtonomiur respublikaSi 4.2 procentuli
punqtiT da Sida qarTlis regionSi 3.9 procentuli punqtiT.
dasaqmebisa da umuSevrobis maCveneblebis sqesobriv WrilSi ganxilvisas
aRsaniSnavia, rom 2010 wels 2009 welTan mimarTebaSi umuSevrobis done
qalebSi 1 procentuli punqtiT Semcirda. maSin rodesac kacebSi aRniSnuli
maCveneblis kleba 0,2 procentuli punqtis doneze dafiqsirda. aseve unda
aRiniSnos, rom tradiciulad qalebSi umuSevrobis done naklebia vidre
kacebSi. Amis ZiriTadi mizezia is rom qalebi romlebic ar arian
dasaqmebulebi.
ZiriTadad
warmoadgenen
diasaxlisebs
da
Sesabamisad
araaqtiuri misaxleobis
kategorias
miekuTvnebian.
Amgvarad,
kacebTan
SedarebiT qalebSi dabalia rogorc dasaqmebis done, aseve aqtiurobis done.
dasaqmebis maCveneblebi regionebis mixedviT erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad
gansxvavdeba. igi yvelaze maRalia TbilisSi da TiTqmis oTxjer aRemateba
143
samegrelo _zemo svaneTs, 3,5-jer – qvemo qarTls, 2,2-jer aWaris maCveneblebs.
sayovelTao aRiarebiT, umuSevroba aris iZulebiTi dausaqmebloba,
romelic warmoiqmneba Sromaze moTxovnasa da miwodebas Soris wonasworobis
mudmivad darRvevis Sedegad. umuSevroba rogorc ekonomikuri da socialuri
movlena, damaxasiaTebelia yvela qveynis day vela ekonomikuri sistemisaTvis.
ganviTarebul qveynebSi umuSevrobis bunebriv doned 6-7 % iTvleba.
amasTan ganasxvaveben umuSevrobis sam saxes: friqciuls, struqturuls da
ciklurs.
_ friqciuli umuSevroba warmoiSveba adamianis
nebayoflobiTi
gadaadgilebisas erTi samusaodan meoreze, rodesac ma Tar surt muSaoba
SeTavazebul pirobebSi. umuSevarTa am kategorias nebayoflobiT umuSevrebs
uwodeben.
_ struqturuli umuSevroba warmoiSveba maSin rodesac
moTxovnis struqtura ar emTxveva misi miwodebis struqturas.
Sromaze
_ ciklur umuSevrobas adgili aqvs maSin, rodesac Sromaze saerto
moTxovna dabalia.
saqarTveloSi
gardamaval
periodSi
umuSevrobis
samive
saxe
koncentrirebuladaa.
Warmodgenili
da
faqtobrivad
gansazRvravs
tranformaciuli procesebis socialur—ekonomikur Sinaarss. Swored amitom
dasaqmebis saxelmwipoebrivi regulireba moiTxovs, rogorc kompleqsur ise
diferencirebul e.w. wertilovan midgomebsac. Cneba `sruli dasaqmeba~ xSirad
kamaTis sagani xdeba. srul dasaqmebaSi ar igulisxmeba 100%-iani dasaqmeba.
miCneulia, rom dasaqmeba srulia maSin. rodesac umuSevarTa raodenoba udris
friqciur da sruqtirul umuSevarTa jams, rodesac dabalansebulia samuSaos
maZiebelTa da samuSaos adgilebis raodenoba.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi umuSevroba, rogorc problema globaluri
xasiaTisaa, igi uSualod zemoqmedebs socialur stabirulobaze. umuSevrobis
Sedegad ikargeba produqciisa da momsaxurebis moculobis warmoebis
SesaZlebloba, potenciali, rac xels uwyobs siRaribis zrdas.
umuSevroba, rogorc globaluri movlena, uSualod dakavSirebulia
iseT negatiur procesebTan, rogoricaa sazogadoebis zneobrivi degradacia,
saSiSi daavadebebis, TviTmkvlelobebis da mokvdaobis maCvenebelTa zrda,
genofondis gauareseba—qorwinebisa da Sobadobis raodenobis mniSvnelovani
Semcireba.
umuSevrobis rogorc movlenis socialur – ekonomikuri Sedegebi
SeiZleba Semdegnairad warmovidginoT: aferxebs sazogadoebriv process,
xels uSlis adamianis potencialis Semcirebas, rac sabolood auaresebs
cxovrebis xarisxs, xels uwyobs sazogadoebaSi adaptirebuli socialuri
normebis darRvevas, adamianis mier sayovelTaod aRiarebuli faseulobebis
ugulebelyofas.
Amotom
umuSevrobis
donis
sistematiuri
Semcireba
144
strategiuli
amocanaa,
rogorc
ganviTarebul,
ise
ganuviTareblad,
gansakuTrebiT ki postsocialistur qveynebSi. Nebismieri qveyana socialur—
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis donis adekvatur dasaqmebis politikas SeimuSavebs
da ganaxorcielebs. Tumca saxelmwifo garkveulwilad SezRudulia Sromis
saerTaSoriso organizaciis mier aRiarebuli fuZemdebluri principebiT,
romelTa dacva aucilebelia. Ees principebia: yvela moqalaqisaTvis Sromis
uflebebis
ganxorcielebi
Tanaswori
SesaZleblobebis
uzrunvelyofa.
moqalaqisaTvis
xelSewyoba
da
umuSevrobis
SemcirebisTvis
zrunva,
umuSevrobis socialuri dacvis uzrunvelyofa, dasaqmebis sferoSi da
socialur_ekonomikuri
politikis
sxva
mimarTulebiT
gasatarebel
RonisZiebaTa
koordinacia,
dasaqmebis
regulirebis
mizniT
saxelmwifos,profkavSirebisa
da
mewarmeta
asociaciebis
aqtiuri
TanamSromloba
dasaqmebis
problemaTa
gadaWraSi
saerTaSoriso
TanamSromloba.
Sromis bazarze dasaqmebis politika erTmaneTTan axamebs aqtiur da
pasiur politikas. Aqtiuri dasaqmebis politika miznad isaxavs umuSevarTa
Cabas
SromiT
saqmianobaSi.
amisTvis
saxelmwifo
axorcielebs
rig
mizanmimarTul RonisZiebebs, kerZod dasaqmebis samsaxuris Seqmnasa da misi
meSveobiT umuSevarTa Cabmas SromaSi, organizacias ukeTebs samuSaos
maZiebelTa momzadebas, gadamzadebas kvalifikaciis amaRlebas, droebiTi
sazogadoebrivi samuSaoebis Sesrulebas, axali samusao adgilebis Seqmnas.
aqtiuri
politika
xorcieldeba
sainvesticio,
safinanso—sakredito,
sagasasaxado berketebis gamoyenebiT.
rac Seexeba dasaqmebis pasiur politikas, igi iTvaliswinebs vakantur
samuSao
adgilebis
dakavebaSi
xelSewyobas,
Sezruduli
fiansuri
SesaZleblobebis farglebSi umuSevrobisaTvis Semweobis gacemas.
Sromis
bazris
saxelmwifoebrivi
regulirebis
aucileblobas
ganapirobebs ekonomikuri da socialuri maxasiaTeblebi. Sromis bazari sxva
bazrebisagan gansxvavebiT uSualod dakavSirebulia adamianiseul faqtorTan.
Sromis bazaris socialuri mxare gansakuTrebuli formiTa da simwvaniT
gamoCnda posTsocialistur qveynebSi da politikuri xasiaTic miiRo. amas
adasturebs `axal mdidrebsa~ da `axal Raribebs~ Soris politikuri
dapirispirebis dRevandeli masStabi. dasavleTis ganviTarebul qveynebSi
sadac, ekonomikis humanizaciisa da socializaciis principebze yalibdeba
axali tipis Sromis bazari.
A
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
ekonomikuri politikis kvlevis centris kvleva – dasaqmebisa da
umuSevrobis tendenciebi saqarTveloSi. 2011 w noemberi
2.
Sromis bazari saqarTveloSi.2010 weli. Statistikuri publikacia
Tb. 2010 w. saq.ekonomikuri ganvitarebis saministro. statistikis departamenti.
145
internet-resursebi:
1.
2.
3.
www.ekonomy.ge
www.bfm.ge
www.geostat.ge
Unemployment and Employ Problems in Georgia
Tornike Burduli
Resume
Unemployment today in Georgia introduce important socially-economically problems.
Georgia economic in high level of unemployment .last years there is no changed level of shabbygranted. Since the creation of country, existed resolutely social problems, is important to solve
employ people on some work and auspices them. Fundamental antecedent must be to solve this
problem.
globalizacia
da erovnuli ekonomikis problemebi
Teona sandroSvili
nino berozaSvili
sajaro mmarTvelobis I kursi
lali sreseli
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli maswavlebeli
Tel: 598 644 366; 595 95 44 76
globalizacia Cveni epoqis sakvanZo terminia, magram misi naTeli da
erTmniSvnelovani gansazRvreba dRemde araa Camoyalibebuli. zogierT
gansazRvrebebSi xazgasmulia institucionalur – civilizaciuri aspeqtebi
da globalizacias uwodeben istoriul masStabSi sxvadasxva civilizaciis
TandaTan mzard urTierTqmedebis da urTierTSeRwevis process, romlebic
Camoyalibda met-naklebad teritoriul sazRvrebSi, gansazRvruli eTnosebis
bazaze. sxva
gansazRvrebebSi
aqcenti
keTdeba ara
procesze, aramde
saerTo problemebze, romlebic kacobriobis winaSe dgas. aseT SemTxvevaSi
globalizacia niSnavs
saerTo, Sinaarsis
mixedviT msgavsi problemebis
warmoSobas
msoflios
sxvadasxva
regionebisaTvis
(mag.ekologiuri,
sasursaTo, demografiuli, migraciuli, jandacvis da a.S)
saxelmwifoTa
mudmivad ormxriv (saziaro) socialur-ekonomikur damokidebulebas
da
saerTo interesTa vrceli zonebis warmoqmnas.
globalizacia es moduri termini, miuxedavad Tavisi abstraqtulobisa,
metad aqtualuria saqarTvelosTana mcire qveynisaTvis. Qartul sazogadoebas
uCndeba kiTxvebi imasTan dakavSirebiT,Tu rogor SeZlebs mcirericxovani eri
Tavisi identobis SenarCunebas, globalizebul samyaroSi,ramdenad iqneba
daculi Cveni erovnuli TviTmyofadoba.
globalizaciis procesis ZiriTadi Tviseba – planetaruli erTianobaa.
146
,,globalizacia planetaruli masStabiT mimdinare
urTierTdakavSirebuli
procesebis kompleqsia, romelTagan TviToeulSi arsebobs TviTregulaciis
meqanizmebi” (prof. a. movsesiani, prof. s. ognivcevi).
finansuri globalizacia – es sayovelTao globalizaciis erT-erTi
mkafio
elementia.
planetaruli
eleqtronuli
qselebis
saSualebiT
finansuri nakadebis meyseulad gadaadgilebis SesaZleblobam kardinalurad
Secvala sameurneo saqmianobis pirobebi.
kapitalis saerTaSoriso moZraoba sesxebis, kreditebis, fasiani
qaRaldebiT vaWrobis, savaluto operaciebis da a.S. saxiT 50-jer aWarbebs
saerTaSoriso
tvirTbrunvas. amJamad saerTaSoriso
vaWrobaSi
Cadebul
TiTo dolarze modis wminda finansur brunvaSi CarTuli 8-9 dolari.
ra faqtorebi ubiZgebs erovnuli meurneobebis CarTvas globalizaciis
procesSi?
globalizaciis
ganviTarebis
kanonzomierebidan
gamomdinare
es
faqtorebia: saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moZraoba
qveynebsa da ekonomikis
seqtorebs Soris; adamianebis
gadaadgileba
qveynebs Soris, romelic
gamowveulia
ekonomikuri
funqciebis
ganxorcielebis
saWiroebiT;
inteleqtualuri produqciisa da ideebis moZraoba samecniero – kvleviT da
saswavlo centrebs Soris.
qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri urTierTobebi mravalwaxnagovani da
mravalferovania.
sagareo-ekonomikuri
integraciis
sferoSi
erT-erTi
mTavari da wamyvania
vaWroba. msoflio
vaWrobis
moculoba msoflio
warmoebasTan SedarebiT ufro maRali tempebiT izrdeba. ase, rom Ria
ekonomikam didi xania daadastura Tavisi upiratesobebi, romlebic ar
gaaCnda daxuruli, izolirebuli qveynebis ekonomikas.
ekonomikisa da gansakuTrebiT finansebis globalizaciis
obieqturma
garemoebebma ganapiroba evrokavSiris qveynebis mier
valutaTa
kursis
meryeobiT
Seqmnili
problemebidan Tavis
daRwevis
mizniT
erTiani
valutis - evros SemoReba.
vaWrobasa da finansebSi globalizaciis sargebloba SeiZleba Zalian
SesamCnevi iyos, Tu msoflio ekonomika ipovis sistemuri ganviTarebis
dinamukur da umtkivneulo gzas. usargebloa finansuri bazrebis totaluri
daregulirebis meTodi. gardamavalma qveynebma ekonomikuri da socialuri
ganviTarebis stabiluroba unda uzronvelyon winaswar
aprobirebuli
reformebis gziT.
sabazro
ekonomikaze
gadasvlis
istoriulad
mokle
periodSi
saqarTvelos
meurneobrivi
cxovreba organul
kavSirSia
finansur
ekonomikasTan, msoflio finansur da fulad – sakredito urTierTobebTan
da yovelive
es ukanasknel aTwleulSi
finansuri sistemebis
rolis
mniSvnelovani zrdiT ganisazRvreba, rac kidev
ufro gaaZliera 1998
wels datrialebulma finansurma kataklizmebma. am movlenebis uSualo
mizezebad
SeiZleba
miviCnioT 1997 wels
samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi
dawyebuli finansuri krizisi. 1998 wlis agvistoSi finansuri krizisi
moedo ruseTs, romelic
gavrcelda dsT-s sxva qveynebzec. regionuli
finansuri krizisebi Tavisi damangreveli ZaliT daagvirgvina braziliis
147
Sesabamisma krizisma da sabolood Camoyalibebuli saxiT miviReT msoflio
finansuri
krizisi, romelmac Tavisi
koncentrirebuli
gamoxatuleba
hpova
niu-iorkis,
londonis,
tokios,
parizis
safondo
birJebis
funqcionirebaSi.
postsocialistur qveynebSi,
maT Soris
saqarTveloSic, finansuri
ekonomikis msoflio ferxulSi CarTva warimarTa globalizaciis procesebis
zemoqmedebis niSniT.
ganviTarebadi
qveynebis
ekonomikis
aRmavlobisa
da
sabazro
urTierTobaTa
formirebis
procesSi
aucilebeli gaxda saerTaSoriso
savaluto fondis rekomendaciebisa da principebis koncefciuri gadasinjva.
ssf-is ,,standartuli stabilizaciis programa” gardamavali qveynebisTvis
iTvaliswinebs dinamikurad
ganviTarebadi
kerZo
seqtoris
Seqmnas da
ekonomikuri zrdis stimulirebas.
Cvens qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli
da momavalSi
gansaxorcielebeli
ekonomikuri reformebis radikaluri
srulyofa
aucilebelia. ZiriTadi
problema isaa, rom ekonomikur reformebs mieniWos Sinaarsobrivi simtkice gardaqmnis mizani pirdapir unda daukavSirdes qveynis
socialur –
ekonomikur interesebs, gamoxatos xalxis interesebi. movlenebis centrSi
ZiriTadi aRmoCnda brZola sakuTrebis
gadanawilebisaTvis da ara qveynis
ekonomikuri zrdis uzrunvelyofisaken ltolva. finansuri ,,stabilizaciis”
amocana faqtobrivad permanentul miznad gardaiqmna. saWiro iyo wina
planze wamogvewia sazogadoebrivi kvlavwarmoebis parametrebi. igulisxmeba
warmoebis,
ganawilebis,
gacvlisa
da
moxmarebis
fazebis
urTierTdakavSirebuli da urTierTSeTanxmebuli ganviTareba.
safinanso biznesis ganviTarebis areali saqarTveloSi SezRudulia. ar
arsebobs ganviTarebuli finansuri bazari – fuladi, savaluto, sakredito,
sainvesticio, fasiani qaRaldebis, kapitalis bazrebis saxiT. jer kidev
daumuSavebelia finansur bazarze riskis kontrolis meqanizmi, rac aiZulebs
erovnul kapitals dabandebis gzebi sazRvargareT eZios.
ra elis saqarTvelos finansebs globalizaciis pirobebSi?
ramdenadac erovnuli meurneoba ar SeiZleba finansuri ekonomikis
gareSe arsebobdes, mTavaria dazustdes misi adgili da roli globalur
finansur
ierarqiaSi
arsebuli
(marTvadi
an
stiqiuri)
dinamikidan
gamomdinare. amisaTvis saWiroa sworad gaverkveT Tanamedrove socialur –
politikurad da ekonomikur urTierTobaTa sami rigis winaaRmdegobaSi.
1.
winaaRmdegoba saqarTvelosa da e.w.
,,civilizebul msoflios”
Soris.
winaaRmdegobis
sagania
finansuri
rentis sidide, romelic
qveyanam unda
gadasces
finansur
centrs da romelsac
igi moiTxovs.
esenis: valis da procentis anazRaureba, ,,tvinis gadineba”, eqsporti.
2.
winaaRmdegoba centra da regionebs Soris. am winaaRmdegobis
gamwvaveba
dakavSirebulia
saqarTveloSi
finansuri
ekonomikis
faseulobebTan SerwymasTan. saqme exeba finansuri kapitalis didi nawilis
Tavmoyras centrSi. es ki xels
uSlis
regionebis
ekonomikur
ganviTarebas.
3.
winaaRmdegoba saxelmwifosa da moqalaqeebs Soris. imis gamo, rom
148
saxelmwifo
mosaxleobis
winaSe
ar
asrulebs
sruyofilad
Tavis
valdebulebebs, es ukanaskneli ar ixdis gadasaxads. qveyanas yvelaze didi
ziani miayena mosaxleobis saxelmwifosadmi undoblobis
gaZlierebam
totaluri privatizaciis gamo. saxelmwifosadmi ndobis aRdgena metad
rTulia, arada, mis gareSe danazogis investiciad gardaqmna SeuZlebelia.
Tanamedrove
geopolitikuri
sivrce
axal-axal
SesaZleblobebs
uqmnis
postocialistur
qveynebs
efetqiani
erovnuli
ekonomikis
formirebisaTvis. am gardaqmnebis
procesSi
bevri
problema
dagrovda.
romelTagan mTavaria Semdegi:
1.
qveynis
sameurneo
da finansuri potencialis, ekonomikuri
zrdisa da mosaxleobis keTildReobis donis amaRlebis drosa da sivrcesSi
daSoreba, romlis
mTavari mizezi
msoflio
finansur meqanizmSi unda
veZioT.
wamyvani
qveynebi
am
meqanizmis
meSveobiT
perioderiebidan
intensiurad awarmoeben resursebis ,,gadaqaCvas”, rac ganviTarebad qveynebSi
arastabilurobas da umyarobas iwvevs.
2.
strategiasTan dakavSirebul gardaqmnaTa problemebi, romlebsac
ukavSirdeba
gansaxorcielebeli gardaqmnebis
dros
moTxovnebTan
adekvaturoba.
im urTules problemebs Soris, romlebic gardamavali ekonomikis
pirobebSi mkveTrad iCens Tavs, aris finansebis marTvis codnis deficiti,
rogorc centralizebuli fondebis, anu saxelmwifo biujetis marTvaSi, ise
mikrodonis samewarmeo finansur urTierTobebSi.
qveyanaSi, romelic
sabazro
ekonomikis
gardamaval etapzea, dRis
wesrigSi dgas ekonomikisa da finansebis gaZRolis Teoriisa da praqtikis
Seqmna. es ki gulisxmobs ucxouri Teoriisa da praqtikis Rrma codnas,
mis analizs da saqarTvelos pirobebTan adaptacias. saWiroa SemuSavebul
iqnes
qveynis
ganviTarebis namdvilad
mecnieruli
strategia uaxlesi
wlebisaTvis. am fundamenturi problebis
gadawyveta martivi ar aris,
Tundac Teoriuli poziciebidan. garaqmnis arc erTi safexuri mecnieruli
damuSavebis gareSe ar unda ganxorcieldes.
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
1.
r.asaTiani – globalizacia,ekonomikuri Teoria da saqarTvelo.
gamomcemloba”siaxle”Tb2010 w
2. a.abralava – erovnuli ekonomika da globalizacia. Tb. “inovacia”
2005w.
3. e.ismailovi, v.papava – centraluri kavkasia: geopolitikuri ekonomiis
narkvevebi.Tb. “diogene” 2007w
4. msoflio ekonomika – S.veSapiZe, e.lekaSvili, a.griSikaSvili,
n.aslamaziSvili. Tb.2008 w.
149
Globalization and Problems of National Economy
Teona Sandroshvili
Nino Berozashvili
Resume
Globalization is contemporary world important tending process of globalization, is
abruptly different, there is inside contradictions, which appointees, annuitant. They par excellence
duns transit countries; Georgia has many questions the whole complex of problems.
In this complicated problems Georgia must keep regime independence its own economic
development.
turizmis roli saqarTvelos
ekonomikaSi
rusudan muradaSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli universiteti (seu), specialoba: turizmi,
xelmძRvaneli: titviniZe Sorena
(inglisuri enis ufrosi maswavlebeli)
Email: [email protected], tell: 598 31 03 89
ekonomikuri, socialuri, kulturuli mniSvnelobisa da zrdis gamo
turizmi miCneulia me 20 saukunis aRmoCenad.
msoflioSi mogzaurobebis saagentos mier Catarebulma kvlevebma
gviCvenes, rom turizmSi muSaobs dedamiwaze dasaqmebulTa yoveli me-10
adamiani.
unikaluria
turizmis
zrdis
tempi,
romelic
bevrad
aWarbebs
msoflioSi zogadad ekonomikis temps. kerZod, ukanasknel 50 weliwadSi
msoflio turizmi gaizarda 35 jer. aseTi zrda ar ganucdia ekonomikis
arcerT sxva dargs. saqarTvelom, rogorc gardamavali ekonomikis etapze
myofma qveyanam, aucileblad unda gamoiyenos turizmis sferos aseTi
SesaZlebloba.
saqarTvelos strategiuli kvlevebisa da ganviTarebis centris mier
adgilobriv
mewarmeTa
da
ucxoel
investorTa
Soris
Catarebulma
gamokvlevam ukve daadastura turizmis prioritetuloba. gamokiTxulTa 66%
miiCnevs, rom saqarTvelosTvis turizmi yvelaze perspeqtiuli dargia qveynis
ganviTarebis da mewarmeTa dasaqmebis kuTxiT.
saqarTvelos turizmis ganviTarebis araCveulebrivi adgilmdebareoba
da klimati axasiaTebs. aq SeiZleba rogorc mTiani regionebis ganviTareba ise
vake dablobebis da Savi zRvis teritoriebis aTviseba. Cveni qveynis
turistuli qveynis bazari 14 samogzauro segmentadaa dayofili.
2009 wels saqarTveloSi million-naxevari ucxoeli mogzauri Camovida,
rac gasul welTan SedarebiT 16%-iT metia. aWaris zRvispira kurortebs
dasvenebis mizniT 60 636 somexi turisti ewvia. saqarTvelos sazRvao
kurortebze imyofeboda TbiliselTa 24.8%, xolo zamTris kurortebze –
150
19,8%. dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi turistTa Semoyvanaze 95 turistuli kompania
muSaobs.
saqarTveloSi 1999-2003 wlebis ganmavlobaSi aSenda 300 sastumro da
sastumro saxli, 4340 sastumro nomriT 10000 sawol adgilze. aRsaniSnavia
TbilisSi eqspluataciaSi Sesuli “mariotis” jgufis ori sastumro,
sastumroebi “Zveli Tbilisi”, “primavera”, “kopala”, vere-mcxeTa-bakurianis
“palasis” sistemis sami sastumro, agreTve rigi maRali domis axali
sastumro aWaris avtonomiur respublikaSi.
eqspertebis SefasebiT saerTo jamSi, mozidulia investiciebi 250 mln.
aSS dolaris odenobiT. Aaqedan ucxoeli investorebis mier dabandebulia 100
mln. aSS dolari.
saqarTveloSi turizmisganviTarebis ekonomikuri mimoxilva
pirveli statistikuri monacemebi Cndeba 1995 wels, roca dafiqsirda
wlis ganmavlobaSi Semosuli 85000 vizitori. Uukanaskneli 5 wlis
ganmavlobaSi maTi ricxovnoba gaizarda 4,5-jer da 2000 wlis monacemebiT
miaRwia 387000-s. aRsaniSnavia is garemoebac, rom 1999 wlidan qveyanaSi
SemosulT raodenobam gadaaWarba gasulTa raodenobas.
1998 wlidan iwyeba turizmidan qveyanaSi miRebuli saerTo Semosavlebis
daTvla miRebuli saerTaSoriso meTodologiiT turizmidan qveyanaSi
miRebuli saerTo Semosavlebis dinamika 1998-2000 wlebSi aseTia:
1998w.
750,0
1999w.
800,9
2000w.
826,7
turizmidan miRebuli saerTo Semosavlebis xvedriTma Wilma qveyanaSi
warmoebuli prduqciisa da momsaxurebis saerTo moculobaSi 2000 wels
Seadgina 13,8%. 2000 wlis monacemebiT daiTvala turistuli saqmianobidan
qveynis biujetSi Setanili wvlilis odenobac, man Seadgina 115,6 mln. lari.
ucxoeTidan Semosuli turistebis danaxarjebs qveynis ekonomikaSi myari
valuta Semoaqvs da amdenad warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebis
mniSvnelovan berkets.
saqarTveloSi turizmis ganviTarebisaTvis ZiriTadi xelis SemSleli
faqtorebi:
turizmis ganviTarebis procesSi mniSvnelovania Seswavlil iqnas
dargis winaSe mdgari problemebi da misi susti mxareebi. Mmxolod arsebuli
problemebis Semdeg gaxdebaSesaZlebeli maTi gadaWrisgzebis dadgena.
dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi turizmisa da kurortebis dargis winaSe
arsebuli problemebi pirobiTad SeiZleba daiyos or jgufad, romelTagan
TiToeulSi gamoiyofa ramodenime qvejgufi. Sqematurad ki ase gamoisaxeba:
151
turistul
produqtTan
dakavSirebuli aspeqtebi
mravalferovneba
xarisxi
Turistuli
moTxovnebi
Transportirebis
problemebi
marSrutis aRqma
bazris
marketingi
usafrTxoeba
Rirebuleba
simZlavre
Semomyvani turoperatorebi
mravalferovneba
miuxedavad am problemebisa, turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis
cnobiT 2010 wlis sezonma gaamarTla. 2009 welTan SedarebiT turistebis
raodenoba 110 992-iT gaizarda. 2009 wlis pirvel kvartalSi Tu zamTris
kurortebs 239 521 turisti stumrobda am maCvenebelma 2010 wels 350 518-mde
miaRwia. turizmisa da kurortebis departamentis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi
turistebis raodenoba wlebTan erTad kidevufro izrdeba. maTi informaciiT
2003 wlidan, miuxedavad 2008 wels gadatanili omisa da qveyanaSi mZime
socialur-politikuri mdgomareobisa, turistebis raodenoba iqamde gaizarda,
rom milionsac ki gadaaWarba. 2009 wels ki maTma saerTo ricxvma millionnaxevars miaRwia. Rac Seexeba procentul maCvenebels, 2007-2009 wlebSi
turistebis raodenoba 42%iT gaizarda.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
v. SublaZe, saqarTvelo da turizmi, 2004
2.
www.tarieli.blogspot.com
3.
www. Wikipedia.com
4.
larisa dolokaSvili, malxaz Rvinjilia, nino jaSiaSvili
“turizmisa da sastumroebis ekonomika”
The Role of Tourism in Georgia‟s Economics
Rusudan Muradashvili
Resume
The above represented article speaks about the role of tourism in Georgia’s economy. It gives
all the problems that are connected with the subject and highlights the statistics of the entrance of
tourists and visitors in our country during the last years. The author brings all the important facts that
helps to risen the country’s economy with the help of development of tourism as the important field of
its economy.
152
Sromis anazRaurebis regulirebis problemebi da maTi
gadawyvetis gzebi saqarTveloSi
mzia CxartiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis safinanso,
sabanko da sadazRvevo saqmis specialobis me-3 kursi
merab vaniSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 113 753
Sromis anazRaurebas gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia socialur-SromiTi
sferos struqturasa da socialuri politikis prioritetebSi, rac,
upirveles
yovlisa,
aixsneba
misi
didi
mniSvnelobiT
adamianis
cxovelqmedebis uzrunvelyofaSi da, im specifikuri funqciebiT, romlebsac
is asrulebs ekonomikisa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi. amave dros, igi Cveni
qveynisTvis warmoadgens erT-erT mniSvnelovan problemas.
dReisaTvis Sromis anazRaurebasa da mis organizaciaSi dagrovilia
mravali naklovaneba da mwvave problema, romlebic arsebiTad aqveiTeben
mis Sedegianobas xsenebuli amocanebis gadaWraSi. maTi Tavidan acilebis
gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba iseTi sakvanZo socialur-ekonomikuri gardaqmnebis
efeqtiani ganxorcieleba, rogoricaa – sapensio reforma, sabinao-komunaluri
meurneobis modernizacia da a.S.
aRniSnul
sakiTxSi
ukeT
garkvevis
mizniT,
gamovyofT
Sromis
anazRaurebis sferoSi arsebul im ZiriTad problemebs, romlebic Se-iZleba
mTeli rigi negatiuri problemebis mizezebad mogvevlinon:

Seferxebebi xelfasis gacemaSi (erTi Tvidan erT wlamde da
meti);

Sromis anazRaurebis dabali kvlavwarmoebiTi funqcia;

qveynis ekonomikis ganviTarebaSi, warmoebis moculobis
zrdaSi, muSakTa fizikuri da inteleqtualuri SesaZleblobebis realizaciaSi Sromis anazRaurebis mastimulirebeli rolis mkveTri dacema;

muSakis erTobliv SemosavalSi misi SromiTi wilis
Semcireba, rac misi prestiJulobis daqveiTebis niSania;

diferenciacia Sromis anazRaurebaSi.
aRniSnuli problemebidan, gamomdinareobs mravali sxva, warmoebuli
problema
da
winaaRmdegoba,
romlebic
dakavSirebulia
socialuri
samarTlianobis
principebis
darRvevasTan,
regionuli Taviseburebebis,
Sromis pirobebis, sabiujeto da arasabiujeto sferoebs Soris gansxvavebebis
gauTvaliswineblobasTan da a.S. gansakuTrebiT aucilebelia SevCerdeT
Sromis
anazRaurebis
sakvanZo
funqciebze
da
maTi
Taviseburebebis
gamovlenaze.
SeiZleba gamovyoT xelfasis oTxi ZiriTadi funqcia:

kvlavwarmoebiTi, romelic mdgomareobs samuSao Zalis
kvlavwarmoebis SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofaSi;
153

mastimulirebeli
(motivaciuri),
romelic
mimarTulia
warmoebis ganviTarebaSi dainteresebis amaRlebaze;

socialuri,
romelic
ganapirobebs
socialuri
samarTlianobis principebis realizacias;

saaRricxvo-sawarmoo, romelic axasiaTebs cocxali Sromis
monawileobis zomas produqtis fasis warmoqmnis procesSi, mis wils
warmoebis erTobliv danaxarjebSi.
zogadad, ekonomikuri politikis Sedegebi mniSvnelovnad aisaxeba
mo¬saxleobis Semosavlebsa da socialur struqturaze. unda aRiniSnos, rom
2004-2010 wlebSi mSp gaizarda 2.2-jer, xolo yovelwliuri inflacia –
saSualod 7.5%-iT. aman mniSvnelovnad imoqmeda mosaxleo-bis Semosavlebsa da
socialur struqturaze. saSualo xelfasi 156.6 laridan 2004 wels mkveTrad
gaizarda 556.8 laramde 2010 wels. ekono-mikurma zrdam saSualeba misca
xelisuflebas, gaezarda pensiebi da socialuri xarjebis dafinanseba.
2005 wels wina welTan mimarTebaSi saSualo pensia gaizarda 18-dan 37.3
laramde, 2009 wels ki – 77.6 laramde. 2011 wlis bolodan pen-siam 100 lari
Seadgina, 2012 wlis seqtembridan ki - 125 lari. mTlianad, 2003 - 2012 wlebSi
pensiebi gaizarda 5.5-jer. yovelive aRniSnulma gamoiwvia cvlilebebi ojaxis
Semosavlebis
struqturaSi.
2004-2010
wlebSi
saSualo
yovelTviur
Semosavlebs erT sul mosaxleze hqonda zrdis tendencia. fuladi
Semosavlebi da transferebi nominalur ga-moxatulebaSi TiTqmis gasammagda,
aseve, mkveTrad gaizarda Semosavlebi dasaqmebidan da TviTdasaqmebidan.
fuladi gzavnilebi ucxoeTidan gaizarda TiTqmis orjer. 2004-2010 wlebSi
fuladi da arafuladi Se-mosavlebi erT sul mosaxleze gaizarda 2.2-jer,
magram es maCvenebeli jer kidev dabalia minimalur saarsebo donesTan
SedarebiT.
Sesabamisad,
miuxedavad
zrdis
tendenciisa,
mosaxleobis
umetesobis fuladi Semosavlebi jer kidev mcirea. 2010 wels fuladi
Semosavlebi erT sul mosaxleze Seadgenda dasaqmebuli mamakacis saarsebo
minimumis 98,4%-s.
amave dros, naTesavebisgan da axlo megobrebisgan naCuqari fulis da
aseve sesxis odenoba izrdeba, rac miuTiTebs imaze, rom izrdeboda maTi
mniSvneloba cxovrebis pirobebis gauaresebis riskebis SemcirebaSi. amasTan,
farTovdeboda sabanko kreditebis masStabi Sinameurneobebis ganviTarebaSi,
maTi droulad dafarvis problemebi ki arastabilur xasiaTs aZlevda maT
Semosavlebs.
dadebiTi
tendencia
iyo
TviTdasaqmebidan
miRebuli
Semosavlebis wilis Semcireba da paralelurad xelfasis wilis zrda
mTlian SemosavlebSi. Tumca, Semosavlebi daqiravebuli Sromidan jer kidev
ar aris saerTo Semosav-lebis ZiriTadi wyaro.
miuxedavad garkveuli zrdisa, Semosavali daqiravebuli Sromidan
umniSvneloa mosaxleobis meoTxedisaTvis. Tu, qalaqad igi saerTo Semosavlis 42%-ia, soflad es cifri Zalze dabalia da mxolod 17.3%-s
Seadgens. 2004-2011 wlebSi xelfasi da Semosavlebi daqiravebiT dasaqmebidan
ufro swrafad gaizarda, nominaluri mTliani Sida produqtisa da
154
Sinameurneobebis
mTliani
Semosavlebis
zrdasTan
SedarebiT.
Tumca,
Semosavali xelfasidan Seadgenda saerTo Semosavlis mxolod 1/3-s. dRes
qalaqis aqtiuri mosaxleobis mxolod 21.8% da soflis 9.9% Rebulobs
xelfass daqiravebuli Sromidan. saqstatis monacemebiT, mosaxleobis
Semosavali maTi xelfasebidan Seadgens saqarTvelos nominaluri mTliani
Sida produqtis mxolod 13.6%-s. saxelmwifo transferebis wili ojaxis
Semosavlebis
struqturaSi dabalia,
magram
pensiebi da socialuri
daxmarebebi
TandaTanobiT
izrdeba.
“aratradiciuli
Semosavlebi”,
rogorebicaa qonebis ijara, gzavnilebi sxva qveynidan, piradi transferebi,
Semosavlebi kerZo sakuTrebis gayidvidan, fuladi sesxebi da danazogebi,
uaxlovdeba Semosavlebs daqiravebuli Sromidan. araformaluri Semosavali
izrdeba TviTdasaqmebidan, soflis meurneobis produqtebis gayidvidan,
qonebis gayidvidan, fuladi transferebidan (naTesavebisagan da sesxebidan).
es Se-mosavlebi warmoadgens ojaxebis riskebis dacvis ZiriTad saSualebas.
ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze Sromis anazRaurebis yvelaze prioritetul funqciebad, pirvel rigSi, unda miviCnioT misi kvlavwarmoebiTi da
mastimulirebeli funqciebi, amitom swored isini unda gavaaqtiuroT da
gavaZlieroT.
Sromis anazRaurebis kvlavwarmoebiTi funqcia mdgomareobs xelfasis
unarSi _ moaxdinos adamianis SromiTi saqmianobis procesSi daxarjuli
Sromis
kompensireba.
Tu
is
arasakmarisia
samuSao
Zalis
martivi
kvlavwarmoebisTvisac ki, maSin mocemul SemTxvevaSi xelfasi ver asrulebs
Tavis kvlavwarmoebiT funqcias. kvlavwarmoebiTi funqciis realizaciis
xarisxi SeiZleba SevafasoT muSakis mier miRebuli xelfasis odenobis
saarsebo minimumis donesTan TanafardobiT.
Tu, Sromis anazRaurebis kvlavwarmoebiTi funqciis realizaciisaTvis
mTavar pirobas warmoadgens misi odenoba, mastimulirebeli funqcia
ganisazRvreba sul sxva meqanizmebiTa da damokidebulebebiT. ganviTarebis
Tanamedrove etapze umniSvnelovanes amocanad SeiZleba miviCnioT Sromis
anazRaurebis mastimulirebeli funqciis gaZliereba. xelfasi proporciulad
dakavSirebulia uSualod da¬xarjul SromasTan. am funqciis gonivrulad
gamoyeneba xelfass gadaaqcevs warmoebis Sedegianobis amaRlebisa da
ekonomikuri zrdis erT - erT umniSvnelovanes berketad.
Sromis anazRaurebis mastimulirebeli funqcia Sromis ukeTesi
Sedegebis miRwevisken ubiZgebs muSakebs, SromiTi wvlilisa da Sromis
sazRauris odenobebs Soris urTierTkavSiris uzrunvelyofis gziT. Sromis
anazRaurebis mastimulirebeli roli mJRavndeba muSakis SromiTi saqmianobis
saboloo SedegebTan Sromis anazRaurebis odenobis ur-TierTkavSiris
uzrunvelyofaSi.
sagulisxmoa, rom ukanasknel dromde, upiratesad ikvlevdnen warmoebis
nivTobrivi faqtorebis (kapitaluri dabandebebis, ZiriTadi fondebis,
teqnikis, materialuri resursebis da a.S.) efeqtianobas, Sromis anazRaurebis
efeqtianoba ki Seiswavleboda arasakmarisad.
Sromis anazRaurebis efeqtianobis kvlevis aucilebloba, uwinares
155
yovlisa,
ganpirobebulia
mewarmeobisa
da
sabazro
urTierTobebis
ganviTarebiT. Sromis anazRaurebis efeqtianobis formula SegviZlia warmovidginoT, rogorc Seqmnili produqtis (Sedegis, efeqtis) Tanafardoba am
produqtis warmoebisaTvis gadaxdil xelfasTan, anu, rogorc xelfasukugeba.
efeqtianobis
gansazRvrisadmi
aseTi
midgoma
saSualebas
gvaZlevs
ganvsazRvroT racionalurobis xarisxi Sromis anazRaurebis fondis
xarjvaSi sazogadoebrivi produqtis Seqmnisas da SevafasoT anazRaurebis
mastimulirebeli roli. Sromis anazRau-rebis efeqtianobis amaRleba
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom anazRaurebis zrdas Tan sdevdes sawarmoo
maCveneblebis winmswrebi gaumjobeseba.
xelfasi, rogorc Sromisa Tu samuSao Zalis fasi – es aris muSakis
sasicocxlo sa¬SualebaTa fondis ZiriTadi nawili, romelic mas xvdeba
(nawildeba) daxarjuli Sromis raodenobisa da xarisxis Sesabamisad.
sabazro ekonomikis pirobebSi ganviTarebulma qveynebma daagroves
sawarmoebSi, dawesebulebebsa da organizaciebSi xelfasisa da Sromis
motivaciis
sxvs
formebis
organizaciis
didi
da
mravalferovani
gamocdileba, romelic, garkveulwilad, SeiZleba Cvenc gamovi-yenoT. Tumca,
mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT, rom Cven gvaqvs Cveni tra-diciebi da xelfasis
organizaciis
sakuTari
gamocdileba,
romelTa
mTlianad
ignorireba
SeuZlebelia da, aseve unda gaviTvaliswinoT
gardamavali
periodis
Taviseburebani.
ukanasknel wlebSi aSS-Si, safrangeTsa da sxva qveynebSi farTo
gavrceleba hpova damsaxurebis Sefasebaze dafuZnebulma xelfasis individualizaciam. damsaxurebis Sefasebis azri mdgomareobs SemdegSi:
muSakebs, romlebsac aqvT erTnairi kvalifikacia da ukaviaT erTnairi
Tanamdebobebi, Tavisi bunebrivi SesaZleblobebis, staJis, mizandasaxu-lobis,
motivebisa da miswrafebebis wyalobiT, SeuZliaT miaRwion gansxvavebul
Sedegebs. am gansxvavebebma asaxva unda hpovos xelfasSi, rac miiRweva
sargoebis diferenciaciiT Tanrigis (an Tanamdebobis) CarCoebSi.
damsaxurebis Sefasebis gamoyenebis praqtikis analizma gviCvena, rom
gafarTovda im muSakTa kontingenti, romelzec is vrceldeba. pirvelad,
damsaxurebis
Sefaseba
gamoiyeneboda
xelmZRvanel
muSakebsa
da
mosamsaxureebze, romelTa Sromis Sedegebis asaxva SeuZlebeli iyo raime
zusti maCveneblebiT. Tumca, fizikuri da gonebrivi Sromis muSakTa Sromis
Sinaarsis daaxloebis obieqturi procesis msvlelobisas moxda maTi
anazRaurebis meTodebis daaxloebac.
Sromis anazRaurebis individualizaciis warmatebuli ganxorcieleba
moiTxovs Sromis Sefasebis meTodebis srulyofas muSakis sakma-risi
motivaciisaTvis
da Sromis anazRaurebis mudmiv da cvalebad
nawilebs
Soris gansazRvruli Tanafardobis dadgenas im “fsiqologiuri zRvaris”
gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis qvemoTac xelfasi kargavs Tavis mastimulirebel
rols da ar aRiqmeba, rogorc adekvaturi jildo SromisaTvis.
migvaCnia, rom zemoaRniSnuli gamocdilebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Sromis
anazRaurebis sistemis swori strategia uzrunvelyofs uSua-lod adamianTa
156
dafasebas, maTi uflebebis dacvas da zogadad, qveynis ekonomikis
ganviTarebas. yovelive es ki saxelmwifos pirdapiri movaleobaa, miT ufro
socialurad orientirebul qveynebSi.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
saqarTvelos konstitucia. - Tbilisi, 1995 wlis 24 agvisto //
http://codex.ge/1055.
2.
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi. - Tbilisi, 1997 wlis 26 ivnisi.
N786 – IIs // http://codex.ge/2790.
3.
saqarTvelos organuli kanoni “saqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsi”. Tbilisi, 2010 wlis 17 dekemberi. №4113-rs // http://codex.ge/152.
4.
saqarTvelos kanoni “socialuri daxmarebis Sesaxeb”. – Tbilisi,
2006 wlis 29 dekemberi. N№4289–rs // http://codex.ge/1389.
5.
baraTaSvili e., da sxv. ekonomikis saxelmwifo regulireba (Teoriul-meTodologiuri
aspeqtebi,
meqanizmebi
da
resursuli
baza).
saxelmZRvanelo. wigni II. - Tb., 2012, gv. 153-170.
6.
Волгин Н.А. Социальная политика. Учебник. Под общ. ред. Н.А. Волгина. –
Москва: Издательство «Экзамен», 2003, с. 253-270.
7.
Волгин Н.А., Дудников С.В. Оплата труда государственных служащих: анализ,
зарубежный опыт, новые подходы. - М, 2000.
Regulation problems of salary adjustment and ways of their Solutions in Georgia
Mzia Chkhartishvili
Resume
Remuneration of a special place - the structure of the labor and social policy priorities in the
area, which is primarily due to its great importance in ensuring the viability of the specific features for
which it serves as the development of economy and society.
In general, wages have four main functions, which affect the person and the whole country's
economy. Priority should be regarded as the most advanced stage of development remuneration for his
industrial and stimulating functions, therefore, first of all, that they should intensify and strengthen.
Work motivation in developed countries accumulated salary and other forms of organization of
large and varied experience, which, to some extent, can we use the experience of their own national
traditions and the salaries of the organization.
The authors' opinion, the remuneration system for proper national strategy to ensure the
people's appreciation of their rights and, in general, the country's economy. All this is a direct
obligation of the state, the more socially-oriented countries.
157
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis arsi da adgili saqarTvelos sagadasaxado
sistemaSi
sofo jojiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-2 kursi
merab vaniSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Telefoni: 598 113 753
saSemosavlo gadasaxadi saerTo-saxelmwifoebrivi pirdapiri gadasaxadia fizikuri piris mier miRebul Semosavlebze. saSemosavlo gadasaxadis
gadamxdelebi arian saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi, ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebi,
moqalaqeobis armqone pirebi.
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis obieqti aris dasabegri Semosavlis miReba
rogorc rezidentisaTvis, ise ararezidentisaTvis.5saSemosavlo baza rezidentisaTvis _ dasabegri Semosavali (erToblivi Semosavali minus gamoqviTvebi), ararezidentisaTvis _ dasabegri Semosavali (saqarTveloSi arsebuli wyarodan miRebuli erToblivi Semosavali minus gamoqviTvebi).
erToblivi Semosavali aris xelfasis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebi,
ekonomikuri saqmianobiT miRebuli Semosavlebi, sxva Semosavlebi, romlebic
ar aris dakavSirebuli daqiravebiT muSaobasTan da ekonomikur saq-mianobasTan. erTobliv SemosavalSi ar aisaxeba saxelmwifosTvis (adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobisaTvis)
saqonlis
usasyidlod
miwodeba,
momsaxurebis
usasyidlod gaweva, saqonlis miwodeba saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebiT
gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi.
xelfasis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebi aris fizikuri piris mier daqiravebiT muSaobis Sedegad miRebuli sazRauri (fuladi an materialuri
formiT), sargebeli (damqiraveblisgan sesxis SeRavaTiani pirobebiT miReba,
valis patieba, saqonlis an momsaxurebis usasyidlod miReba, avtomanqanis an
binis pirad sargeblobaSi miReba, swavlis an mkurnalobis xarjebis miReba da
sxva).6
ekonomikuri saqmianobiT miRebuli Semosavlebi aris saqonlis miwodebiT miRebuli Semosavlebi, momsaxurebis gaweviT miRebuli Semosavlebi,
procentebis, dividendebis, roialtis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebi, qonebis
realizaciiT miRebuli nameti Semosavlebi, qonebis lizingiT, uzurfuqtiT,
ijariT, qiriT gadacemiT miRebuli Semosavlebi, valis patiebiT miRebuli
sargebeli da sxva ekonomikuri saqmianobiT miRebuli Semosavlebi.
Semosavlebs, romlebic ar aris dakavSirebuli daqiravebiT muSaobasTan
5
rezidentebi _ fizikuri piri, romelic faqtobrivad imyofeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze 183 dRe an met xans nebismieri uwyveti 12 Tvis periodSi, romelic mTavrdeba am sagadasaxado wels an imyofeba ucxo qveyanaSi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo samsaxurSi. ararezidentebi _ fizikuri piri, romelic ar aris rezidenti.
6
xelfasis saxiT miRebul SemosavlebSi ar Sedis dadgenili normebis farglebSi miRebuli Semosavlebi samivlinebo xarjebis dasafaravad da warmomadgenlobiTi xarjebis
dasafaravad.
158
da ekonomikur saqmianobasTan, miekuTvneba nebismieri Semosavali da
sargebeli garda:

partniorTa Senatanebisa sawarmos kapitalSi;

mzRvevlis mier dazRveuli fizikuri pirisaTvis gadaxdili sadazRveo anazRaurebisa;

sakontrolo Sesyidvis mizniT SeZenili saqonlis (momsaxurebis)
Rirebulebisa da am fizikuri piris faruli Semosavlebisa, romelic farulad exmareba sagamoZiebo organoebs.
gamoqviTvebi erToblivi Semosavlebidan misaRebad erToblivi Semosavlidan gamoiqviTeba Semosavlebis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli dokumenturad
dadasturebuli xarjebi, garda:

xarjebisa, romlebic ar aris dakavSirebuli ekonomikur saqmianobasTan;

xelfasis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebisa;

saSemosavlo da mogebis gadasaxadebisagan ganTavisuflebuli
Semosavlebis miRebasTan dakavSirebuli xarjebisa;

azartuli da momgebiani TamaSobebidan miRebul mogebebTan dakavSirebuli xarjebisa;

mikro biznesis statusis mqone pirisgan SeZenil saqonelze gaweuli xarjisa;

pirad moxmarebaze da garTobaze gaweuli xarjebisa;

sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli sanqciebis Tanxebisa.
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis ganakveTebia: 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan 2013 wlis 1
ianvramde _ 20%, 2013 wlis ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 18%, 2014 wlis
1 ianvridan _ 15%. dividendis saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris
ganakveTebia: 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan 2013 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 5%, 2013 wlis 1
ianvridan
2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 3%, 2014 wlis 1 ianvridan _ 0%. procentebis saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris ganakveTebia: 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 5%, 2014 wlis 1 ianvridan _ 0%. roialtis
saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris ganakveTebia: 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan 2013
wlis 1 ianvramde _ 20%, 2013 wlis ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _18%, 2014
wlis 1 ianvridan _ 15%. ijaris saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris
ganakveTebia: 2011 wlis 1 ianvridan 2013 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 20%, 2013 wlis
ianvridan 2014 wlis 1 ianvramde _ 18%, 2014 wlis 1 ianvridan _ 15%.
ararezidentebis Semosavlebis saSemosavlo gadasaxadiT dabegvris
ganakveTebi warmodgenilia Semdegnairada:

xelfasis saxiT miRebuli Semosavlebisa, dividendebisa da
procentebisaTvis _ rezidenti pirebisaTvis gansazRvruli ganakveTebi;

saerTaSoriso
kavSirgabmulobis,
telesakomunikacio
momsaxurebisa da saerTaSoriso gadazidvebis satransporto momsaxurebidan
miRebuli SemosavlebisaTvis _ 10%;

qvekontraqtorebis mier navTobisa da gazis operaciebidan
miRebuli SemosavlebisaTvis _ 4%;

sxva SemosavlebisaTvis _ 15%.
kanonmdeblobiT dadgenilia sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi, kerZod: gada159
saxadisagan gaTavisufleba (gamoiyeneba calkeuli Semosavlebis mimarT),
daubegravi minimumis gansazRvra (gamoiyeneba gadamxdelTa calkeuli jgufebis mimarT).
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis wliuri deklaraciis wardgena evaleba: 1. pirebs, romleTa Semosavlebic ar ibegreba saqarTveloSi arsebul gadasaxadis
wyarosTan _ sagadasaxado wlis momdevno wlis 1 aprilamde; 2. mewarme
fizikur pirs, saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri saqmianobis Sewyvetisas _ 30
samuSao dRis vadaSi; 3. pirs, romelic ar aris valdebuli waradginos
deklaracia, SeuZlia waradginos igi gadasaxadis gadaangariSebisa da
dabrunebis moTxovniT.7
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis biujetSi gadaxdis
valdebuleba ekisreba
8
sagadasaxdo agents an Semosavlebis mimReb pirs (subieqts, gadamxdels)9.
saSemosavlo gadasaxadis gadaxda xorcieldeba Semdegnairad:

sagadasaxado agentis mier gadamxdels gadasaxadi daukavdeba gasacemi Tanxidan da gadairicxeba biujetSi Semosavlis miRebamde;

Semosavlebze, romlebic ar ibegreba saqarTveloSi arsebul gadasaxadis wyarosTan, gadasaxadi gadaixdeba wliuri deklaraciis wardgenis vadaSi;

III da IV rigis memkvidreebis mier 150000 laris an meti Rirebulebis qonebis CuqebiT an/da memkvidreobiT miRebis SemTxvevaSi saSemosavlo
gadasaxadi eqvemdebareba gadaxdas 2 kalndaruli wlis ganmavlobaSi;

mewarme fizikuri pirebi valdebulni arian saSemosavlo gadasaxadis mimdinare gadasaxdelebis Tanxebi biujetSi Seitanon gasuli sagadasa-xado wlis wliuri gadasaxadis mixedviT, Semdegi odenobiT: 1. araugvi-anes 15
maisisa _ 25%; araugvianes 15 ivlisisa _ 25%; araugvianes 15 seqtembrisa _
25%; araugvianes 15 dekembrisa _ 25%.
dabolos, saSemosavlo gadasaxadisaTvis sagadasaxado agenti aris: 1.
piri, romelic daqiravebuls uxdis xelfass, arasaxelmwifo pensias da stipendias, gaweuli momsaxurebis Rirebulebas, saTamaSo biznesidan misaReb
mogebas, dividends, procents, roialts, saijaro momsaxurebis Tanxas; 2. piri,
romelic usasyidlod gadascems qonebas gadasaxadis gadamxdelis mowmobis
armqone pirs; 3. piri, romlisganac iRebs Semosavlebs ararezidenti.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
vaniSvili m., vaniSvili n. finansebis safuZvlebi. _ Tb., 2012.
kopaleiSvili T., CikvilaZe m. gadasaxadebi da dabegvra. _ Tb., 2011.
rogava z., qavTaraZe n. sagadasaxado dabegvra. _ Tb., 2006.
saqarTvelos sagadasaxado kodeqsi. _ Tb., 2012.
7
ganxorcielebuli monacemebis dabegvrasTan dakavSirebiT saSemosavlo gadasaxadis
kvartalur deklaraciebs warmoadgens sagadasaxado agenti araugvianes yoveli kvartlis
momdevno Tvis 15 ricxvisa.
8
saqarTveloSi arsebuli gadaxdis wyarodan Semosavlebis gacemis SemTxvevaSi.
9
saqarTveloSi arsebuli gadaxdis wyarosTan daubegravi Semosavlebis miRebis SemTxvevaSi.
160
The essence of the income tax and the tax system
Sofo Jojishvili
Resume
Income tax in common - the national direct tax on income received by an individual. Income
tax shall be paid by the citizens, foreign citizens, stateless persons. The unit is taxable income for
income tax as a resident, as well as for noresident.
Legally established tax benefits, such as tax exemptions (applicable to individual income), tax
wage determination (used for certain groups of taxpayers).
socialuri politikis arsi, miznebi da amocanebi
qeTevan wiqariSvili a(a)ip goris saxelmwifo saswavlo
universitetis finansebis specialobis IV kursis studenti
merab vaniSvili asocirebuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 28 63 42
sazogadoeba _ adamianTa erToblivi cxovelqmedebis mTliani, istoriulad mdgradi formaa. igi dayofilia socialur jgufebad, TiToeul
jgufs Tavisi interesebi aqvs, romlebic SeiZleba erTmaneTs emTxveodes an
upirispirdebodes.
socialuri jgufebis erToblioba _ aris socialuri struqtura,
romelic mosaxleobis kategoriebis Sesaxeb monacemebis statistikuri nakrebi
ki ara, sazogadoebrivi vulkania, romelSic ganuwyvetliv midis sxvadasxva
procesebi. ZiriTadad is SedarebiT mSvidia, magram zogjer _ feTqebadi.
adamianebi da socialuri jgufebi cxovroben da moqmedeben
erT
sazogadoebaSi. aqedan gamomdinareobs socialuri jgufebis da klasebis
urTierTobis garduvaloba. aseT urTierTobaTa formebi mravalgvaria:
samoqalaqo Tanxmoba, mSvidobiani iniciativa,
samoqalaqo omi da a.S.
yovelive es _ politikaa. politika aris socialuri jgufebis (klasebis)
urTierTqmedeba. ar arsebobs sazogadoeba politikis gareSe.
socialuri jgufebis urTierTqmedebis xasiaTis (interesebis sagnis)
mixedviT ganasxvaveben sxvadasxva saxis politikas: _ ekonomikuri politika,
demografiuli politika, ekologiuri politika, socialuri politika da a.S.
sazogadoeba – ekonomika – saxelmwifos mravalmxriv urTierTobaTa
sistemaSi socialuri politika tradiciulad makoordinirebel funqcias
asrulebs.
socialuri
politika
aris
socialuri
jgufebis
urTierTdamokidebuleba mTlianad mosaxleobisa da misi Semadgeneli
klasebis, socialuri erTobebis (ojaxebis, xalxebis, dasaxlebuli qalaqebis,
da a.S.) socialuri mdgomareobis SenarCunebisa da SecvlisaTvis. socialuri
161
politikis mTavari Temaa, mTlianad mosaxleobis socialuri mdgomareoba.
socialuri mdgomareoba _ es aris sazogadoebis da misi Semadgeneli
nawilebis cxovelqmedebis kompleqsuri daxasiaTeba. igi formirdeba, rogorc
sazogadoebis
struqturuli
nawilebis
arsebobisa
da
ganviTarebis
sazogadoebrivi pirobebis Semqmneli arsebiTi faqtorebis (mizezebis)
sistemis moqmedebis Sedegi.
socialuri mdgomareobis ganmapirobebel sazogadoebriv pirobebs
Soris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania Semdegi: sazogadoebrivi mowyoba
(sazogadoebrivi wyoba), Zalaufleba sazogadoebaSi, Zalaufleba meurneobaSi
(sakuTreba), sazogadoebis arsebobisa da ganviTarebis uzrunvelmyofi
ekonomikuri pirobebi, ekologiuri usafrTxoeba, socialuri daculoba.
socialuri politika moicavs Semdeg maCveneblebs: demografiuli,
cxovrebis donis, mosaxleobis dasaqmebis, janmrTelobis, ganaTlebis
(mecnierebis), aseve sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis, adamianis
uflebebis dacvis da sxva maCveneblebs.
socialuri politikis gatarebisas mniSvnelovania yvela mimarTulebis
gaTvaliswineba, raTa arc erTi maTgani ar dagvrCes yuradRebis miRma.
magaliTad, SeuZlebelia sworad CaiTvalos iseTi socialuri politika,
romlis farglebSic upiratesoba eniWeba ganaTlebis, kulturis da a.S.
ganviTarebas, dasaqmebisa Tu sapensio uzrunvelyofis problemis gadawyvetis
sazianod. aRniSnuli amtkicebs socialuri politikis prioritetebis win
wamowevis
mniSvnelobas
regionuli
Tu
korporatiuli
aspeqtebidan
gamomdinare. socialuri politika saxelmwifo doneze atarebs, normatiulad
mocemul xasiaTs (muSavdeba da gamoicema kanonebi, brZanebulebebi, da a.S.).
realuri, socialuri politika, xorcieldeba konkretul adamianTan pirispir,
municipalur da korporatiul doneze. swored aq poulobs igi Tavis
saboloo xorcSesxmas da afiqsirebs Tavis Sedegianobas.
garkveuli gagebiT, socialur politikas safuZvlad udevs socialurSromiT sferoSi Semavali elementebis, blokebisa da struqturebis
urTierTdakavSirebuli sistema, romelTa Sorisaa: socialuri sferos
dargebi (ganaTleba, jandacva, turizmi, da a.S.); Sromis bazari, dasaqmeba,
socialuri dacva; Sromis anazRaureba socialuri dazRveva; sapensio sistema
da sxv.
socialur-SromiTi sfero asaxavs socialuri politikis obieqts da
sagans, SromiTi da socialuri urTierTobebis erTianobas, axasiaTebs
socialuri ganviTarebis xarisxs. praqtikaSi SromiTi urTierTobebi iSviaTad
arsebobs wminda saxiT, socialuri Semadgenlebis gareSe. da piriqiT,
socialuri urTierTobebi xSirad Cndebian SromiTi procesebis Sedegad.
socialur-SromiTi sferos ZiriTad bloks, miekuTvneba komponentebi,
romlebic asaxaven da uzrunvelyofen samuSao Zalis kvlavwarmoebis
procesis fazebs:
162
•
•
•
socialuri sfero, e.i. socialur-kulturuli kompleqsis dargebi
Sromis bazari, dasaqmebisa da kadrebis gadamzadebis samsaxurebi;
Sromis mwarmoeblurobis motivaciis sfero.
Semdeg
blokSi
Sedian
socialur-SromiTi
sferos
komponentebi, romlebic yalibdebian warmoebis saSualebebTan samuSao Zalis
SeerTebi-saTvis pirobebis uzrunvelyofis procesSi:
•
mosaxleobis socialuri dacvis sistema;
•
socialuri partniorobis sistema;
•
socialuri dazRvevis sistema;
•
socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistema (sapensio sistema).
•
Sromis dacvis sistema da a.S.
socialur-SromiTi sferos Semadgeneli nawilebisa da elementebis
analizi SesaZleblobas iZleva gakeTdes daskvna imis Taobaze, rom mravali
maTgani gadajaWvulia problemebTan, rogorc Teoriuli gagebiT, aseve
praqtikuli funqcionirebis procesSic.
nebismieri donis socialuri politikis realizaciis efeqtianoba
damokidebuli ekonomikis, sabiujeto uzrunvelyofis, saxelmwifosa da
sawarmoebis finansuri resursebisze. saTanado finansuri saSualebebis
gareSe rTulia saubari ganaTlebis, janmrTelobis dacvis, mosaxleobis
socialuri dacvis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb.
socialuri sferos aradamakmayofilebeli ganviTareba, siRaribisa da
umuSevrobis zrda, sxva mwvave socialuri problemebi ZiriTadad aixsneba
ekonomikuri problemebiT da biujetebis sagasavlo nawilis formirebaSi
daSvebuli SecdomebiT.
efeqtiani dasaqmebis, Sromis Zlieri stimulebis
sistemis, janmrTelobis dacvis, da a.S. organizaciis gareSe SeuZlebelia
ganviTardes warmoeba, gaizardos saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moculoba. es ki
moiTxovs
socialuri
politikisadmi
saxelmwifos,
mewarmeebisa
da
mesakuTreebis mxridan Sesabamis yuradRebas. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan Cans,
rom ekonomikis efeqtianoba gansazRvravs socialuri politikis Sinaarss,
principebs, mimarTulebebs. rac ufro maRalia ekonomikuri efeqtianoba, miT
ufro myari safuZveli
iqmneba cxovrebis donis amaRlebisaTvis, rac
socialuri politikis strategiul mizans warmoadgens.
socialuri politika mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli “socialuri sabaz-ro
ekonomikis” cnebasTan. sabazro ekonomika, romlis mTavari mizani da amocana
warmoebis efeqtianobisa da mogebis zrdaSia, warmoadgens socialuri
sabazro ekonomikis guls. bunebrivia, mTavari miznis miRweviT, sabazro
ekonomika raRaca zomiT wyvets zogierT socialur sakiTxs _ dasaqmebis
uzrunvelyofa, saxelfaso gasacemlebi Sromis SedegebisaTvis da a.S. magram,
163
igi dafuZnebulia
samarTlianobasTan.
konkurenciaze,
da
mas
saqme
ara
aqvs
socialur
socialuri samarTlianoba, socialuri dacva uwinares yovlisa, uzrunveliyofa ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis (Seqmnili dovlaTis gadanawileba, sagadasaxado politika, samarTlebrivi uzrunvelyofa da a.S.)
meSveobiT. saxelmwifo Tavisi nebiT sabazro ekonomikas Semoabrunebs xalxis
interesebisaken da mas aniWebs socialuri sabazro ekonomikis xasiaTs. aseT
pirobebSi xSirad ekonomikur efeqtianobas wiravs mosaxleobis socialuri
dacvis
sasargeblod.
Tanamedrove
pirobebSi
socialuri
politikis
gansazRvrisas aucilebelia davicvaT ramdenime principuli moTxovna.
1. msoflioSi mimdinare procesebis, Camoyalibebuli tendenciebisa da
Taviseburebebis analizi da, adgilobrivi pirobebis Sesabamisad, maTi
gaTvaliswineba. 2. socialuri politikam , tradiciuli xerxebiT unda
SeimuSaos da ganaxorcielos prevenciuli zomebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen
qveynis usafrTxo da mdgrad ganviTarebas. 3. socialur politikaSi amosavali
sawyisi
socialuri
samarTlianobis
uzrunvelyofaa.
socialuri
samarTlianoba gulisxmobs yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabari sastarto
SesaZleblobebis Seqmnas. 4. aucilebelia qveyanaSi Seiqmnas faseulobis
integraluri sistema, raTa Tavidan aviciloT calkeuli dogmebis gavleniT
romelime faseulobaze calmxrivi orientacia. 5. normalurad ganviTarebad
ekonomikaSi saxelmwifosa da mosaxleobas Soris ormxrivi urTierToba
yalibdeba. jer erTi, mosaxleoba urTierTobebis aqtiuri subieqtia – igi
flobs sakuTrebas, Sromobs, qmnis mSp-s da a.S. meore mxriv, mosaxleoba
saxelmwifos funqciebis obieqticaa.
socialuri politikis efeqtianobis gansazRvrisaTvis gamoiyeneba
sxvadasxva indikatori (maCvenebeli). magaliTad, saerTaSoriso indikatorad
miCneulia
humanuri
ganviTarebis
indeqsi.
ZiriTad
maCveneblebad
ki
aRiarebulia: cxovrebis donis maCveneblebi, minimal
uri saxelmwifo
standartebi, mosaxleobis ekonomikuri aqtiurobis maCveneblebi, socialuri
daZabulobis maCveneblebi, socialuri sferos ganviTarebis maCveneblebi,
mSp-Si garemos dacvaze gaweuli xarjebis wili.
Aamdenad, socialuri politikis yuradRebis centrSi mosaxleobis
keTildReobis amaRleba dgas, romlic miiRweva ekonomikuri efeqtianobis
pirobebSi.
Agamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
saqarTvelos
//.http:codex.ge/1055
konstitucia._Tbilisi,
2. WiTanava n., TakalanZe l. socialuri
ganviTareba (nawili I). - Tbilisi, 2008, gv. 103-121.
3. evropis socialuri qartia. _ Tbilisi, 2010
164
1995
wlis
ekonomika:
24
agvisto
formireba
da
Essence, Goals and Tasks of Social Politics
Ketevan Tsikarishvili
Resume
According to character interaction of social groups, they differ different kind of politics,
among which there are social politics. The content of social politics, principles, directions are
defined by effectiveness of economics. The main subject of social politics is the social situation of
population. The higher economical effectiveness is, the harder basis will be created for high
standard of living.
agrobiznesis makroekonomikuri regulirebis aqtualuri sakiTxebi
saqarTveloSi
rusudan xeTaguri
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-2 kursi
merab vaniSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 113 753
qveynis mdgradi da usafrTxo ganviTarebis myar safuZvels qmnis Zlieri
da maRalefeqtianad funqcionirebadi agrobiznesi. amitom misi mdgradi
ganviTarebis saTanado saxelmwifoebriv mxardaWerasa da stimulirebas
gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. amis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia mxolod
agrobiznesis makroekonomikuri regulirebis moqnili sistemis qmediTi
gamoyenebiT, TviTregulirebisa da regulirebis meqanizmebis optimaluri SeTanawyobiT.
am mizniT aTvisebul unda iqnes ganviTarebul qveynebSi mwarmoebelTa
mxardaWeris aprobirebuli formebi da meTodebi (subsidia, dotacia,
eqsportis
dakrediteba) im
zomiT da
farglebSi,
rac
daSvebulia
saerTaSoriso safinanso organizaciebis dokumentebiT, vaWrobis msoflio
organizaciis standartebiTa da wesdebiT, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso
valdebulebebiT.
amasTan,
regulirebisaTvis
farTod
ar
unda
iyos
gamoyenebuli
arapirdapiri
subsidirebis
meqanizmebi.
am
formebis
gamWvirvaloba da miznobrioba ganpirobebul unda iqnes Sesabamisi saxelmwifoebrivi programebiT.
qveyanaSi makroekonomikuri stabilizaciis, Sesabamisi fulad-sakredito
da sabiujeto politikis farglebSi, SesaZleblobaTa arsebobis kvalobaze
unda SemuSavdes da ganxorcieldes sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulisa da
sursaTis samamulo mwarmoebelTa mxardaWeris, agrobiznesiT dasaqmebulTa
Semosavlebis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofis, sawarmoo da socialuri infrastruqturis ganviTarebis programebi, romelTa dafinanseba ganxorcieldeba
konkursis safuZvelze.
agrobizensis sabazro regulirebis meqanizmSi mniSvnelovan rols
165
asrulebs fasebi da faswarmoqmnis politika sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulsa
da sursaTze. fasebi, erTi mxriv, astimulireben miwodebis zrdas, xolo
meore mxriv, gavlenas axdenen mosaxleobis gadaxdisunarian moTxovnaze,
misTvis metad an naklebad xelmisawvdoms xdian sasursaTo saqonels.
ganviTarebis
dRevandel
etapze
aucilebelia
sasoflo-sameurneo
nedleulsa da sursaTze faswarmoqmnis mkveTri saxelmwifoebrivi koncefciis
SemuSaveba da gatareba. aseTi koncefcia gulisxmobs sasoflo-sameurneo
nedleulze garantirebul, xolo sursaTze ki – zRvruli sabazro fasebis
dadgenas. aseTma fasma unda dafaros warmoebis danaxarjebi da uzrunvelyos
gafarToebuli kvlavwarmoebis pirobebi.
qveynis agrobiznesis mdgradi ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi
gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs mis saTanado sabiujeto dafinansebas.
dReisaTvis agrobiznesis dargTa sabiujeto dafinanseba faqtobrivad ver
uzrunvelyofs am sferoSi warmoebis stabilurobas; gamoyofili sabiujeto
saSualebebi
aSkarad
arasakmarisia
sasursaTo
meurneobis
efeqtiani
funqcionirebisaTvis.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, aucilebelia agrobiznesis mimarT gatarebuli
safinanso politikis gardaqmna, sabiujeto saSualebaTa ZiriTadi nawilis
mimarTva centraluri da regionuli miznobrivi kompleqsuri programebis
dafinansebaze. agrobiznesis finansuri mxardaWera unda warimarTos Semdegi
mimarTulebebiT: sabiujeto asignebani miznobriv kompleqsur programebze;
kapitalur dabandebaTa dafinanseba; dotaciebi produqciasa da materialurteqnikur resursebze; asignebani daz Rvevaze; bankebis sesxebis nawilobrivi
kompensacia.
sagulisxmoa, rom agrobiznesis sameurneo subieqtebis dakredi-tebis
dReisaTvis moqmedi sistema minimaluradac
ver
akmayofilebs
ax-al
ekonomikur garemoSi myofi qveynis agrosasursaTo meurneobis sak-redito
moTxovnebs. aRniSnuli vakuuumis Sesavsebad saWiroa droebiTi, metnaklebad
optimaluri strategiis SemuSaveba agrobiznesis sakredi-to resursebiT uzrunvelsayofad.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi obieqturad unda ganisazRvros kreditebis
ganTavsebis wesi; SemuSavdes soflis meurneobis saministrosa da Sesabamis
komerciul bankebs Soris urTierTobaTa principebi, TanamSromlobis
meqanizmebi. saWiroa sezonur dakreditebasTan erTad farTod iqnes
gamoyenebuli grZelvadiani dakreditebis iseTi specifikuri forma, rogoricaa lizingi. es ukanaskneli did rols Seasrulebs mowyobilobaTa
teqnologiuri moZvelebisagan dacvaSi.
qveyanaSi agrobiznesis ganviTareba da am sferoSi dasaqmebulTa Semosavlebis stabiluroba didadaa damokidebuli sadazRveo sistemis mwyobr
da gamarTul muSaobaze. cnobili mizezebis gamo, saqarTveloSi 1991 wlidan
gauqmebul iqna sasoflo-sameurneo sawarmoTa saxelmwifo dazRveva da es
funqcia gadaeca kerZo sadazRvevo kompaniebs. amJamad fermeruli meurneobebi
arc Tu ise xalisiT monawileoben komerciul dazRvevaSi fuladi
saSualebis ukmarisobis, sadazRvevo Senatanebis metismetad maRali ganakveTebisa da araxelsayreli sadazRvevo pirobebis gamo.
166
zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, dReisaTvis mizanSewonilad migvaCnia
erTiani
saxelmwifo-komerciuli
sadazRvevo
sistemis
Camoyalibeba,
sadazRvevo gasacemlebSi biujetis wilobrivi monawileobis safuZvelze.
amasTan, aucilebelia damkvidrdes savaldebulo dazRveva, uwinares yovlisa,
sarisko warmeobaSi, sadazRvevo bazarze Sesabamisi kerZo kompaniebisaTvis
Tanabari konkurentuli garemos SeqmniT. sadazRvevo saqmis ganviTareba unda
gaxdes grZelvadiani investirebisaTvis Sinagani danazogebis warmarTvis mniSvnelovani safinanso arxi.
zogadad, agrobiznesis makroekonomikuri regulirebis mizani SeiZleba
CamovayaliboT Semdegnairad: samamulo warmoebis xarisxiani sasursaTo
produqtebiT momxmarebelTa gadaxdisunariani moTxovnis Sesabamisi donis
fasebis mixedviT efeqtiani, ekonomikurad misaRebi mo-maragebisaTvis keTilsasurveli pirobebis Seqmna. aseTi pirobebi SeiZleba Seiqmnas mxolod
sasursaTo bazris mTavari komponentebis _ miwodebisa da moTxovnis
dabalansebisas.
agrobiznesis produqciis miwodebis makroekonomikuri regulirebis
sistema, uwinares yovlisa, mimarTul unda iqnes Semdegi ZiriTadi miznebis
miRwevaze: agrobiznesis mdgradi ganviTarebisaTvis stabiluri ekonomikuri
da socialuri pirobebis uzrunvelyofa; saxelmwifo da regionuli sasursaTo fondebis formireba; mosaxleobis moTxovnis dakmayofileba xarisxian
sasursaTo produqtebze socialurad misaRebi fasebiT; saxelmwifo da
regionuli sasursaTo bazrebis dacva sagareo bazris mxridan ,,Cagvrisagan“,
sabazro sivrcis integrireba; garemoze uaryofiTi zemoqmedebis Semcireba.
zemoaRniSnuli
miznebis
misaRwevad,
agrobiznesis
saqmianobaSi
saxelmwifoebrivi Carevis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs warmoadgens: saxelmwifo
garantiebi mwarmoebelTa mier sarealizaciod wardgenili mTe-li sasursaTo
produqciis Seuferxebel SeZenaze; saxelmwifo garantiebi mwarmoebelTa mier
Cabarebuli sasursaTo produqciis anazRaureba-ze garantirebuli, winaswar
daTqmuli fasebiT;
sasursaTo produqtebis
warmoebis, gadamuSavebis,
Senaxvisa da racionaluri gamoyenebis te-qnologiaTa srulyofis dafinanseba
da SeRavaTiani dakrediteba.
agrobiznesis saqmianobaSi CarevisaTvis aucilebeli maragebis arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi TviT saxelmwifo unda iyos dainteresebuli rezervebis
dagrovebiT.
imavdroulad
produqciis
SeZenis
garantia
ganamtkicebs
mwarmoebelTa rwmenas, icavs maT gakotrebisagan, astimulirebs warmoebis
ganviTarebas,
rac,
saboloo
angariSSi,
iwvevs
sasursaTo
bazris
stabilurobas.
sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulisa da sursaTis mwarmoebelTa dacva
mdgomareobs imaSi, rom maT SeuZliaT nebasurviliT airCion sakuTari
produqciis realizebis formebi, saxelmwifo garantiebis SemoTava-zebuli
sistema ki xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi agrosasursaTo kompleqsis dargTa
racionalur teritoriul gaadgilebas da erTiani sabazro sivrcis
formirebas.
amasTan dakavSirebiT, dReisaTvis arsebiTad mosagvarebelia sa-kiTxi
produqciis gasaRebis saxelmwifo garantiebze qvotebis Sesaxeb. agrobiznesis
167
interesebis TvalsazrisiT, produqciis miRebis nebismieri SezRudva arasasurvelia. igi aseve miuRebelia saxelmwifoebrivi poziciidanac, ramdenadac
anelebs saxelmwifo sasaqonlo maragebis dagrovebis tempebs. Tumca, zogierTi saxeobis dotirebuli produqciis mixedviT biujeturma SesaZleblobebma
SeiZleba moiTxovos Sesabamisi SemzRudavi qvotebis SemoReba. am SemTxvevaSi
aucilebelia daveyrdnoT regionuli diferenciaciis princips, romelic
asaxavs agrobiznesis dargTa racionaluri teritoriuli gaadgilebis moTxovnebs.
Sromis teritoriuli danawilebis gaTvaliswinebiT da urTierTxelsayreli ekonomikuri pirobebis safuZvelze agrobiznesis sistemaSi
miwodebis stimulirebisaTvis aucilebelia: saqarTvelos mTeli teri-toriisaTvis erTiani faswarmoqmnis strategia da mwarmoebelTa saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWera; sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulsa da sursaTze fasebis
erTiani saxelmwifo politika; sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulisa da sursaTis
mwarmoebelTa saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWeris saxelm-wifo programebi.
sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval periodSi, miwodebis mxardaWeris
politikasTan erTad, saxelmwifom gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda dauTmos
moTxovnis mxardaWerasa da regulirebas, momxmarebelTa Semosavlebis
stabilizaciisa da amaRlebisaTvis.
fasebis liberalizebis Sedegad qveyanaSi Seqmnili paradoqsuli
situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, mTlianad agrobiznesis mixedviT, moTxovnis
regulirebis SesaZlo variantebidan gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos
sacalo fasebis SezRudvas sasoflo-sameurneo nedleulsa da sursaTze.
agrobiznesis regulirebis zemoaRniSnuli meTodebidan sabazro ekonomikis pirobebs yvelaze metad Seesabameba sasaqonlo intervenciis meTodi.
igi SesaZleblobas iZleva SenarCundes normaluri konkurentuli garemo da
kompensirdes
konkretul
situaciaSi
sabazro
infrastruqturebis
arasakmarisi simtkice da mobiluroba. sasaqonlo intervenciis drouli ganxorcielebisaTvis aucilebelia saxelmwifos gaaCndes sakmarisi sasursaTo
maragebi.
ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdilebis Seswavla da ganzogadeba SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs gavakeToT daskvna, rom sacalo vaWrobisa da moxmarebis
donis regulireba metad rTulia. am procesSi mniSvnelova-ni adgili ukavia
saintervencio maragebidan (saxelmwifo sasursaTo resursebidan) sasursaTo
produqtebiT
vaWrobis
wesebs.
isini
unda
iyos
kanonmdeblobiT
reglamentirebuli, sadac aucilebelia Caidos Semdegi ZiriTadi pirobebi:

saxelmwifos mxridan sasaqonlo intervenciis gasatareblad, sasursaTo produqciis saintervencio moculobebi ar unda iyos misi realizaciis
saerTo odenobis 45-50%-ze naklebi;

saxelmwifo sasursaTo resursebidan produqciis realizaciis
fasebi, erTi mxriv, unda iyos garantirebul fasebze 30-40%-iT maRali, xolo
meore mxriv, ar unda iyos sabazro fasebze arsebiTad dabali;

saxelmwifo resursebidan sarealizacio produqciis moculobebi
sistematurad unda qveyndebodes, raTa momxmareblebi da savaWro firmebi
flobdnen informacias arsebuli resursebis Sesaxeb.
168
saxelmwifo sasursaTo resursebidan sasaqonlo maragebis realizaciis
moculobebi mizanSewonilia gaizardos sacalo fasebis mkveTri amaRlebisas,
raTa dacul iqnes momxmarebelTa interesebi. sacalo fasebis mkveTri
Semcirebis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifom ar unda gayidos produqcia. am
situaciaSi mizanSewonilia misi Sesyidva, raTa dacul iqnes mwarmoebelTa
interesebi. amrigad, saxelmwifo maragebidan sasursaTo produqciis realizaciis aRwerili meqanizmi ar arRvevs sabazro pirobebs da xels uwyobs
sasursaTo bazris stabilurobas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
vaniSvili m. saqarTvelos sasursaTo usafrTxoebis saSinao da sagareo ekonomikuri aspeqtebi: Teoria, meTodologia, praqtika. Tbilisi:
sazogadoeba codna, 2003, 305 gv.
2.
beriZe z. sasursaTo bazris formireba da ganviTareba saqarTveloSi. _ saerTaSoriso referirebadi da recenzirebadi samecniero Jurnali
`socialuri ekonomika (XXI saukunis aqtualuri problemebi)”, 2010, #4 (10),
gv. 75-78.
3.
koRuaSvili p., zibzibaZe g. soflis meurneobis ekonomika.
Tbilisi, 2010, 221 gv.
4.
koRuaSvili p., zibzibaZe g. vmo-s raundebi da saqarTvelos satarifo politika. _ referirebadi samecniero, analitikur-praqtikuli Jurnali `biznesi da kanonmdebloba”, 2010, #6, gv. 33-38.
The current issues of macroeconomic regulation of agribusiness in Georgia
Rusudan Xetaguri
Resume
In the article, manufacturers in developed countries approved the forms and methods of support
(subsidies, subsidized export credit), based on macroeconomic regulation studied agribusiness on
topical issues in Georgia.
It is considered by maximally size and scope of what is permitted by international financial
organizations documents, standards and regulations of the World Trade Organization, international
obligations.
It has been implemented on the fact that the regulation should not be widely used indirect
subsidy mechanisms. Transparency and purpose of these forms should be conditioned by national
programs.
169
pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi
saqarTveloSi
nino babuciZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
biznesis administrirebis I kursi
E-mail [email protected]
lali vardiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis asistent profesori
E-mail: [email protected]
yvelasTvis cnobilia, ekonomikuri zrdisa da cxovrebis donis
amaRlebisTvis xelSewyobis erT-erT utyuar da myar gzas warmoadgens
investiciebia. Aaqedan gamomdinare sazogadoebam investirebas gansakuTrebuli
yuradReba unda dauTmos. vinaidan dRevandek etapze resursebi SezRudulia,
amitom saWiroa gamoinaxos investirebis saxsrebis Seqmnis wyaro. investicia
gulisxmobs
fizikuri
da
iuridiuli
piris
mier
organizaciasTan
dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva ekonomikuri xasiaTis operaciebis warmoebas.
termini investicia laTinuri warmoSobis sityvaa ,,invest" da dabadebas
niSnavs.
investiciebi
Tanamedrove
ekonomikis
ganuyofeli
nawilia,
sainvesticio kreditebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdebian investoris riskis
doniT, radgan aucilebelia kreditebisa da procesebis dadgenil vadebSi
ukan dabruneba. investiciebis ukan dabrunebas
moaqvs mogeba mxolod
momgebiani produqtebidan. Tu proeqti wamgebiania, maSin SesaZlebelia
investiciebis mTlianad an nawilobriv dakargva.
politikuri
mniSvnelobiT,
saqarTvelo
erTaderT
qveyanas
warmoadgens kavkasiis qveynebs Soris, romelsac investiciebis da sxvadasxva
saxis regionaluri proeqtebis gansaxorcieleblad yvelaze mimzidveli baza
gaaCnia.
potenciuri investorebisaTvis saqarTvelo warmoadgens teritorias,
romelic sxvadasxva saxis msoflio saklasifikacio skalaze, sapatio
standartebs akmayofilebs. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sainvesticio saagento
aT motivs asaxelebs imisaTvis Tu ratom unda moxdes fulis dabandeba
saqarTveloSi
:strategiuli
geografiuli
mdebareoba.
stabiluri
ekonomikuri
mdgomareoba.
sazRvargareTTan
Tavisufali
ekonomikuri
urTierTobebi.
dabali
sagadasaxado
procenti.
licenziebisa
da
movaleobebisgan ganTavisuflebis martivi gza.
infrastruqturis swrafi
ganviTareba. samewarmeo saqmianobis ganviTarebisaTvis mimzidveli garemo.
kompetenturi saxelfaso done da kvalifikaciis sakmaod maRali done.
diversificirebuli sainvesticio seqtorebi. msoflio bankis winaswari
ganWvretiT, ekonomikuri mdgomareobis swrafi ganviTareba.
"saqstatis"
winaswari monacemebiT, 2012 wlis IV kvartalSi
saqarTveloSi
ganxorcielebuli
pirdapiri
ucxouri
investiciebis
moculobam 181 mln. AaSS dolari Seadgina, rac 2011 wlis IV kvartlis
dazustebuli maCveneblis 53 procentia. Rogorc statistikis erovnul
samsaxurSi ganmartaven, winaswari monacemebiT, 2012 wlis IV kvartlaSi
170
saqarTveloSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis Semomavalma nakadebma 181,2
mln. aSS dolari Seadgina, rac 17 procentiT naklebia 2011 wlis IV kvartlis
dazustebul da 3 procentiT imave periodis winaswar monacemebze, xolo 2012
wlis III kvartlis maCvenebels 6 procentiT aRemateba.
2012 wlis monacemebze ucxouri investiciebi milioni aSS. dolari
wlebi
mln. dolari
2011
1117,2
201 2 Iკვ.
2012 II კვ
2012 III კვ 2012 IVკვ
2012
269,4
219,4
195,4
865,2
181.0
wyaro. saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri
ukanasknel wlebSi gansakuTrebiT gaizarda aziuri investiciebi,
romlebsac dasavleT evropisagan gansxvavebiT ar aSinebT postkonfliqtur
qveynebSi investiciebis Cadeba. ucxoel investorebs saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad
iafi muSaxeli, gamarTuli infrastruqtura da qveynis geografiuli
mdebareoba izidavT.
ucxouri investiciebi wina welTan SedarebiT mkveTrad Semcirda.
pirvel kvartalSi ucxouri investiciebis moculobam 269,4 Seadgina, meore
kvartalSi 219,4 milioni. ekonomikis seqtorebs Tu gadavxedavT, mesame
kvartalis monacemebს შევნიშნავთ,რომ safinanso seqtori 24%-iT liderobs,
mas moyveba energetika 20%, kavSrigabmuloba 17%, mrewveloba 14%, mSenebloba
5%, soflis meurneoba 3 % da danarCeni seqtorebi 17%.
ucxouri investiciebis Semodineba mxolod finansuri resursebiT
uzrunvelyofa rodia, es uwinares yovlisa im teqnologiuri miRwevebis
gaziarebis saSualebaa, rac
qveyanas ase sWirdeba. ucxouri investiciebis
gamoyeneba gansakuTrebiT unda warimarTos ekonomikis im sferoSi, romelic
171
xels Seuwyobs ekonomikuri krizisis daZlevas, dasaqmebis zrdas. aqve unda
avRniSnoT, rom investiciebi ar aris is panacea, ramac radikalurad unda
Secvalos mdgomareoba. roca gare resursi klebulobs, maSin unda aqcenti
unda gakeTdes Sida resursebis racionalurad gamoyenebaze. mewarmes, bizness
unda gauCndes iniciativa, rom es mogeba gamoiyenos reinvestirebisaTvis.
Seqmnas axali samuSao adgilebi, moaxdinos warmoebis diversificireba da
gazardos Tavisi monawileoba bazarze.
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
1. p. Lemonjava, a. abralava “ekonomikis principebi” Tb. 2009 w.
2. www.argo.agit.ge
2. http:// netgazeti.ge/GE/105/business/15363/
3. www.ireporter.ge/
Direct Foreign Investments in Georgia
Nino Babutsidze
Resume
Any of the socio - economic development largely depends on the investment policy
pursued. The important role of the state in this field, which not only defines the "rules of the game,"
Investment in space, but also has significant opportunities for economic activities of private entities,
revenue mobilization and allocation of these goals.
saerTaSoriso vaWroba da miwodebis pirobebi-“inkotermsi”
mariam SavdaTuaSvili
goris saswavlo universitetis
biznesis organizaciisa da marTvis specialobis IVkursi
E-mail [email protected], Tel: 599071291
lali vardiSvili
E-mail [email protected] Tel: 599517748
XXI saukuneSi, roca qveynebs gansakuTrebulad SezRuduli resursebi
gaaCniaT, Zalian mniSvnelovania vaWroba, romelic did gavlenas axdens
qveynis ganviTarebis doneze. Tanamedrove msoflio meurneobis ganviTarebis
aucilebel pirobad miCneulia sabazro ekonomika, xolo ekonomikur
liderebad is qveynebi, sadac sagareo-ekonomikuri urTierTobebi ufro
ganviTarebulia. Cven SegviZlia qveynis ganviTarebis doneze vimsjeloT, imis
mixedviT Tu riTi vaWrobs qveyana, aseve imiT rogori savaWro kodeqsi gaaCnia,
ra donezea gansazRvruli myიdvelis da gamyidvelis ufleba movaleobebi.
qveynis mdgomareobaze xSirad msjeloben mTliani Sida produqtis (mSp)-s
ganawilebiT erT sul mosaxleze. mSp-s mniSvnelovani nawili ki eqsport
172
importia.
sagareo vaWroba xels uwyobs TiToeul mxares moTxovnilebaTa
dakmayofilebis ufro maRali donis miRwevaSi. saerTaSoriso vaWroba,
marTalia orive mxarisaTvis sasargebloa, magram misgan miRebuli sargebeli
Tanabrad ar nawildeba, aramed imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu sad Seicvala
fasebi ufro metad. Mmets iRebs is qveyana, romelsac vaWrobis ukeTesi
pirobebi gaaCnia da vaWrobis Sedegad misi mdgomareoba kidev ufro
umjobesdeba.
qveynis
ekonomika
vaWrobaze
da
eqsport-importzea
damokidebuli. masSi Cabmulni arian
rogorc saxeლmwifo, aseve kerZo,
adgilobrivi da saerTaSoriso mwarmoblebi, vaWrobaSi monawileobas iReben
Suamavlebi-saerTaSoriso gadamzidi organizaciebi.
vaWroba-nasyidoba es aris transaqcia, romlis meSvobiTac xdeba
sakuTrebis gadacema gamyidvelidan myidvelisaken fulis gadaxdis Sedegad.
nebismieri nasyidoba moiTxovs minimum or mxares, magram Suamavlebic
erTvebian
xSirad.
nasyidobisas
aucilebelia
Sedges
xelSekruleba
werilobiTi formiT, romelic sakmaod vrcelia da moicavs mraval niuanss.
zogadi debulebebi, romelsac moicavs nasyidobis xelSekrulebebi:
 xelSekrulebis mxareebi;
 xelSekrulebis sagani;
 miwodebis pirobebi;
 myidvelis da gamyidvelis uflebebi;
 Rirebuleba da gadaxda;
 mxareebis valdebulebebi;
 forsmaJori
 სxva detalebi
nasyidobis gaformeba individualuria, magram miwodebis pirobebi
zogadad yvelasTvis erTia, nasyidobis xelSekruleba ki wyvets romeli
maTgani iqneba gamoyenebuli.
Incoterms (international Comercial Terms, saerTaSoriso savaWro terminebi) igi
Seiqmna savaWro trაdiciebisa da praqtikis safuZvelze. saerTaSoriso
savaWro terminebis, anu rogorc mas saxelSekrulebo praqtikaSi SemოklebiT
uwodeben “inkoterms”. terminebi mowodebulia moaxdinos saerTaSoriso
nasyidobisa
da
gadazidvebis
xelSekrulebaTa
ZiriTadi
pirobebis
harmonizeba.
Tavdapirvelad igi Seiqmna 1936 wels saerTaSoriso savaWro palatis
mier, romellsac SemdgomSi “incoterms 1936‖ ewoda. mogvianebiT aRniSnul
wesebSi ramodenimejer iqna Setanili Sesworebebi da damatebebi 1953, 1967,
1976, 1980, 1990, 1998 da 2000wels. gamoyenebis moxerxebulobis mizniT 2000 wlis
“inkotermsSi” moxda cvlileba, კერძოდ, terminebi daiyo oTx ZiriTad
kategoriad, Sesabamisi kriteriumebis mixedviT, romelTagan erT-erTi
ZiriTadi terminTa sawyisi asoebia. 2010 wels moxda saboloo cvlileba
173
miwodebis pirobebSi, rac dRes gamოiyeneba, Tu saWiro iqnებa cvlilebebi
ganxorcieldeba 2020 wlisaTvis. ix.suraTi #1
sur #1
E-termini, romelic aRniSnavs gamyidvelis mier uSualod Tavis
SenobaSi
myidvelisaTvis tvirTis gadacemas. (gamyidvelis valdebulebebi
minimaluria).
F-termini,
romelic
gamyidvels
avaldebulebs
miitanos
tvirTi
myidveლis mier miTiTebul gadamzidvelTan, rodesac gamyidveli mxolod
saqonlis
gareSe.
gafoრmebas
uzrunvelyofs
yovelgvari
zedmeti
danaxarjebis
C-termini,romlis mixedviTac gamyidveli valdebulia gadaixados
satransporto danaxarjebis Rirebuleba, magram igi Tavis Tavze ar iRebs
tvirTis SemTxveviTi daRupvis an ganadgurebis risks, agreTve im damatebiT
xarjebs, rac SeiZleba warmoiSvas gemze datvirTvisa da gagzavnis Semdeg.
D-termini iTvaliswinebs gamyidvelis mier myidvelisaTvis saqonlis
miwodebis adgilamde yvela xarjs da tvirTis SemTxveviTi daRupvisa da
ganadgurebis risks.
2010 wlis inkotermsi,
gamyidvels (ix. sur #2).
ra
pasuxismgebloba
gaaCniaT
myidvels
da
sur #2.
174
TiToeuli savaWro operaciis dros xdeba Semdegi safexurebis gavla:
SefuTva, datvirTva, mitana gamyidvelis portSi an terminalSi, eqsportis
identurobis
Sეmowmeba,
datvirTva,
gadatana,
dazRveva,
myidvelis
teritoriaze mitana, importis identurobis Semowmeba, daniSnulebis adgilze
mitana.
miwodebis pirobebi agreTve gansxvavdeba transportis saxiT da riskis
gadacemiT. (ix sur.#3)
sur.#3.
EXW (ex works) qarxnidan gamyidvelis valdebulebebi minimaluria, xolo
mTeli pasuxismgebloba tvirTis adgilamde gadasatanad ekisreba myidvels,
gamyidveli
movalea
daexmaros
myidvels
saeqsporto
dokumentaciis
momzadebaSi da pasuxs agebs myidvelis winaSe, araswori datvirTvis gamo.
Mმyidvels ekisreba yvela riski da xarji saqonlis Senobidan daniSnulebis
adgilze mitanisaTvis.
FCA (free carrier) gamyidvelis valdebuleba myidvelisaTvis saqonlis
miwodebaze Sesasruleblad iTvleba, Tu igi gadascems eqsportisaTvis
momzadebul saqonels myidvelis mier arCeul tvirTis gadamtanTan
miTiTebul misamarTze.
FAS (free alongside ship) gamyidveli tvirTavs Tavis teritoriaze, gadaaqvs
tvirTi portSi, myidveli ixdis gadazidvis xarjebs da Tavad uzrunvelyofs
daniSnulebis adgilamde mitanas.
FOB (free on the board) gamyidvelis mier myidvelisaTvis saqonlis
miwodebis valdebuleba Sesrulebulad iTvleba, rodesac saqoneli gadakveTs
gemis kides dasaxelebuli CatvirTvis portSi.am momentidan riski gadadis
myidvelze, mocemuli termini gamoiyeneba mxolod sazRvao da Sida
saxmeleTo sawyalosno gadazidvebis SemTxvevaSi.
CFR (cost and freight) xarjebi da fraxti-gamyidvelis movaleobaa
gadaixados saqonlis daniSnulebis portSi CatanisaTvis aucilebeli
xarjebi. risksac gamyidveli iRebs.mas aseve ekisreba im xarjebis gadaxda,
romelic gamowveulia tvirTis gembanze moTavsebis Semdeg warmoqmnili
movlenebiT. mocemuli termini gamoiyeneba mxolod sazRvao da Sida
saxmeleTo sawyalosno gadazidvebis SemTxvevaSi.
CIF (cost, insurance, freight) xarjebi, dazRveva da fraxti-gamyidvels
175
ekisreba igive valdebulebebi, rac CFR terminis SemTxvevaSi,damatebiთsazRvao dazRvevis uzrunvelyofa, valdebulia gadaixados sadazRveo premia.
mocemuli termini gamoiyeneba mxolod sazRvao da Sida saxmeleTo
sawyalosno gadazidvebis SemTxvevaSi.
CPT (carriage paid to…) fraxtisagan Tavisufali-gamyidveli ixdis fraxts
saqonilis dasaxelebul adgilamde. Mmyidvels riski gadaecema, maSin modesac
gamyidveli saqonels gadamtanს Caabarebs.
CIP (carriage and insurance paid to…) gaმyidvels igive valdebulebebi aqvs
rac CPT-is SemTxvevaSi da amasTanave gamyidveli ixdis transportirebis,
dazRvevisaTvis da gascemს premias sadazRveo SemTxვevis moxdenis dros.
DAT (delivered at terminal) yvela valdebulebas asrulebs gamyidveli,
axorcielebs tvirTis terminalamde mitanas, mxolod mas Semdeg gadaecema
riski myidvels.
DAP (delivered at point) gamyidveli bolomde pasuxismgebelia sanam tvirTs
daniSnulebis adgilamde ar miitans.
DDP (delivered duty paid) gamyidvelis movaleoba-miawodos tvirTi,
Sesrulebulad iTvleba rodesac igi myidvels saqonliT uzrunvelyofs
daniSnulebis adgilas-importirebis qveyanaSi.mocemul adgilas mitanamde
saqonlis SemTxveviT daRupvis an ganadgurebis riski, agreTve yvela xarji da
gadasaxadi ekisreba gamyidvels.
saqarTvelo saerTaSoriso savaWro organizaciis wevri qveyanaa,ეს
misTvisac iseTive mniSvnelovania rogorc msoflios mravali qveynisaTvis
raTa gansazRvruli iyos yvela piroba, gamyidvelma ra funqcia movaleobebi
unda Seasrulos romel etapze, an myidveli rodis inawilebs risks.
gamoyenebuli literaturა

g.jolia, saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebi-sagamomcemlo
saxli “teqnikuri universiteti”, Tbilisi 2008. gv. 105

http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%98%E1%83%9C%E1%83%99%E1%83%9D%E1%
83%A2%E1%83%94%E1%83%A0%E1%83%9B%E1%83%A1%E1%83%98


http://www.rs.ge/4793
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_trade_law
International Trade and Supply Conditions
Mariam Shavdatuashvili
Resume
The modern practice of international trade, incoterms "rules of recognition‖ is a widely
accepted and used, which facilitates international commercial transactions.
176
fulad-sakredito politika saxelmwifo
regulirebis sistemaSi
qeTevan SanSiaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-4 kursis studenti
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 598 77 07 72
giorgi zibzibaZe
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori, ekonomikis doqtori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 595 34 27 91
zogadad
cnobilia,
rom
ekonomikuri
politikis
realizacia
varaudobas iseTi RonisZiebebis gatarebas, romlebic ayalibebes saxelmwifo
regulirebis meqanizms. aseTi meqanizmi ekonomikaze gavlenas axdens rogorc
pirdapiri ise arapirdapiri meTodebiT.
pirdapiri zemoqmedebis meTodebi gulisxmobs saxelmwifos mxriv iseTi
regulirebas, romlis drosac
ekonomikuri subieqtebi iZulebulni arian
miiRon gadawyvetileba ara damoukideblad ekonomikuri arCevanis mixedviT,
aramed
saxelmwifos karnaxis mixedviT. magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT
sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba, saamortizacio anaricxebis normebi da sxva.
pirdapiri meTodebi Tumca xSirad
ufro efeqturnia ekonomikuri
Sedegebis operatiulad miRwevis TvalsazrisiT, magram gaaCniT seriozuli
nakli, rac sabazro procesSi Carevas da rigi dabrkolebebis SqmnaSi
gamoixateba
amdenad SeiZleba iTqvas rom fulad sakredito politika ekonomikuri
instrumentebis im jgufs miekuTvneba romlebic ara imdenad brZanebiTia,
ramdenadac zemoqmedebis xasiaTisa
fuladi
politikis
Tavisebureba
isicaa
rom
misi
daxmarebiT
saxelmwifo cdilobs zemoqmedeba moaxdinos erTobliv miwodebaze anu Tu
finansuri regulirebis aqtiuri mxarea upiratesi zemoqmedeba dovlaTis
moxmarebaze, fulad sakredito politikis mizani erTobliv moTxovnaze
zemoqmedebis moxdenaa.
fulad-sakredito politika aris centraluri bankis (cb) RonisZiebaTa
erToblioba fulis mimoqcevisa da kreditis sferoSi makroekonomikur
procesze zemoqmedebisaTvis.
fulad-sakredito
sferoSi moqmedebis dros cb iyenebs sxvadasxva
instruments. maT umravlesobas aqvs zemomoqedebis iribi xasiaTi. magram
sakredito sferos zogierTi operacia SeiZleba ganxorcieldes pirdapiri
meTodiT (magaliTad finansuri politikis sferodan saxelmwifos subsidiebi.
sqemaze mocemulia fulad sakredito politikis meTodebi da instrumentebi
177
sakredito (politikis) regulirebis pirdapiri meTodebi – es aris
centraluri bankis moqmedebebi dakreditebis dinamikis SeRudvisaTvis.
zogierT evropul qveyanaSi cb-s ufleba aqvs SemoiRos komerciuli
bankisaTvis, bankebis mier Tavisi resursebis arasabanko seqtorSi dabandebis sazRvrebi. iribi meTodebi moicavs ramdenime variants:
1.
ganaRdebis politika. kanonis safuZvelze cb-s aqvs sargeblis
ganakveTiT manipulirebis ufleba,, romelTac igi kredits aZlevs komerciul
bnkebs. xdeba ,,kreditis fasis~ Taviseburi regulireba. miiReben ra am
resursebs, komerciul bankebSi maT Semdgom miscemeen ekonomikis sxva
subieqtebs (ra Tqma unda, ufro maRali sargebliT). sargeblis ganakveTis
daxmarebiT cb irib zemoqmedebas axdens moTxovnisa da mimoqcevis
Tanafardobaze. kapitalis bazarze. ,,Zviri~ krediti zRudavs moTxovnas
sasesxo resursebze (samewarmeo seqtoris mxridan). Sedegad mcirdeba maTi
investiciebi, qveyanaSi ecema saqmiani aqtivoba. aseTi ,,gamagrilebeli~
Sedegisagan
mTavroba
iswrafvis
koniuqturis
,,gadaxurebis~
dros
(ekonomikuri zrdis metismetad maRali donis pirobebSi).
saxelmwifos es
mizani ganpirobebuulia imiT, rom zrdis maRali done dakavSirebulia mzard
erTobliv moTxovnasTan, es ki –logikis mixedviT aucileblad iwvevs
inflaciis gaZlierebas. ,,iafi~ krediti ki kerZo seqtors aZlevs investirebis
stimuls (aqciebis da obligaciebis SeZena, axali sawarmoo korpusebis
mSenebloba da a.S..). aseTi situacia sasurvelia im periodSi, roca ekonomika
recesiis (daRmavlobis) stadiaSia.
ganaRdebis ganakveTis daxmarebiT regulurebas aqvs garkveuli
sazRvrebi. kerZod, am operaciis efeqti SeiZleba Semcirdes, im SemTxvevaSi,
roca komerciul bankebs aqvT fuladi rezervebi da SedarebiT iSviaTad
mimarTaven cb damatebiTi sakredito resursebisaTvis.
amdenad ganaRdebis
ganakveTi asrulebs informaciis rolsac. kerZod ganakveTis SecvliT cb
kerZo seqtors aZlevs signals aqtivobis gazrdisaTvis an, piriqiT, saqmini
energiis SekavebisaTvis. Tu kerZo seqtori ar axdens reagirebas, saqmeSi
178
rTaven ufro mkacr berketebs. mag, operaciebs Ria bazarze.
2. operaciebi Ria bazarze. cb saxelmwifo fasiani qaRaldebis yidvagayidvebs metwil SemTxvevebSi axdens Ria bazarze, mag. birJaze am dros
mizani erTia – qveyanaSi mimoqcevaSi arsebuli fulis raodenobis
regulireba.
komerciuli bankebisaTvis fasiani qaRaldebis miyidviT maTgan amoiReben
Warb sabalanso rezervebs. Sedegad fulis mimoqceva mcirdeba. komerciuli
bankebisagan fasiani qaRaldebis Sesyidvis SemTxvevaSi cb anaRdebs maT
Rirebulebas da amiT saxalxo meurneobriv brunvaSi Sehyavs fulis
damatebiTi masa.
3. minimaluri rezervebis politika – warmoadgens komerciuli bankebis,
aqtivebis nawilis rezervirebas cb-Si. es keTdeba ori mizniT: - 1.qveynis
sakredito sistemis dazRvevisaTvis; - 2. cb-is zemoqmedeba komerciuli
bankebis sakredito resursebis moculobaze.
unda iTqvas, rom regulirebis sxva variantebTan SedarebiT, is uxeSad
iTvleba Ria bazarze operaciebTan SedarebiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
regulirebis procesSi yvelaze met efeqts iZleva: a) regulirebis meTodebis
farTo speqtris gamoyeneba. b) maTi gamoyeneba mizanSewonilia TanmimdevrobiT
ufro rbilidan-ufro mkacrisken, komerciuli bankebis mixedviT.
4. nebayoflobiTi SeTanxmebebi. generaluri banki zogjer iswrafvis
saqmiani SeTaxnebebi gaaformos komerciuli bankebTan. es meTodi saSualebas
iZleva
operatiuli
gadawyvetilebebi
miRebul
iqnes
swrafad
da
gansakuTrebuli biurokratizmis gareSe.
zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba gavakeToT Semdegi daskvnebi:
a) realizaciis procesSi sakredito politika avlens mTel rig efeqtur
mxareebs, magram aris aSkara Cavardnebic. b) ekonomikaze zemoqmedebis fuladsakredito meTodebs, ise rogorc safinanso meTodebs, aqvs gaorebuli buneba;
erTi mxriv isini warmoadgenen saxelmwifos ekonomikuri politikis
realizaciis meqanizms, meore mxriv, es aris makroekonomikuri regulirebis
damoukidebeli mimarTuleba.
ekonomikuri politikis realizaciis praqtika aCvenebs, rom yvelaze
racionaluria regulirebis orive mimarTulebis SeTanawyoba. magram mis
CarCoebSi yovelTvis Cans (esa Tu is) ama Tu im meTodis gaZlierebis
monacvleobiTi meryeoba, ekonomikuri situaciis mdgomareobis mixedviT.
migvaCnia, rom radgan zogadad ekonomikuri politika
erTdroulad
ramdenime
urTierT
sawinaaRmdego,
konfliqtur
mizans
SeiZleba
axorcielebdes, SesaZloa iseTi finansuri, fulad sakredito da sxva saxis
instrumentebi iqnas
gamoyenebuli, romlebic ar
179
iqnebian srul unisonSi
erTmaneTTan.
zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare gvinda gavakeToT Semdegi daskvnebi:
1. Cveni azriT fulad sakredito politikis
ZiriTadi mizani unda
gaxdes qveyanaSi warmoebis donis amaRlebis kvalobaze ekonomikis fuladi
resursebiT uzrunvelyofa da dasaqmebis donis amaRleba.
2. marTalia bolo periodSi SeimCneva saprocento ganakveTis erTgari
Semcireba magram is mainc mniSvnelovnad maRalia sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT,
rac dabrkolebas
uqmnis mewarmeobis ganviTarebas qveyanaSi. amdenad
vTvliT, rom saWiroa erovnuli bankis Zalisxmeva mimarTuli iqnes ufro
dabali saprocento ganakveTis dasamkvidreblad, rac xels Seuwyobs axali
samuSao adgilebis Seqmnas da amiT fulad sakredito sistemis gamtkicebas
Cven qveyanaSi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
r. gvelesiani x. gogoriSvili ekonomikuri politika wigni 1
(gamomcemloba „universali“ Tb. 2009)
2.
ekonomikuri politikis daijesti (prof. sokolniskis redaqciiT
Tsu-s gamomcemloba 2003)
Monetary – Credit Policy in the System of State Regulation
Ketevan Shanshiashvili
Resume
Monetary - credit policy and the state of financial and credit institutions helps correct monetary
- credit policy to regulate and manage their activities, what they are able to, through the National
Central Bank of the instructions issued by various means and strategies.
fulis masis zrda da inflacia
aleqsandre kaxiZe, Tornike kakulia, mixeil kuxaleiSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis sajaro mmarTvelobis
specialobis pirveli kursis studentebi
besarion nayofia
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
sruli profesori, ekonomikis mecnierebaTa doqtori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 599 71 63 57
dros,
calkeuli
inflacia es aris fulis masis zrda, romelic
ar aris uzrunvelyofili realuri saqonliT. is
iwvevs erTeulis msyidvelobiTi unaris dacemas da
SeuZlebels xdis ekonomikur gaTvlebs. inflacia
yvelgan da yovelTvis monetaruli sakiTxia. Fasebis
saerTo donis zrda, misi erT-erTi Sedegi.Tumca, es
ar niSnavs, rom yvela fasi erTnairad izrdeba. amave
fasebis dinamika yovelTvis ar aris damokidebuli
180
monetarul sakiTxebze – navTobis, kartofilis, xorblis, brinjis an Saqris
fasebi cal-calke rom gazrdiliyo, SeiZleba raime sxva mizezi yofiliyo da
Sedegi Sesabamis saqonlis moxmarebis droebiTi Semcireba iqneboda. xolo
momwodebels ki niSani miecemodaT, Tu ra unda awarmoon, rom mogeba miiRoon.
magram rodesac izrdeba fasebi yvelaferze erTad, cxadia, rom mizezebi
monetarulia. Ggare faqtoridan ki xazgasasmelia, rom arc amerikis da arc
evropis centraluri bankebi akleben xels fulis beWdvas da inflaciis
eqsports daxmarebebis, grantebis da sxva formiT.sagareo inflacias,
adgilobrivic emateba da Sedegebic ufro savalaloa. garda amisa,
saxelmwifos xarjebis permanentuli zrda resursebs bazarze orientirebuli
kerZo seqtoridan saxelmwifo dakveTebSi mimarTavs da xels uwyobs
samomxmareblo saqonlis miwodebis Semcirebas: kapitaluri mSeneblobebi ar
aris saTanadod uzrunvelyofili danazogebiT.
ratom aris inflacia gansakuTrebiT saziano da saxifaTo? Aam kiTxvaze
martivi pasuxi ase JRers – imitom, rom bevr, sxvadasxva tipis problemas
warmoSobs. inflacia amcirebs laris Rirebulebas (Tu larad SegeZloT
geyidaT 2 vaSli, axla iyidiT naklebs), „‟aZvirebs‟‟ cxovrebas, kidev ufro
aRatakebs mosaxleobis Rarib nawils (axali fulis masa bazarze erTianad ar
Semodis da Tanabrad ar nawildeba. Aaxali fuli jer xvdeba erTi
socialuri jgufis xelSi, romelic xarjavs mas pirveli da rCeba mogebuli,
radgan bazari jer ar aris gaCerebuli axali fuliT da fasebi isev
pirvandel mdgomareobaSia. Semdeg axali fulis masa inacvlebs sxva
jgufebis xelSi, romlebic aseve xarjaven mas sxvadasxva produqtebsa Tu
momsaxurebaze. saboloo jamSi axali fuli ar xvdeba an naklebad xvdeba
mosaxleobis yvelaze Raribi nawilis xelSi, romlebic an Semweobaze arian
an, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, fiqsirebul xelfasze. Swored maT mouwevT imave
SemosavlebiT gazrdil fasebTan gamklaveba), aufasurebs danazogebs (Tu
gaqvT bankSi danazogi, romliTac SegeZloT magaliTad avtomanqanis yidva,
axla, imaves gakeTebis SemTxvevaSi, Tanxis damateba mogiwevT), klavs
danazogis gakeTebis motivacias (ra azri aqvs fulis Senaxvas Tu fiqrob,
rom misi Rirebuleba daiklebs), axdens dovlaTis usamarTlo gadanawilebas
(igeben isini, vis xelSic yvelaze adre moxvdeba axali fuli), adamianebs
ukargavs patiosani biznesis keTebis motivacias da sxva.
inflaciis
SeCereba
martivia
(cxadia,
Tu
hiperinflaciamde ar aris procesi misuli). amas
axerxebs TiTqmis yvela met-naklebad ganviTarebuli
qveyana.
ubralod
saWiroa
Sesabamisi
survilis
arseboba.Mmeqanizmi ki arc ise rTulia – unda Sewydes
zedmeti fulis masis mimoqcevaSi gaSveba, miuxedavad
imisa, ra mniSvnelobis proeqtebSi ixarjeba es fuli.
da
msoflios safinanso bazrebze kvlavac didi gaurkvevlobaa. Sul ufro
ufro Zlierdeba recesiis molodini.prognozebis mixedviT moTxovna
181
Semcirdeba.
Tavis
mxriv
aRniSnuli
faqti
iwvevs
sainvesticio da
samomxmareblo xarjebis Semcirebas.Aamitomac aris, rom krizisamde fasebis
zrdasa da inflaciaze vsaubrobdiT.exla ki, msoflio finansuri krizisis
fonze
adgili aqvs
erToblivi moTxovnis
Semcirebasa da fasebis
farTomasStabian
klebas. Aamitomac sruliad safuZvliania deflaciur
problemebze yuradRebis gamaxvileba da msjeloba imaze, gvemuqreba Tu rad
Res deflaciis safrTxe iseve, rogorc es iyo didi depresiis dros.
2007 wlamde aSS-Si mSeneblobebis maRali tempebis, aSenebul farTebze
araadekvaturad maRali fasebis, mSeneblobaSi arsebuli didi moculobis
investiciebisa da ipoTekuri dakreditebis arasaTanado meTodebis gamoyenebis
gamo, aSS-s uZravi qonebis bazari gajerda da fasebma swrafad iwyo
vardna.amas mohyva investorTa mxridan didi danakargebi, rasac isic
emateboda, rom sabanko dawesebulebebi xSir SemTxvevaSi Tanamonawileobis
gareSe, dabali saprocento ganakveTiT gascemdnen kreditebs uZravi qonebis
SesaZenad. Yyovelive zemoTTqmulma gamoiwvia masobrivi gadauxdelobebi,
ramac sabanko seqtors seriozuli problemebi Seuqmna.Problema imanac
gaamwvava, rom navTobze fasebi uprecedentoT gaizarda da 2008 wlis ivlisis
dasawyisSi gadaaWarba barelze 140 dolars.
inflaciis
arsi,
inflacia
warmodgeba
laTinuri
sityvisgan inflation da niSnavs gabervas. inflacias iwvevs
fulis mimoqcevis arxebis avseba Warbi fuliT Sesabamisi
sasaqonlo uzrunvelyofis, anu sasaqonlo masis adeqvaturi
zrdis gareSe. amas Sedegad mohyveba fasebis zrda, rogorc
samomxmareblo, ise sawarmoo daniSnulebis saqonelze. fulis
raodenobrivi
Teoria
kargad
xsnis
inflaciis
arss.
aRniSnuli Teoriis Tanaxmad ekonomikaSi arsebuli fulis
raodenoba gansazRvravs fulis Rirebulebas. fulis miwodebis zrda ki
inflaciis ZiriTadi mizezia. milton fridmanis ganmartebiT „‟inflacia‟‟
yvelgan da yovelTvis monetaruli movlenaa.
ekonomikaSi fuls sami funqcia aqvs: fuli aris gacvlis saSualeba,
Rirebulebis sazomi da dagrovebis saSualeba.
rodesac fuli realuri Rirebulebis mqone qonebis formas iRebs, mas
saqonluri fuli ewodeba. termini realuri Rirebuleba imas niSnavs, rom
erTeuls garkveuli Rirebuleba eqneba maSinac ki, rodesac ar gamoiyeneba,
rogorc fuli. saqonluri fulis erT-erTi magaliTia – oqro. Oqros
realuri Rirebuleba aqvs, vinaidan is mrewvelobaSi da saiuveliro nawarmis
damzadebaSi gamoiyeneba. imis miuxedavad, rom oqros fulis saxiT aRar
viyenebT, oqro istoriulad yovelTvis fulis farTod miRebuli saxeoba iyo,
vinaidan is SedarebiT advili gadasatani da gasazomia, da, amasTanave, misi
gayalbeba Znelia. rodesac ekonomika oqros fulad iyenebs ( an iyenebs
182
qaRaldis fuls, romelic moTxovnisTanave oqroze gadaicvleba), amboben, rom
mTavroba oqros standartis pirobebSi funqcionirebs.
Aarsebul realobaSi inflacia ufro farTo procesis gverdiTi
efeqtia.rodesac
ekonomikebi
axdenen
swraf
gamosvlas
krizisidan,
saerTaSoriso bazarze Warbad miwodebuli finansuri masebi Warbobs, rac
iwvevs fasebis spekulaciur zrdas. meore mxriv, ekonomikuri krizisis
pirobebSi Semcirda warmoeba. Sesabamisad, Semcirda miwodeba.Miwodebis
gazrdas dro sWirdeba.anu ise gamovida, rom fulis moculoba ufro swrafad
gaizarda, vidre mas warmoeba daewia. am globaluri procesisgan arc erTi
qveyana ar aris dazRveuli.
arsebobs alternatiuli gzac – xarjebis Semcireba. mTavrobis mier
deklarirebuli qamrebis moWeris politika. Bbevri fiqrobs, rom swored
deficit da vali iwvevs fasebis zrdas.
Tumca, meore mxriv, es dazogili Tanxebi deficitis Semcirebasa da
valis nawilobriv dafarvas SeiZleba moxmareboda.moklevadiani ekonomikuri
Soki grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi ekonomikis gajansaRebas ar gamoiwvevda?
rodesac deficitze vsaubrobT, sakmaod frTxilad unda movekidoT imis
Sefasebas Tu rogori gavlena SeiZleba hqondes mas ekonomikaze. medals ori
mxare aqvs, Cven SeiZleba erTi mxriv vTqvaT, rom modi 200 milion dolarian
proeqts nu ganvaxorcielebT, magram aman grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi,
ekonomikas SeiZleba seriozuli dartyma miayenos – Seqmnas negatiuri
procesebi da maT Soris, inflaciasac Seuwyos xeli.
modiT vnaxoT ra SeiZleba iyos inflaciasTan brZolis yvelaze martivi
meqanizmi – ekonomika unda gaaCero. Ekonomikis gaCerebaSi swored
dakreditebis gaCereba igulisxmeba.es yvelaze radikaluri zomaa. amiT
praqtikulad xelovnurad amcireb moxmarebas, Sesabamisad, saqonlis an
momsaxurebis fasi mcirdeba.
amas Tavisi negatiuri mxare aqvs: ferxdeba ekonomikuri zrda. Cven erTi
mxriv ver gavaCerebT ekonomikis zrdas bolomde, imitom rom, Tu
elementarulad zrda ar iqna, is fulic ar iqneba, rac dRes aris. Tumca
meore mxriv, inflacia am doniT sruliad dauSvebelia, radgan saboloo
jamSi is aseve vnebs ekonomikas. maT Soris balansis povna Zalian rTulia.
inflacia aris bazarze arsebuli fulis masisa da qveyanaSi bazarze
arsebul produqtebs Soris Tanafardobis darRveva, fulis masis zrdis, an
produqtebis raodenobis Semcirebis Sedegad.
Ppirvel rigSi unda aRiniSnos, rom inflacia iwvevs dovlaTis araswor
gadanawilebas.inflacia mdidrebs amdidrebs, Raribebs ki kidev ufro
aRatakebs. uxeSad, rom vTqvaT, Raribebi axdenen mdidrebis Semosavlebis
zrdas, sakuTari jibiT, xdeba mosaxleobis oficialuri Zarcva.
183
inflaciuri procesebisadmi gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea mosaxleobis
mimdinare Semosavlebi, pirvel rigSi, xelfasi.
inflaciis paralelurad moxda (gansakuTrebiT 2003 wlis Semdeg)
erovnuli valutis gamyareba aSS dolaris mimarT (2011 wels 2000 welTan
SedarebiT lari dolarTan gamyarda 14.6 procentiT, xolo 2003 welTan – 21.4
procentiT). Sedegad, Tu nominalurad 2000 welTan SedarebiT 2011 wlisTvis
fuladi tranzaqciebi saqarTveloSi aSS dolarebSi gaizarda 20.0 – jer,
larebSi denominirebuli igive resursebi gaizarda mxolod 17.1 – jer, xolo
inflaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, realurad – mxolod 8.3 –jer. es niSnavs, rom
fuladi tranzaqciebis erTeulis (aSS dolaris) msyidvelobiTi unarianoba
saqarTveloSi 2011 wlisTvis TiTqmis 2.4 – jer Semcirda da 2000 wlis donis
mxolod 40.7 procenti Seadgina.
Mme-20 saukunis bolos da 21-e saukunis dasawyisSi virtualuri
kapitali arsebiTad gansxvavdeba me-19 saukunis fiqciuri kapitalisagan.
jererTi, warmoadgens ra globalur virtualur kapitals, igi
funqcionirebs stiqiurad, ar eqvemdebareba erovnul da zesaxelmwifoebriv
struqturebs;
meore, moxda misi privatizacia SezRuduli raodenobis kerZo pirTa
mier, Tumca virtualuri kapitali maT kontrols daqvemdebarebuli ar aris;
mesame, virtualuri kapitali warmogvidgeba neo-kapitalis, neo-fulis
rolSi
da
asrulebs
universaluri
regulatorisa
da
sayovelTao
ekvivalentis funqciebs.
inflaciis gamomwvevi mizezi mxolod sagareo faqtorebi ar aris. ufro
mniSvnelovani Sida faqtorebia. Sagareo faqtorebidan SegviZlia mxolod is
vTqvaT, rom TiTqmis yvela im produqciis fasebi gaizarda, romelsac
adamianebis saarsebo racionSi sakmaod didi wili uWiravs da rasac
momxmarebeli yvelaze xSirad moixmars. Eesaa xorbali, pur-produqtebi,
Saqari, wiwibura da aseve sawvavi.Aaman didwilad imoqmeda inflaciis
maCvenebelze, Tumca gvaqvs Sida faqtorebi, romelsac gacilebiT Rrma
mizezebi aqvs. Ees aris qveyanaSi arsebuli monopoliuri da oligopoliuri
kompaniebi. Sawvavis bazari, Saqris bazari, ramdenime kategoriis bazari aris
oligopoliuri.es ganapirobebs imas, rom xelovnuradaa gazrdili fasebi.
igive mobiluri kompaniebis mxridan iyo xelovnurad gazrdili fasebi da
manam ver mixvdnen amas, sanam maregulirebelma erovnulma komisiam zRvruli
fasebi ar daudgina.
NnebismierniSna inflacia cudia, zustad ise, rogorc nemsis qurdic –
qurdia.Inflacia jibis qurdobas gavs da saxelmwifos xelSi farul
gadasaxadiviT muSaobs.Araswori mizani, araswori saSualebebi, araswori
instituciuri mowyoba – ai aq unda veZeboT problema – marto erT adamianze,
184
an institutze joxis gadatexva ar Rirs.miTumetes, rom arc akademiuri
wreebi, arc Jurnalistebi da arc politikuri opoziciaa ufro marTali am
sakiTxSi.
vinc axlosaa fulis sabeWd manqanasTan, ucxour kreditebTan da
grantebTan – igebs, radgan maT SeuZliaT saqoneli da momsaxureba fasebis
gazrdamde.vinc Sorsaa – agebs, radgan maT xelSi axlad moWrili fulis
maSin aRmoCndeba xolme, rodesac fasebi ukve gazrdilia. Mmagram mcdari
iqneba Tqma, rom igebs mxolod is, vinc marTavs. igebs misi xelqveiTebic da
Sesabamis proeqtebSi dasaqmebulebic. Tumca, yvelas mogeba SefardebiTia.
sawyisi problemis saxiT keinzma SearCia dasaqmeba, radganac igi
umniSvnelovanes xasiaTs iRebs ekonomikuri krizisebis dros. j. keinzma
gaanaliza kapitalisturi ekonomikis funqcionireba 30-iani wlebis „‟didi
depresiis‟‟ fonze, roca umuSevrobam aSS-Si 25 %-s miaRwia. Mmisi azriT, am
pirobebSi warmoebis gafarToeba SeiZleboda sawarmoo xarjebis an fasebis
zrdis gareSe. piriqiT, fasebis da xelfasebis Semcireba warmoebis
moculobas ar Seamcirebda. j. keinzma daamtkica, rom kapitalistur sistemaSi
ar aris sruli dasaqmebis avtomaturi meqanizmi, rac praqtikulad 30-iani
wlebis depresiam gamoiwvia. Mmisi rekomendacia mTavrobisadmi iyo: gaezardaT
xarjebi warmoebis gasafarToeblad da amiT SeeqmnaT damatebiTi samuSao
adgilebi umuSevrebisTvis.
Ddasaqmebis
done,
keinzis
azriT,
ganisazRvreba
ara
xelfasis
cvlilebebiT, rogorc amas neoklasikosebi amtkicebdnen, aramed efeqturi
moTxovnis dinamikiT, romelic Sedgeba moxmarebisa da investiciebis
mosalodneli xarjebisagan. Eefeqturi moTxovna sruladaa damokidebuli
mewarmeebis qcevasa da mogebis mosalodneli normiT.
saprocento ganakveTi, keinzis mixedviT,
avtonomiuri
romelic fulze moTxovnisa da miwodebis safuZvelze yalibdeba.
faqtoria,
miuxedavad imisa, rom keinzma Tavisi ekonomikuri Sexedulebebi 1936
wels Camoayaliba, man aRiareba 1960-ian wlebSi hpova, rodesac ekonomistebis
umravlesoba am Teorias miemxro. Tanamedrove keinzianelebi aRiareben, rom
monetaruli
politika
arsebiT
zemoqmedebas
axdens
ekonomikur
aqtivobaze.erTi mxriv, adreuli keinzianelebi 1950-ian wlebsa da 1960-iani
wlebis dasawyisSi, rogorc wesi, inarCunebdnen Sexedulebas, rom monetaruli
politika ver zemoqmedebs saqmian aqtivobaze.
maTi mosazrebebi monetaruli politikis araefeqturobaze efuZneba
struqturul modelze damyarebul empiriul mtkicebulebebs, romlebic
Semdeg punqtebs gulisxmobs: 1) „‟didi depresiis‟‟ periodSi aSS-s xazinis
saprocento ganakveTebi maqsimalurad dabal doneze daeca (mag.: sam Tvian
saxazino
obligaciebze
1%-ze
naklebi
iyo).
Adreuli
keinzianelebi
monetaruli politikis erTobliv moTxovnaze zemoqmedebis mxolod erT arxs
185
ganixilavdnen: nominaluri saprocento ganakveTebis zemoqmedeba sainvesticio
danaxarjebze. isini miiCnevdnen, rom „‟didi depresiis‟‟ periodSi dabali
saprocento ganakveTebi iyo Sedegi mastimulirebeli politikisa, romelsac
SeeZlo sainvesticio danaxarjebis moculobis gazrda, magram ver SeZlo
emoqmeda im periodis ekonomikur aqtivobaze. isini fiqrobdnen, rom fulis
masis cvlileba veranair zemoqmedebas ver axdens warmoebis moculobaze, anu
fuls aranairi mastimulirebeli mniSvneloba ar aqvs.
2) adreuli keinzianelebi ver xedavdnen veranair kavSirs nominaluri
saprocento ganakveTebis cvlilebasa da sainvesticio danaxarjebs Soris.
isini nominaluri saprocento ganakveTebis efeqts miiCnevdnen monetaruli
politikis erTobliv moTxovnaze gadacemis erTaderT meqanizmad. Mas Semdeg,
rac isini darwmundnen am arxis sisusteSi, CaTvales, rom fulis masis
cvlileba veranairad ver aisaxeba warmoebis moculobis cvlilebaze.
3) adreuli keinzianelebis mier Catarebulma kvlevam aCvena, rom
sabazro saprocento ganakveTebi veranairad ver zemoqmedebs ZiriTad
kapitalSi ganxorcielebuli investiciebis moculobaTa Sesaxeb firmebis
gadawyvetilebebze. Aman kidev erTxel gaamyara maTi daskvnebi imis Taobaze,
rom saprocento ganakveTebis da sainvesticio danaxarjebis urTierTkavSiri
metad sustia.
yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, 1960-iani wlebis Suaxanebamde
ekonomistebi, rogorc wesi, monetarul politikas did yuradRebas ar
aqcevdnen.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1)
2)
gregori menqiu
sabazro finansebi. i.mesxia; d. WiotaSvili. Tb. 2012 weli.
Money supply growth and inflation
Aleqsandre Kaxidze,
Tornike Kakulia,
Mixeil Kuxaleishvili
Resume
The article discusses the impact of money supply growth, inflationProcesses. If the results for
all the reasons discussed in theThis leads to escape from the event and suggested inflationRoads and
events.
186
biznesis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi saqarTveloSi
naTia nemsiwveriZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis biznesis administrirebis
specialobis me-4 kursis studenti
zurab beriZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis, mowveuli profesori,
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 597 189 189
saqarTvelos ekonomika dRevandel etapze orientirebulia msoflio
ekonomikaSi integraciis gaRrmavebaze. Aam mizniT xorcieldeba ekonomikis
liberalizacia da biznesis xelSemwyobi garemos Camoyalibeba, rac pirdapir
zemoqmedebas axdens konkurenciis ganviTarebasa da urTierTdakavSirebul
sawarmoTa qselis ganviTarebis procesze. sabazro meurneobis principebis
danergviT saqarTveloSi Seiqmna mewarmeobis ganviTarebis safuZveli. 90-iani
wlebis meore naxevridan aRiniSna samewarmeo aqtualobis gamococxleba da
qveyanaSi mosaxleobis socialuri problemebis gadaWris mizniT saqarTvelos
xelisuflebam aqcenti gaakeTa mewarmeobis ganviTarebaze, 1996 wels
parlamentis mier miRebuli socialuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad mimarTulebebis
koncefciaSi mcire da saSualo mewarmeoba aRiarebuli iqna qveynis
socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis ZiriTad mimarTulebad da mamoZravebel
Zalad. biznesis ganviTareba da struqtureuli srulyofa nebismier qveyanaSi
garkveul problemebs ukavSirdeba. Cven SevecadeT gamogveyo is mTavari
problemebi, romelic SeiZleba arsebobdes biznesurTierTobebSi, kerZod:
- sabanko produqtebis siZvire da xelmiuwvdomoloba.
biznesisaTvis fuladi saxsrebis moZiebis unari iseve mniSvnelovania,
rogorc kargi adgilmdebareoba, an kargi mowyobilobebi, momwodeblebi, an
saTanado samuSao Zala. aseT SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovani adgili uWiravs
sabanko produqts, romelic SeiZleba iTqvas rigi faqtorebis gamo
biznesisaTvis garkveulwilad miuwvdomeli aRmoCndes. sabanko kreditis
maRali saprocento ganakveTebi mniSvnelovnad amcirebs biznes seqtoris mier
axali
teqnologiebis
gamoyenebisa
da
mwarmoeblurobis
amaRlebis
SesaZleblobebs.
gansakuTrebiT rTulia agroseqtoris Senaxva da sabanko kreditebi
swored soflis meurneobaSi dasaqmebuli adamianebisaTvis aris miuwvdomeli,
radgan sezonurobis gamo misi dafinanseba garkveul riskTan ariis
dakavSirebuli.
faqtia,
rom
es
mniSvnelovnad
Seaferxebs
rogorc
agrobiznesis ganviTarebas, ise nebismieri saxis biznesis ganviTarebas, maSin
roca nebismieri qveynis ekonomikisaTvis mTavari sayrdeni biznesia.
-KSromis bazarze kvalificiuri kadrebis simcire.
inovaciuri
ekonomika
warmoudgenelia
maRalkvalificuiuri
da
yovelmxriv
ganviTarebuli kadrebis gareSe. dabalkvalificiur muSakebs ar ZaluZT
ara
marto
inovaciuri
produqciis
warmoeba,
axali
teqnikisa
da
teqnologiebis Seqmna–aTviseba, aramed Seqmnilis racionaluri gamoyenebac ki.
187
biznes seqtori ganicdis kvalificiuri kadrebis deficits. es
gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba menejmentSi, rac xels uSlis biznes subieqtebSi
Rirebulebebis zrdas. gansakuTrebiT dabalia Sromis mwarmoebluroba mcire
da saSualo sawarmoebSi da kvalificiuri kadrebisaTvis es sferoebi ar aris
mimzidveli. jerjerobiT ar arsebobs biznes seqtoris mier kadrebis
kvalifikaciis zrdis strategiac. imis gamo, rom kadrebis gadamzadeba ar
aris sayovelTao, sawarmoebi ZiriTadad Sromis bazarze arsebul resursze
arian orientirebuli.
saqarTvelos socialuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
Tanamedrove pirobebidan gamomdinare aucilebelia moxdes adamianuri
kapitalis sferoSi ganviTarebuli qveynebis gamocdilebis Seswavla da
gaziareba.
aseve, kadrebis daqiravebis dros Secdomebis minimalizacia da kadrebis
gadinebis Semcirebaa aucilebeli, rac miiRweva personalis efeqturi marTvis
uzrunvelyofiT, moRvaweobis stimulaciiT biznes procesebis CarCoebSi da
pasuxismgeblobiT
Sromis
Sedegebze.
rac
ufro
maRalia
muSakTa
kvalifikaciis done, miT ufro didia ekonomikuri ukugeba, rasac iRebs
sazogadoeba kvalificiuri Sromis gamoyenebis Sedegad.
eqsportis
garkveuli
doziT
SezRuduloba.
saqarTveloSi
biznessubieqtebis umravlesoba adgilobrivi mniSvnelobisaa, mcirea im
biznessubieqtTa raodenoba, romlebic axorcieleben eqsports.
saqarTvelodan eqsportis zrdis tempi TiTqmis samjer Camouvardeba
qveyanaSi importirebuli produqciis odenobas. 2011 wlis ianvar-oqtombris
monacemebiT saqarTveloSi samjer meti produqcia Semovida, vidre gavida. am
monacemebiT, importis mTliani savaWro brunvis 76% -s Seadgens. swored
amitom, savaWro saldo 2011 welsac uaryofiTia, metic dinamikaze dakvirvebiT
es monacemi yovelwliurad izrdeba. es zrda ZiriTadad, importis matebiTaa
ganpirobebuli.
aseve, zogadad adgilobriv warmoebasa da eqsports mniSvnelovan
problemebs uqmnis usafuZvlod gamyarebuli erovnuli valuta. Zviri
erovnuli valuta normalur pirobebSi aucileblad aZvirebs erovnul
produqcias. gamyarebuli laris pirobebSi qarTvel mewarmes inflaciis
gareSec uZvirdeba produqcia, es qarTul nawarms arakonkurentunarians xdis
rogorc saerTaSoriso, ise adgilobriv bazarze.
biznes kulturis dabali done. seriozuli problemaa biznes seqtorSi
dasaqmebulTa swavleba, kvalifikaciis amaRleba da a.S. gardaqmnas moiTxovs
mewarmeTa qcevis fsiqologia. rac upirveles yovlisa imiT gamoixateba rom
umetesoba saqmianobas iwyebs yovelgvari dasabuTeba-gaangariSebis gareSe.
maTi fsiqologia ZiriTadad orientirebulia principze: `mTavaria dawyeba
xolo danarCens saqme gamoaCens.~ aseTi midgomiT sawarmos efeqtianad
funqcionirebis albaToba Zalian mcirea.
188
sakuTari bazris dacva uxarisxo produqciisagan, samomxmareblo
bazarze momxmarebelTa uflebebis dacvas didi mniSvneloba unda mieniWos.
momxmarebeli informirebuli unda iyos produqciisa da momsaxurebis
maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb, masTan dakavSirebuli sargeblisa da mosalodneli
riskis Sesaxeb. daculi unda iyos momxmarebelTa uflebebi da xeli Seewyos
civiluri samomxmareblo bazris ganviTarebas
inovaciuri teqnologiebis arasrulyofileba. biznessubieqtebi ver
zrunaven
inovaciuri
teqnologiebis
srulyofasa
da
konkurenciuli
upiratesobis
Seqmnaze.
sawarmoTa
efeqtianoba
uzrunvelyofilia
araxarisxobrivi maCveneblebis srulyofiT, aramed xelfasis ekonomiiT,
Sromis pirobebis gaumjobesebaze minimaluri danaxarjebis gaweviTY da
moZvelebuli teqnologiebis gamoyenebiT.
miuxedavaT amisa, Tanamedrove pirobebSi inovaciuri politika iZens
gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas, sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo xangrZlivi drois
ganmavlobaSi sawarmoebi ver axorcielebdnen teqnologiur inovacias
konkurenciuli upiratesobis mosapoveblad.
saqarTveloSi jer kidev saTanado yuradReba ar maxvildeba bazarze
moqmedebis xazis SerCevasa da inovaciuri strategiis gamoyenebaze.
romelTa mizania samamulo sawarmoebisaTvis konkurenciuli upiratesobis
Seqmna. Mmisi miRweva ki SesaZlebelia marTvis meqanizmis formirebiTa da
sistemuri gaumjobesebiT, marTvis funqciebis xarisxiani SesrulebiT, marTvis
materialur – teqnikuri bazis srulyofiTa da Tanamedrove teqnologiebis
gamoyenebiT.
sakuTrebis memkvidreobis dacva da uzrunvelyofa. aRsaniSnavia, rom
biznesis Semdgomi stimulirebis saukeTeso SesaZlebloba aris sazogadoebis,
swori menejmentis da xelisuflebis erTianoba. TiToeulis Zalisxmeva aris
saWiro, raTa saboloo Sedegis misaRebad TiToeuli nabiji maqsimalurad
efeqturad iyos gadadgmuli.
radganac
saxelmwifom
biznesgaremos
gaumjobesebisaTvis
unda
moaxdinos normatiul-samarTlebrivi bazis formireba; safinanso-sakredito
,da
sainvesticio
mxardaWera;
biznes-infrastruqturis
formireba;
sainformacio,
samecniero-meTodologiuri
da
sakadro
uzrunvelyofa;
biznessubieqtebis, socialuri dacva da maTi usafrTxoebisaTvis pirobebis
Seqmna; sazogadoebrivi mxardaWeris sistemis formireba da sxva Zireuli,
sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba.
biznesis ganviTarebis aucilebeli pirobaa yvela dargis menejerebisa
da specialistebis mier Tanamedrove biznesis meTodebisa da xerxebis
daufleba, romlis mTavar mizans warmoadgens erTismxriv, sabazro unarCvevebis formireba, meores mxriv codnis miReba konkretul biznesze da mis
Taviseburebebze.
biznes subieqti kargad unda flobdes bazris pirobebs, magaliTad,
mewarmem SeiZleba kargad icodes bazris erTi mxare, saqonlis damzadeba,
magram marketingSi, menejmentSi da bazarze realizaciaSi kargad ar iyos
gaTvicnobierebuli.
189
biznesis winaSe arsebuli problemebis gadasaWrelad is sistemurad
unda flobdes gare da Sida socialuri garemos mdgomareobas.
warmoebis
ganviTarebis
da
ucxouri
investiciebis
mozidvis
mniSvnelovani rezervia arsebuli sagareo vaWrobis
reJimis
sruli
realizacia,romelsac miekuTvneba: upiratesi xelSewyobis reJimi. saqarTvelo
rogorc vaWrobis msoflio organizaciis wevri, misi wesdebis Sesabamisad
sargeblobs misi wevri 153 qveyanasTan savaWro urTierTobebSi `upiratesi
xelSewyobis reJimiT~.
preferanciaTa ganzogadoebuli sistema, rac gulisxmobs beneficiar
qveynebTan
importirebul
saqonelze
sabazo
saimporto
tarifebis
Semcirebuli ganakveTebis dawesebas. saqarTvelo aris: evrokavSiris, aSS,
iaponiis, kanadis, Sveicariis da norvegiis preferenciaTa ganzogadoebuli
sistemis beneficiari.
Tavisufali vaWrobis reJimi gulisxmobs SeTanxmebis monawile mxareebs
Soris vaWrobis ganTavisuflebas sabaJo-saimporto gadasaxadebisagan. garda
urTierTSeTanxmebuli gamonaklisebisa, saqarTvelos ormxrivi Tavisufali
vaWrobis xelSekrulebebi gaformebuli aqvs sxvadasxva qveynebTan.
saqarTvelo sargeblobs evrokavSiris mier miniWebuli ganzogadoebuli
preferenciaTa gafarToebuli sistemiT GSP+ rac iTvaliswinebs
saqarTvelos eqsportis TiTqmis utarifo daSvebas evrokavSiris bazarze. am
statusis miRebiT saqarTvelos SeuZlia evrokavSiris qveynebSi Seitanos 7200
–mde saxeobis produqcia.
garda aRniSnulisa, evrokavSiri saqarTvelos sTavazobs `Rrma da
yovlismomcvel
Tavisufali
vaWrobis
Sesaxeb
xelSekrulebas~
`yovlismomcveli~ gulisxmobs vaWrobas farTo speqtriT, `Rrma~ ki
gulisxmobs, rom tarifebis Semcirebis garda xelSekruleba iTvaliswinebs
arasatarifo barierebis Semcirebas da vaWrobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis
harmonizacias. Ees xelSekruleba - FTA+ saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan
sargeblianobas moutans. kerZod, gaeros ganviTarebis programis kvlevis
monacemebiT mSp 7.6 % gaizrdeba.
FTA+ miRebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iqneba arasatarifonormebisa da
teqnikuri reglamentebis harmonizaciiT Semcirdes evrokavSirSi eqsportis
barierebi. arasatarifo barierebis udidesi nawili produqciis standartebs
da reglamentebs moicavs. evrokavSiris standartebi mxolod uvneblobis
sakiTxebs exeba, rogoricaa xorcisa da soflis meurneobis sxva produqciis
sanitaruli da fitosanitaruli standartebi. Pproduqcia romelic ver
akmayofilebs savaldebulo standartebs, evrokavSiris bazarze ar daiSveba.
Yyvela
sxva
standarti
nebayofilobiTia,
Tumca
misi
Sesruleba
mniSvnelovania.
aRniSnulidan
gamomdinare,
imisaTvis,
rom
mivaRwioT
evrokavSirTan
FTA+-iT
xelSekrulebis
gaformebas
da
arasatarifo
barierebis Semcirebas, aucilebelia adgilobrivi warmoebis produqciis
evrokavSiris normebisa da standartebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana.
ekonomikis zrdis mniSvnelovani rezervia turistuli potencialis
gamoyeneba. amis safuZvels iZleva uZvelesi istoria, xelsayreli kilimati da
lamazi landSafti. Savi zRvispira da samTo kurortebis ganviTarebis
190
SesaZlebloba. am dargSi kargad gaTvlili program moqmedebs da uaxloes
momavalSi
turizmi
saqarTvelos
erT-erT
mniSvnelovan
saeqsporto
momsaxureobad gadaiqceva, rac soflis meurneobis da ekonomikis sxva
seqtorebis mniSvnelovan zrdas ganapirobebs. Aamis naTeli magaliTia aWaris
regionSi mimdinare turistuli infrastruqturis swrafi tempiT ganviTareba.
saqarTvelos
yvela
piroba
gaaCnia
imisaTvis,
rom
gadaiqces
saerTaSoriso turizmis qveynad 102 kurortiT, 182 sakurorto adgiliT, 15000
istoriuli ZegliT, romelTagan 4 Setanilia iuneskos msoflio saganZurTa
siaSi, arsebuli erovnuli parkebiT, 2400 mineraluri wyaroTi, romelTa dReRamuri
maragi
130
mln
litria,
samkurnalo
talaxebiT,
klimatis
mravalferovnebiT, mecnierebis, ganaTlebisa da kulturis maRali doniT,
ganTqmuli qarTuli stumartmoyvareobiT.
saqarTvelo mravali dasaxelebis saqonlis satranzito derefans
warmoadgens. mosalodnelia, rom satranzito momsaxureba saqarTvelos
ekonomikis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani segmenti gaxdes. mis safuZvels iZleva
ukve arsebuli navTob da gazsadenebi. baqo – erzrumis gazsadenis
saSualebiT
SesaZlebelia
gazis
miwodeba
evropisaTvis.
arsebuli
potencialis gaTvaliswinebiT SesaZlebelia yovelwliurad 30 miliardi
kuburometri gazis gatareba. aseve, mosalodnelia saavtomobilo da sazRvavo
tvirTbruinvis moculobis zrda.
axlo momavalSi mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia rkinigzasac,
romelic mravali welia emsaxureba kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis qveynebis
tvirTebis transportirebas. Aaxalqalaqi-yarsis rkinigzis xazis mSeneblobis
damTavrebiT amoqmeddeba pirdapiri sarkinigzo magistrali, romelic
evropasTan daakavSirebs CineTsa da centraluri aziis qveynebs.
aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom qveyanas sazRvao transportiT momsaxurebis
didi potenciali gaaCnia ori strategiuli portis baTumis da foTis saxiT.
mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia mcire da saSualo biznesis ganviTarebis
xelSewyoba da stimulireba. romelTa sargeblianoba gamoixateba jer erTi
momxmareblisaTvis saWiro saqonlis warmoebiT, miwodebiT da momsaxurebiT
da meore, mosaxleobis xelsayrel samuSaoTa uzrunvelyofiT. aseve
mniSvnelovania foTisa da quTaisis Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonebis
SesaZleblobebis maqsimaluri gamoyeneba, rac uzrunvelyofs ucxouri
investiciebis
mozidvas,
axali
teqnologiebis
aTvisebas,
eqsportis
gafarToebas, samuSao Zalis dasaqmebasa da maTi kvalifikaciis amaRlebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. u.samadaSvili, “biznesis safuZvlebi” Tb. 2013 w.
2. r. vaCnaZe, g. Turqia “biznesi” Tavisufali universiteti Tb. 2009w.
Business Development Opportunities in Georgia
Natia Nemsitsveridze
Resume
The article discusses problems and proposes measures for the improvement and
development of business in Georgia
191
xvamlis mTis saidumlo
Tamar sxirtlaZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
biznesis administrirebis specialobis II kursis studenti
maka firanaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori,
tel: 555 55 98 23
xvamlis kldovani masivi istoriul leCxumSi mdebareobs mdinare
rionisa da cxeniswylis xeobebs Soris. zeda umaRlesi wertili zRvis
donidan 2 002 metria. masivis sigrZe 10,5 kilometria, sigane 7 kilometri.
kldis masivi 300 metriTaa amoziduli da mnaxvelebze grandiozul
STabeWdilebas
axdens.
xomls
sulxan-saba
ganmartavs
rogor
varskvlavTkrebuls. vaxuSti batoniSvili leCxumis aRwerisas wers: ,,rionis
dasavleTiT mTis Ziras aris xomlis klde friad maRali, miego amas saxeli
ese simaRliT xomlis varskvlavis sworobiT”. xvamlis mTas zemodan rom
daxedav,
konandoilis
dakargul
qveyanas
mogagonebs,
sruliad
rom
mowyvetilia danarCen samyaros... ,,odes qveyanas gauWirdes xomlis mTam
gadaarCinos” gvauwyebs ,,qarTlis cxovreba”... ras niSnavs
es da ra
saidumloebebs faravs xvamlis mTa, amis sakvlevad amJamad iq leCxumis
arqeologiuri eqspedicia muSaobs. axali eqspediciis samwliani programiT
mTis am masivis Seswavlaze
kompetenturi jgufi muSaobs mecnierebis,
alpinistebisa da geologebis SemadgenlobiT. eqspediciam aq aRmoaCina citata
da am citatis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT xvamlis kldeSi yofila mefeTa
ganZsacavi, rogorc amboben swored am ganZis saZieblad eqspedicia, stalinis
davalebiT jer kidev omis periodSi moewyo 1945 wels alioSa jafariZis
xelmZRvanelobiT TerTmetkacianma jgufma ganaxorciela. qvabulSi ramdenime
dRe dahyves veraferi naxes da daaskvnes rom ganZi didi xnis gatanili iyo.
cnobilia, aseve meore eqspedicia rezo SalibaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT...
jgufi ,,xomli” rezo SalibaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT, 1984 wels avida
gamoqvabulSi. eqspediciis mizani iyo Zeglis daTvaliereba da misi firze
aRbeWdva, rac Seasrules kidec da Tan wamoiRes wina jgufis mier
datovebuli
werili.
mesame
eqspedicia
moewyo
guram
gabiZaSvilis
xelmZRvanelobiT. kldeSi gamokveTili cixe qvabuli kldis Ziridan 50 metris
simaRleze mdebareobs da masSi qvemodan asvla SeuZlebelia alpinisturi
aRWurvilobiTac ki, amitom alpinistebis jgufi SemovliTi gziT zemodan
moeqca mwvervals da iqidan TokiT daeSva maTi daxmarebiT movaxerxeT
eqspedicis wevrebma iq asvla. xomlis mTis qveda baqani kldeSia gamokveTili,
sadac 7 oTaxia da kedlebze wiTeli saRebavebiT gamoxatuli figurebis
mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT, qvabuli arqaul periods unda ekuTvnodes. zeda
baqaniT ukve Sua saukuneebis cixe qvabulSi SevdivarT. es aris merve oTaxi
romelic rogorc Cans gviandel periodSi raRac daniSnulebiT miamates
kompleqss. savaraudod swored es oTaxi unda yofiliyo, mefeTa xsenebuli
192
ganZTsacavi. igi sanaxevrod savsea Weridan Camoyrili qvebiT da misi gawmenda
uamrav drosa da muSaxels moiTxovs.
daviT goguaZis TqmiT, maT naxes gamoqvabuli romelsac ,,verZisTava”
ewodeba da romlidanac wyali ise gadmoquxda, rom rions TiTqmis ketavda.
adgilobrivebis TqmiT, wlis sxvadasxva periodSi wylis nakadi xan
cxeniswylisken midis, xan rionisken. amasTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs legenda,
rom iq gveleSapia gawolili da saiTac gadabrundeba, wyalsac im
mimarTulebiT ucvlis gezs. Tumca, rogorc Cans, realurad gamoqvabulSi
raRac sistemaa, romelic wlis sxvadasxva dros wylis mimarTulebas
ganapirobebs.
ganZTan erTad, xvamlis mTa rkinis warmoebis, anu metalurgiis
saidumlosac ukavSirdeba. xvamlis ZirSi aris erTi adgili ,,gona”. sxvaTa
Soris, raWaSic aris igive toponimi. etimologiurad es sityva gonebas anu
codnas unda ukavSirdebodes. raWis gonis mTaze marTlac maRaroebi iyo.
daviT goguaZis TqmiT, xvamlis gonis midamoebis zedapiruli gaTxrisas
mopovebulma brinjaosa da rkinis nivTebma kidev ufro gaamZafra maTi
varaudi. widebi da madnis zodebi miwis zedapirzea mimofantuli da TiTqmis
yovel fexis nabijze Cans. es yvelaferi ki am adgilebSi ganviTarebuli
metalurgiis keris arsebobas adasturebs.
adgilovriv mosaxleobaSi gavrcelebulia xmebi, rom drodadro
cixeqvabulis qveS, SuadRis garkveul monakveTSi, Cndeba ber-monazvnis
landebi da isaxeba jvari. eqspedicis wevrebma sruliad mowmendil caze
uCveulo naTebaTa kaskadi sakuTari TvaliT ixiles. meore dRes sofel
derCSi, romelsac uSualod dahyuebs xvamli, gviTxres ras afeTqebdiT,
mTeli Rame naTeba rom iyo kldis wverzeo.
germaneli mecnieri ambobs es aris ganumeorebeli panorama da RamiT
xvamlis Tavze, romelsac varskvTkrebulis saxeli hqvia zodiaqoebi
erTmaneTis miyolebiT gadadiano.
yvela gza xvamlisken modis: aq iyo mefeTa ganZTsacavi, promeTe aq
miajaWves kldeze. aqamde moaRwia heraklem, hefestom. aqeTken iswrafvodnen
argonavtebi. aq modioda da promeTes sisxlis wveTebisgan amzadebda wamlebs
grZneuli medea. TviTon xvamli zodiaqos niSania da kosmiur samyarosTan
aris kavSirSi. mTlianobaSi ki xvamlis mTa bunebis namdvili saswaulia. roca
ki mzis sxivebi xvamlis kldeebs miadgeba Tavad mTa oqrosferdeba. da Tuki
uxsovari droidan ase izidavda xvamli yvelas, nuTu imis Rirs ar aris rom
Cven mivxedoT da movuaroT, SeviswavloT da gamovikvlioT?
aq aseve aRmoCenilia ukve nasaxlari, samarovanic da salocavic. es
saocari adgilia, namdvili oazisi tyeSi, oTxiv mxriv daculi. piradad me,
vvaraudob, rom aq xvamlis kldeSi aris miwisqveSa qalaqi, romelic dRemde
aravis uxilavs... aq yovel fexis nabijze moCuxCuxebs ankara wyaro, tye zogan
gauval junglebs mogagonebs da uceb Sens Tvalwin aRmarTul kldes
ucnauri gamosaxuleba aqvs. aq uxvad mimobneuli patara qvebic ki araa
193
ubralo. maT Soris mravlad SexvdebiT iseTebs, zed niJarebisa da Tevzis
ferflebis anabeWdi rom atyvia da miliard wels iTvls im drodan, roca
aqauroba zRvis fskeri iyo...
ukve dawyebulia muSaoba masze, sadac Cans rom maRalganviTarebuli
civilizaciis kvals egviptemde mivyavarT da es yvelaferi ukavSirdeba
xvamls.
xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg biZina ivaniSvili xvamlis mTis
saidumloebis amoxsnasa da am misteriul mTaze arqeologiuri kvlevebis
Catarebas gegmavs amis Sesaxeb biZina ivaniSvilma ambrolaurSi mimdinare
aqciisas ganacxada. biZina ivaniSvilis TqmiT, aq marTlac saocari aRmoCenebi
gvelodeba. ivaniSvilis mizania, rom jer kidev gamoucnobad darCenili Cveni
warsuli Seswavlili iqnas. misi TqmiT araerTi qarTveli mecnier-arqeologi
dainteresebula xvamlis mTis problemiT, magram sakmarisi saxsrebis
uqonlobis gamo sasurvelis gakeTeba ver SeZles.
,,aseTi keTilSobiluri ocnebebis asrulebaze Tu ar vizruneT, raRa
,,qarTuli ocneba” viqnebiT”, - aRniSna qarTuli ocnebis liderma.
xvamlis mTaze gadaRebuli filmebis reJisori daviT goguaZe for.ge –Tan
saubrisas ar gamoricxavs, rom albaT biZina ivaniSvili maT mier Catarebuli
eqspediciis Sedegebs gaecno da aqedan gamoitana daskvna, rom am mTis
Seswavla sainteresoa. miT ufro, rom eqspediciis dasasruls maT ukve qalaqi
aRmoaCines, Tumca amis Sesaxeb jer ar ganucxadebiaT, radgan amas uaRresad
didi Tanxebi sWirdeboda.
,,xvamlis mTis ZirSi qalaqis gaTxras minimum
milioni lari mainc dasWirdeba da imis iqiT ra aRmoCndeba, es ukve aRar
vici”, - acxadebs daviT goguaZe.
xvamlisken mimavali gza cixeebiTaa mofenili, romlis qveda Sreebic
Zalian arqaulia. amdenad, Zneli saTqmelia, ras icavdnen es uZvelesi cixeebi
da dRemde ra saidumlo inaxeba xvamlis mTaSi?!
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. http://church.ge
2. http://www.geworld.ge
3. http://www.youtube.com
Secret of the Mountain Xvamli
Tamar Skhirtladze
Resume
Khvamli is located in Lechkhumi. From time immemorial Attracted everyone. There was the Kings
Treasury , to achieve these aspire argonauts . the khvamli is sign and On the universe is union. altogether yes
the true nature miracle.
194
The importance of tourism for a country's development
Beso Basilidze
Sukhishvili Teaching University; Faculty of tourism, II course
Supervisor: Lana Gigauri
Tourism seems to be very attractive for both tourists and hosts. Tourists spend a great time
in an exotic place with reasonable costs, and the hosts earn so much money. However, tourism also has
a lot of negative aspects which have to be solved. What should and can we do with tourism to enjoy
the leisure time and to make tourism an industry which makes a profit for developing countries?
Tourism is a huge industry which is larger than the arms trade and in the present situation
the profit is definitely considered as the first priority. Most tourists come from North America,
Western Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, that is, economically developed countries.
Tourists usually want to spend their time comfortably without any effort of arrangement or
negotiation. Travel agents help them a lot with their prepared packages. Tourists are unintentionally
becoming victims to the structure of tourism industry. Many of them come back from their vacation
without any experience in that country. They just spend the same life in a different place.
This essay begins with the analysis of problems of tourism. This is then followed by the
benefits of tourism which can bring a promising future to developing countries. The third section deals
with the way to solve the problems and suggestions to make tourism better for both tourists and
developing countries. The final section concludes the essay and comments on the importance of
tourism.
The problems of tourism occur mainly because a great part of world tourism is controlled by
the tourists' side, that is, the transnational companies based in economically developed countries. The
relationship between those companies and the host countries are not equal. The poor countries are
always defeated by short-term perspectives, or their hunger for money. As a result, the governments of
developing countries tend to "keep quiet" about the disadvantages of tourism.
For example, resort hotels are usually built on the villages or fishing places where local
people are living. Local people should be consulted in advance but are often ignored, because local
officials are often bribed to say that no one objected. They are forced to move out to slums and they
lose their jobs. In resort hotels, tourists spend, or waste, too much water and electricity and this may
cause a shortage of natural resources for local people and the pollution of the natural environment. The
consumption of tourists not only results in increasing the income of the local population but also
causes higher prices.
However, tourism has a lot of positive aspects for developing countries. It is a "promising
industry" and a "passport to development" for those countries. It is true that tourism changes the local
life and some people have to suffer from the change. However considering the benefits of tourism and
making use of the benefits fully, governments of developing countries are able to help the people.
Social infrastructure is highly improved by tourism. It brings airports, better roads, hotels,
transport, and power supplies which directly relate to development. There are more jobs in tourism
including waiters and waitresses, vendors of souvenirs, tour guides and so on. The original arts and
crafts become more streamlined to entertain tourists, but on the other hand there are more tourist
demands for the preservation of their original culture and wildlife as a valuable commodity.
195
More and more people are becoming familiar with the local culture and know the
advantages and problems of that culture. Developing the tourist industry is a good way for the local
culture to be preserved and to survive.
The problems for the local people will not be solved by the present way of tourism. To reduce
those problems, the local governments should have a strong strategy to make the area better, and
tourists should change their holiday style and understand more about the place they go. Concrete
actions and an iron political will could change the existing pattern.
First, the local governments must take care of the local people as a first priority. They must
watch what is happening in their area and help the people to protect their life. When they have victims
because of their developments, governments have to help to find the place and the way to live. Second,
the local governments must ask transnational companies to help development in that area.
Transnational companies have to develop the whole area as well as the resort area and give the local
people more jobs, more facilities and a more convenient lifestyle. Third, the local governments can ask
the transnational companies to return their profit to the local people. It will be useful to protect the
culture, life and environment and this also results in benefits for the tourists. Fourth, the local
governments can even impose a tourist tax and ask every visitor to pay a few pounds extra. If it is clear
for the tourists what the money is for, they will be willing to pay for it because they regard airport
taxes and other fees as necessary expenditure.
And last, tourists also have to change their way of thinking. They should realize that present
tourism competes for local resources. In order to know the reality of their destination, they need to
learn their culture, history, political and economical situation. They should avoid travelling in big tour
groups and try to stay longer in one place so that they can understand local life more, eat their local
food, use local transport and have more contact with local people. Tourists should try to have different
experiences from their normal life.
The problems will be very clearly seen if all the suggestions above can be carried out.
Tourists and the transnational companies will be more interested in the local problems. And through
communication with local people, tourists will be more familiar with the people, the area and the
culture. This means they can enjoy themselves more on holiday.
Tourism is in a time of transition. It is too streamlined and standardized because of the
profit-first strategy of transnational tourist companies and the short-term outlook of the local
governments. However, tourists should reconsider the objective of their holidays and have knowledge
about the place they are visiting. As a result, the values among tourists will change. They would find
out what to do and begin to reject mass tourism. The governments' actions on tourism and strong plans
of development should enable tourism to help to develop these countries. In conclusion, tourism is
very attractive for both tourists and developing countries. It enables tourists to have exotic and nice
experiences on holidays and developing countries to have a chance to be prosperous.
Role of tourism
Tourism has become a very important and dynamic sector both in the world economy and
particularly in the developing countries. Its growth affects not only the activities directly linked to
tourism (mainly in the private sector) but also other sectors such as transport. It allows jobs to be
created for various levels of workers, both skilled and unskilled, and for those often marginalized in
the labor market such as women.
Tourism is already an important sector in certain developing countries and will become so
196
for others. The opportunities presented by this phenomenon must therefore be seized. However, it must
also be ensured that this sector does not develop in an uncontrolled manner threatening the natural
environment and the social and cultural life of the country. The uncontrolled development of the sector
risks its future being limited in the long term.
Objectives and means
The European Community has examined past activities in this area and has drawn some
conclusions, including the following points:

The activities have been too centered on the promotion of tourism and therefore the
environmental and social aspects have been neglected;

The choice of contacts has been too restricted. The national tourism offices and the
national tourism administrations have been the main contacts. The range must be extended by
consulting more often the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the players involved at
the various geographical levels (regional, local, etc.).
The main objectives and support of the EC are aimed at:

Encouraging the sustainable development of tourism

Helping to establish the conditions favorable to sustainable development which will
protect the environment and population. The EC's strategy also tackles the problem of sex tourism
involving children;

supporting the public authorities in planning and managing their policy in this area and
also in ensuring effective monitoring.

The EC will mainly provide technical aid to help the governments of the beneficiary
countries implement policies encouraging the development of sustainable tourism. These will include
establishing the necessary legal and institutional framework, supporting the development of human
resources, preserving the public heritage and improving infrastructures. Technical aid is also needed to
improve the information and commercial organization of the sector;

Helping to consolidate the role of industry in tourism in today's open and competitive
market economy.

Cooperation in the private sector must be encouraged and direct support given to the
SMEs which make a considerable contribution to this sector.
Basic principles for implementing the strategy
Tourism is a fragmented and complex sector which has close links with other sectors. The
EC's approach must be tailored to this complexity and to each country. The beneficiary countries will
mainly be the developing countries which have cooperation agreements with the EC including this
sector.
The strategy should be based on the following principles:

Define the support framework for the country in question.
The development of the tourism sector will vary from one country to another. The strategy for
the country will be based on an analysis of the sector aimed, in particular, at identifying the validity of
tourist development. The aid must also be targeted according to the level of development in the sector
and the needs (short- or long-term aid, aid targeted to a sector or the adoption of a more global
approach, etc.);

Involve different players
197
To this end, a partnership must in particular be encouraged between the public administration
and the private sector, co-financing agreements must be concluded between the EC and the beneficiary
countries and local initiatives must be supported. The intervention of the EC must be from the bottom
up in order to involve more players encourage regional cooperation.
Coherence, coordination and complementarities
The strategy must be harmonized with other EC strategies and policies and must also be
based on the Community acquit in tourism. Coherence must also be ensured between all the donors.
However, the EC should assume a leading role as it has a great deal of experience in this area and is
the largest donor in this sector.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
"What price a bargain?", Guardian Unlimited 1999
(http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4419466,00.html)
2.
2. Brown, Paul "The way we live in 2032", Guardian Unlimited 2002
(http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,3871902,00.html)
3.
3. Millman, Roger, "Is tourism good for development?", In Societies, Choices and
Environment: Issues and Enquiries, ed. Slater, F., London, Collins Educational, 1991, pp.226-247
4.
4.Lea, John, TOURISM and DEVELOPMENT in the THIRD WORLD New York:
ROUTLEDGE, 1998 pp.1-9
reziume
beso basiliZe
turizmis mniSvneloba qveynis ganviTarebisTvis
turizmze dafuZnebulia TiTqmis yvela kerZo seqtorze da moicavs
mcire, saSualo da did warmoebaze. Tumca, xelisuflebis arsebiTi roli
unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli: politikuri stabiluroba, garemos dacva,
usafrTxoeba da a.S warmoadgens umniSvnelovanes faqtors turistebis
mozidvaSi da sajaro xelisufalni arian pasuxismgeblebi am saqmeSi.
198
seqcia #2
socialuri da
politikuri
mecnierebani
seqciis Tavmjdomare:
avTandil tukvaZe
199
uSiSroebis sabWos reforma
jambul abuseliZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi IVkursi
avTandil tukvaZe
politikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected]
gaeros, rogorc saerTaSoriso organizaciis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes
funqcias
sayovelTao
usafrTxoebis
uzrunvelyofa
warmoadgens.
mizani_msoflioSi mSvidobis SenarCuneba_gaeros wesdebis SesavalSivea
Camoyalibebuli: “gadavarCinoT momavali Taobebi omis saSinelebaTagan,
romelmac msoflio istoriaSi orjer kacobriobas eniT gamouTqmeli
mwuxareba moutana‟‟ 1 (20) organizacia romelic meore msoflio omis dros
iqmneboda, adekvaturad pasuxobs imdroindel politikur realobas, rac
Sesabamisad aisaxeba gaeros struqturasa da wesdebaSi.
sayovelTao mSvidobis SenarCunebaze mTavar pasuxismgebel organod
gaeros uSiSroebis sabWo gvevlineba. igi 15 wevrisgan Sedgeba, 5 maTgani_ aSS,
safrangeTi, didi britaneTi, ruseTis federacia da CineTi_sabWos mudmivi
wevris statusiT sargeblobs. droebiTi 10 wevri ki 2 wlis vadiT,
geografiuli principis gaTvaliswinebiT generaluri asambleis mier airCeva.
gadawyvetilebis
miReba:
uSiSroebis
sabWos
mudmivi
wevrebi
erTpirovnuli vetos uflebiT sargebloben, anu gadawyvetilebis miRebisas
erT-erTi maTganis uari (veto) sakiTxis Cavardnas niSnavs. gadawyvetilebis
misaRebad saWiroa sabWos 9 wevris Tanxmoba, Tanac arcerTi mudmivi wevri
sakiTxis winaaRmdegi ar unda iyos. Tu mudmivi wevri ar eTanxmeba
gadawyvetilebas, magram arc misi sabWoSi blokireba surs, mas SeuZlia Tavi
Seikavos_es vetos princips ar aamoqmedebs; 1963 wlamde iyo 6 aramudmivi
wevri. aramudmiv wevrebs irCeven: xuTs_ azia, afrikidan. erTs_aRmosavleT
evropidan. ors_laTinuri amerikidan. ors_dasavleT evropidan: 2012_2014
wlebSi aramudmivi wevrebi arian: avstralia, gvatemala, maroko, pakistani,
togo, Aazerbaijani, argentina, luqsemburgi, ruanda da samxreTi korea.
generaluri asambleisgan gansxvavebiT, uSiSroebis sabWo mudmivmoqmedi
organoa. uSiSroebis sabWo plenarul sxdomebs ar atarebs, saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi misi Sekreba umokles droSia SesaZlebeli_romelime Tundac
arawevri saxelmwifos TxovniT an generaluri mdivnis mowodebiT. sabWos
wevri saxelmwifoebi valdebulni arian, maTi warmomadgenlebi mudmivad
imyofebodnen niu-iorkSi, gaeros Stab-binaSi.
funqciebi da movaleobebi: gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos funqciebsa da
kompetenciaSi
Sedis
Semdegi
sakiTxebi:
sayovelTao
mSvidobisa
da
usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa; saerTaSoriso davebis Seswavla, romelTac
SeuZliaT saerTaSoriso arenaze daZabuli keris warmoqmna;SeiaraRebaze
kontrolis sistemis Camoyalibebis gegmis SemuSaveba; agresiis aRkveTis
mizniT gaeros wevr_saxelmwifoTa ekonomikuri an sxva saxis sanqciebis
200
dawesebisken
mowodeba;
agresoris
winaaRmdeg
SeiaraRebuli
aqciis
ganxorcieleba; organizaciaSi axali wevrisTvis rekomendaciis gaweva;
generaluri
asambleisTvis
generaluri
mdivnis
kandidatisaTvis
rekomendaciis gaweva da asambleasTan erTad saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos
Semadgenlobis arCeva; mSvidobisadmi muqaris an agresiis faqtebis gamovlena
da maT aRsakveTad rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba.
saerTaSoriso konfliqtis warmoqmnisas da saerTaSoriso mSvidobisadmi
safrTxis gansazRvris SemTxvevaSi uSiSroebis sabWo, pirveli nabijis saxiT,
dapirispirebaSi CarTul mxareebs davebis mSvidobiani gziT gadawyvetis
rekomendaciebs aZlevs. zogierT SemTxvevaSi sabWo situaciis Seswavlas an
molaparakebis meqanizms Tavidanve iyenebs.
uSiSroebis sabWos kompetenciaSi samSvidobo meqanizmis amuSavebac
Sedis. sabWos SeuZlia eskalaciis zonaSi damkvirvebelTa misiis an
samSvidobo jarebis Seyvana. pirvelis funqciaa situaciis monitoringi da
analizi, aseve uSiSroebis sabWosadmi pirveladi obieqturi informaciis
miwodeba. sxva SemTxvevaSi samSvidobo jarebis mandatSi, anu uSiSroebis
sabWos mier jarebisTvis miniWebul moqmedebis kompetenciaSi, SeiZleba
Sediodes mxareTa daSoriSoreba, samSvidobo koridoris Seqmna da a.S
samSvidobo jarebs ekrZalebaT iaraRis gamoyeneba. cecxlis gaxsna
ukidures SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli da isic mxolod Tavdacvis mizniT.
gaeros uSiSroebis sabWo uflebamosilia gasces rekomendacia ekonomikuri
sanqciebis, blokadisa da a.S dawesebis Sesaxeb. Tu es ukanaskneli
araefeqturi
aRmoCnda,
uSiSroebis
sabWo
uflebamosilia
agresoris
dasaSoSmineblad yovelgvari saxis saSualebebi gamoiyenos.
kritika: gaeros yovelTvis ar SeuZlia drouli reagireba moaxdianos
swrafad cvalebad procesebze, xSirad akritikeben araefeqturobisTvis,
arademokratiulobaSi, ganviTarebadi qveynebis problemebisTvis, arasaTanado
yuradRebaSi,
biurokratizmSi,
gaberili
Statebis
da
arasaTanado
biujetisaTvis, aseve finansuri skandalisaTvis. mag: erayis daxmarebis
programisTvis “ navTobi sursaTis nacvlad”, romelSic kofi ananis vaJi iyo
Cabmuli, aseve akritikeben pan gimunsac.
uSiSroebis sabWos reforma: 2004 wels kofi ananis dros erToblivi
gancxadebebi gaakeTes braziliis prezidentma, germaniis sagareo saqmeTa
ministrma, indoeTis premier ministrma da iaponiis premierma moiTxoves
uSiSroebis sabWos mudmivi wevroba, iaponia da Ggermania rogorc yvelaze
ganviTarebuli samrewvelo qveyana, indoeTi rogorc miliardiani mosaxleoba,
birTvuli iaraRis mqone, brazilia rogorc, laTinuri amerikis yvelaze didi
saxelmwifo am jgufs ewodeba “oTxeuli” xolo indonezia moiTxovs, rogorc
yvelaze didi musulmanuri qveyana (230 mln) italiam moiTxova uSiSroebis
sabWoSi yofna,sadac uflebamosilebebi rigiTobiT gadaecemaT. aseve moiTxova
uSiSroebis sabWos mudmivi wevroba afrikis “sameulma”_ samxreT afrika,
egvipte nigeria. winaaRmdeg gamovida mudmivi wevrebi romelTac miaCniaT, rom
gafarToeba gadawyvetilebis miRebis process gaarTulebs. sakiTxi ganixila
didma rvianma.
201
sabWos gafarToeba gamWvirvales gaxdis mis muSaobas. seriozuli
ganxilvis sagnad unda iqces sabWos Semadgenlobis zrdis sakiTxic. araswori
iqneboda gveTqva rom meore msoflio omSi gamarjvebuli 5 saxelmwifo da
rotaciis principiT arCeuli sabWos 10 wevri gaeros legitimuri da
sruluflebiani warmomadgenlebi arian Tuki ar moxda mudmivi Tu arCeviTi
wevrebis sistemis reforma sabWo ver SeZlebs uzrunvelyos msoflioSi
mSvidoba da usafrTxoeba. aseTma reformam ar unda Seamciros sabWos
efeqturoba da misi politikuri sicocxlisunarianoba.
reformirebis SemTxvevaSi aramudmivi wevrebis raodenoba 10-dan 13-mde
unda gaizardos, rac saerTo raodenobas 23-mde gazrdis. Sedegad,
saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis ganxilvisas saWiro iqneba ufro
farTo konsensusi. reformis Semdeg gadawyvetilebis misaRebad sabWos 9 is
nacvlad dasWirdeba 14 xma.
unda gauqmdes vetos instituti, romelic mniSvnelovnad aferxebs
saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis droul gadawyvetas. uSiSroebis
sabWos mudmivi wevrebi vetos xSirad iyeneben, rac araefeqturs xdis
uSiSroebis sabWos muSaobas da aRrmavebs saerTaSoriso krizisebs. mudmivi
wevrebi unda SeTanxmdnen 10 wlian moratoriumze, romlis ganmavlobaSi
vetos uflebas mxolod eqstremalur viTarebaSi gamoiyeneben. am periodSi
saxelmwifoebi SeiZleba darwmundnen vetos uflebis saboloo gauqmebis
aucileblobaSi. 2 (56)
samSvidobo RonisZiebebis reforma: gaeros samSvidobo operaciebis
reformasTan dakavSirebiT saintereso mosazrebebs gvTavazobs generaluri
mdivnis mier arCeuli eqspertTa sabWo, romelsac alJireli laxdar brahimi
xelmZRvanelobs, da romelsac e.w “brahimis angariSi” uwodes.
 preventiuli RonisZiebebi: konfliqtis Tavidan acilebaSi yvela mxaris
daintereseba; daZabulobis regionebSi faqtebis momZiebeli misiebis
intensiuri gamoyeneba da yvela wevri-saxelmwifos maqsimaluri
daxmareba;
 mSvidobis mSeneblobis strategia: mcire biujetis arseboba; samoqalaqo
policiis, sxva samarTaldamcavi elementebis da adamianis uflebebis
dacvis eqspertTa cvlileba.
 mSvidobis mxardaWeris doqtrina: gaeros samSvidobo misiis ganTavsebis
Semdeg maT unda SeZlon sakuTari mandatis profesiul doneze dacva.
 gansazRvruli da misaRwevi mandati mkacrad unda ganisazRvros
xelmZRvanelobis jaWvi da saqmianobis erTianoba:
 sainformacio da strategiuli analizi: unda arsebobdes samdivno,
romelic
informaciiTa
da
analiziT
uzrunvelyofs
Sesabamis
samsaxurebs
 gardamavali ZiriTadi administracia: uSiSroebis sabWom unda moiwvios
iuristebi, romlebic gardamaval periodSi sakiTxebs moagvareben.
 ganTavsebis vadebis dadgena
 misiis xelmZRvaneloba
 samxedro
personali:
wevrma_saxelmwifoebma
erTmaneTTan
unda
iTanamSromlon, unda Seiqmnas brigadis masStabis Zalebi, romelic
202
tradiciuli samSvidobo operaciis SemTxvevaSi 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi
SeZlebs misiis dawyebas.
 samoqalaqo policies personali: wevr_saxelmwifoebs unda hyavdes
sakuTari samoqalaqo policies oficrebi, romlebic operatiulad
CaerTvebian samSvidobo operaciebSi.
uSiSroebis sabWos da mTlianad gaeros reformirebis aucilebloba
dRis wesrigSi dgas, magram warmateba am mimarTulebiT, im SemTxvevaSi iqneba
miRweuli Tu wevri saxelmwifoebi daTmoben suverenitetis nawils da
moaxdenen mis delegirebas gaeros mTavar organoebze. mxolod am gziT iqneba
SesaZlebeli Camoyalibdes efeqturi koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis sistema,
romelic uzrunvelyofs sadao sakiTxebis molaparakebis gziT, mSvidobian
gadawyvetas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.gaero damxmare saxelmZRvanelo_Tb. 2003.
2.Зодохин А. Наследие отечество. 3(170) 2005 3 февраля.
3. Виртуальное миротворчества вжурнале Частный коресподент 2008 год 22 ноября.
4.vaxtang qarumiZe. saerTaSoriso organizaciebi. Tb 2004.
Reform of Security Council
Jambul Abuselidze
Resume
The Security Council reform is the significant. The existence of 5 permanent members and sole
power of veto don’t correspond with the current realities. It is necessary to add 5 members: 2 from
developed and 3 from developing countries (according to the continents). Also, the number of nonpermanent members should be increased to 13, which ultimately equals 23 members. Over time,
veto power should be abolished, which allow us to adopt more objective and transparent solutions.
amerikuli demokratia
salome guliaSvili
Tbilisis saswavlo universitetis iuridiuli fakultetis
samarTalmcodneobis specialobis kursis studenti
avTandil tukvaZe
politikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected]
amerikuli demokratiis stabiluroba ganpirobebulia im garemoebiT,
rom igi amerikeli xalxis politikuri kulturis da politikuri procesebis
ganviTarebis Sedegia.
xelisuflebis danawilebis Teoriis praqtikaSi gadatanis amocanis
winaSe dadgnen aleqsander halmitoni, jeims medisoni, Tomas jefersoni, jon
jei, jorj vaSingtoni;
aSS-is konstituciis Seqmnis procesSi maT sxva
problemebTan erTad unda gadaewyvitaT ori sakiTxi: erTi, aRmasrulebeli,
203
sakanonmdeblo, sasamarTlo xelisuflebebis damoukideblobis Teoriuli
idea praqtikaSi xom ar Seuqmnida safrTxes saxelmwifos mTlianobas; meore,
maTi urTierTdamokidebulebis meqanizmis Seqmna, xom ar gaaZlierebda
romelime maTgans da gaaCenda monarqizmis safrTxes 1(45)
amerikuli politikis udidesi nawili brunavs im ori dilemis garSemo,
romelicaa: Tavisufleba wesrigis winaaRmdeg da Tavisufleba Tanasworobis
winaaRmdeg.
vin unda marTavdes? am kiTxvaze amerikelebs gaaCniaT ubralo pasuxi:
xalxi. saubedurod es pasuxi metismetad gamartivebulia. pirvel rigSi unda
ganvixiloT xalxis xelisufleba ra aris?! sityva demokratia Cans berZnul
teqstebSi Zv.w me-5 saukunidan, demosi ubralo xalxs, masebs niSnavs, kratos
aRniSnavs xelisuflebas.
demokratiis ori alternatiuli modelis gamoyenebiT rogorc modeli,
orive warmoadgens instituciur meqanizmebze dayrdnobiT demokratiuli
xelisuflebis Seqmnis hipoTetur gegmas. maJoritaruli modeli mxars uWers
sazogadod xalxis monawileobas, pluralisturi modeli ki mxars uWers
adamianTa jgufebis monawileobas. 21 StatSi sakanonmdeblo organoebs
miniWebuli aqvT ufleba waradginon iniciativa sayovelTao kenWisyrisTvis. 5
sxva Stati itovebs am meqanizmebidan erT-erTis gamoyenebis uflebas. amave
dros, SeerTebul StatebSi ar arsebobs erovnul doneze referendumis
Catarebis wesi, Tumca amerikelebi aSkarad mxars uWeren erovnuli
referendumis sistemas 2(29).
demokratiis pluralisturi modeli ganmartavs xalxis mmarTvelobas,
rogorc iseT xelisuflebas, romelic funqcionirebs moqiSpe dainteresebuli
jgufebis meSveobiT. am modelis Sesabamisad, demokratia arsebobs maSin,
rodesac mravali organizacia moqmedebs xelisuflebisgan damoukideblad,
Tavs axvevs xelisuflebas Tavis interesebs da xandaxan upirispirdeba kidec.
maJoritaruli azrovnebisgan gansxvavebiT, pluralistur Teorias gadaaqvs
demokratiuli mTavrobis fokusi masobrivi amomrCevlidan organizebul
jgufebze 3(204)
xelisuflebis decentralizebuli, rTuli struqtura xelmisawvdoms da
kargaxsnils xdis imas, rac saWiroa pluralisturi demokratiisTvis. aSS-is
konstitucia uaxlovdeba pluralisturi demokratiis ideals, radganac
anawilebs Zalauflebas xelisuflebis sxvadasxva ganStoebebs Soris.
Tu pluralisturi demokratia aniWebs umciresobas marTvis saSualebas,
maSin riT gansxvavdeba is elitaruli Teoriisgan anu im Tvalsazrisisgan,
TiTqos adamianTa mcire jgufi (umciresoba) pasuxismgebelia xelisuflebis
umniSvnelovanesi
gadawyvetilebebis
miRebisTvis?
elitaruli
Teoriis
Sesabamisad, xelisuflebis mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebebs iRebs gamokveTili
da stabiluri umciresoba, romelsac gaaCnia garkveuli maxasiaTeblebi,
Cveulebriv didi simdidre da saqmiani kavSirebi. elitaruli Teoria
amtkicebs, rom amerikaSi Zalaufleba xelT upyria ramdenime pirovnebas,
204
romlebic
akontroleben
qveynis
umniSvnelovanes
safinanso,
kavSirgabmulobis,
samrewvelo
da
samTavrobo
dawesebulebebs.
maTi
Zalaufleba
momdinareobs
amerikis
udidesi
korporaciebis
uzomo
simdidridan da imis Segnebidan, rom am korporaciebis ganuwyvetel
warmatebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs qveynis ekonomikis zrdisTvis.
elitaruli Teoriis Sesabamisad, aSS-s demokratia ki ara, oligarqiaa 4(166).
Tumca yvelaferi ise gamoiyureba, TiTqos amomrCevlebi akontroleben
mTavrobas arCevnebis meSveobiT.
aSS-s konstitucia erT-erTi yvelaze aRiarebuli dokumentia. is aris
uZvelesi dawerili erovnuli konstitucia, romelsac yvelaze xSirad
imeoreben sxva konstituciebSi, xandaxan sityva-sityviTac ki. konstituciis
Zala mis mokle teqstSia. konstitucia ise Sedga, rom gaewonasworebina
wesrigi da Tavisufleba. is ar iyo gamiznuli Tanasworobis miRwevaze.
faqtobrivad, misi Sesworeba uTanasworobis daZlevis mizniT xdeboda.
konstituciis avtorebs aseve surdaT iseTi mTavrobis Seqmna, romelic
gaawonasworebda Statebsa da erovnul xelisuflebas. zusti balansis dacva
saxifaTo Tema iyo da konstituciuri konvertis delegatebma mas gverdi
auares. faqtobrivad rTuli warmosadgenia xelisuflebis sxva struqtura,
romelic ukeT iyos morgebuli demokratiis pluralistur models, vidre
aSS-s konstitucia.
aSS-s konstituciis mamebma vetos da impiCmentis institutebis SeqmniT
SeZles Sekaveba da gawonasworebis mdgomareobis SenarCuneba aRmasrulebel,
sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo Stoebs Soris. xelisuflebis xelaxali
gamogonebis amerikuli ideis arsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom xelisuflebis
yovel Stos mieca konstituciiT gansazRvruli Zalaufleba da meqanizmebi,
winaaRmdegoba gauwios xelisuflebis sxva Stos SesaZlo aralegitimur
qmedebas. prezidenti aRiWurva SefardebiTi vetos uflebiT, sakanonmdeblo
organos saqmianobaze zemoqmedebis meqanizmiT, xolo Tavis mxriv kongresi
prezidentis gadayenebis impiCmentis gansakuTrebuli uflebiT. saboloo
jamSi vetosa da impiCmentis instututebi qmnis urTierTkontrolisa da
urTierTzemoqmedebis SesaZleblobebs. aseve, ganapirobebs Sekavebisa da
gawonasworebis mdgomareobas, gamoricxavs avtoritarul gadawyvetilebebs
prezidentisa
da
kongresis
mxridan,
uzrunvelyofs
sasamarTlos
damoukideblobas da rac mTavaria, iZleva adamianis samoqalaqo, politikuri,
religiuri da sxva fundamentaluri uflebebis maqsimalurad daculobis
garantias. sxva sakiTxia, rom aSS-s konstituciiT SesaZlebelia prezidenti
gaxdes pirovneba, romelmac qveynis masStabiT konkurentTan SedarebiT
naklebi xmebi miiRo an kidev prezidentis savarZelSi aRmoCndes aSS-Si
dabadebuli moqalaqe, romelic xalxs ar aurCevia (mag: jerard fordi),
magram erTis Tqma SeiZleba, aSS-Si maqsimaluradaa daculi umciresobis
uflebebi, rac demokratiis utyuari barometria.
mxolod is politikuri sistemebi da demokratiebia stabiluri,
romlebic konkretuli qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri politikuri da
kulturuli ganviTarebis Sedegia. amis dadasturebaa samxreT-amerikis,
205
afrikis, aziis da postsocialisturi qveynebis gamocdileba; maT gadmoiRes
dasavluri
konstituciebi
da
Seecadnen
demokratiuli
institutebis
transplantacias, magram yoveli mcdeloba uSedegod damTavrda. umravles
qveynebSi kvlav avtoritaruli reJimebia. TviT saprezidento mmarTvelobis
modelma, mxolod aSS-Si gaamarTla.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
2.
3.
4.
amerikuli demokratia. Tb; 1999.
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prezidentebi. baTumi 1999.
amerikis istoriis eskizebi. Tbilisi 2007.
Г.К Ашин Е. В Охотский Курс Элитологии. Москва 2008.
American Democracy
Salome Guliashvili
Resume
Democracy is a very important topic in today's reality. The world's most distinct and individual
democratic governance in the United States times. The uniqueness of the presidential administration
times. Rotates around the largest part of American policy dilemma: Order against the freedom and
liberty against equality. The American Constitution is 200 years old and is the American people who
absolutely fit. American democracy is the biggest positive and the characteristic feature is that, The
political views of the maximally.
partiuli politikis krizisi saqarTveloSi
levan lorTqifaniZe
Tsu-s politikuri mecnierebis mimarTulebis studenti
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: +995555277403
avTandil tukvaZe
politikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected]
politologiasa
da
socialur
TeoriebSi
politikuri
partiis
gansakuTrebiT bevr, uamrav definicias vxvdebiT. Tumca, analitikosTa
umravlesoba s.noimanis mier SemoTavzebul axsnas yvelaze amomwuravad
miiCnevs. kerZod, mecnieri werda:Cven SegviZlia ganvsazRvroT politikuri
partia, rogorc sazogadoebis im aqtiur politikur pirTa organizacia, vinc
dainteresebulia saxelmwifoebriv xelisuflebaze kontroliT da xalxis
mxardaWeris mopovebisas ebrZvis da ejibreba gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis
mqone jgufs an jgufebs. am saxiT, partia warmodgens sazogadoebriv Zalebs,
206
ideologiebsa da oficialur institutebs. agreTve, didi
gaerTianebis politikur qmedebebs Soris mZlavr Suamavals.1(234)
politikuri
gansazRvrebidan gamomdinare,
SegviZlia vamtkicoT,
rom
jgufs,
romelic politikur aqtiurobas eswrafvis, miznad isaxavs Zalauflebis
mopoveba-SenarCunebasa da politikur velze umTavres aqtorad moiazreba,
funqciebic
mniSvnelovani
da
mravalferovani
unda
hqondes.partiaTa
pirvelmniSvnelovan
funqciad,
d.istoniseuli
sistemuri
Teoriis
Camoyalibebidan dRemde sazogadoebrivi interesebis artikulaciasa da
agregirebas miiCneven.
politikur partiaTa daniSnulebas arCevnebis gziT
mmarTvelobiTi
elitis
formirebac
warmoadgens.
aseve,
politikuri
organizaciebi gvevlinebian im saSualebadac, romlis daxmarebiT sakuTar
gansxvavebul interesebsa Tu faseulobebs umaRles saxelmwifoebriv doneze
warmoaCenen biznesis, dasaqmebulTa, religiur-eTnikuri, mSromelTa da sxva
tipis socialuri jgufebi 2(372) maSasadame, politikur gaerTianebaTa did
nawils sazogadoebaSi Tavisi socialuri sayrdeni gaaCnia. xSir SemTxvevaSi,
partiebi ara mxolod pasuxoben sazogadoebriv azrs, aramed Tavadac
cdiloben mis Camoyalibebas, politikuri dRis wesrigis gansazRvras 3(.274).
ganuzomlad
didia
partiaTa
sakomunikacio
funqciac.
evropul
politikur jgufTa umravlesoba
finansur-materialur da sxva tipis
resurss
xarjavs
amomrCevelTan
mWidro
kontaqtis,
grZelvadiani
urTierTobebis damyarebis, aqtualuri politikuri sakiTxebis Sesaxeb
damokidebulebebis Camoyalibebisa da informaciis intensiuri gavrcelebis
mizniT.
efeqturi
politikuri
gaerTianebebi
moqalaqeTa
saarCevno
mobilizebas, maT ideologiur gaTviTcnobierebasa da sazogadoebaSi misTvis
sasurveli Rirebulebebis myarad damkvidrebasac axerxebs 4(358).
partiuli sistemis krizisis mizezebi.
socialur mecnierebebSi sxvadasxva qveynis partiuli konfiguraciis
mixedviT ganasxvaveben sistemis ramdenime tips. gamohyofen erTpartiul,
orpartiul da mravalpartiul sistemebs. erTpartiuli wyoba totalitaruli
an mkacri avtoritaruli reJimebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. am SemTxvevaSi ar
arsebobs pluralizmi, SeuZlebelia gansxvavebis moZebna partiul da
saxelmwifo aparats Soris. orpartiuli sistemis klasikuri magaliTia
SeerTebuli Statebi, sadac aqtiuri politikuri sivrce or ZiriTad,
opoziciur da saxelisuflebo banakad iyofa. CvenTvis yvelaze sacnauri
mravalpartiuli sistema gaxlavT. amgvari sistemebis or radikalurad
gansxvavebul
gamovlinebas
gamohyofen.
arsebobs
Tanabarsubieqtiani
mravalpartiuli sistema, sadac gansakuTrebuli upiratesoba mravalTagan
arc erT partias ar aqvs (mag. germania, italia, holandia, espaneTi da a.S.) da
dominanti
politikuri
jgufis
mravalpartiuli
sistema,
sadac
saxelisuflebo Zala TiTqmis absolutur Zalauflebas flobs, opozicias ki,
gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaze aranairi zegavlenis moxdena ar SeuZlia, misi
muSaoba formalur xasiaTs atarebs.
207
1992 wlidan, saqarTveloSi Catrebul TiTqmis yvela saparlamento
arCevnebSi udides an konstituciur umravlesobas erTi partia moipovebs da
yvela aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebac tradiciulad erTpartiuli gaxlavT
xolme 5(12), ris Sedegadac Cvens qveyanaSi dominanturi politikuri jgufis
mravalpartiuli
sistema
myardeba.
amgvar
garemoSi,
ganviTarebis
SesaZleblobebi, seriozuli politikuri gamocdilebis gamomuSavebis Sansi
ekargebaT umciresobaSi moqceul politikur erTobebs. isini naklebad
monawileoben saxelmwifo politikuri kursis SemuSavebaSi, gamoricxulia
mmarTveli partiis opoziciasTan TanamSromlobis aucilebloba 6(19).
Sesabamisad, umciresobisaTvis rezultati ar moaqvs saparlamento
politikur oponirebas; lider partias srulad aqvs monopolizebuli
saxelisuflebo Zalaufleba; ferxdeba realurad Zlieri alternatiuli
banakis formirebis procesi. vfiqrob, rom erTaderTi dominanturi Zalis
mravalpartiuli sistemis arseboba, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba pluralizmis
ZiriTad principebsa da xels uwyobs Zalauflebis maRal koncentracias erTi
aqtoris xelSi, saqarTveloSi partiuli demokratiis umTavres Semaferxebel
faqtors warmoadgens.partiaTa SemakavSirebeli parametrebi, fragmentacia.
ganviTarebul samyaroSi politikuri partiis wevrTa SekavSirebas ramdenime
faqtori SeiZleba daedos safuZvlad. am niSnis mixedviT, mecnierTa nawili
gamohyofs doqtrinul, pragmatul da qarizmul partiebs. doqtrinuli
partiebi
TavianT
samoqmedo
gegmaze,
programul
debulebaze
arian
orientirebulni; pragmatuli jgufebi cdiloben sazogadoebriv moTxovnebze
reagirebiT, praqtikuli mizanSewonilobiT gavidnen fons; qarizmul partiaSi
gaerTianebis safuZvlad ki, adamianebi partiis lideris gansakuTrebuli
SesaZleblobis rwmensa da misdami simpatias asaxeleben. es ukanaskneli tipi
demokratiis mxriv naklebganviTarebuli qveynebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli,
romelTa jgufSi, am kriteriumiT saqarTveloc unda moviazroT. Cveni qveynis
TiTqmis yvela met-naklebad cnobili partia misi lideris, Tavmjdomaris
qarizmas efuZneba. politikur gaerTianebaTa nawili erTi piris an mcire
jgufis mxardamWer moZrobadaa qceuli. qarTuli politikuri organizaciebi
SegviZlia erTgvar fanklubebs mivamsgavsoT. politikuri urTierTobebisas
individualuri ambiciebisa Tu pirovnuli primatis wina planze wamoweva
kidev erTi problemis saTave xdeba. kerZod, biZgi eZleva
politikis
ukidures fragmentacias, Cndeba uamravi susti, gavlenis armqone organizacia.
maTi simravle moqalaqeTa dezorientacias, politikuri gza-kvalis arevas
uwyobs xels. am procesis damadastureblad SegviZlia iusticiis saministros
mier registrirebuli 220 partiis sia moviSvelioT, romelTagan 22-27 partia
SegviZlia permanentulad aqtiurad ganvixiloT 7(21).
qarizmiT SekavSirebuli organizaciebis simyife, fragmentulobiT
gamowveuli politikuri kapitalis gaflangva da amomrCevlis dabneva,
bunebrivia, winaaRmdegobas warmoadgens stabiluri da mowesrigebuli
partiuli demokratiisTvis. ideologia. samwuxarod, qarTuli politikisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia ideologiuri principebis arqona an ideologiuri meryeoba.
vgulisxmob imas, rom qarTul politikur sivrceSi Znelad Tu moiZebneba
208
partia, romelic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi erTgulebs Tavis gancxadebul
msoflmxedvelobasa da sazagadoebis mier aRiqmeba konkretuli politikuri
mrwamsis mimdevrad. rac niSnavs imas, rom qarTveli politikosebi
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ar aqceven sakuTar politikur Sexedulebebs,
isini nebismieri ideologiuri tipis mosaxleobis mimxrobaze muSaoben da
absoluturad
yvela
sazogadoebrivi
fenis
mxrdaWeras
eswrafvian.
politikaSi ideologiis meorexarisxovnebaze miuTiTebs is faqti, rodesac
politikosebi uproblemod, winaRmdegobis gareSe gadadian memarjvenedan
memarcxene, liberaluridan nacionalistur partiebSi. imave tendenciaze
metyvelebs 2008 wels gamoqveynebuli saarCevno subieqtTa programebic, sadac
magliTad,
neokonservatiulad
miCneuli
politikuri
partiebi
ufaso
keTildReobis
institutebs
emxrobian,
memarjvene
Zalebi
ukiduresi
memarcxene lozungebiT gamodian da a.S. partiaTa ideologiuri safuZvlis
arqonze miuTiTebs garkveuli tipis sociologiuri gamokiTxvebi, sadac
moqalaqeebi
mkveTrad
memerjvene
Zalebs
socialistur
moZraobebad
moixsenieben socialuri baza. ideologiuri safuZvlis moSla iwvevs imasac,
rom TiTqmis arc erT Cveneul politikur gaerTianebas ar hyavs Tavisi
mudmivi, myari eleqtorati. bunebrivia, ideologiis gareSe stabiluri
socialuri bazis formireba warmoudgenelia, radgan mocemuli politikuri
doqtrinis, msoflmxedvelobis mxardaWeriT partia prioritetebs aniWebs
romelime
sazogadoebriv
fenas.
politikis
mecnierebaSi,
Tanamedrove
sazogadoebadmcodneobaSi ideologiaTa istoriuli da SedarebiTi analizis
safuZvelze sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, rom vTqvaT socialisturi partiuli
programebi dasaqmebulTa da momxmarebelTa interesebzea orientirebuli.
Sesabamisad, memarcxene partiaTa bazas muSa-mosmsaxureebi, saSualo da
dabali fenis warmomadgenlebi akompleqteben. analogiurad, memarjvene
jgufebisaTvis metad upiratesi mdidrebis, meskuTreebis, biznes-seqtoris
interesebia.
evropisgan gansxvavebiT saqarTveloSi Znelad moiZebnebian amomrCevlebi,
romlebic romelime partias sakuTar TavTan aigiveben da sistematurad
aZleven mas xmas. es niSnavs, rom Cvens qveyanaSi dabalia moqalaqeTa
partiuli identifikacia anu wevrobisgan damoukideblad, moqalaqeTa
mxiridan mocemuli politikuri subieqtis mudmivi, mowesrigebuli mxardaWera.
identificirebuli amomrCevlis gareSe ar xdeba socialuri bazis formireba.
socialuri bazis armqone partiebi ki, stabilurni, mdgradni ar arian,
Sesabamisad sirTuleebi eqmneba partiul demokratiasac.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
berZeniSvili a., politikuri sociologia, gamomcemloba
inteleqti, Tbilisi 2011
heivudi endriu, politika, saqarTvelos universitetis
gamomcemloba, Tbilisi 2006
magsStadti Tomas. s, gavigoT politika, ilias universitetis
gamomcemloba, Tbilisi 2010
macaberiZe m., arCevnebi d sazogadoeba, socialur mecnierebTa
209
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
seria, Tbilisi 2003
partiuli sistema saqarTveloSi (angariSi), niderlandebis
multipartiuli demokratiis instituti,, Tbilisi 2007
partiuli sistema saqarTveloSi (angariSi), niderlandebis
multipartiuli demokratiis instituti,, Tbilisi 2007
saqarTvelos iusticiis saministros politikuri gaerTianebebis
reestri, 01.2012
Party politics crisis in Georgia
Levan Lortkipanidze
Resume
In the article is reviewed: The most acute problems of Georgian democracy and party system:
dominant multi-partial order, orientation on charismatic leader, the extreme fragmentation of political
landscape, absence of ideological and electoral base, undeveloped organizational structure, difficulty
in political communication.
Our final goal should be the institutionalization of the parties; therefore, political organizations
should become the part of the political system, the permanent mechanism of the social order.
sakuTrebis warmoSobis samarTlebrivi problemebi sacxovrebel binaze
mariam gelaZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
sajaro mmarTvelobis meore kursi
ia xarazi
iuridiul mecnierebaTa doqtori
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], Tel: 593 36 92 47
ra aris sacxovrebeli adgili, ras gulisxmobs igi? samoqalaqo
kodeqsis me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad: `fizikuri piris sacxovrebel adgilad
miiCneva adgili, romelsac igi Cveulebriv sacxovreblad irCevs. pirs
SeiZleba hqondes ramdenime sacxovrebeli adgili~. sacxovrebel binaze
sakuTrebis ufleba umravles SemTxvevaSi piris (mesakuTris) sacxovrebeli
adgilis ganmsazRvrelicaa. amitom gansxvavebiT sxva saxis qonebaze
sakuTrebis uflebisagan, sacxovrebel binaze sakuTrebis floba ara mxolod
kerZo_samarTlebriv, aramed xSirad sajaro_samarTlebriv xasiaTs atarebs.
es imiTaa gamowveuli, rom piris sacxovrebeli adgili da iuridiuli
misamarTi, anu registracia, umetesad erTmaneTs emTxveva.
sacxovrebel adgils didi mniSvneloba
aqvs ara mxolod kerZo
samarTlisaTvis. sajaro samarTalSi masze mravali ufleba, an institutia
210
damokidebuli. magaliTad, saarCevno ufleba an sasamarTlo qvemdebareoba
samoqalaqo samarTlis procesSi. rodis da rogor warmoiSoba sacxovrebeli
adgili da ra kavSirSia igi sapolicio CawerasTan? moqmedebs ki sapolicio
Cawera? ra mniSvneloba aqvs Caweras sacxovrebeli adgilis dafuZnebisaTvis?
sacxovrebeli adgilis arCeva damokidebulia piris nebaze da ara romelime
saxelmwifo organos gadawyvetilebaze. piris neba daafuZnos sacxovrebeli
adgili uzrunvelyofil unda iyos am nebis dakmayofilebis SesaZleblobiT,
e.i. pirs unda hqondes bina, anu sacxovrebeli sadgomi mocemul adgilze.
amasTan ara aqvs mniSvneloba es sadgomi misi sakuTrebaa, Tu qiriT aaqvs
aRebuli. sapolicio registracia, Tu aRricxva piris sacxovrebel adgils ar
warmoSobs da arc auqmebs. sacxovrebeli adgili SeiZleba arsebobdes
registraciis gareSec da piriqiT, registracia ar niSnavs sacxovrebeli
adgilis arsebobas. iseve, rogorc administraciuli aqtiT ar SeiZleba
sacxovrebeli adgilis dafuZneba, arc misi gauqmeba SeiZleba amave aqtiT.
amas pirdapir ganamtkicebs samoqalaqo kodeqsis me_20 muxlis me-3 nawili.10
sacxovrebel
binaze
sakuTrebis
ufleba
ZiriTadad
warmoiSoba
warmoebuli
safuZvliT.
magaliTad.
nasyidobiT,
CuqebiT,
gacvliT,
memkvidreobiT, gadacemiT da sxva. amaTgan yvelaze gavrcelebul saxes
nasyidoba warmoadgens. nasyidobis xelSekrulebas TviT gamyidveli _
mesakuTre debs, magram sk 709 muxlis Tanaxmad, mas SeuZlia marwmuneblis
daxmarebiT dados igive xelSekruleba. Tumca, rac Seexeba sacxovrebel
binaze sakuTrebis gadacemas sxva pirisaTvis memkvidreobiT (mag. anderZi), igi
ar SeiZleba ganxorcieldes warmomadgenlis meSveobiT, igi uSualod nebis
gamomvlenma pirma (mamkvidrebelma) unda gaaformos werilobiT. roca
sacxovrebel binaze sakuTrebis uflebis gadacema xdeba warmomadgenlis
meSveobiT, maSin aRniSnuli uflebamosilebis gacema (mindobiloba) unda
gaformdes
notarialurad11,
romelic
warmomadgenels
aniWebs
uflebamosilebas dados Sesabamisi saxis xelSekruleba warmodgenili piris
saxeliT da xarjiT.
`Tanaziar sakuTrebaSi arsebuli sacxovrebeli binis gayidva unda
moxdes TanamesakuTris TanxmobiT, Tanxmoba unda gamoixatos nasyidobis
xelSekrulebaze yvelas xelmoweriT. piri TanamesakuTred iTvleba mxolod
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi registrirebulia sajaro reestrSi, sadac gaxsnilia
saTanado binis saregistracio, saaRricxvo baraTi. swored aRniSnuli
baraTis mesakuTris ganyofilebaSi, an SezRudvebis grafaSi unda iyos piri
TanamesakuTred Cawerili, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi piris TanamesakuTred
yofnis ufleba unda dadgindes sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT. aRsaniSnavia
isic, rom TanamesakuTreebad yofnis sakiTxi sadavo gaxda umetesad
privatizebul binebSi.12
privatizacia
rogorc
sacxovrebel
10
binaze
sakuTrebis
uflebis
saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentarebi, wigni pirveli, Tb, 1999, gv 84-85; l. Wanturia
Sesavali samoqalaqo samarTlis zogad nawilSi, gv. 172-187
11
saqarTvelos 1998 wlis kanoni `notariatis Sesaxeb~.
12
ix. T. CitoSvilis dasax. naSr, gv. 61
211
warmoSobis
safuZveli.
saxelmwifo
binebis
privatizacia
uSualod
xorcieldeba `saqarTvelos respublikaSi binebis privatizaciis (usasyidlo
gadacemis) Sesaxeb saqarTvelos respublikis ministrTa kabinetis 1992 wlis
Tebervlis #107 dadgenilebis safuZvelze, romlis Tanaxmad, mosaxleobas
nebayoflobiTi
SeRavaTiani
pirobebiT
binebi
sakuTrebaSi
gadaecaT
usasyidlod,
romelic
maT
dakavebuli
hqondaT
saxelmwifo
da
sazogadoebrivi sabinao fondis saxlebSi. moqalaqeTaTvis aRniSnuli binebis
sakuTrebaSi gadacemis safuZveli gaxda sanotaro wesiT dadasturebuli
xelSekruleba, romelic daido adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organos saxeliT
sabinao _ saeqsploatacio organizaciasa da moqalaqes Soris. Tu binaSi
cxovrobda ojaxi, maSin ojaxis wevrTagan erTerTs sakuTrebaSi gadaecemoda
mxolod sxva wevrTa werilobiTi TanxmobiT, romelic aseve dadasturebuli
unda yofiliyo sanotaro wesiT. ojaxis yvela srulwlovani wevris Tanxmoba
iyo saWiro, Tu sacxovrebeli bina (saxli) maT gadaecemodaT saerTo
sakuTrebaSi.13
aRniSnuli
dadgenilebiT
regulirdeboda
agreTve
sabinao_samSeneblo
kooperativis
wevrTa
uflebebi.
kerZod,
sabinao_samSeneblo kooperativis wevri, romelsac ukve hqonda gadaxdili
binis Rirebuleba, CaiTvala binis mesakuTred. aseve aucilebeli iyo
sanotaro wesiT dadasturebuli xelSekruleba dadebuli koperativis
gamgeobasa da wevrs Soris, romelic dadebulad iTvleboda registraciis
mometidan. registraciisas gadaixdeboda saxelmwifo baJi. aq ki gamoikveTa
xarvezebi, romlebic ZiriTadad privatizebul binebSi mcxovreb ojaxis
wevrTa
uflebis
Selaxvas
ukavSirdeboda.
xSir
SemTxvevebSi
xelSekrulebebSi ojaxis wevrebisagan erTi iyo miTiTebuli mesakuTred da
sxva wevrebi xelSekrulebaSi ar iyo Seyvanili. aseve maTi nebis gamovlena
binis privatizebasTan dakavSirebiT aranairi formiT ar fiqsirdeboda rac
xSirad sasamarTlo davis sagani xdeboda. Tavisuflad SeiZleba vifiqroT,
rom aRniSnuli saxis xelSekrulebebis dadebis dros irRveoda maTi Sedgenis
wesi, anu ojaxis wevrTagan erTerTis saxelze xelSekrulebis dadeba da
mxolod am wevris mesakuTred registracia aucileblad unda dasturdebodes
ojaxis sxva wevrTa werilobiTi TanxmobiT, romlis ar arsebobis SemTxvevaSi
Sesabamis privatizebul binaze dadebuli xelSekrulebebi baTilad unda
iqnes miCneuli aRniSnul wevrTa sasargeblod.
privatizebul binebze sakuTrebis uflebis warmoSobis safuZveli
warmoebulia.
saxelmwifo
sakuTrebaSi
arsebul
sacxovrebel
binaze
moqalaqeTa sakuTrebis uflebis gadacemis damadasturebeli konkretuli
xelSekrulebebi
ideba
normatiuli
aqtis
safuZvelze.
moqalaqeebs
privatizaciis Sedegad gadacemuli binebis marTvis Sesabamisad, am binebis
gasxvisebis ufleba unda mieniWos mxolod sajaro reestrSi am moqalaqeebis
registraciis momentidan.
13
T. CitoSvilis dasaxelebuli naSromi, gv. 61-62
212
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
b. zoiZe. “qarTuli sanivTo samarTali”. Tb.2003
b. zoiZe, “sakonstitucio kontroli da RirebulebaTa kontroli
saqarTveloSi”. Tb. 2007
saqarTvelos 2010 wlis kanoni `sajaro reestris Sesaxeb~
samoqalaqo kodeqsis komentarebi, wigni meoTxe, tomi II, Tb. 2001
saqarTvelos parlamentis oficialuri veb gverdi. www.parliament.ge
saqarTvelos uzenaesi sasamarTlos oficialuri veb gverdi.
www.supremecourt.ge
Legal Problems of Belonging Private House
Mariam Geladze
Resume
The work discusses about the principles of owning private house and the rules of giving its
belonging rights to others. According to the research it is determined that if anyone wants to get rights
on private house she/he must get these rights in the public registry office for the moment of these
citizens’ registration.
omis Semdgomi periodi sazRvrispira soflebSi
Teona mosiaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi, II kursi
arina TavaqaraSvili, tel: 599 29 93 62
omis Semdgomi periodi yvela epoqaSi qveynisa Tu saxelmwifosTvis
umZimesia. miTumetes im dros, roca qveynis teritoriis 20% okupirebulia da
26 aTasze meti adamiani devnilad iqca da gaCnda e.w. xelovnuri sazRvari da
soflebi
saxelwodebiT-okupirebuli
teritoriebis
mimdebare-sasazRvro
soflebi, romelTa mdgomareobis da yofis Seswavla gamokveTil da realur
suraTs iZleva amJamindeli mdgomareobisa. umTavresi ki is aris, rom
agvistos movlenebis Semdeg maTTvis socialur-ekonomikur mzrunvelobas
winaswar
gansazRvruli
paketiT
saerTaSoriso
organizaciebi
uzrunvelyofdnen. es programebi TandaTan
Semcirda, didi nawili ukve
dasrulebulia da mosaxleoba ki isev saWiroebs xelSewyobasa da daxmarebas.
aseT soflebSi ar arsebobs mosaxleobisTvis saWiro proeqtebi, romlebic
xels Seuwyobs urbanizaciis procesis SenarCunebas.
kvelevis mizania e.w. sasazRvro soflebis situaciuri analizi
problemis gamomwvevi mizezebis gamovlena.
saxelmwifo
programebi,
samoqmedo
gegmebi
da
profesionalTa
SeTavazebiTa da saeqsperto daskvnebis gaTvaliswinebiT Sedgenili biujeti
mosaxleobas saSualebas aZlevs xelmeored adgilze damkvidrebasa da
etapobriv ganviTarebaSi, aseTi mizanmimarTuli politikis ararsebobam
SesaZlebelia srul degradaciamde da am teritoriebis daclamde migviyvanos.
xSir SemTxvevaSi aseTi procesebi gamowveulia adgilebze mmarTvelobis
213
organoebis
warmomadgeneTa
araprofesionalizmiT,
pasiurobiTa
da
intertiulobiT. magram mmarTvelobiT organoebSi aseTi susti rgolebis
ararsebobis garda Tan erTvis kvlevebisa da rekomendaciebis ar arsebobac.
Cems mier Catarebuli kvlevis teritoriuli sazRvari moicavs goris
raions sofel meRvrekiss. kvlevis obieqtebi arian am sofelSi mcxovrebi
adamianebi,
maT
Soris
studentebi,
maswavleblebi,
dasaqmebuli
Tu
dausaqmebeli pirebi.
kvlevisTvis gamoyenebulia SemTxveviTi analizis meTodi.
kvlevis iaraRebi: anketuri gamokiTxva Ria kiTxvis wesiT, ris
safuZvelzec kvlevisaTvis saWiro informaciis miReba moxda uSualod
mosaxleobisTan gasaubrebiT.
sofel meRvrekisSi ar arsebobs sabaSvo baRi, miuxedavad imisa, rom
baRis asakis bavSbebis raodenoba 40 aRwevs.
sofelSi, sadac 250 komli ojaxi cxovrobs:
1.
1-6 wlamde bavsvebis raodenoba – 40 –mde.
2.
16-25 wlamde axalgazrda -120 mde
3.
studentebis raodenoba – 21
4.
21 studentidan 3 Tavi daaneba usaxsrobis gamo
5.
socialurad daucvelia – 35-40 ojaxi.
6.
dasaqmebulTa roadenoba – 50 kaci aqqedan 10 kaci mSeneblobaze, 2
fermaSi, 14 maswavlebeli.
7.
saSualo Semosavali - 200 dan 800 laramde meryeobs.
omis Semdgomi periodi gansakuTrebiT umZimesi aRmoCnda sazRvrispir
soflebisaTvis, anu okupirebuli teritoriis mimdebare soflebSi. sadac
moSlilia manamde arsebuli infrastruqtura, darRveulia komunikacia,
mcxovrebelTa didma nawilma dakarga qoneba, daiwva da ganadgurda saxlebi
da manamde arsebuli sakarmidamo nakveTebs ver amuSaveben usaxsrobis gamo an
esazRvreba okupirebul teritorias da ar aris usafrTxo saqmianoba baRebSi
an maTi baTebi moxda okupirebul nawilSi. aseTi mdgomareobaa goris raionis
soflebSi: gugutiaanTkari, zemo xviTi, koSkebi, ergneTi, qarelis raioni:
knolevi, dvani, avlevi, ceronisi.
omma gamoiwvia yvelanairi sakomunikacio sistemis moSla da adamianebs
naklebad miuwvdebaT xeli informaciaze, rac kidev erTxel arTulebs maT
isedac mZime mdgomareobas. es erTi mxriv gamowveulia ufinansobiT, rac maT
gadaadgilebas sakmaod zRudavs, meore mxriv daucvelia maTi usafrTxoeba.
mosaxleoba naklebad erkveva sakuTar uflebebSi da sakuTrebis dacvis
meqanizmebis codnaSi.
wyalze
xelmisawvdoma
isec
problemaa,
miuxedavad
imisa,
rom
saxelmwifom yvela sofelTan WaburTili aamoqmeda. wyls raodenoba
arasakmarisia. xolo amJamindeli osuri mxridan arastabiluri miwodeba
xdeba da xSirad wyali maT Soris sasmeli wyari urTulesi problemaa am
adamianebisaTvis.
aseT sofelTa ricxvebSia: knolevi, avlevi, gugutiaanTkari, zemo xviTi,
kirbali, dvani, flavi, flavismani. xolo erovnuli gamocda Cabarebuli
axalgazrdebis nawili Tanxis gadauxdelobis gamo tovebs umaRles
214
saswavlebels.
sakanonmdeblo paketi omis
Semdgomi procesebis
samarTlebrivi
regulirebisaTvis srulyofili ar aris.
omis Semdgm xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi adgilebze arCeviT
urTierTobdnen mosaxleobasTan da mosaxleobis gadmocemiT daxmarebis
gacemisas isini subieqturebi iyvnen, rac adamianebis proqts iwvevs.
soflis
daxmarebis
programis
farglebSi
miuxedavad
adgilze
Sexvedris gamarTvisa mosaxleobis umetesi nawilis azri ar iqna gaziarebuli
da
mcirericxovan
mosaxleobasTan
SeTanxmebiT
wydeboda
Tu
rame
daxarjuliyo finansebi da ra iyo soflisTvis prioriteti.
soflis ambulatoriebi zogierT sofelSi moqmedeben, magram arasruli
datvirTviT da gamoirCevian medikamentebis naklebobiT. im umZimesma
mdgomareobam, rac omma daatexa mosaxleobas faqtobrivad mTEli sasazRvro
soflebi usaxsrod, ufinansod datova. socialurad daucvleTa programaSi
ki bevri ver xvdeba. TviT socialuri agentebis ugulisyuro damokidebulebis
gamo.
kvlevam bevri problema warmoaCina. es ki ra Tqma unda, kanonSi
adgilobrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis
Sesaxeb
cvlilebebs
moiTxovs
da
sakanonmdeblo iniciativis dros kanonis proeqtis SemuSaveba eqspertTa
daskvnebs saWiroebs.
omma gaaZliera axlomdgari saxelmwifos maxasiaTeblebi qarTul
realobaSi. centraluri xelisuflebis iurisdiqcia aRar vrceldeba qveynis
teritoriis 20%-ze, qveyanaSi umTavresi socialur-ejkonomikuri mdgomareobaa
da rac mTavaria damoukideblobis aRdgenas saerTaSoriso organizaciebis,
aSS-is
da
evrokavSiris
Zalisxmevas
vukavSirebT;
ufro
zustad
damoukideblobis gasaRebas qveynis gareT veZebT, magram faqtia, rom yovelive
sakmarisi araa, amitom saWiroa grZelvadiani programis proeqtis SemuSaveba
sasazRvro soflebSi xels Seuwyobs soflis etapobriv ganviTarebas, rac
mosaxleobaz dadebiTad aisaxeba.
Seiqmnas specialuri saxelmwifo fondi, romelic mZimed dazaraldeba
sazRvris pira soflidan umaRles saswavlebelSi moxvedril studentebs
Seuwyobs xels finansurad.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
Tbilisis saswavlo universiteti – saerTaSoriso samecniero
konferencia – globalizacia da mecnierebis
aqtualuri problemebi 21-e
saukuneSi. Tb. 2013 w.
2.
arina TavaqaraSvili, - kvleva, omis Semdgomi periodi e.w.
sazRvrispira soflebSi.
Post War Period in Border Villages
Teona Mosiashvili
Resume
The project reflects the reality of the post-war period, the loss of life of the population of the
villages in the occupied territories, or how to change their living conditions and their status.
215
administraciul samarTamdarRvevaTa
saqmeebis warmoeba
monika Serozia
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
sajaro mmarTvelobis III kursi
nino SavdaTuaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis leqtori saqarTvelos
teqnikuri universitetis sajaro mmarTvelobis doqtoranti
E EE-mail: [email protected]
administraciul
samarTaldarRvevad
CaiTvleba
saxelmwifo
an
sazogadoebrivi
wesrigis,
sakuTrebis,
moqalaqeTa
uflebebisa
da
Tavisuflebebis,
mmarTvelobis
dadgenili
wesis
xelmyofi
marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedeba an umoqmedoba, romlisTvisac kanonmdeblobiT
gaTvaliswinebulia administraciulin pasuxismgebloba.
administraciuli
pasuxismgebloba
ekisrebaT
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis Cadenis momentisaTvis Teqvsmeti wlis asaks miRweul
pirebs.
administraciul
samarTaldaRvevaTa
saqmeebs
awarmoeben
samarTaldarRvevis Sesaxeb saqmis ganxilvis dros da adgilas moqmedi
kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebis
warmoebis amocanebia saqmis drouli, yovelmxrivi, sruli da obieqturi
gamorkveva; gadawyveta kanonmdeblobasTan zusti SesabamisobiT, gamotanili
dadgenilebis aRsrulebis uzrunvelyofa, gamovlena samarTaldarRvevaTa
Cadenis xelSemwyobi mizezebisa da pirobebis, samarTaldarRvevaTa Tavidan
acileba, moqalaqeTa aRzrda kanonebis dacvis suliskveTebiT, kanonierebis
ganmtkiceba.
administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmis warmoeba
daiwyos xolo dawyebuli saqme unda Sewydes im SemTxvevaSi:
ar
SeiZleba
- Tu administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis SemTxvevis arasebobis gamo
im piris mimarT, visac administraciuli samarTaldaRvevis momentiasaTvis ar
Sesrulebis 16 weli.
- marTlsawinaaRmdego qmedeba Cadenilia piris Suracxadobis gamo, Tu
piri moqmedebda ukiduresi aucileblobis an aucilebeli mogeriebis
mdgomareobaSi;
-administraciuli aqtis miRebis gamo, Tu igi auqmebs administraciuli
saxdelis gamoyenebas;
-administraciuli pasauxismgeblobis damdgeni aqtis gauqmebis gamo;
-Tu
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
saqnis
ganxilvis
momentisaTvis ganvlo am kodeqsiT samarTaldarRvevis saqmis ganxilvisaTvis
gaTvaliswinebulmas vadebma (mux 38);.
216
-Tu arsebobs imave faqtze administraciuli pasuxisgebaSi micemuli
piris mimarT kompetenturi organos (Tanamdebobis piris) dadgenileba
administraciuli saxdelis dadebis Sesaxeb, an amxanaguri sasamarTlos
gauqmebuli gadawyvetileba, Tu masalebi amxanagur sasamarTlos gadasca im
orgamon
(Tanamdebobis
parma)
romelsac
aqvs
mocemuli
saqmeze
administraciuli saxdelis dadebis ufleba an gauuqmebeli dadgenileba
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb, agreTve imave
faqtze sisxlis samarTlis saqmis ararsebobobisas;
-im piris gardacvalebis gamo, romlis mimarT dawyebuli iyo saqmis
warmoeba.
yvela administraciuli saqme ganixileba Riad, saqmis ganxilva
SesaZlebelia samarTaldarRvevis Cadenis adgilze, rac gulisxmobs saqmis
yovelmxriv, srul da obieqtur gamorkvevas, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan
zusti SesabamisobiT.
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
warmoebis
dros
yvela
im
faqtobriv monacems, romelTa safuZvelze aRiZvreba saqme ds romelsac
mniSvneloba aqvs saqmis sworad gadawyvetisaTvis warmoadgens mtkicebuleba.
saqmiswarmoebisas prokurors ufleba aqvs aRZvras warmoeba administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis Sesaxeb, gaecnos saqmis masalebs,Seamowmos Tu rogor
moqmedeben
organoebi
(Tanamdebobis
pirebi)
saqmis
warmoebis
dros,
monawileoba
miiRos
saqmis
ganxilvaSi,
ganacxados
Suamdgomloba,
gaaprotostoss administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmis gamo Semotanil
saCivarze miRebuli dadgenileba da gadawyvetileba, SeaCeros dadgenilebis
aRsruleba da sxva moqmedeba, romelic kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia.
rodesac
saxeze
gvaqvs
administraciuli
samarTaldarRveva,
samarTaldarRvevis Sesaxeb dgeba oqmi saamisod uflebamosili Tanamdebobis
piris
an
sazogadoebrivi
organizaciisa
Tu
sazogadoebrivi
TviTmmarTvelobis
organos
warmomadgenlis
mier.
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevisaTvis oqmi dgeba sam egzemplarad.
oqmis erTi egzemplari saqmis gadasawyvetad saWiro sxva cnobebTan
erTad dauyovnebliv egzavneba ganxilvaze uflebamosil pirs (organos) da
daerTvis administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqme.
meore egzemplari bardeba samarTaldamrRvevs Sesabamisi xelismoweriT
oqmis egzemplaris Cabarebis Sesaxeb, xolo roca samarTaldamrRvevi ar
eswreba oqmis Sedgenas oqmi gaigzavneba oqmis SemdgenisaTvis cnobil
misamarTze.
oqmis mesame egzemplari rCeba oqmis SemdgenelTan.
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis oqmSi aRiniSneba:
-oqmis Sedgenis TariRi da adgili.
217
-administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis Cadenis dro, adgili da arsis
norma, romelic iTvaliswinebs pasuxismgeblobas samarTaldarRvevisaTvis.
monacemebi samarTaldamrRvevis Sesaxeb saxeli - gvari, saidentifikacio
piradi nomeri.
-damswreTa saxeli, gvari, piradi nomeri da misamarTi (maTi arsebobis
SemTxvevaSi).
-samarTaldamrRvevis axsna-ganmarteba.
-saqmisaTvis SesaZlo mniSvnelobis mqone sxva cnobebi
-ganmarteba samarTaldamrRvevisaTvis administraciul
micemuli piris uflebis da movaleobis Sesaxeb.
pasuxisgebaSi
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis oqmi aris mkacri aRricxvis
dokumenti. administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis oqmSi yvela Canaweri keTdeba
garkveviT. dauSvebelis gadaxazva, gadafxeka, gadaSla da a.S.oqmis dazianeba
an masSi araswori monecemebis Stanis SemTxveveSi ivseba axali oqmi, Zveli
gadaixazeba
jvaredinad.
adminisrtaciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
oqmi
TandarTul masalebTan erTad (arsebobis SemTxvevaSi) dauyovnebliv egzavneba
mis ganxilvaze uflebamosil Tanamdebobis pirs.
im SemTxvevaSi Tu oqmis Sedgena adgilze SuZlebelia, saqmis droulad
da swrafad ganxilvis da administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeze
miRebuli dadgenilebaTa aRsrulebis uzrunvelsayofad, dasaSvebia piris
administraciuli dakaveba, piradi gasinjva da nivTebisa da dokumentis
CamorTmeva. administraciuli dakavebis, piradi gasinjvis, nivTebis gasinjvis,
nivTebisa da dokumentebis CamorTmevis wesi am muxliT (mux 244)
gaTvaliswinebuli
miznebisaTvis
ganisazRvreba
saqarTvelos
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
kodeqsiT
da
saqarTvelos
kanonmdeblobiT.
piradi gasinjva SeiZleba awarmoon Sinagan saqmeTa, gasamxedroebuli
dacvis saxelmwifom dacvis specialuri samsaxuris samoqalaqo aviaciis
organoebis saqarTvelos finansTa saministros Sesabamisi samsaxuris
sagadasaxado
organoebis
saamisod
uflebamosililma
Tanamdebobis
pirma,xolo saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT uSualod gaTvaliswinebul
SemTxvevaSi, agraTve saamisod uflebamosilma sxva organoebos Tanamdebobis
pirebma.
nivTebis gasinjva SeiZleba awarmoon Sinagan saqmeTa, gasamxedroebuli
dacvis saxelmwifo dacvis specialuri samsaxuris samoqalaqo aviaciis
organoebis saqarTvelos finansTa saministros Sesabamisi samsaxuris
sagadasaxado organioebis sasazRvro policiis saqarTvelos energetikisa da
bunebrivi resursebisa da saqarTvelos garemos dacvis saministros saamisod
uflebamosilma Tanamdebonis pirebma, xolo saqarTvelos
sakanonmdeblo
aqtebiT
uSualod
gaTvaliswinebul
SemTxvevaSi
agreTve
saamisod
218
uflebamosilma sxva organoebis Tanamdebobis pirebma.
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
Camdenis
administraciulma
dakavebam ar unda gastanos TormeT saaTze met xans gamonaklis SemTxveveSi,
gansakuTrebuli aucileblobis gamo, saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo aqtebiT
SeaZleba dawesdes administraciuli dakavebis sxva vadebi.
administraciuli
pirebia:
samarTaldarRvevis
saqmis
warmoebaSi
monawile
-dazaralebuli-dazaralebulia saxelmwifo, fizikuri Tu iuridiuli
piri, romelsac danaSaulis Sedegad miadga fizikuri, moraluri an qomebrivi
ziani. dazaralebuls ufleba aqvs gaecnos saqmis masalas da SiZleba
daikiTxos rogorc mowme.
-mowme-mowme aris piri, romelic samarTalwarmoebisas iZleva Cvenebas
saqmesTan dakavSirebul faqtobrivi garemoebis Sesaxeb.
-kanonieri warmomadgeneli-administraciul pasuxisgebaSi micemuli im
pirisa da dazaralebulis intaresebi, romlebic arasrulwlovnebi an iseTi
pirebi arian, romlebsac TavianTi fizikuri an fsiqikuri naklis gamo
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevaTa saqmeebze TviTon ar SeuZliaT
ganaxorcielon TavianTi uflebebi, ufleba aqvT daicvan maTma kanonierma
warmomadgenlebma (mSobeli, mSvileblebi, meurveebi, mzrunvelebi).
-advokati-aris administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmis ganxilvaSi
monawile piri, romelsac ufleba aqvs gaecnos saqmis yvela masalas;
ganacxados Suamdgomlobani am piris davalebiT, romelmac igi miiwvia da
misive saxeliT Seitanos saCivari saqmis gamo miRebul dadgenilebaze.
advokatis uflebamosileba dasturdeba iuridiuli konsultaciis mier
gacemuli orderiT.
-eqsperti-specialuri codnis mqone piri romelic adgens daskvnas da
SeiZleba miwveul iqnes saqmis zepir mosmenaze Cvenebis misacemad.
-Tarjimani-aris piri romelic flobs ucxo enebs.sasamrTlo iZaxebs
Tarjimans im SemTxvevaSi Tu procesis monawilem ar icis qarTuli ena da
saWiroa Targmnos ucxo enaze, Sedgenili esa Tu is werilobiToi teqsti.
administraciul pasuxisgebaSi micemul pirs ufleba aqvs gaecnos saqmis
masalebs, misces axsna-ganmarteba, waradginos mtkicebuleba, ganacxados
Suamdgomloba;
saqmis
ganxilvisas isargeblos
advokatis
iuridiuli
daxmarebiT; gamovides mSobliur enaze Tu ar icis mimdinare warmoebis ena,
isargeblos Tarjimnis momsaxurebiT, gaasaCivros saqmis gamo migebuli
dadgenileba.
samaTraldarRvevis saqme ganixileba im piris TandaswrebiT,
romelic micemulis administraciul pasuxisgebaSi. am piris dauswreblad
saqme SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes mxolod im SemTxveveSi, roca aris cnoba
misTvis saqmis ganxilvis adgilasa da drois drouli Setyobinebis Sesaxeb
219
misgan ar Semosula Suamdgomloba saqmis gamxilvis vadebios Taobaze.
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmis gansaxilvelad
organo
(Tanamdebobis piri) wyvets sakiTxebs ganekuTvneba Tu ara agniSnuli saqmis
ganxilva mis kompetencias; sworad aris Tu ara Sedgenili oqmi; saqmis
ganxilvis minawile pirebs ecnobaT Tu ara saqmis ganxilvis dro da adgili;
gamoTxovilia Tu ara saWiro damaebiTi masalebi.
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqme ganixileba Cadenis adglas.
saqarTvelos respublikis kanonmdeblobiT SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnes
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmis ganxilvis sxva adgilic.
administraciul samarTaldarRveveTa saqmeebis uflreebamosili organo
(Tnamdebobis piri) ganixilavs administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis oqmis da
sxva masalebis miRebidan 15 dRis vadaSi. saqarTvelos respublikis
kanonmdeblobiT SeiZleba gaTvaliswinebul iqnas sxva vadebic.
administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmeze miRbuli dadgenileba
SeiZleba gasaCivrdes misi gamotanidan aTi dRis vadaSi. dadgenileba
administraciuli
samarTaldarRvevis
saqmeze
SeiZleba
gaaprotestos
prokurorma.
miRebuli
dadgenilebis gamo saCivers an protetests ganixilaven
saamisod uflebamosili organoebi maTi miRebiden 10 dRis vadaSi.
saCivris an protestis ganxilvisas organos (Tanamdebobis pirs) gamoaqvs
erT-erTi Semdegi dadgenileba:
-dadgenilebas
daakmayofilebs.
datovebs
ucvlelad,
xolo
saCivars
an
protests
-gaauqmebs dadgenilebas da saqmes gaagzavnis xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis.
-gaauqmebs dadgenilebas da Sewyvets saqmes.
-Secvlis saxdelis zomas administraciuli samarTaldarRvevisaTvis
pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb normatiuli aqtiT gaTvaliswinebul farglebSi.
oRond amasTan saxdeli ar gaZlierdeba.
administraciul
samarTaldarRvevaTa
Sesaxeb
saqarTvelos
kanonmdeblobis
amocanaa
sakuTrebis,
moqalaqwTa
uflebebisa
da
Tavisuflebebis
dacva.
dawesebulebaTa,
sawarmoTa
da
organizaciaTa
uflelebisa da kanonieri interesebis dacva, samarTaldarRvevaTa Tavidan
acilebis uzrunvelyofa. moqalaqeTa aRzrda saqarTvelos konstituciis
dacviT da dakisrebuli movaleobaTa Ssrulebis suliskveTebiT.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. saqarTvelos administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsi. Tb. 2005
220
Administrative Violation Proceedings
Monika Sherozia
Resume
Safe or public order, rights and freedom of cityzens, defendence of property, acfions agains the
low which are found guilty are charged as an administration justice abolishment.
A person from 16 and above is churched, administrative justice. Affairs about administrative
justice abolishment are made under the low accordions fine and place of its discussion.
Gender Equality in the Modern World
Tsisia Grigalashvili, Maia Sadghobelashvili
International relations, Group 1
Supervisor: Mosiashvili Natela
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 5 99 14 01 73
Gender equality means that women and men have conditions and life chances of realizing their
full potential, participate equally in the political, economic, social and cultural development process
and equally enjoy the blessings of opportunities and recourses. Gender equality does not mean identity
of men and women, on the contrary - a democratic pluralistic society, recognizes that people have
different values and goals, different needs and life styles. Nevertheless, their interests should be taken
into account at all levels, they should enjoy equal rights and opportunities and have the same
responsibilities and obligations.
Women make up more than half the world's people but only a fifth of the world's decisionmakers. Women are under-represented in formal politics, and often have little voice in making
decisions within important political spaces such as the household and the workplace. Their lack of
access to education and resources puts them at a severe disadvantage in the economic sphere.
Everyday women around the world face discrimination, poverty, violence and abuse. This is especially
true for women who are already marginalized: disabled, indigenous, those living with HIV, informal
workers, migrant women.
Women's political rights are vital to securing and retaining all other
rights. Women who have a voice can transform their lives. Grave violations of women’s human rights
continue to occur worldwide with terrifying regularity. Women throughout the world face systematic
gender-based discrimination and are regularly denied the right to life and security of person, full legal
capacity, health care, education, employment, inheritance, and freedom of movement. Women still do
not have full access to economic and political decision-making processes in their families, nations, or
international institutions. Too often, governments allow crimes against women to go unpunished,
continuing a culture of impunity for family members, state agents, and others who discriminate or
commit violence against women. In addition to the compelling moral reasons for focusing on women
within a broad-based human rights agenda—their poor conditions, continued discrimination, and
gender-based violence—there are two crucial strategic reasons for doing so. First, women are unique
221
in that, unlike other groups struggling to achieve their rights, they are part of every community on
earth. To bring women together as a group is to literally cut across all boundaries of race, ethnicity,
national identity, and, of course, class. Second, it is widely acknowledged in development and poverty
alleviation circles that women’s traditional roles within families and communities as caregivers—
especially for those most at risk, such as children and the elderly—mean that help provided to them is
help provided to all.
Since the early 1990s, Global Rights has worked to ensure that women everywhere can enjoy
the full range of human rights. Global Rights currently run women’s rights-focused programming in
Afghanistan, the Maghreb region of North Africa, and Nigeria.
Global Rights first began working with Afghan women in refugee camps in Pakistan and
established their Kabul field office right after the Taliban fell in 2001. Now they work to increase
access to justice for poor and marginalized people and promote women’s rights in Afghanistan by
building the capacity of their local partners to understand human rights law and use legal mechanisms
to protect human rights and promote the rule of law. Their programming includes the following:
The Young Lawyers-in-Training Program (YLTP) aims to expand access to justice through
intensive training in Afghan civil, criminal, and international human rights law for students in Kabul
University’s law faculty and the law and shar’ia faculties at Al-Biruni University.
The Legal Fellowship Project (LFP) places promising young YLTP graduates in government
ministries and local human rights and justice nongovernmental organizations. The project allows
fellows to strengthen their legal and advocacy skills by gaining practical work experience working as
lawyers to advance human rights. Global Rights also administers the Women’s Legal Services
Program, which places recently graduated fellows with women-led and women-focused organizations
to provide much-needed legal services to the local communities.
Global Rights also provides technical assistance to their local partners as they establish new
Legal Advice Bureaus (LABs) at the courts where lawyers will assist clients with finding and
completing the appropriate forms to register their cases, provide basic advice on simple family law
matters, and, if necessary, refer them to attorneys willing to provide pro bono legal assistance.
In the first program of its kind in Afghanistan, Global Rights is also working to increase access
to justice for Kabul family court clients through our Family Law Clinical Training Program (FLC). It
aims to ensure that poor and marginalized populations—particularly women—are able to secure the
legal services they need to understand and assert their rights in basic family court cases involving
issues such as forced marriage, domestic violence, and child custody.
Through these targeted programs and Global Rights’ continuing outreach and technical
assistance to the broad-based Afghan civil society community and state justice sectors, they are
building the capacity of their local partners to defend human rights and promote the rule of law.
Throughout Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia—three of the countries that make up the Maghreb
region of North Africa—women are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses. This is due to
deeply entrenched gender discrimination, lack of education, and a dearth of economic opportunities.
Cultural norms and traditions, as well as high illiteracy rates, also often prevent women from invoking
their rights or reporting crimes committed against them.
Global Rights opened its Morocco field office in March 2000 and since then has established
itself as a leader in the ongoing efforts to advance women’s rights in the Maghreb. Today, their
programming focuses on strengthening their local partners’ capacities to conduct grassroots level
awareness-raising and community mobilization about women’s rights; utilize international human
rights standards in strategic litigation to promote and protect those rights; and facilitate networking and
222
collaboration between and among urban and rural non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in
Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.
Since the launch of Global Rights’ initiative to engage in strategic litigation in domestic courts
in 2003, they have been working with lawyers to integrate international human rights conventions into
their women’s rights cases in the domestic courts system. Our work toward this goal, which included
assessments and training workshops with local lawyers around the country, culminated in a written
guide for these lawyers to consult while engaging in strategic litigation work.
In 2007,
Global
Rights began to promote women’s rights in marriage in the Maghreb through the strategic use of
marriage contracts. This pioneering program to promote the use of detailed marriage contracts with
rights-protective clauses encompasses not just the participatory drafting and dissemination of a model
marriage contract and other tools to women, lawyers, and judges, but also significant regional networkbuilding among local NGOs and lawyers and advocacy that challenges national institutions to address
the rights of women within the family.
Also in 2007, Global Rights conducted community
mobilization and advocacy for the adoption of a violence-against-women (VAW) act. Global Rights
trains local NGOs to recognize and understand the causes of domestic violence; to interpret current
Moroccan laws; to become familiar with comparative violence against women laws from countries
around the world and relevant international standards aimed at protecting women from violence; and,
critically, to utilize a human rights-based approach to address VAW in Morocco.
Global Rights’ current programming also includes the development of a model court
accompaniment program aimed at increasing women’s access to justice. In 2009, Global Rights’ field
staff began working with eleven partners throughout Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia and provides
orientation, supervision, training, and technical assistance to them as they establish effective,
permanent structures to house such programming. All eleven partner organizations train paralegals to
provide ongoing legal counseling to women in their communities; accompany them to court; ensure
application of the laws through monitoring, documenting, and analysis of judicial decisions; and
improve the quality of advocacy campaigns through the identification of effective legal reforms based
on the realities of women’s lives.
Nigeria reestablished itself as a democracy in May 1999 after decades of military rule and
sectarian violence; however, despite some advances for Nigerian citizens, human rights abuses are
rampant, and victims lack access to systems for rectifying these injustices. Twelve states have adopted
a strict shar'ia morality code, which allows for amputation, flogging, and even stoning for certain
crimes, such as adultery, theft, and homosexuality. Vigilante groups, or hisbah, regularly arrest
residents for petty crimes and violations of the code and subject them to severe and inhumane
punishment without due process under the law.
After a decade of work in southern Nigeria, Global Rights has recently expanded into the
underserved northern states where they are strengthening the capacity of nascent NGOs and activists to
address growing human rights violations and increase access to justice for the poor.
With
competing legal paradigms in northern Nigeria—the constitution and common law, Shari’a, and the
traditional courts administered by local emirs—understanding one’s legal rights and seeking redress in
the courts is a particularly complex and difficult process. To help remedy this, Global Rights is
working to introduce a tailored paralegal training and court accompaniment program to facilitate
access to justice in northern Nigeria for poor and marginalized women seeking redress for legal
problems.
Global Rights is also building the capacity of human rights activists throughout the country to
monitor, report, and respond to human rights violations against LGBTI individuals and communities,
223
as well as joining in local advocacy efforts by civil society to challenge discriminatory legislation or to
mitigate its impacts. Their long-term, in-country presence and deep connections to civil society allow
us to play a pivotal role in connecting LGBTI and sexual rights activists to the human rights
mainstream—critical in a country where discrimination against LGBTI individuals is deep-seated and
widespread.
Global Rights also recently developed a pilot project focused on the extraction of natural
resources in the northern Nigerian state of Zamfara. There, unregulated artisanal mining by members
of the local population has led to the deaths of over 300 children and young adults due to acute lead
poisoning.
Through awareness-raising and monitoring and documentation trainings, Global Rights is
developing and executing an advocacy campaign to engage government at all levels to demand
transparency and accountability for the protection of their rights.
Global Rights is also helping community-based organizations work with appropriate
government officials and local actors to strengthen the implementation of laws to end unregulated
extraction that violate people’s rights.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
“genderi da tanamedroveoba” – eseebis krebuli; hainrix biolis
fondis samx. Kavkasiis regionaluri biuro.
2.
“Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment‖ Paul D. Coverdall;
www.peacecorps.gov/www/stories
3.
―Women’s Rights‖ Anup Shah; www.un.org/women/watch
genderuli Tanasworoba Tanamedrove msoflioSi
cisia grigalaSvili
maia sadRobelaSvili
reziume
naSromSi ganxilulia genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxebi Tanamedrove
epoqaSi, qalis roli sazogadoebaSi da misi uflebebis dacvis meqanizmebi
afrikis qveynebis magaliTze.
224
s aerTaSoris o s amarTlis warmoSobis istoria
Mმeri mameswaraSvili
s aqarTvelos teqnikuri univers iteti
s aerTaSoris o urTierTobebi III kursi
sofio suxiSvili,
tre ntis universitetis saerT aSoris o s amarTlis
magistri (didi britaneTi)
xelmZRvaneli:Lioseb mameswaraSvili
[email protected] tel: 593918964
saerTaSoriso s amarT als, isev e rogorc, yvela movlenas
Tavisi istoria aqvs. igi kacobriobis ganviTarebis istoriis
nawilia. imisaTvis, rom gavigoT saerTaSoriso s amarTlis ar si,
unda vicodeT, Tu ram gam oiwvia m isi warmoSoba.
saerTaSoriso
sam arTlis
warmoSob asTan
dakavSirebiT
arsebobs sami ZiriTadi mos azreba: 1. saerTaSoris o sam arTali
warmoiSva jer kidev tomebs Soris urTierTobebSi; 2. saerTaSoris o
samarTali warmoiSva saxelmwifos warmoSobasT an erTad, sadac
tomobrivma
urTierTobebma
sam arTlebrivi
xasiaTi
SeiZ ina;
3.
saerTaSoriso sam arTali warmoiSva Sua saukuneebis bolos, roca
evropaSi suverenul saxelmwifoT a sistema Camoy alibda.
saerTaSoriso
s amarTlis
istoriis
mixe dviT,
misi
maregulirebeli
meqanizmi
praqtikaS i
amoqmedebas
iwyebs
Sua
saukuneebis
miwuruls.
qvemoT,
am
periodis
garda,
Sevexebi
saerTaSoriso s amarTlis w armoSobamde arsebul urTierTobebs,
riTac
iqmneba
zogadi
warmodgena
s aerTaSoriso
s amarTlis
formirebis winapirobebis Sesaxeb.
saerTaSoriso
sam arTlis
nor mebi
antikur
periodSi
viTardeboda dedamiwis im nawilebSi, sadac Caisaxa civilizaciis
pirveli kerebi. pirvel rigSi, es aris tigros i da evfrati, nilos i,
CineTisa da indoeTis raionebi, egeosi da xmelTaSua zRva. am dr os
saerTaSoriso normebi atarebdnen religiu r da CveulebiT xas iaT s.
es normebi exeboda omis kanoneb sa da Cveulebebs, xelSekrulebaTa
dadebis,
Sewyvetis
wesebs,
elCebis
gacvlas,
ucxoe lTa
samarTlebriv reJims, saerTaSoriso kavSirebis Seqmnas da a.S.
antikuri periodis dokumentebi mowmoben saxelmwifoTaSor is
urTierTobaTa zneobriv ganus azRvrelobas. Zvel indur manus
kanonebSi weria - mezobeli Seni mteria. arxaSas traSi (kautilia Cv.w.aR-mde IV-III ss) samSvidobo dokumentebis Sesaxeb aRniSnulia,
rom isini unda daidos T anaswor an Zlier mefeebs Soris, xolo
sust mefes Tavs unda daesxa. elCebis miznebia: misiis Sesrule ba,
xelSekrulebis mxardaWera, intriga, megobrebis SeZena, s aidum lo
masalebis gamoyeneba da a.S.
225
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis subieqtebi iyvnen mefeebi da ara
saxelmwifoebi.
T andaTan
ganviTarda
xelSekru lebis
dadeb is
praqtikac, magaliTad Cv.w.aR -m de 1296 wels haTusil III -es a da
ramzes II -s Soris daido tel -amaranis xelSekruleba, romelic
iTvaliswinebda Tanadgomas ara m arto sagareo om Si, arame d monaT a
amboxebis
CaxSob aSi,
aseve,
politikur
devnilT a
gadacem as.
xelSekruleba gamyarebuli iyo R vTiuri ficiT. erTm aneTs gadasce s
vercxlis teqstebi.
saberZneTSi omi yoveldRiuri movlena iyo. gabatonebuli iyo
azri, rom berZnebi arian rCeuli eri, xolo sxva erebi
barbarosebi.
demosTene
amtkicebda,
rom
barbarosebi
bunebiT
monebad iyvnen gaCenili. aqedan warmoiSv a termini - qsenofobia.
aseTi politik a aferxebda savaWro urTierTobebs. ucxoelebs
mxolod vaWrobis ufleba hqondaT. saberZneTSi Seiqmna proqseneb is
instituti, romlis movaleoba iyo ucxoelTa interesebis dac va.
proqsenebi
flobdnen
farTo
uflebebs,
kerZod,
maT
ic avda
imuniteti - omis dros garantirebuli iyo maTi usafrT xoeba da
qonebis dacva. berZnuli poliseb i erTmaneTs elCebsac ugzavnidnen.
termini - diplomati, swore d berZnebisgan modis (orad gakecil
rwmunebis dafas diploma er qva). berZnebi qmnidnen s imaxiebs,
samxedro kavSirebs, romlebic s amediatoro s asam arTlos rolsac
asrulebdnen da mas Si Semaval saxelmwifoT a sadavo s akiTxebsac
ganixilavdnen.
rac Seexeba roms, iq arc erT didebul iurists azrad ar
mosvlia
sxva
s axelmwifoebTan
u rTierTobebi
saerTaSor is o
normebis meSveobiT moewesrigebina. Tanasworoba SeuTavsebeli iy o
romis
imperiis
politikasT an.
Zvel
romSi
omis
warmoeba
samarTliani s aqmianoba iyo, radgan imperiisTvis sasikeTo Se degi
mohqonda da e.i. RmerTebis survilic es iyo (aq ai s axa normebis
religiuri xasiaTi).
V saukuneSi Seiqmna wminda rom is imperia da mimdinareobda
ganuwyveteli omebi mezobeli tomebis das apyrobad. am periodis
samarTali emyareboda devizs - Zlieri yovelTvis marTalia, ram ac
asaxv a
hpova
,,uflis
sas amarTloSi”,
sada c
kamaTi
wydeboda
SerkinebiT da m arTali iyo is, v inc gaimarjvebda. 1618 -1648 wlebis
omma (e.w. ocdaaTwliani omi) kaT olikeebsa da protestantebs Sor is
daangria mTeli evropa. am dros iuristebi omis samarTals
amuSavebdnen.
VII s aukuneSi warmoiSva arabuli saxal ifo, romelic aqtiur ad
Caeba sagareo urTierTobebSi. muslimuri samarTali, rome lic
yurans emyareboda, gansazRvravda mis sagareo politikas (h azavaT i,
miuridizmi). yvela aramahm adiani iTvleboda ucxoelad (gavixsenoT
habib ibn maslamas dacvis s igeli).
226
Sua s aukuneebSi evropaSi ucxoelTa mdgomareoba sagrZnoblad
gamosworda. miuxedavad amis a, arsebobda ramdenime uaryofiTi
Cveuleba. kerZod, ucxoelis sikvdilis SemTxvevaSi misi sakuTreba
gadadioda
feodalis
xelSi.
gemis
daRupvis
SemTxvevaSi
ki
moqmedebda sanapiro sam arTal i - qoneba imis i iyo, vis napir zec
gairiyeboda.
garkveuli saxis Taviseburebebi axas iaTebda saxelSekrulebo
samarTals. xelSekrulebebis savaldebulo Z ala kvlav ficiT
ganmtkic deboda.
magaliTad,
1 648
wlis
miunsteris
s azav o
xelSekruleba gamyarebuli iyo ficiT.
Sua saukuneebSi agreTve gamoikveTa samediatoro sas amarTlosa
da arbitraJis roli saerTaSoriso davaTa mowesrigebis sferoSi.
ase magaliT ad, 1317 wels s afrangeTis me fesa da flamandiis
hercogs Soris davaSi mos amarT les papi ioane XXII warmoadge nda.
damkvidrda arbitraJis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebebis dadebis praqtikac.
am mxriv, aRsaniSnavia xelSekruleba arbitraJis Ses axeb, romelic
daido voldemar danielsa da manhus Sveds Soris. xelSekrulebam
gans azRvra, rom TiToeulma mxarem arbitrebad unda daas axelos 24
episkoposi da 12 raindi. genu as a da venecias Soris SeT anxmebiT
1235 wels daarsda mudmivmoqmedi arbitraJi.
daskvna:
saerTaSoriso
s amarT alma
m asobrivi
m xardaWera
moipova.
Tanamedrove
politika
upirates ad
saerT aSor is o
samarTals eyrdnoba. XX s aukunis II naxevridan misi iuridiuli
Zala u fro mavaldebulebeli gaxda, vidre es gasuli s aukuneebis
manZilze iyo.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
2.
МОСКВА,
3.
1999.
4.
5.
Междун ародное Правовдокументах, МОСКВА, ИНФР А -М, 1997.
И. И. Лукаш ук, Междун ародное Право (обшаячасть), Изд -БЕК,
1996.
Колосов, Международн ое Право, МОСКВА, НОРМА, ИНФР А- М,
S. l. monteskie, kanonTagoni, Tb ilisi, 1994.
n. makiaveli, mTavari.
History of International Law
Meri Mamest sarashvi li , Sophio Sukhi sh vili
Resu me
Int ernat ional law has gained mass support . The moder n po lic y is ma inly based
on int er nat io nal law. Fro m t he second half o f t he 20t h cent ur y it s legal force become
more obligat ory t han it was in past cent uries.
227
narkomania – umZimesi
se ni
Mმ ariam ge laZe, zviad suxiSvili
suxiSvilis s aswavlo universiteti s
s ajaro mm arTveloba II da IV kursis studentebi
Lioseb mameswaraSvili
[email protected]; tel: 593918964
narkomania,
narkotikul
saSualebebze
damokidebuleba,
wamaldamokidebuleba, yovelive es erTi da imave Tavzardamcemi movlenis
saxelia. misi warmoSobis da gavrcelebis istoriis xangrZlivobas ramdenime
aTaswleulis miRma mivyavarT. cnobilia rom asurelebi, egviptelebi da
berZnebi saZile yayaCos jer kidev 3-4 aTasi wlis winaT iyeebdnen. aseve didi
xnis istoria aqvs iseT mcenreul-narkotikul saSualebis gamoyenebas,
rogoric aris induri „kanafi“, mcnare kovas foTlebi da sxva.kanafis
moxmarebis xerxi 8000 welze metia cnobili.
me-19 saukunisTvis evropisa da aSS-s xalxis cxovrebaSi mravali
cvlileba moxda. ganviTarda qimiuri teqnologiebi, ramac mravali sinTezuri
Tu naxevradsinTezuri narkotikis Seqmnis saSualeba misca mecnierebs. axali
narkotikebis Seqmnas uaryofiTi mxare hqonda,igi xelmisawvdomi gaxda
mosaxleobisaTvis da gaxSirda maTi arasamedicino miznebiT gamoyenebis
SemTxvevebi.
me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi aRiniSna narkotikebis moxmarebis bumi.dRes
adamianebi cdilobennarkotikebis moxmarebiT gaeqcnen realobas da Sedegze
naklebad fiqroben.
ra aris narkotiki? romeli nivTiereba SeiZleba CaiTvalos narkotikad
da romel maTgans iyeneben yvelaze xSirad?
termini
„narkotiki“
berZnli
sityva
da
„gamabruebels“niSnavs.
nivTiereba,romelic gavlenas axdens fsiqikur aqtivebze da iwvevs fsiqikur
an fizikur damokidebulebis Camoyaibebas.
narkomaniis
gaxdomis
mizezi
sam
jgufad
iyofa:socialrfsiqologiuri,pironuli da socialuri.
narkotikebs iyeneben im sasiamovno SegrZnebebis gamo, romlebic
gamoyenebisTanave iCens Tavs. am dros adamiani dgeba karg xasiaTze,
aqvs
sasiamovno SegrZnebebi, dadebiTi emociebi. xdeba ufro aqtiuri, gulRia da
uadvildeba sxva adamianebTan urTierToba, ar grZnobs daRlilobas, aqvs
sxvadasxvagvari xilvebi. es efeqti e. w.
,,kaifi” xanmoklea da eiforiis
Semdeg iwyeba e. w. gamosvlis faza, romelic arasasiamovno emociebTan aris
dakavSirebuli, radgan sasiamovno efeqtebi mxolod subieqturi SegrZnebebia,
realurad ki organizmi ganicdis narkotikebis mavne zemoqmedebas da Sedegad
xdeba misi gamofitva.
arCeven
narkotikisadmi
miCvevis
negatiur
da
pozitiur
damokidebulebas.narkotikis ganmeorebiT da mravlobiT miRebis Sedegad
paTologiuri swrafva da miCveva vlindeba. organizmis Sxamisadmi gamZleobis
gamomuSavebasTan erTad
narkomani zrdis Sxamis miRebis raodenobas. mas
228
aReniSneba narkotikebisadmi dauZleveli swrafva. veRar Tmobs ra Sxams da
igi damokidebuli xdeba rogorc fizikurad ise fsiqikurad.
narkotikebis moxmarebas adamiani aucileblad mihyavs socialuri da
emociur
problmamde,
arTulebs
ra
mis
urTierTobas
ojaxis
wevrebTan,megobrebTan da sazogadoebasTan.
yvela saxis narotiks, met-naklebad erTnairi moxmarebis unari
gaaCniaT. isini iwveven gautkivrebas, Zilianobas, guneba-ganwyobis cvlilebas.
cnobilia rom morfis 20-25 ampula „Cveulebriv“ adamianisTvis sasikvdilo
dozaa, magram miCvevis SemTxvevaSi es doza narkomanze aRar moqmedebs.
gamoyofen narkodamokidebulebis ramodenime mizezs:
alkoholizmiTa da narkomaniiT daavadebuli mSoblebi, emociuri
kontaqtis uqonloba, arasruli ojaxi.realuri profesiisa da samuSaos
uqonloba, usaqmuroba.
CamoTvlili mizezebidan narkotikebis gamoyenebamde yvelaze xSirad
mivyavarT sam garemoebas:
1. mowyenilobasa da cnobismoyvareobas;
2. megobarTa Tavyrilobis dros jgufur gamoyenebas;
3. arsebuli realobisgan gaqcevis survils.
rodesac narkotikze laparakoben, ufro xSirad gulisxmoben e.w
„aralegalur quCis narkotiks“, rogoricaa kanafi, kokaini, kreki, heroini,
marixuana da sxa.
narkomanTa yvelaze gavrcelebuli saxe haSiSomaniaa. haSiSi iwarmoeba
induri kanafisagan. narkomanebi mas iReben mowevis saSuaebiT rogorc sufTad,
aseve TambaqosTan erTad.
kokaini
miiReba
kokainis
xis
foTlebisgan.
ganekuTvneba
tkivilgamayuCebelTa jgufs. SedarebiT iSviaTad, magram gvxvdeba narkomaniis
iseTi saxe, rogoricaa kokainomania-kokainizmi. Igi ZiriTadad gamoiyeneba
morfTan erTad an kokainis foTlebis ReWvasTan erTad. kanafs dRevandeli
sazogadoeba „planis“ saxeliT icnobs. kanafis Jargonuli dasaxelebebia:
marixuana, balaxi, plani, haSi. kanafis moxmareba xdeba moweviT, daleviT an
WamiT. kanafi iwvevs Semdegi saxis fizikur zemoqmedebas: - Sveba tkivilis an
stresis dros; - wnevis aweva da majiscemis aCqareba. kanafis sami saxeoba
arsebobs: Cveulebrivi kanafi, induri kanafi da veluri kanafi.
zemoT
CamoTvlili
saSualebebis
realizeba
saqarTveloSi
ikrZaleba.narkomaniis damsjel xels verc saqarTvelo gadaurCa, igi
seriozulad daemuqra eris momavals.
dRes narkotikebis momxmarebelTa ricxvi gazrdilia, moxmareba
SeiniSneba 35 wlamde asakis mamakacebs Soris, Tumca SeimCneva momxmarebeli
qalebis raodenobis matebac. sagangaSo is aris, rom narkomanebis umetesoba
25 wlamde asakisaa.
amJamad Cvens qveyanaSi oficialur aRricxvaze imyofeba 25 000 adamiani,
magram es statistikur monacemebs adekvaturad ar asaxavs.
1988 wels miRebul iqna gaeros konvencia narkotikuli saSualebebisa da
fsiqotropuli nivTierebebis ukanono brunis winaaRmdeg brZolis Sesaxeb.
229
xolo 1990 wels Seiqmna gaeros programa narkotikuli saSualebebis
saerTaSoriso kontrolis Sesaxeb.
Ddaskvna: narkomaniis problemis Sesaxeb dRemde bevria dawerili da
momavalSic bevri daiwereba, radgan igi didi xania gascda erTi qveynis
sazRvrebs da
awuxebs msoflios
mowinave da moazrovne sazogadoebas.
mTavari ki isaa, Cven mivudgeT am problemas sworad da loialurad.
narkomania ar aris danaSauli da Sesabamisad narkomani damnaSave.Ees
davadebaa, romliT daavadebulT gverdSi dgoma da daxmareba sWirdebaT.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. Jana javaxiSvili -narkotikebis avadmoxmarebis prevencia-2010w.
2. gela leJava-fenomenis analizi“narkomania“ 2010w.
3. www.narkomani. blogspot.com
4. http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge
5. www.ucnauri.com
Drug Addict – The Worst Disease
Mariam Geladze, Zviad Sukhishvili
Resu me
There is a lot of written and a lot of will be written about the problem of drug abuse in the
future. It has long since gone beyond the limits of one country. Borders and suffers from advanced and
intelligent community.
The main thing is that we approach this problem correctly and loyal. Drug addiction is not a crime and
the offender. People, who are drug adductors want to support and help.
230
აdamianis uflebaTa pativiscema-saerTaSoriso samarTlis qvakuTxedi
jambul abuseliZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi IV kursi
xelmZRvaneli_ioseb mameswaraSvili;
[email protected] Tel: 593918964
adamianis uflebebis dacva demokratiuli sazogadoebis umTavresi
monapovaria. adamianis uflebebi garkveul CarCoebSi aqcevs saxelmwifos
Zalauflebas da amavdroulad, avaldebulebs saxelmwifoebs gadadgan
pozitiuri nabijebi iseTi garemos Sesaqmnelad sadac uzrunvelyofili iqneba
yvela adamianis uflebis ganxorcieleba. ukanaskneli 250 wlis ganmavlobaSi
aseTi garemos SeqmnisaTvis uwyveti brZola mimdinareobda. XVIII saukunis
miwuruls safrangeTisa da amerikis revoluciebidan dawyebuli, adamianis
uflebebis ideam ganapiroba mravali revoluciuri moZraoba Zalauflebasa
da xelisufalze. kerZod, mTavrobaze kontrolis mopovebis mizniT.
adamianis uflebebi aris indiviadualur da koleqtiur uflebaTa
erToblioba, romlebic Tavmoyrilia saxelmwifoTa konstituciebsa da
saerTaSoriso samarTalSi.
samarTlebrivi kuTxiT, adamianis uflebebi SeiZleba ganisazRvros
rogorc
individualur
da
koleqtiur
uflebaTa
erToblioba,
rac
aRiarebulia, suverenuli saxelmwifoebis mier da garantirebulia maTi
konstituciiT da saerTaSoriso samarTali. adamianis uflebaTa pativiscemis
principis Camoyalibebasa da saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi saSualebiT mis
damtkicebas dasabami mieca meore msoflio omis dros. amas didad xeli
Seuwyo nacisturi reJimis mier adamianTa masobrivi ganadgurebis saSineli
faqtebis saqveynod mxilebam. Tu manmade saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba
ZiriTadad erovnul umciresobaTa saerTaSoriso dacviT iyo dainteresebuli
gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda pirveli msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi meore
msoflio
omis
damTavrebisTanave
gaeros
wesdebaSi
Setanil
iqna
mowodeba_daculi yofiliyo adamianis Rirseba da ZiriTadi uflebebi. aqedan
iwyeba mwvave ideologiuri brZola socialistur da imperialistur qveynebs
Soris, raTa adamianis uflebaTa pativiscema gaeros miznebisgan ZiriTad
saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv principad gadaqceuliyo Tanac ori socialuri
sistemis Tanaarsebobis principis SeubRalavad qveynis saSinao saqmeebSi
Caurevlobis principis dacviT.
adamianis uflebebi moicavs cxovrebis yvela aspeqts. maTi saTanado
realizebis SemTxvevaSi qalebsa da mamakacebs aqvT saSualeba sakuTari
cxovreba Tavisuflebis, Tanasworobisa da adamianuri Rirsebis principebidan
231
gamomdinare dagegmon. adamianis uflebebi moicavs samoqalaqo da politikur
uflebebs,
socialur,
ekonomikur
da
kulturul
uflebebs
xalxTa
TviTgamorkvevaze, Tanasworobaze, ganviTarebaze, mSvidobaze da janmrTel
garemoze. Tumca arsebobda da jer kidev arsebobs azri, rom samoqalaqo da
politikuri uflebebi, romlebic cnobilia rogorc “pirveli Taobis
uflebebi”, dafuZnebulia saxelmwifos mxridan pirad urTierTobebSi
Caurevlobis koncefciaze, maSin rodesac socialuri, ekonomikuri da
kulturuli
uflebebi,
rogorc
”meoreTaobisuflebebi”.
dRes
ukve
aRiarebulia, rom saxelmwifoebma da saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobam unda
gadadgan nabijebi iseTi pirobebisa da samarTlebrivi sistemis Seqmnis
mizniT, rac aucilebelia adamianis uflebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis.
samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa sfero moicavs:

sicocxlis ufleba

wamebisgan da sastiki, araadamianuri
mopyrobis an dasjisgan Tavisuflebis ufleba.
an
Rirsebis
Semlaxveli

Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis ufleba.

monobisgan da iZulebiTi samuSaosagan Tavisuflebis ufleba.

Tavisufali mimosvlis ufleba.

piris ufleba cnon rogorc samarTlis subieqti

piradi cxovrebis pativiscema.

azris, sindisisa da religious Tavisufleba.

mosazrebebisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.

mSvidobiani Sekrebis ufleba.

gaerTianebis Tavisufleba.

piris ufleba daqorwindes da Seqmnas ojaxi.

samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba.

kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis ufleba da diskriminaciis akrZalva.
ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli uflebebis sferoSi:

Sromis ufleba.

SromissamarTliani da xelsayrelipirobebisqonebisufleba.

profesiuli kavSirebis
Seqmnisa da asset kavSirebSi Sesvlis
232
ufleba.

socialuri uzrunvelyofis ufleba.

ojaxis dacva.

janmrTelobis dacva.

ganaTlebis ufleba.

piris ufleba hqondes cxovrebis
kvebis, tanisamosisa da sacxovreblis CaTvliT.
saTanado
done,
Sesaferisi
adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia miRebul iqna generaluri
asambleis mier 1948 wlis 10 dekembers. deklaracia adgens samoqalaqo,
politikur, ekonomikur, socialur da kulturul uflebebs da yvelas
uflebas iseT socialur da saerTaSoriso wesrigze, romlis pirobebSi
SesaZlebelia deklaraciaSi CamoTvlili uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa sruli
ganxorcieleba. Tumca igi ar warmoadgens iuridiulad savaldebulo
samarTlebriv aqts socialisturma qveynebma da samxreT afrikam Tavi Seikaves
misi miRebisagan, miuxedavad amisa deklaraciam moralurad da politikurad
SeiZina avtoritetuli samarTlebrivi aqtis statusi, romelSic asaxulia
gaeros Sexeduleba adamianis uflebebze. dResdReobiT igi gvevlineba
adamianis uflebaTa dacvis wesdebaze dafuZnebul sistemad.
adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso bilis Semdeg miRebul iqna mravali
specifikuri xasiaTis mqone iuridiulad savaldebulo samarTlebrivi aqti.
xsenebuli samarTlebrivi aqtebi moicavs Semdegs:

saerTaSoriso konvencia rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formis
aRmosafxvrelad (CERD; miRebulia 1965 wels da ZalaSi Sevida 1969 wels)

konvencia qalTa diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb
(CEDAW; miRebulia 1979 wels da ZalaSi Sevida 1981 wels)

konvencia wamebisa da sxva sastiki, araadamianuri an Rirsebis
Semlaxveli mopyrobis an dasjis winaaRmdeg (CAT; miRebulia 1984 wels da
ZalaSi Sevida 1987)

konvencia bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb (CRC miRebulia 1989 wels da
ZalaSi Sevida 1990 wels)

saerTaSoriso konvencia yvela migrant muSisa da maTi ojaxis
wevrTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb (romelic aseve cnobilia migrant muSebis
konvenciis saxeliT, CMW,romelic miRebulia 1990 wels da ZalaSi Sevida
2003 wels)
233

konvencia SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirTa uflebebis
Sesaxeb (miRebulia generaluri asambleis mier 2006 wlis 13 dekembers da 2007
wlis 30 marts konvencia da fakultaturi oqmi gaixsna xelmosawerad)
mas Semdeg rac, teqsts miiRebs gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komisia,
teqstis proeqtze muSaoba xSir SemTxvevaSi Cqardeba. amis Semdeg teqsti unda
daamtkicos ekonomikurma da socialurma sabWom. proeqtze unda imsjelos da
miiRos
generalurma asambleam,
kerZod ki,
socialur,
humanitarul,
kulturul sakiTxTa mesame komitetma.
mas Semdeg, rac xelSekruleba miRebulia generaluri asambleis mier,
rogorc wesi erTxmad, igi Riad cxaddeba xelmowerisa da ratifikaciisTvis
wevri saxelmwifoebis mier. igi ZalaSi Sedis mas Semdeg, rac ratifikaciis an
mierTebis konkretuli raodenobis instrumenti deponirebulia.
gamoyenebuli
literatura:
1)
adamianis uflebebi saxelmZRvanelo parlamentarebisTvis _ Tb
2009 w. gv 1-3, 24-25
2)
adamianis
uflebaTa
sferoSi
samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli _ Tb 2008 w. t 1.
ZiriTadi
saerTaSoriso
3)
adamianis
uflebaTa
sferoSi
samarTlebrivi aqtebis krebuli _ Tb 2008 w. t 2.
ZiraTadi
saerTaSoriso
4) levan aleqsiZe _ Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso samarTali _ Tb.2010 w.
Respect of Human Rights
Jambul Abuselidze
Resume
Nowadays, people, who think progressively, depend on defending people’s rights and
respecting them. If a country can provide an appropriate defense of person’s rights, then it is
democratic. People’s rights are the most important of democracy, political and civil cultures and
safety.
234
seqcia #3
agraruli
mecnierebani
seqciis Tavmjdomare:
giorgi qavTaraZe
235
tyis marTvis Tanamderove midgomebi
Tornike abuTiZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis,
satyeo saqmis specialobis, me-4 kursis studenti
[email protected]
giorgi qavTaraZe
satyeo saqmis doqtori, asocirebuli profesori
[email protected]
anotacia - naSromSi ganxilulia tyeebis marTvis Tanamedrove
koncefcia, marTvis politikis instrumentebi, saerTaSoriso instituciebi da
valdebulebebi
procesSi
CarTuli
yvela
qveynisaTvis,
maT
Soris
saqarTvelosTvis. analizis Sedegad gamokveTilia yvela is aucilebeli
piroba Tu meqanizmi, romlis arseboba yvela qveynisaTvis mniSvnelovania,
tyis marTvis Tanamedrove praqtikis warmatebuli damkvidrebisaTvis.
Sesavali da ganxilva - mas Semdeg, rac kacobriobam kidev ufro metad
Seafasa tyeebis globaluri garemosdacviTi mniSvneloba, ekonomikur da
socialur efeqtianobasTan erTad, kidev ufro metad gamoikveTa tyeebis
marTvis imdroindeli
praqtikis principuli nakolvanebebi da/an zogierT
SemTxvevebSi (rig qveynebSi) marTvis organizebuli formis sruliad
ararseboba.
aRniSnuli
ki
(mag.
tropikuli
tyeebis
SemTxvevaSi)
gamousworebel daRs asvamda tyeebis ekosisemebs,
Sesabamisad uqmnida
safrTxes garemos globalur usafrTxoebas.
amdenad msoflio sazogadoebis progresuli nawili mivida im
daskvnamde, rom saswrafod saWiro iyo tyeebis marTvis midgomebis Secvla
da/an damkvidreba, romelic daefuZneboda mdgrad principebs da gaaCenda
procesebis
stabiluri
ganviTarebis
SesaZleblobas
grZelvadiani
perspeqtiviT.
pirveli
mniSvnelovani
konferencia,
romelic
mieZRvna
garemos
globalur problemebs iyo gaeros garemosa da ganviTarebis 1992 wlis riode-Janeiros konferencia, sadac dadgenil iqna satyeo principebi, romelSic
asaxuli iyo saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis maSindeli midgoma tyeebis mdgradi
marTvisadmi, romlis mimarTac mxardaWera mravalma qveyanam gamoxata.
SemdgomSi tyis mdgradi marTvis principebi evropis doneze damuSavda
evropis tyeebis dacvis ministrTa konferenciis mier MCPFE- Ministrial Conference
on the Protection of Forests in Europe), romelic
aris pan-evropuli politikuri
procesi
(saerTaSoriso
institucia)
tyeebis
mdgradi
marTvis
uzrunvelsayofad. igi aseve cnobilia evropis tyeebis (Forest Eorope) saxeliTac.
tyeebis
mdgradi
marTvis
dRevandeli
gansazRvreba,
romelic
SemuSavebul iqna evropis tyeebis dacvis ministrTa konferenciis mier
(MCPFE) da Semdeg daamtkica gaeros sursaTisa da soflis meurneobis
organizaciam (FAO), ganimarteba Semdegnairad: ,,tyeebisa da satyeo miwebis
marTva da gamoyeneba iseTi gziTa da moculobiT, rom SenarCunebul iqnas
236
maTi
biomravalferovneba,
produqtiuloba,
regeneraciis
unari
da
sicocxlisunarianoba da maTi potenciali, raTa axlac da momavalSic
Sesrulebul iqnas tyis Sesabamisi ekologiuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri
funqciebi adgilobriv, erovnul da globalur doneze da ar gamoiwvios sxva
ekosistemebis dazianeba” [1].
tyis mdgadi marTvis ganmartebidan Cans, rom igi efuZneba sam mTavar
aspeqts, romlis mdgradi Sesruleba unda iqnas uzrunvelyofili, es aris:
tyeebis ekologiuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri fuqciebi (ixileT nax. 1).
naxati 1.
tyeebis mdgradi marTvis sqema (SFM-Sustainable forest management)
,,Forest Eorope― dRevandeli mdgomareobiT aerTianebs 46 wevr
qveyanas,
romelTa Sorisac Cveni qveyanac aris. aRniSnuli kavSiris farglebSi
evrokavSiri aviTarebs erTian strategiebs Tavisi tyeebis dacvisa da mdgradi
marTvis uzrunvelsayofad.
,,evropis tyeebma (Forest Eorope) SeimuSava tyis mdgradi marTvis eqvsi
kriteriumi da maTTan dakavSirebuli indikatorebi, romlebic warmoadgenen
erTgvar saxelmZRvanelos tyis mdgradi marTvis politikis SemuSavebisaTvis.
es kriteriumebia:
1.
tyis resursebis SenarCuneba da globaluri naxSirbadis ciklSi
maTi wvlilis gafarToeba;
2.
tyis
ekosistemebis
sijansaRisa
da
sicocxlisunarianobis
SenarCuneba;
3.
tyeebis produqtiulobis (merqnuli da aramerqnuli) SenarCuneba
da gazrda;
4.
tyis ekosistemebis biologiuri mravalferovnebis SenarCuneba,
konservacia da gaumjobeseba;
5.
satyeo menejmentis gziT tyis dacviTi funqciebis (kerZod
niadagis da wylis) SenarCuneba, konservacia da gaZliereba;
6.
sxva socialuri da ekonomikur funqciebis da pirobebis
237
SenarCuneba [1;2].
cxadia evropis tyeebis mdgradi marTvis kriteriumebi gamomdinareobs
tyeebis mdgradi marTvis fundamenturi ganmartebidan da igi konservaciul
politikasTan
erTad
gulisxmobs
tyis
resursebis
(merqnuli,
aramerqnuli da arapiradpiri) mdgrad da optimalur sargeblobasac.
aRniSnuli kriteriumebis gaTavaliwinebiT tyeebis mdgradi marTvis
misaRwevad,
erovnul
doneze
TiToeuli
xelmomweri
qveynisaTvis
mniSvnelovania saTanado pirobebisa da meqanizmebis Seqmna da Camoyalibeba,
romelTagan gamosayofia:
1.
tyis marTvisa da
institucionaluri
mowyobis Tanamedrove
sistema;
2.
gamarTuli samarTlebrivi baza;
3.
saxelmwifo monitoringisa da kontrolis efeqturi sistema;
4.
saTanado finansuri, materialuri da adamianuri resursebi;
5.
mosaxleobis cnobierebis maRali done da CarTuloba procesebSi;
6.
damoukidebeli
da
nebayoflobiTi
mdgradi
iniciativebi
(meqanizmebi), rogoric aris magaliTad nebayoflobiTi sertificireba da sxva.
miuxedavad imisa, rom evropis minstrTa konferenciis saxelmZRvanelo
principebi ar warmoadgenen samarTleblivad savaldebulo instrumentebs,
xelmomweri qveynebi acnobiereben ra maT mniSvnelobas, rogorc erTiani
evropis politikuri sivrcis nawilni iReben valdebulebas, rom swored
aRniSnuli saxelmZRvanelo principebi daedos safuZvlad erovnuli satyeo
koncefciebis, strategiebis da marTvis modelebis Seqmnas. am ,,valdebulebis
qveS varT Cvenc, rogorc erT-erTi xelmomweri qveyana, e.i gvaqvs valdebuleba
saqarTvelos erovnuli satyeo politikis da strategiis ZiriTadi principebi
efuZnebodes, swored mdgradi marTvis
saerTaSorisod aRiarebul principebs. ufro metic, saqarTvelos
delegaciam 2011 wels osloSi gamarTul ministerialze (bolo ministeriali)
mxari dauWira ideas, rom evropuli iniciativebi gaxdes savaldebulod
Sesasrulebeli
xelmomweri qveynebisaTvis, razedac amJamad mimdinareobs
muSaoba.
nebismieri koncefciis Tu strategiis efeqtianobis Sefaseba, rac ar
unda avtoritetulma organom warmoadginos igi, mainc misi praqtikuli
implementaciis Sedegebis mixedviT ganisazRvreba. am SemTxvevaSic ismeba
kiTxva: tyis mdgradi marTvis koncefcia, mxolod koncefciaa Tu misi
praqtikuli danergva SesaZlebelia da amis stabiluri ganviTarebis miRweva
tyeebis marTvis sakiTxSi, rac misi ganmartebis Sinaarsobrivi mxarea?! am
SemTxvevaSi albaT upriani iqneba movitanoT
warmatebuli
metyeveobis
gamocdilebis mqone evropuli saxelmwifoebis konkretuli statistikuri
informacia, romelic gamoxatavs tyis mdgradi marTvis efeqtianobis
maCveneblebs. kerZod, evropis tyeebSi mdgradi metyeveobis damkvidrebis
Semdeg aralegaluri Wrebi Semcirda 1-2%-mde; satyeo meurneobis ekonomikuri
efeqtianoba gaizarda 3-4 jer; tyesTan dakavSirebul dargebSi dasaqmebulTa
raodenobam Seadgina Sromisunariani mosaxleobis 5%-ze meti; xolo qveynebis
238
sagareo vaWrobaSi tyis produqciis wili 7-10%-s aRemateba [3].
aRsaRniSnavia,
rom
aRniSnul
tendencias
xeli
Seuwyo
kerZo
iniciativebis zrdamac, anu tyeebis kerZo sakuTrebaSi gadacemam. dRevandeli
mdgomareobiT evropis tyeebis (ruseTis federaciis gamoklebiT) saerTo
farTobis daaxloebiT 50% kerZo mflobelobaSia. gansakuTrebiT tyeebis
farTobebis da Sesabamisad maragebis zrda fiqsirdeba kerZo tyeebSi
aRdgenisa da gaSenebis xarjze.
daskvna - rogorc davinaxeT tyis marTvis Tanamedrove midgoma efuZneba
,,mdgradi marTvis aRiarebul koncefcias.
cxadia erTi naSromis formati ar iZleva saSualebas sakiTxis
srulyofilad ganxilvis da Rrma analizisa, Tumca tendenciebi, romelic
ikveTeba aCvenebs, rom tyeebis mdgradi marTva gonivrul midgomaze da tyis
meurneobis ganviTarebis grZelvadian stabilur perspeqtivazea damyarebuli.
bunebrivia isic, rom mxolod ideis doneze aRniSnulis miRweva
SeuZlebeli iqneba, Tu TiToeulma qveyanam, visac surs aRniSnulis danergva,
ar miaRwia garkveuli ganviTarebis dones, rac gulisxmobs saTanado sabaziso
pirobebisa da meqanizmebis Seqmnas.
Tu am yovelives davukavSirebT Cveni qveynis realobas cxadi xdeba, rom
erovnuli tyis meurneobis mdgradi marTvis princepebze gadayvana did
ZalisxmevasTan da sirTuleebTan iqneba dakavSirebuli, vinaidan TiTqmis
arc erTi piroba (razec zemoT vsaubrobdiT), rac dakavSirebulia mdgradi
marTvis saWiro meqanizmebis arsebobasTan am etapze ar arsebobs.
miuxedavad aRniSnuli mocemulobisa cxadia, rom procesi dasawyebia da
es saerTaSoriso valdebulebasTan erTad, pirvel rigSi Cveni qveynis tyeebis
gonivruli marTvisTvis, e.i Cveni qveynis da misi mosaxleobis ukeTesi
ekologiuri da socialur-ekonomikuri momavlisTvis aris mniSvnelovani.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
,,tyis marTva saqarTveloSi: problemebi da gamowvevebi, mwvane
alternativa, gv. 19-21, Tbilisi, 2012;
2.
Criteria and Indicators for Sustainable Forest Mamagment of the MCPFE, International
Expert Meeting Report, pg. 12-13, Yokohama, Japan, 2001;
3.
Global Forest Resources Assessment, Main report – FAO, pg 87 – 90, 2012.
Modern Approaches to Forest Management
Tornike Abutidze
Resume
The paper discusses the modern concept of forest management, Management policy
instruments, International institutions and obligations of participating in the country, including
Georgia.
After the analysis has identified all the necessary conditions for a mechanism, which is
important for all countries, forest management practices for successful establishment.
239
tyis sanitarul-higienuri mniSvneloba
giorgi RviniaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis
satyeo saqmis II kursi
maia tuRuSi
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis asocirebuli profesori
[email protected] 555-242-540
garemos teqnologiurma gabinZurebam mniSvnelovnad Secvala adamianis
da zogadad cocxal organizmTa sasicocxlo garemo (haeri, wyali da sxva).
garemos teqnologiuri gabinZurebis Semcirebis erT-erTi mZlavri
bunebrivi resursi tyea.
qalaqebis da samrewvelo centrebis sahaero auzis sanitarul-higienuri
pirobebis dacvis da gaumjobesebisTvis tyes udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba.
qvemoT ganvixilavT, tyis rols haeris sanitarul-higienuri pirobebis
(O2, CO2 da mtvris) regulirebaSi.
Jangbadis gareSe sicocxle SeuZlebelia. misi optimaluri norma
uzrunvelyofili rom iyos, erT sulze tye 0,3 ha-s unda Seadgendes.
saqarTveloSi erT sulze 0,51 ha tye modis.
adamiani dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi 500-600 ltr Jangbads xarjavs, muSaobis
dros ki misi moxmareba matulobs da wuTSi 5 litramde izrdeba. [1]
mcenareuli safari, maT Soris tyec O2-s sunTqvisTvis iyenebs.
miuxedavad O2-is didi odenobiT moxmarebisa, bunebaSi misi Semcveloba
mudmivia, rac aixsneba haerSi misi didi maragiT da mzis radiaciis gavleniT,
mwvane mcenareebis mier fotosinTezis procesSi didi odenobiT O2 -is
gamoyofiT.
dadgenilia, rom 1 ha naZvisa da foTlovanTa Sereuli koromi wliurad
gamoyofs 10-13 tona Jangbads, 60 wliani fiWvis koromi - 10,9 tonas, 40 wliani
muxis koromi - 14,0 tonas, naZvis wminda koromi 8-9 tonas. [2]
Jangbadis Semcvelobis maRali maCveneblebiT fiWvis da naZvis Sereuli
(7fW. 3nZ) koromi xasiaTdeba.
tyesa da utyeo farTobebis haerSi Jangbadis Semcveloba gansxvavebulia.
g. gigauris (2000) monacemebiT fiWvnar-naZvnarSi O2-is Semcveloba 0,4 %-iT
ufro maRali iyo, vidre utyeo adgilis haerSi.
tyis mier gamoyofili Jangbadi maRali xarisxisaa, metadaa damuxtuli
uaryofiTi ionebiT, rac amaRlebs tyis samkurnalo-gamajansaRebel Tvisebebs.
ukanasknel periodSi SeiniSneba atmosferoSi CO2-is koncentraciis
zrda,
rac
sazianoa
adamianisTvis
da
zogadad
yvela
cocxali
organizmisTvis. haerSi CO2-is momateba adamianze mravalgvar uaryofiT
gavlenas axdens - majiscemis daqveiTebas, Tavis tkivils, gulisrevas,
gulyras da sxva.
tyis roli CO2-is regulirebaSi uaRresad didia. igi mniSvnelovani
raodenobiT STanTqavs CO2-s da gamoyofs sicocxlisTvis aucilebel
240
Jangbads.
1 ha Sereuli tye 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi atmosferodan saSualod 15 tona
CO2-s STanTqavs da gamoyofs 13 tona O2-s. saqarTvelos tyeebi mTlianad
(2.767.4 aTasi ha) wliurad STanTqavs 41,5 mln. tona naxSirorJangs da
gamoyofs 36,0 mln. tona Jangbads. [2]
tyis biomasaSi naxSirbadis udidesi maragi inaxeba, zomieri sartylis 1
ha tyeSi Senaxuli naxSirbadis odenoba 33-dan 65 tonamdea. [1]
Tanamedrove etapze gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba haerSi mtvris
koncentraciis Semcvelobis Semcirebas.
adamiani dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi haeris did raodenobas (daaxloebiT
20 kbm) isunTqavs da Tu es haeri mtvriania, mis sasunTq organoebSi uamravi
mtveri xvdeba, rac SemdgomSi mravali daavadebis gamomwvevi xdeba. mtvris
xangrZlivi zemoqmedebis gamo adamianis sasunTqi organoebi qronikulad
avaddeba.
tyes, haeris gamtvrianebasTan brZolis mraval saSualebaTa Soris
gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia. igi mtvrisagan haeris gamwmendi Zlieri
filtria. 1 ha tye wlis ganmavlobaSi 30-70 tona mtvers filtravs. 1 ha naZvis
koromi yovelwliurad filtravs 32 tona mtvers, fiWvis koromi – 36 tonas,
muxis koromi – 56 tonas da wiflis koromi – 68 tonas. [2]
saqarTvelos tyeebi mTlianad yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 180-190 mln.
tonamde haeris mtvers filtravs.
g. gigauris monacemebiT borjomis raionSi, zafxulis mzian amindSi
tyis haerSi mtvris koncentracia 1,5-jer ufro naklebi iyo, vidre tyiT
daufarav farTobze.
amdenad, tyis ekosistemebi biosferos erT-erT mniSvnelovan nawils
warmoadgens, igi xels uwyobs garemos ekologiuri mdgradobis SenarCunebasa
da regulirebas, nivTierebaTa biologiuri brunvis maRalintensivobas. tyeebi
mcenareul samyaroSi yvelaze myari da produqtiuli formaciaa.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
g. gigauri, a. supataSvili, g. gigauri (umcrosi), saqarTvelos
tyeebis sakurorto-rekreaciuli-turistuli mniSvneloba da maTSi meurneobis
gaZRolis safuZvlebi. Tbilisi, 2007 w.
2.
g. gigauri, saqarTvelos tyis biomravalferovneba, Tbilisi, 2000
w.
The Sanitary Hygienic of the Forest Importance
George GGviniashvili
Resume
The role of wood in regulation of sanitary hygienic conditions of air, oxygen and dust are
described in this work.
241
nairWamia mavneblebi
naTia gudaZe
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
agronomiuli I kursi
zaqaria ginturi
[email protected] tel: 599 50 28 65
nairWamia mavneblebi, rogorc TviT am jgufis saxelwodeba (kvebis
specializaciis
TvalsazrisiT)
gviCvenebs, ikvebebian mravali
saxeobis
veluri
da
kulturuli
mcenariT.
amasTan,
isini
farTod
arian
gavrcelebulni da roca,
mTavaria, umravlesobisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia
masobrivi
gamravleba. masobrivi mavneblebis mTavari damaxasiaTebeli ki
is aris, rom isini yvlgan da yovelTvis e.i. drosa da sivrceSi erTnairi
ricxobriobiT ar gvxvdebian.
nairWamia mavneblebidan Tavisi mavneobiT
yuradRebas ipryoben
sworfrTianTa
(ovthoptera)
razmidan
kaliisebrni,
kutkaliisebrni,
WriWininasebrni. xeSeSfrTianTa (Coleoptera) razmidan – Savtanianebi, tkacunebi,
RraWebi, qerclfrTianTa (Lepidoptera) razmedan - nairWamia xvatarebi, mdelos
da simindis farvanebi da zogierTi sxva razmis warmomadgenlebi.
razmi sworfrTianebi (orthoptera)
kaliisebrni (Acridoideu)
kaliisebrnidan Zalian bevri saxeobaa gavrcelebuli, romelTaganac
Tavisi didi mavneblobiT mxolod aTiode saxeoba ipyrobs yuradRebas,
xolo
saqarTveloSi kidev
ufro naklebi 4-5,
saxeldobr
aziuri anu
gadamfreni kalia (Locusta migratoria L.) marokouli kalia (Dociostarus marocoanus
Thnb). namdvili italiuri kalia (Calliptamus italieus L). egvipturi kalia
(Calliptamus tenuicercie Tarb) da sxva.
aziuri anu gadamfreni kalia
evropasa da aziaSi cnobilia aziuri anu gadamfreni kaliis sami
qvesaxeoba. saxeldobr: Sua ruseTis aziuri kalia, samxreT aziuri kalia,
aRmosavluri aziuri kalia.
sakmaod didi zomis mweria. misi dedlis sigrZe 55 mm-s aRweva, mamlisa
ki 50 mm-s. zeda frTebi 42-54 mm-s. tyavisebrni mravali mura laqiT. frTebi,
romlebic fuZesTan odnav momwvanoa, gamWvirvale. kaliis sxeulis saerTo
feri mura an mwvanea.
aziuri kaliis Sua ruseTis qvesaxeoba gavrcelebulia CrdiloeT
iT, samxreTuli formebi ki umTavresad mdinareebis SesarTavebTan da
tbis
sanapiroebze, romlebic
daWaobebis gamo
lerwmiTaa
dafaruli,
saxeldobr: mdinare volgis, Tergis, mtkvris kaspiis zRvasTan. rac Seexeba
mesame qvesaxeobas anu aRmosavlur gadamfren kalias, igi gavrcelebulia
indoeTSi, indoneziaSi, aRmosavleT CineTis
zRvispira
olqebSi, kunZul
taivanze, filipinebze da sxva.
gadamfreni kalia, rogorc
matlis, ise imagos fazaSi, did zians
ayenebs xorblovans da sxva kulturebs, aseve Zalian etaneba lerwams.
242
biologia da ekologia. aziuri kalia
zamTars
atarebs
kvercxSi
embrionis saxiT, parkuWSi, niadagSi. erTi dedali 2-3 parkuWad debs
kvercxebs, TiTo
parkuWSi sakvebi mcenareebisa da klimaturi pirobebis
mixedviT masobrivi gamravlebis wlebSi minimum 30 kvercxia, maqsimum ki
100 – 120. aziuri kaliisaTvis
ise rogorc
rigi sxva
saxeobebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia
embrionaluri diapauza, romelic 8-9 Tves
grZeldeba.
gazafxulze daaxloebiT maisSi, rodesac wyaldidoba daiklebs da kaliis
budobebis niadagi gamoSreba, iCikebian matlebi, romlebic zrdasTan erTad
awarmoeben gansaxlebas da sul ufro meti da meti farTobis dakavebas.
aRsaniSnavia, rom matlebi
intensiurad
ikvebebian, rodesac haeris
0
temperatura, 20-28 –is
farglebSia. am temperaturis
zeviT
matlebi
iswrafvian iseT adgilebisaken, romlebic
Crdilis
momcemi mcenareebiT
arian dafaruli, saRamoTi mzis
Casvlis Semdeg, Tu
temperatura 15 0-ze
qveviT daeSva kaliebis matlebi Sewyveten kvebas, adian mcenareebze da iq
atareben Rames. diliT ki temparaturis awevis Semdeg kvlav ganagrZoben
kvebas da a.S.
kanis oTxjer gamocvlis Semdeg matlebi gadaiqcevian zrdasrul
formebad, frTebi
umagrdebaT, iwyeben frenas, umwifdebaT
sasqeso
organoebi, peplaoben
da iwyeben kvercxis debas.
am periods emTxveva
mamali kaliebis
xmauri da maTi sxeulis feris cvla. dedali kalia
kvercxisdebiT
burRavs niadags, Sig
debs kvercxebs, romelTac
faravs
damatebiTi sasqeso
jirkvlebidan gamoyofili Txeli webovani sekretiT.
ukanaskneli iwyebs miwis nawilakebis miwebebas da
gaSromis Semdeg
warmoSobs parkuWs, am parkuWSi zamTars atareben kvercxebi, ufro sworad
rom vTqvaT embrioni kvercxSi, magram Semdeg diapauzaSi gadavida
gazafxulamde.
aziur
kalias
weliwadSi
erTi
Taoba
aqvs.
kaliis
ricxobriobaze da mis meryeobaze gavlenas axdens ekologiuri faqtorebi.
mis gamravlebaze da saerTod
ricxobriobaze uaryofiT gavlenas axdens
grili da wvimiani zafxuli.
aziuri kaliis winaaRmdeg gamoyenebulia brZolis agroteqnikuri da
qimiuri saSualebebi.
agroteqnikuri RonisZiebebidan urCeven aziuri kaliis budobebis
ZiriTadi kerebis gakulturebas, riTac uaresdeba pirobebi misi masobrivi
gamravlebisaTvis. qimiuri saSualebebidan – qimiuri preparatiT moSxamuli
mimzidveli masalis diliT adre mobneva im adgilebSi, sadac kaliis matlebi
aris dasadgurebulni.
italiuri kalia (Calliptamus italicusL)
saqarTveloSi gvxvdeba italiuri kaliis Semdegi sami qvesaxeoba:
namdvili italiuri kalia (Calliptamus italicus italicusL), amierkavkasiis italiuri
kalia (Calliptamus italicus tenuicerciis T rb) da udabnos italiuri kalia (Calliptamus
barbarus cephalotes F. W.).
italiuri kaliisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia wina zurgze sami gaswvrivi
kili, fexebs Soris mkerdze konusiseburi borcvi. zeda frTebi da frTebi
normalurad aqvs ganviTarebuli. wina frTebze patara zomis Savi laqebi
gaaCnia. ukana frTebi vardisferia, misi kedlebi ki uferuli. asve
243
vardisferia ukana barZayebi, SigniTa mxridan ukana wvivebi wiTeli, sxeuli
mura feria, zogjer
nacrisferi, dedali kaliis
sigrZe 41 mm-s aRwevs
mamlisa ki 23-24 mm-s.
italiuri kalia gavrcelebulia yazaxeTis velebSi, Sua aziis sarwyav
raionebSi, CrdiloeT
kavkasiaSi, yirimSi, amierkavkasiaSi da umetesad
aRmosavleT
amierkavkasiaSi, sadac
sakmaod didi ziani
moaqvs rogorc
azerbaijanSi, ise somxeTSi da saqarTveloSi.
italiuri kalia anadgurebs saZovrebs, saTibebs xorbleulis naTess
mwvane mdgomareobaSi, teqnikur kulturebs, bostneuls da sxva.
biologia da ekologia.
zamTars atarebs kvercxSi Canasaxis fazaSi. kvercxi moTavsebulia
parkuWSi ukanaskneli ki niadagSia Cadebuli. italiuri kaliis sabudrebia
ZiriTadad yamiri miwebi (saZovrebi, saTibebi). itaiuri kalia gazafxulze
(aprilis miwuruls, maisSi) iCekeba. gamoCeka TiTqmis ori kvira da zogjer
erT Tvede grZeldeba.
(gamoCekili matlebi, zrdasTan erTad,
afarToeben TavianT sakveb
moedans romlis farTobi TanmimdevrobiT izrdeba. aqedan matlebs jogebi
mimarTulebas iReben kulturuli mcenareebis naTesavebisaken, sadac SeWrisas
zogjer sul
anadgureben tu ki naTesi axali amosulia. matlebi
kanis
gamocvlis win masiurad adian mcenareebze, fexebiT (TaviT qveviT) ekidebian
mcenaris totebs da foTlis yunwebs da Tavis sxeulis simZimiT
iTavisufleben Tavs Zveli kutikulidan. ukanaskneli mcenareze rCeba da iseT
STabeWdilebas qmnis tovebs TiTqos cocxali kaliaa dakidebuli. matlebi
kanis cvlis mxolod 12- 1 saaTis Semdeg iwyeben kvebis ganaxlebas amasTan
isini aqtiurebi arian dilis da saRamos saaTebSi, rodesac temperatura 25280-ze meti ar aris. didi sicxeebis dros kaliebi
ikalaTeben sxvadasxva
mcenaris qveS, sadac Crdilia aq sicxisagan
garindebuli mdgomareobaSi
gadadian. dafrTianebuli kaliebi kvercxis dasadebad Sesaferisi adgilebis
aRmosaCenad gadafrenebs dRis
saaTebSi
awarmoeben, zogjer dilaobiTac
dafrinaven da dReSi 12 kilometramde da zogjer metsac gadian. am dros
maTi frenis saimaRle TiTqmis 200 m-ia. kaliebis aseT frenas emigraciul
frenas uwodeben. kaliebi rogorc ki naxaven kvercxebis dasadeb Sesaferis
farTobebs, eSvebian da iwyeben niadagSi kvercxebis debas parkuWebis saxiT.
masobrivi gamravlebis dros TiTo dedali 2-3 parkuWanas debs TiToeul
parkuWanaSi 25-30 kvercxia, romlis saxiTac es kalia zamTrobs. kvercxebis
debis Semdeg zrdasruli kaliebi iRupebian.
brZolis
zomebi. yamiri miwebis damuSaveba
raTa italiur kalias
moespos kvercxis dadebis saSualeba, brZola qimiuri saSualebebiT.
marokouli kalia (Dociostavuus maroccenus Thub)
zrdasrul kalias winazurgze mkafiod gamosaxuli TeTri feris Xseburi suraTi aqvs. zeda frTebi sxeulze
grZelia da ukana wvivebs
scildeba. ukana
frTebi
wylisebr gamWvirvalea. mesame wyvili fexis
wvivebi wiTelia, xolo barZayebi qveda mxridan moyviTaloa, odnav wiTeli
elferi gadahkravs.
ulvaSebi Tavsa da wina mkerdze erTad aRebuli cota ugrZesia, muxli
244
aseve Savia. sigrZe dedlisa 20-28 mm, mamlisa 28-38 mm, zedafrTebi mamlisa
20-27 mm, dedlisa 25-35 mm.
gavrceleba. gavrcelebulia yirimSi, Sua aziaSi, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi,
amierkavkasiaSi saqarTveloSi es kalia zogjer zians ayenebs kaxeTs.
biologia da ekologia. marokouli kalia zamTars atarebs kvercxebis
saxiT, parkuWebSi niadagis zeda horizontalur fenaSi 5-6 sm simaRleze.
adre gazafxulze, daaxloebiT martis meore naxevarSi an aprilis damdegs
iwyeba
matlebis
gamoCekva. rac ramodenime kviras grZeldeba.
gamoCeiki
matlebi zrdasTan erTad, metad xarbebi arian da Zalian did farTobebsac
azianeben. matlis fazis ganviTareba 4-5 kviras
grZeldeba, ris Semdeg
vRebulobT
zrdasrul kalias,
romelic
jer kidev sqesobrivad
moumwifebelia, rasac daaxloebiT erTi kvira da zogjer meti sWirdeba.
sqesobriv momwifebas peplaoba
mosdevs, rac mamlis
kaliebis WriWiniT
aRiniSneba.
kaliebi kvercxs niadagSi deben parkuWebSi. TiTo dedali kalia Tavisi
ganviTarebisaTvis
xelsayreli
pirobebis dros 2-3 parkuWas debs, xolo
TiTo parkuwanaSi 30-35 kvercxia. weliwadSi es saxeobac erT Taobas iZleva.
brZolis zomebi igivea, rac italiuri kaliis winaaRmdeg.
egvipturi kalia (Anacridium aeguptium L)
sakmaod didi zomis mweria. dedali kaliis sxeulis sigrZe 65-66 mm-s
aRwevs, xolo mamlisa 56-57 mm-s.
winazurgze gaswvrivi, kuziani, wiTeli
feris kidi axasiaTebs. gverdiTi kili ar gaaCnia. mkerdze winafexebs Soris,
grZeli burcobebi gaaCnia. zeda frTebi grZeli aqvs da dafarulia wvrili
muqi laqebiT. frTebi uferuli, farTo mura gardigardmo zoliT, romelic
frTis napiramde ver aRwevs. ukana barZayi qveynidan wiTelia.
kaliis es saxeoba gavrcelebulia
CrdiloeT afrikaSi, iranSi, Sua
aziaSi, yirimSi, amierkavkasiaSi. saqarTveloSi vxvdebiT rogorc dasavleT,
ise aRmosavleTis raionebSi. misTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli masobrivi
gamravleba, gvxvdeba
erTeulebis saxiT, amitomac
mis mier
miyenebuli
ziani SedarebiT umniSvneloa.
egvipturi kalia ikvebeba
rogorc veluri, ise
kulturuli –
balaxovani, buCqovani da xemcenareebiT.
saqarTveloSi misi dazianebebi,
aRniSnulia citrusebze, leRvze, qliavze, broweulze, vaSlze, vazze da a.S.
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi (Tbilisis midamoebSi) da aseve dasavleT
saqarTveloSi egvipturi kalia zamTars zrdasruli da ufrosi xnovanebis
matlis fazaSi atarebs. igi aqtiuria
maSinac ki, rodesac haeris
0
0
temperatura 7-8 -ia, yinvebs 10-12 da metsac. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom uvneblad
itans. weliwadSi erTi Taoba aqvs.
1.
2.
gamoyenebuli literatura
baTiaSvili, g. dekanosiZe, ,,entomologia” Tbilisi 1974 w. gv.
i. r.
35-45
m.
lobJaniZe,
z.
tyebuCava ,,sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis
ZiriTadi mavneblebi da maTTan brZolis
RonisZiebebi. Tbilisi.
agraruli universiteti 2009 w. gv. 3-12
245
Pests
Natia Gudadze
Resume
Pests attract attention as a harmful of the locust units. 4 species are wide spread in
Georgia, Asian, Moroccan, Italian and Egyptian locust.
Locust is a large-sized insect. It gives one generation per year. The massive growth in the
years to great harm, particularly in large granular damage crops. For this you need to use them against
the poisoned substances.
dindgelSi flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis gansazRvra
xaCiZe salome, ekologia I kursi
el-fosta: [email protected]
mob: (+599) 595 595 424
mariam xarebaSvili
el-fosta: [email protected]
mob: (+599) 595 567 727
flavonoidebi miekuTvnebian bunebrivad aqtiur naerTebs, flavonolebi
yviTeli feris kristaluri nivTierebebia, isini farTod aris gavrcelebuli
mcenareebSi. mcenareebSi gvxvdeba rogorc Tavisufali ise glikozidebis
saxiT, aseve didi raodenobiT gvxvdeba futkris mier warmoebul dindgelSi.
cnobilia 5000-mde flavonoduri naerTi. [1,4]
dindgelis ZiriTad wyarod iTvleba tirifis, alvis xis, muxis aryis,
Telis da sxva mcenareTa kvirtebis fisovani gamonayofi.
dindgelis
Semadgenloba
damokidebulia
sxvadasxva
faqtorebze:
sezonze, klimatur zonaze, adgilobriv
floraze da sxv. dindgelSi
aRmoCenilia 200-mde nivTiereba da naerTi. dindgeli Seicavs mcenareul
fisebs, cvils, vitaminebs, balzamebs, mikroelementebs (Fe, Ca, Cu,Zn, Mg, Na…)
eTerzeTebs, polofenolebs da sxva nivTierebebs[2].
dindgeli 150C temperaturis qveviT xdeba myife da magari, 300C –ze
zeviT rbili da welvadi. is kargad ixsneba organul gamxsnelebSi (spiriti,
qloroformi, toluoli, acetoni, benzoli, dieTilis eTeri da sxv) [3].
dindgelisTvis damaxasiaTebelia sxvadasxva biologiuri Tvisebebi:
antimikrobuli, antimikozuri, anTebissawinaaRmdego, tkivilgamayuCebeli, rac
ganpirobebulia masSi Semavali bunebrivad aqtiuri naerTebiT, kerZod
flavonoidebiT. am maCveneblis mxriv qarTuli futkris mier warmoebuli
dindgeli ufro aqtiuria, vidre Sua-rusuli futkrisgan miRebuli. swored
am Tvisebis gamo metad mniSvnelovania ganisazRvros saqarTvelos raionebis
mixedviT flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis Semcveloba dindgelSi.
dindgelis saanalizo nimuSebad aRebul iqna Sida qarTlis regionis
sxvadasxva safutkreebidan.. nimuSebi aRebul iqna Cveulebriv wesiT (astmiT
afxekva), rogorc CarCoebis zeda Tamasebidan aseve skis gverdebidan da
Ziridan.
Segrovil
dindgelis
nimuSebSi
Tavdapirvelad
ganisazRvra
organoleptikuri maCveneblebi, Sedegebi moyvanilia cxril 1-Si.
246
cxrili 1.
dindgelis nimuSebis organoleptikuri maCveneblebi
n nimuSis aRebis
#
adgili
feri
suni
gemo
1.
gori
Yyavisferimomwvano odnav
mZafri sasiamovno
suniT
momwaro gemo
2.
gori
Myavisferimomwvano
mZafri sasiamovno
suniT
momwaro gemo
3.
borjomi
moyavisfro
mZafri sasiamovno
suniT
momwaro gemo
4.
borjomi
moyviTalomowiTalo odnav
mZafri sasiamovno
suniT
mware gemo
5.
borjomi
Savi
aramZafri
momwaro gemo
6.
qareli
moSavo
aramZafri
momwaro gemo
7.
xaSuri
yavisferi
mZafri sasiamovno
suniT
momwaro gemo
dindgelis nimuSebSi mkveTri sxvaoba ar dafiqsirebula ZiriTadad
feri icvleboda yviTlidan muqi yavisferisken, gvxvdeba yavisferi nimuSebi
momwvano SeferilobiT. suni umeteswilad mZafri, gemo_mware.
flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis koncentraciis gansazRvra
xdeboda dindgelis nimuSebis gagrilebiT _50C-mde, daqucmacebiT specialur
wisqvilSi. flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis gansazRvrisaTvis
mzaddeboda dindgelis spitrxsnari da izomeboda speqtrometrze 290 nm–is
talRis sigrZeze, kiuvetaSi sinaTlis STanTqmuli Sris sisqiT 10 mm.
dindgelSi flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis masuri wilis
gansazRvra xdeboda Semdegi formuliT [1]
D D X a=510 X m
sadac _ D _ sakvlevi xsnaris optikuri simkvrivea;
a _ ganzaveba, sm3;
510 _ 290 nm talRis sigrZis dindgelis flavonoiduri da sxva
fenoluri naerTebis koncentraciisa da optikuri simkvrivis
proporciulobis koeficienti;
m _ dindgelis nimuSis masa, g
Sedegebi moyvanilia cxril 2-Si
247
cxrili 2.
dindgelis nimuSebSi flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis
Semcveloba mas. %
flavonoidebis
flavonoidebis da sxva
nimuSis #
Semcveloba
fenoluri naerTebis
mas. %
Semcveloba mas. %
1.
37.48
39.86
2.
36.49
39.39
3.
38.57
40.35
4.
46.81
48.95
5.
41.97
42.86
6.
33.28
35.96
7.
32.45
35.77
aRsaniSnavia flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis maRali
koncentracia borjomis safutkreSi aRebul nimuSebSi TiTqmis 50%.
sxvadasxva safutkreebidan aRebul nimuSebSi saSualod flavanoidebis da
sxva fenoluri naerTebis Semcveloba 40,44 mas.%-ia. Sida qarTlis regionis
dindgeli xasiaTdeba flavonoidebis da sxva fenoluri naerTebis maRali
koncentraciiT.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. A. N. Croci, D. Lazar, l. Potorac, A. Corciova, B. IVANESCU, MIHAI IOAN Lazar
SPECTROFOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF FLAVONIC COMPOUNDS FROM
PROPOLIS, FARMACIA, 2009, Vol.LVII,
2. KOSALEC, M. BAKMA, S. PEPELJNJAK1, S. VLADIMIR, Quantitative analysis of the
flavonoids in raw propolis from northern Acta Pharm. 54 (2004) 65–72
3. Lazar D., Lazar M.I., Corciovã A., Croci A.N., Flavones content evaluation of some sorts
of propolis, Algesia and analgesia, Ed. Gr.T.Popa Iasi, 2005, 219-223
4. Lazar M.I., Lazar D., Croci A.N., Corciova A., Tamba A., Comparative dates about
phenolic acids and flavonoids content of some propolis sorts from Moldavia and Israel,
Drugs: use, abuse and dependency, Ed. Gr.T.Popa Iasi, 2008, 213-216
Determination of Flavonoids and Phenol Compounds
in the Propolis
Salome Khachidze
Resume
For the analysis there are collected 7 models of propolis from the apiary of Qartli Region. With
the method of spectroscopic analysis there is determined the total content of Flavonoids and Phenol
Compounds in models of propolis. There are especially high result of models taken from the apiary of
Borjomi - concentration of Flavonoids 50 mass %, common concentration of Flavonoids and Phenol
Compounds – 44.44 mass %. Propolis of Qartli is characterized by high concentration of Flavonoids
and Phenol Compounds.
248
seqcia #4
humanitaruli
mecnierebani
___________________________________________
seqciis Tavmjdomareebi:
izolda buxuleiSvili
naTela mosiaSvili
249
globalizacia da konfliqturi regionebi
laSa loria
soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis biznesisa da ekonomikis
fakultetis IV kursis studenti
omar ardaSelia
istoriis doqtori, asocirebuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
globalizacia aris yovlismomcveli planetaruli integraciisa da
msoflio universalizaciis procesi, romelic intensiuri tempebiT viTardeba
gasuli saukunis 70-80-iani wlebidan, magram samecniero codnis Camoyalibeba
am fenomenis Sesaxeb, XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis Sua xanebidan iwyeba. dRes
globalizaciis Sesaxeb problemur sakiTxTa kompleqsi Camoyalibebulia da
gaazrebuli.
Seswavlilia
Tu
ra
gavlenas
axdens
globalizacia
saerTaSoriso sitemis funqcionirebisa da transformaciis fundamentalur
safuZvlebze, globaluri wesrigis struqturuli organizaciis Sinagan,
substanciur principebze. am SemTxvevaSi, ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanilia iseT
sakiTxebze, rogoricaa: ras warmoadgens globalizacia saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebSi? ra formas Rebulobs globaluri wesrigi saerTaSoriso –
politikuri universalizmis Suqze? da a. S [jojua, 2009, gv. 147-152].
miuxedavad amisa, dRemde diskusiis sagania globalizaciis procesSi
msoflioSi mimdinare konfliqtebis
gavlena da roli saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebze. Tu globalizaciis procesis sabazo fenomenad miviCvevT faseulobaTa sistemis universalizaciis Tezas, maSin msoflioSi mimdinare politikuri
da
eTnokonfliqtebi
ver
gaxdeba
globalur
doneze
maintegrirebeli funqciis mqone fenomeni.
politikuri da eTnikuri konfliqtebis umravlesoba postkomunistur
qveynebze modis. amis dasturia yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublikebis
konfliqturi zonebi: mTiani yarabaRi, dnestrispireTi, cxinvalis regioni da
afxazeTi; aseve sabWoTa kavSiris sateliti da e. w. socialisturi banakis
qveynebis konfliqtebi bosnia-hercegovinaSi, kosovosa da serbeTSi da a. S.
Tumca msoflios sxva kuTxeebSic aris konfliqtebi da aranakleb mwvave
vidre postkomunistur qveynebSi. magaliTad palestinasa da israels Soris
dRemde
mougvarebeli
konfliqti,
dava
kviprosisaTvis
faqtobrivad
mimdinareobs saberZneTsa da TurqeTis respublikas Soris, CrdiloeT
irlandiis brZola damoukideblobisaTvis didi britaneTis winaaRmdeg,
samxreT tirolisa da
tibetis konfliqti, qaSmiris provinciasa da Srilankis dapirispireba indoeTTan, taivanisa da hong kongis jer kidev
gadauWreli problemebi CineTTan da a. S. [ardaSelia, 2009].
sayuradReboa, rom gaeros Seqmnis Semdeg
konfliqts 20 milioni adamianis sicocxle Seewira
amdenive iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri, maT Soris,
aqedan gamomdinare, konfliqtebis prevencia an sawyis
250
gaCaRebul 100-ze met
da gaCnda daaxloebiT
17 milioni ltolvili.
etapzeve maTi mogvareba
udides mniSvnelobas iZens. saerTaSoriso mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis
uzrunvelyofaze pasuxismgebloba upirveles yovlisa, gaeros uSiSroebis
sabWosa da generalur asambleas ekisreba da am miznis miRwevis rTul
procesSi sayrdeni `qvakuTxedi aris da unda iyos saxelmwifo; misi
fundamenturi suverenitetisa da teritoriuli mTlianobis pativiscema aris
gadamwyveti faqtori nebismieri saerTo internacionaluri da globalisturi progresisaTvis~.
bunebrivia,
globalizaciis
sayovelTao
progress
(romelsac
samwuxarod, Tan axlavs regresic. es sxva Temaa da amjerad ar SevexebiT)
xels
uSlis
konfliqturi
regionebis
arseboba
msoflioSi.
zemoT
dasaxelebuli konfliqtebis umravlesoba dakavSirebulia saxelmwifos
teritoriuli mTlianobis rRvevasTan, teritoriul pretenziebsa da xalxTa
TviTgamorkvevis uflebebTan.
rogor unda iyos SeTavsebadi saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis
urRvevobis principi, xalxTa TviTgamorkvevis ufleba da globalisturi,
samyaroSi arsebul sxvadasxva faseulobaTa universalizaciis Teza? rogori
iqneba nacionaluri saxelmwifos bedi politikuri da eTnikuri konfliqtebis
arsebobis pirobebSi?
es aris dRevandel saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi Tavsatexi kiTxvebi,
romelTa pasuxis gacema, rTul da mudmivad cvalebad samyaroSi, uxdeba globalizaciis saerTaSoriso mesveurebs.
saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis urRvevobis principisa da
xalxTa TviTgamorkvevis uflebis urTierTSeTavsebis Sesaxeb evropis sabWos
saparlamento asambleam
2003 wlis 24 ivniss miiRo sagangebo # 1334-e
rezolucia.
rezoluciis
Tanaxmad,
evropaSi
sxvadasxva
intensivobis
daZabulobis
kerebis
arseboba
upiratesad
ukavSirdeba
mougvarebel
Sinasaxelmwifoebriv konfliqtebs
da rom evropis qveynebis avtonomiuri
regionebis warmatebuli gamocdileba SesaZloa erTgvar modelad iqces
msgavs problemaTa mosagvareblad.
evrosabWos rezoluciaSi aRniSnulia,
rom `evropis sabWos wevr-saxelmwifoTa umravlesobis konstitucia ar
aRiarebs
regionis
calmxrivad
gamoyofis
uflebas~
[http//assembly.coeint/Main.asp?link=Documents/AdoptedTexts/ta03ERES1334.htm]. aRniSnuli
dokumenti miRebulia cnobili Sveicarieli deputatis Aandreas grosis
(sxvaTa Soris igi iTvleba ruseTis lobistad evrosabWoSi) moxsenebis
safuZvelze. moxsenebaSi aRniSnulia, rom TviTgamorkveva ar aris secesiis
sinonimi
da misi realizacia SesaZlebelia saxelmwifos farglebSi
avtonomiis statusiT, an msgavsi SeTanxmebiT, garda amisa, secesia moiTxovs
orive mxaris Tanxmobas da Tanac separatistTa mxridan unda asaxavdes
mTliani
mosaxleobis
da
ara
erTi
jgufisnebas
~[http//assembly.coeint/Main.asp?link=http:assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc03/EDOC9
824.htm].
marTalia, msgavsi rezoluciebi exmareba konfliqturi viTarebis dare251
gulirebas, magram globalizaciis sayovelTao morevSi es sakmarisi ar aris
da aseT viTarebaSi gacilebiT mniSvnelovania saerTaSoriso organizaciebis
mxridan ufro efeqturad iyos daculi nacionaluri saxelmwifos interesebi
da suvereniteti, romelic xels Seuwyobs konfliqtebis aRmocenebis
prevencias da arsebuli konfliqtebis daregulirebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
[http//assembly.coeint/Main.asp?link=Documents/AdoptedTexts/ta03ERES1334.htm].
2.
[http//assembly.coeint/Main.asp?link=http:assembly.coe.int/Documents/WorkingDocs/
doc03/EDOC9824.htm].
3.
d.
jojua,
globalizacia
da
saerTaSoriso
sistemis
struqturuli
transformacia,
saerTaSoriso
perioduli
gamocema
`ganaTleba~, #1. Tb., 2009.
4.
o.
ardaSelia,
XX
saukunis
II
naxevris
saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2009.
Resume
Lasha Loria
Globalization and Conflict Regions
The work speaks about the necessity of regulating political and ethnical conflicts in the general
conditions of globalization in order to increase interests of national state.
mozardebi da maTSi gavrcelebuli qceviTi darRvevebi
sofio mameswaraSvili
saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv saqmeTa institutis doqtoranti
saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros akademiis fsiqologi,
mTavari specialisti
xelmZRvaneli - profesori marina baliaSvili, 595-76-17-48;
statistikurad mozardebi mTels msoflioSi sazogadoebis yvelaze
ufro kriminalur segments warmoadgenen, magram maTi didi umravlesoba
wyvets amgvar saqmianobas, rodesac saxelmwifos aqvs sworad gaazrebuli
prevenciuli programebi.
cnobilia
rom mozardebi, romlebic Znelad eguebian cvalebad
pirobebs da axasiaTebT kriminaluri an sxva saxis antisocialuri qcevebi,
savaraudod,
mogvianebiT
mozrdilobaSic
garkveuli
sirTuleebiT
252
xasiaTdebian, amitom drouli Carevas da daxmarebas aq gadamwyveti roli
ekisreba, CarevaSi cxadia ar igulisxmeba mxolod sadamsjelo RonisZiebebiT
Semofargvla, piriqiT zogjer es araefeqturicaa da kargi prognozis
gakeTebis SesaZleblobas gvikargavs.
zemoT Tqmulidan gamomdinare adamianebi, romlebsac profesiuli Sexeba
aqvT antisocialuri qcevis mqone mozardebTan, seriozuli gamowvevis winaSe
dganan - erTi mxriv maT unda imoqmedon kanonis farglebSi da meore mxriv
hqondeT bavSvze, misi uflebebis da
interesebis dacvaze orientirebuli
midgomebi, rac erTi orad arTulebs maT amocanas da garkveuli dilemis
winaSe ayenebs maT - kanoni Tu bavSvis interesebi?
ra aris qceviTi darRveva? qceviTi darRveva terminia bavSvebisa da
mozardebis iseTi anstisocialuri qmedebebis aRsaniSnavad, romlebic zians
ayenebs sxva adamians, sxvis da sakuTar qonebas da qronikuli xasiaTi aqvs.
qceviTi darRvevisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi:


naklebad emorCileba mkurnalobas;


qcevis problemebis mqone bavSvTa 60%-s cudi prognozi aqvs,
isini
kriminaluri
qcevisken,
asocialuri
pirovnuli
aSlilobisken,
alkoholisa da narkotikebisadmi midrekilebi arian;


qceviTi aSlilobis mqone pirovnebis mier aRzrdil bavSvs
qcevis problemebis aRmocenebis didi albaToba aqvs.
rodis vieWvoT mozardis agresiul,
qcevaze? agresiuli qceva (6-18 weli)
destruqciul da delikvantur


Sepasuxeba;


trabaxi;


amtvrevs da afuWebs sakuTar nivTebs;


eWviania;


Cxubobs;


kivis;


Tavs iwonebs/demonstraciulia;


jiutia;


bevrs laparakobs ;
253


isterikas awyobs.
destruqciuli qceva(6-18 weli)


ar SeuZlia koncentracia;


ReWavs/Wams arasakveb nivTierebebs;


sastikia cxovelebis mimarT;


amtvrevs sakuTar nivTebs;


azianebs sakuTar Tavs da sxvebs.
delikvanturi qceva (samarTaldamrRvevi) (6-18 weli)


danaSaulis gancdis nakleboba;


cruobs da TvalTmaqcobs;


garbis saxlidan;


saxlidan iparavs;


acdens skolas;


iyenebs alkohols da wamlebs;


axasiaTebs vandalizmi.
mozardTa antisocialuri qcevis gamomwvevi mizezebi, mimdinareobs
usasrulo debatebi Temaze, Tu ra iwvevs bavSvTa kriminalur saqciels da
vandalizms. nawili miiCnevs, rom es bavSvis Tavis tvinis anatomiur
darRvevebis Sedegia, fsiqologebi da sociologebi Tvlian, rom yvela
problema mankieri socialuri ganaTlebis, araadeqvaturi sacxovrebeli
pirobebis,
araswori
aRzrdis,
socialuri
unarCvevebis
naklebobis,
Tanatolebis gavlenis da ojaxis wevrebs Soris araswori urTierTobis
Sedegia. aseve SeiZleba visaubroT ,,herostrates kompleqsze” (herostratem
artemidas taZari gadawva, sakuTari saxelis istoriaSi Casawerad), mozardebi
sazogadoebaSi modurobis gamo Cadian antisocialur qmedebebs. aseve
SeiZleba mozardebis antisocialuri saqcielis mizezi gaxdes maTze
miwerili rolebi. SesaZloa mozardma situaciis Sesatyvisad ganaxorciela
agresiuli
qceva,
ganicada
frustracia,
iyo
gaRizianebuli,
xolo
TviTmxilvelebma
misi
erTjeradi
qceva
ganazogades
mis
pirovnul
maxasiaTebelze, CaTvales asocialur pirovnebad. miwebebuli roli aiZulebs
mozards gaamarTlos es roli. aseve SesaZloa anticocialuri qcevis mizezi
avtoritetisadmi daqvemdebareba gaxdes. mozardi, romelsac socialuri
254
urTierTobebis moTxovnileba aqvs, xSirad xvdeba anticocialur jgufSi,
sadac gabatonebulia normebi da wesebi, romelTa gaTaviseba misi jgufis
wevrad miRebisTvis aucilebeli winapirobaa. normebi gadaecema jgufis
wevrebis erTi Taobidan meores da adamianebis qcevaze gavlenas axdenen
maSinac ki, rodesac ukve aRar arsebobs jgufi, romelmac isini SeimuSava.
mravali kvleva adasturebs, rom mozardobis periodSi aRmocenebuli
qceviTi aSlilobebi ganpirobebulia sxvadasxva socialuri da biologiuri
faqtoris erToblivi zemoqmedebiT.
gamoyenebuli litertatura:
1. gagoSiZe T. bavSvis fsiqikuri ganviTarebis darRvevebi, Tbilisi, 2007;
2. imedaZe i. fsiqologiis safuZvlebi, Tbilisi, 2005;
3. fsiqologiuri enciklopedia, solomon (biWi) TezeliSvili, Tbilisi,
2007;
4. zimbardo f., gerigi, “fsiqologiis mecniereba Cvens cxovrebaSi”,
Tbilisi, 2009;
5. Крайг Г. Психология развития. ПИТЕР. Санкт-Петербург. Москва. Харьков.Минск.
2002;
6.
Райс Ф.Психология подросткового и юношеского возраста. Москва. 1979;Санкт-
Петербург. Москва. Харьков. Минск. ПИТЕР. 2000;
Resume
Sophio Mamestsarshvili
Adults and behavioral violations among them
Thus, adults are quite difficult segment. As a result of the negative impact of social and
biological factors, complexdetection of behavioral problems take place, that threats the society. The
timely and proper intervention is needed.
255
“suicidi“ anu TviTmkvleloba, rogorc fsiqologiuri problema
Teona sandroSvili.
suxiSvilis universitetis sajaro mmarTvelobis I kursi
izolda buxuleiSvili
pedagogikis doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49 598 64 43 66
TviTmkvleloba, rogorc fsiqologiuri fenomeni, yovelTvvis iwvevda
mkvlevarTa interess. istoriaSi suicidis faqtebi jer kidev Cvens welT
aRricxvamdea aRwerili. TviTmkvleloba gavrcelebuli iyo Zvel CineTSi,
indoeTSi, saberZneTSi da romSi.
suicidze pirveli kvleva romelmac dRemde SeinarCuna aqtualuroba
emil diurkheimma Caatara. manTviTmkvlelobis man TviTmkvlelobis aseTi
tipologia Seadgina: 1. egoisturi 2. anomiuri 3. altruistuli
4.
fatalisturi [1. erqomaiSvili]
ukanasknel wlebSi TviTmkvlelobebis ricxvi mTeli msiflios
masStabiT gaizarda, asaki ki 5-6 wliT gaaxalgazrdavda. yovel wliurad
daaxloebiT milioni adamiani sicocxles TviTmkvlelobiT asrulebs.
jandacvis msoflio organizaciam suicidis skala gamoaqveyna.
rogorc gairkva, msoflioSi yvelaze suiciduri qveyana litvaa. aTeulSi
moxvda samxreT korea, iaponia, ruseTi, ukraina, belarusi. monacemebis
mixedviT, samxreT kavkasiaSi TviTmkvlelobis yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli
saqarTveloSia. saerTo reitingSi saqarTvelo 107 qveyanas Soris 88-e adgils
ikavebs. oficialuri informaciiT bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi
6000-mde adamianma moikla Tavi. 2010 wels 593-s hqonda suicidis mcdeloba,
292-ma adamianma ki sicocxle TviTmkvlelobiT daasrula. dasavleTis
qveynebSi TviTmkvlelTa Soris qvrivi da dauojaxebeli, xanSi Sesuli
mamakacebi Warboben. bolo xanebSi saqarTveloSi daojaxebuli adamianebis
suicidis ricxvi gaizarda. TviTmkvlelTa umetesoba mamakacia.
kvlevebis Sedegad dadginda, rom specialobebs Soris yvelaze
maRali maCvenebeli eqimebSia. yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 300-400 eqimi
sicocxles TviTmkvlelobiT asrulebs.
suicidis
maCvenebliT,
specialobebs
Soris
meore
iuristis
profesiaa. zogadad, cxovrebis wesi sicocxlisadmi damokidebulebas
didwilad gansazRvravs. magaliTad, kvlevebiT damtkicebulia, rom Tambaqos,
suicidur azrebsa da TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobas Soris mWidro kavSirSia.
mkvlevarebma isic daaskvnes, rom im mwevelebis suicidis riski 2-jer izrdeba,
vinc dReSi 24 Reramde sigarets eweva. 25 Rerze metis SemTxvevaSi ki riski
daaxloebiT 4-jer maRalia.
mecnierebi miiCneven, rom fsiqologiurad damarcxebuli adamiani
sikvdilisaken ltolvas sruliad ver acnobierebs, radgan misi qceva
qvecnobieridan momdinareobs. amas garda, albaT SegimCneviaT adamianebi,
romelTac droTa ganmavlobaSi xasiaTi SeecvalaT; garegnobas, higienas da
janmrTelobas nakleb yuradRebas aqceven; interesi dakarges TavianTi saqmis,
zogadad, cxovrebis mimarT; mudmivad daRlilebi arian; uWirT koncentrireba
256
es simptomebi, SesaZloa, emociuri sferos darRvevebis bralia. mas, visac
msgavsi tipis darRvevebi aqvs, stresTan gamklaveba uWirs, ramac, eqimfsiqiatrebis azriT, SesaZloa, pacienti TviTmkvlelobamdec ki miiyvanos.
mkvlevrebma aRmoaCines, rom suicidasdmi midrekili adamianebi, cxovrebaSi
sxvebze met stress sulac ar ganicdian, magram maT xasiaTis garkveuli
paTologia aqvT, ris gamoc problemebTan gamklavebas ver axerxeben.
suiciduri azrebis, gegmebis an qcevis mqone adamianebs garSemomyofTa
yuradgeba da specialistTa daxmareba gansakuTrebiT sWirdebaT. rogorc eqimfsiqiatrebi irwmunebian, drouli fsiqoTerapiuli Careva xSirad dadebiT
Sedegs iZleva. [3.www.tabula.ge]
suiciduri qceva TviTmkvleloba anu „suicidi“ warmoadgens sakuTari
sicocxlis
mizanmimarTulad
xelyofas.
suiciduri
qceva
vlindeba
gacnobierebul moqmedebebSi, romlebic mimarTulia sakuTari sicocxlis
Sewyvetis Sesaxeb warmodgenebze. gamoiyofa:
•
sakuTriv suiciduri moqmedebebi;
•
suiciduri
gamovlinebebi
(azrebi,
ganzraxvebi,
grZnobebi,
gamonaTqvamebi, miniSnebebi da a. S.).
suicidebi SeiZleba daiyos sam ZiriTad jgufad:
1.
WeSmariti;
2.
demonstratiuli;
3.
faruli.
WeSmariti suicidis dros pirovnebas Tavis mokvdinebis survili
amoZravebs. is ar SeiZleba iyos spontanuri, Tumce zogjer sakmaod
moulodnelad
gamoiyureba.
amgvar
suicids
yovelTvis
win
uswrebs
daTrgunuli ganwobileba an ubralod „amqveynidan wasvlis“ survili. amasTan,
adamianis aseTi mdgomareoba garSemomyofTaTvis SeiZleba SeumCnevelic iyos.
demonstaciuli
suicidi
ar
aris
sikvdilis
survilTan
dakavSirebuli, aramed sakuTar problemebze yuradRebis miqcevis mcdelobas
warmoadgens. igi SeiZleba SantaJis elementebsac Seicavdes. sikvdili, am
dros, SesaZlebelia, mxolod SemTxveviT.
faruli
suicidi
umetesad
dakavSirebulia
riskTan.
aseTi
adamianebi irCeven sakuTari sicocxlis xelyofis ara Ria meTodebs, aramed
e.w. suicidurad ganpirobebul qcevas. es aris avtomobilis riskiani marTva,
eqstremeluri sportis saxeobebiT gataceba, sakuTari nebiT gamgzavreba
„cxel wertilebSi“ da sxv.
miCneulia, rom arsebobs riskis jgufebi: axalgazrdebi, moxucebi,
seqsualuri umciresobani, samxedro mosamsaxureebi, lokaluri samxedro
konfliqtebis veteranebi da sxva.
suiciduri moqmedebebis miRma arsebuli grZnobebis gaanalizebisas,
specialistebma gamoyves TviTmkvlelobis oTxi ZiriTadi mizezi:
1.
izolacia - „me veravin ver migebs“, „CemiT aravin interesdeba“;
2.
ususuroba - „ar SemiZlia Cems cxovrebaSi mimdinare movlenebis
gakontroleba“;
3.
uimedoba - „momavalSi kargi araferi melis“;
4.
sakiTari personis umnoSvnelobis gancda-dabali TviTSefaseba,
257
arakompetenturobis gancda („mrcxvenia sakuTari Tavis“).
TviTmkvlelobis problema moicavs filosofiur, socialur,
siciologiur, iuridiul, religiur, samedicino da sxv. aspeqtebs. magaram
suiciduri aqtebi, maTi uSualo mizezebi, upirveles yovlisa warmoadgens
fsiqologiur da socialur-fsiqologiur problemebs.
yoveli
konkretuli
sazogadoebisaTvis
TviTmkvlelobebis
statistikis dinamika damokidebulia ekonomikur, politikur da socialur
cvlilebebze, rac adasturebs am fenomenis socialur bunebas. cxovelTa
samyaroSi suicidi an saerTod ar SeimCneva, an Semoifargleba iSviaTi,
aratipuri aqtebiT, romlebic atareben ara gacnobierebul, aramed instiqtur
xasiaTs. magaliTad, pirobiTad TviTmkvlelobad SeiZleba CaiTvalos dedali
cxovelis Tavganwirva Svilebis gadasarCenad. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom
sartri, adamianisa da cxovelis gansxvavebas xedavda imaSi, rim adamians
SeuZlia TviTmkvlelobiT daasrulos sicocxle, cxovels ki - ara.
suiciduri
qcevis
mniSvnelovan
determinants
warmoadgens
konfliqturi
situacia,
magaliTad,
ganqorwineba,
ojaxuri
Cxubebi,
Seurawyofa, profesiuli marcxi da sxv. yoveli adamiani flobs konfliqtur
situaciaze reagirebis sakuTar xerxebs, romlebicaa:
•
cxovrebiseuli mdgomareobebis winaaRmdeg aqtiuri brZola;
•
daxmarebis Txovna;
•
muqaris da safrTxis Semcveli situaciebis Tavidan acilebis
mcdeloba;
•
momxdarSi sakuTari Tavis dadanaSualebisadmi midrekileba;
•
situaciis, rogorc „bedisweris dartymis“, aRqma.
yvelaze metad gavrcelebulia suiciduri qcevis gamovlenis iseTi
formebi, rogoricaa protesti da sakuTari Tavis dasja.
suiciduri qcevis protestis formebi xSirad gvxvdeba maRali
TviTSefasebis
mqone
pirebTan,
romelnic
floben
aqtiur
agresiul
cxovrebiseul poziciebs. araiSviTad, suiciduri qcevis saprotesto formebi
SeiniSneba mozardebSic.
suicidis
genezisSi
aucilebelia
gaviTvaliswinoT
ojaxis,
uaxloesi socialuri garemocvis roli. meuRleebs, mSoblebsa da Svilebs
Soris ojaxuri mimarTebebis xasiaTi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens
pirovnebis
socialur-fsiqologiuri adaptaciis
ganviTarebaSi.
ojaxSi
araxelsayrelma mikrosocialurma klimatma, SesaZloa, gaaZlieros suicidi,
an moaxdinos misi provocireba.
gamoyofen ojaxis gansazRvrul tipebs, sadac arsebobs TviTmkvlelobis
potenciuri saSiSroeba. esenia:
1) dezintegrirebuli ojaxi, romlis damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebas
warmoadgens misi wevrebis gancalkevebuloba, urTierTobaSi formaluroba,
maT Soris emociuri kavSirebis ararseboba da sxv. gansakuTrebiT saSiSi
situacia SeiZleba Seiqmnas nawilobriv dezintegrirebul ojaxSi, sadac
„viRac“ aRmoCndeba marto mis winaaRmdeg amxedrebuli axloblebis armiis
winaSe.
2) superintegrirebuli ojaxi, sadac irRveva misi wevrebis pirovnuli
258
avtonomiuroba. isini imdenad „Seusisxlxorcdnen“ erTimeores, rom ver
warmoedginaT erTmaneTis gareSe cxovreba. aseT ojaxSi erT-erTis sikvdili
iwvevs meoris absolutur ususurobas.
3)disharmoniuli ojaxi. is xasiaTdeba misi wevrebis moTxovnilebebis,
miznebis radikaluri gansxvavebulobiT, urTierTTanxmobis ararsebobiT,
sakuTari interesebisa da Cvevebis daTmobis uunarobiT da a.S.. aseT ojaxebSi,
lideri danarCenebs mudmivad Tavs axvevs sakuTar survilebs, Cvevebs, iTxovs
maTgan qcevis Secvlas, iswrafvis raTa ojaxis wevrebma aRiaron maTTvis
ucxo faseulobebi, icxovron maTi misi rekomendaciebiT da sxv.
4) daxuruli TviTmyofadi ojaxi, romlis wevrebisTvisac ojaxi
warmoadgebs Zalisxmevis erTaderT sferos, cxovrebis ZiriTad azrs; yvela
danarCeni, samuSao, gare urTierTobebi da a.S., ganixileba mxolod rigirc
ojaxuri keTildReobis SenarCunebis saSualeba. Tu ojaxs emuqreba raime
krizisi an safrTxe, maSin misi wevrebisTvis es SeiZleba suicidiT
damTavrdes.
5) konservatiuli ojaxi,
romlis mTavar Tavisebuirebas warmoadgens
garegani cvalebadi pirobebisadmi adaptirebis uunaroba. Tuki aseTi ojaxis
erT-erTi wevri ojaxis gareT arsebul konfliqtSi CarTuli aRmoCndeba, sxva
wevrebi, TavianTi konservatiuli Sexedulebebidan gamomdinare, ar exmarebian
mas, distanciaze rCebian an mowinaaRmdegis mxares ikaveben. msgavsi situacia
aRiqmeba rogorc Ralati, ramac pirovneba SeiZleba TviTmkvlelobamde
miiyvanos. [2.192]
da bolos, rogorc viciT sicocxlis mospobis sxvadasxva gzebi
arsebobs da Tu sikvdili gadawyvite keTili inebe da amiT ucxo adamianebis
cxovrebaSi did Sav laqas nu gaaCen, axloblebi da maTi gamwareba SeiZleba
mizanmamarTulad gindodes!
1)
2)
3)
gamoyenebuli literatura
erqomaiSvili; filosofia Tb; gamomcemloba „kvari“
n. axalaSvili-fsiqologia Tb; 2009 gamomcemloba „universali“
www.tabula.ge
Resume
Teona Sandroshvili
“Suicide” - Self killing as Psychological Problem
The work speaks about the most importans problem for today – self killing. People’s average
age who commit suicide is 15-44 years, mostly in men.
The work discusses materials related to suicide made by World’s Health organization and
existing statistic csituation in ddifferent countries. Caused circumstances and reasons of suicide are
named.
259
SiSebi baSvSvebSi
TamTa abulaZe, mariam kapanaZe
soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis ganaTlebis fakultetis III kursi
xelmZRvaneli: izolda buxuleiSvili
filologiis doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
SiSebi – Zlieri da sakmaod gavrcelebuli bunebrivi grZnobaa,
romelsac didebisa da patarebis cxovrebaSi mniSvnelbovani adgili uWiravs.
amis
miuxedavad
nebismieri
mSobeli
Caugdia
safiqralSi
bavSvis
gulubryvilo kiTxvas: „ratom meSinia?“, „ra movuxerxo am Cems SiSebs?“
TiToeul CvenganSi, gulis siRrmeSi, raRac SiSi imaleba da es ar aris
SemTxveviTi. SiSi – bunebrivi, Zlieri da sakmaod mniSvnelovani grZnobaa
bavSvebisa da zrdasruli adamianebis cxovrebaSi. SiSi gamoixateba usiamovno
emociuri da fizikuri SegrZnebiT, romelic realur, an warmosaxviT
saSiSroebasTan Sexebisas Cndeba.
SiSis safuZveli Cveni TviTgadarCenis instiqti, safrTxis Tavidan
acilebis survilia, am konteqstSi SiSi dadebiT rols TamaSobs. dacemis,
cxovelebis an sikvdilis SiSi sakuTar usafrTxoebaze zrunvisaken da
sifrTxilisaken gvibiZnebs.
sibnelis, urCxulebisa da kudianebis warmosaxviTi SiSi, bavSvebis
ganviTarebis
bunebriv
elements warmoadgens.
garkveul
asakSi
maTi
gamovlineba aucilebelia da bavSvis ganviTarebasa da zrdaze metyvelebs 6-9
Tvis bavSvebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ucxo adamianebis mimarT SiSi imaze
miuTiTebs, rom bavSvi cnobs sakuTar dedas da mas danarCenebisagan
ganasxvavebs. 3-6 wlis bavSvebis unari, gadalaxon urCuxebis winaSe SiSi, imis
maniSnebelia, rom maT realobisa da fantaziis erTmaneTisagan garCevisa da am
asakiTsaTvis
gaZlierebuli
Sinagani
agresiis
damoCrilebis
unari
gamoumuSavdaT.
amavdroulad, Tu SiSi xangrZlivad gamovlinda SeiZleba bavSvis
ganviTarebas SeuSalos xeli.
ra gansxvavebaa SiSsa da SfoTvas Soris? SiSi konkretul obieqtzea
mimarTuli, SfoTva ki SiSis zogadi, subieqturi SegrZenbaa, romelic
konkretul mizezebaTan ar aris dakavSirebuli.
janmrTeli bavSvebis SiSs yovelTvis realuri safuZveli aqvs. wlamde
patara maRali bgerebisa da didi sagnis miaxloebaze SfoTavs. Cvili
gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea, roca deda nerviulobs, brazobs an rames
ganicdis – am dros patarac aRgznebulia. daaxloebiT 3 wlamde bavSvs
eqimisa da zRaprebis boroti gmirebis eSinia, 7 wlis bavSvi ki ukve sakuTari
sikvdilisa da axloblebis dakargvis SesaZleblobas acnobierebs. skolis
asakSi SiSebi maT axal socialur rolTan aris dakavSirebuli. isini
nerviuloben rom, SesaZloa, ver gaamarTlon mSoblebisa da maswavleblebis
imedebi.
yvela zemoT CamoTvlili SiSi normaluria da TiTqmis yvela
bavSvisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, Tumca ufrosebisagan taqtikur midgomas
saWiroebs. Tu pataras sibneleSi marto datovebT; mas SeeSindeba da ver
260
daiZinebs. ar SeiZleba misi oTaxSi Caketva dasjis mizniT. am dros mas ufro
umZafrdeba sibnelisa da marto yofnis SiSi, rasac emateba mSoblis
ganrisxebis SiSic da es ukve nevrozis dasawyisia.
rac ar unda usafuZvlo mogeCvenoT Tqveni Svilis SiSi, ar dascinoT
mas. piriqiT, agrZnobineT, rom mis gancdaSi araferia aranormaluri da rom
mis asakSi Tqvenc geSinodaT. mSoblis mxridan utaqto midgomis SemTxvevaSi
bavSvi sakuTar TavSi iketeba da gancdis mizezic aqvs. Tu am gancdis mizezis
gamosavals ver ipovis, mas fobia uyalibdeba, fobia ki Tavs moxveuli SiSia.
arsebobs klaustrofobia, anu daxuruli sivrcis SiSi da a.S.
bavSvebSi nevrozuli SiSebis ganviTareba, SeiZleba memkvidreobiT
faqtors, anu, genetikas ukavSirdebodes. pataras janmrTelobisTvis saWiroa
ara mxolod mSoblis swori damokidebuleba misadmi, aramed, urTierTobebis
kontrpoli. nevrozuli SiSi, rogorc wesi, vegetaciuri wesis moSlilobiT,
anu gaxSirebuli guliscemiT, sicxiT, SemcivnebiT, uZilobiT, madis
dakargviT gamoirCeva. amitomac msgavsi simptomebis aRmoCenisas aucilebelia
eqimis konsultacia.
fsiqologiaSi cnobilia SiSebisa da SfoTvis ganviTarebis ramodenime
versia. gamokvlevebi mowmoben, rom arsebobs Tandayolili SiSebis mTeli
speqtri. erTi dRis Cvilic ki uecari xmaurisa da kaSkaSa sinaTlis SiSs
amJRavnebs. Semdeg SiSebi 6-8 Tvis asakSi mJRavndeba. mag.: simaRlis da ucxo
adamianebis SiSi. daaxloebiT erTi wlis asakSi yvela bavSvs uCndeba
ganSorebis SiSi, romelic mSoblis siyvarulis gacnobierebis Sedagad
TandaTanobiT qreba. droTa ganmavlobaSi, bavSvi am siyvaruls maSinac
endoba, rodesac mSoblebi axlos ar arian.
2-3 wlis asakSi, rodesac bavSvs sisufTaves aCveven, xSirad vlindeba,
magaliTad, gauCinarebis SiSi. mas eSinia, rom Tavadac ise gaqreba, rogorc
niJaraSi Cawretili wyali qreba. daaxloebiT ori wlis asakSi mwvervals
aRwevs mitovebis SiSi. ojaxze mWidrod mijaWvuli patara grZnobs, rom
damokidebulia mSoblebze da Zalian eSinia, rom isini sadme wavlen. nel–
nela eCveva maT, sul ufro da ufro Sors wasvlas. sadRac orwlinaxevris
asakSi Tavs iCens sibnelis SiSi. sibnele, rogorc aseTi, ar aris saSiSi,
magram sibneleSi ikargeba is, rac Cveuli da nacnobia bavSvisTvis. sagnebi,
romlebsac bavSvi dRis Suqze uyurebs, sibneleSi sxvanairad gamoiyureba da
mas uZneldeba maTi gamocnoba.
TandaTanobiT bavSvi izrdeba, garemos ecnoba da misi SiSebis speqtric
farTovdeba, Tumca erTdroulad masSi SiSis gadalaxvis unari izrdeba.
sabavSvo baRis asakSi SiSebis sixSire maqsimums aRwevs. Cndeba fizikuri
sxeulis erTianobis dakargvis, cxovelebis SiSi, sibnelis SiSi ki sakmaod
gavrcelebul movlenad iqceva. amis garda izrdeba agresia da Zlierdeba
urCxulebisa da kudianebis SiSi, radgan am asakSi fantaziasa da realobas
Soris zRvari sakmaod bundovania.
saskolo
asakSi
(eqvsi
wlidan
da
zeviT)
mcirdeba
sxeulis
usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli SiSi, samagierod, viTardeba bevri axali
SiSi, romelic bavSvis cxovrebiseul movlenebTan aris dakavSirebuli. am
periodSi, xSir SemTxvevaSi mas eSinia, rom sazogadoeba ar miiRebs da
261
maswavleblis an amxanagebis dacinvis obieqti gaxdeba.
daaxloebiT 6 wlis asakSi viTardeba daRupvis SiSi, bavSvi acnobierebs
droisa da aqvs sicocxois sasrulobis gagebas da sikvdilis SiSi uCndeba.
siymawvilis asakSi Cndeba daavadebisa da dasneulebis SiSi, SiSi
sxeulSi mimdinare procesebis gamo. amis garda, qurdebis da yaCaRebis SiSi,
romelic sibneleSi marto darCenasTanaa dakavSirebuli.
saerTaSoriso gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom es SiSebi erTi da igive asakis
bavSvebs yvela qveyanasa da kulturaSi axasiaTebs.
zogierTi fsiqologiuri skola Tvlis, rom bavSvis SiSis formirebaSi
gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas garemo TamaSobs. isini amtkiceben, rom bavSvi imas,
Tu risi unda eSinodes, urfosebis im reaqciebis mixedviT swavlobs,
romelsac isini maSin avlenen, roca mis Tavs, an mis orgvliv xdeba rame. amas
„Taobidan Taobaze gadacemis“ fenomens uwodeben. amasTan, arsebobs SiSi,
romelic sakuTari gamocdilebidan Cndeba. mag.: bavSvs, romelsac ZaRlma
ukbina, savaraudod, ZaRlebis eSinia. aseT SemTxvevaSi, rac ufro mcirea
bavSvis asaki, mas momxdari movlena miT ufro Zlier da xangrZliv SiSs
uyalibebs.
SiSi Cndeba daukmayofileblobis SemTxvevaSi, an maSin, roca gvgonia,
rom ver SevZlebT, an vinme xels SegviSlis survilebis dakmayofilebaSi.
kidev erTi, ZiriTadi SiSis saxeobaa – raime idumalis, ucnobis SiSi –
erTi SexedviT, is rogorc Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli saxeoba warmogvidgeba.
Tumca sinamdvileSi, saubaria sicarielis SegrZnebis SiSze, rodesac bavSvi
an zrdasruli adamiani grZnobs, rom mas arasakmarisad esmis samyaros wyoba,
masSi moqmedi meqanizmebi da movlenebi, amitomac Tu mets movuyvebiT bavSvebs
im samyaros Sesaxeb „romelSic cxovroben, im movlenebis Sesaxeb, romlebic
mas axasiaTebs, an ar axasiaTebs, da rac mTavaria, avuxsniT, rom nebismieri
SiSi Cndeba iqidan gamomdinare, Tu rogor aRviqvamT Cven garSemo arsebul
realobas, davinaxavT, rom SiSebi TandaTanobiT qreba da maT nacvlad
simSvide da simtkice Semodis.
SiSi sicocxlis SenarCunebisTvisaa aucilebeli. is gvicavs uneblie
zianisagan, romelic Cven SegviZlia sakuTar Tavs mivayenoT, TavdacvaSi
gvexmareba da aqedan gamomdinare, pozitiuria. rom ar gveSinodes,
ucodinrobis Sedegad cecxlSi xels CavyofdiT, saxuravidan gadmovxtebodiT
da a.S. Cven sakuTar bavSvebs sifrTxiles vaswavliT, vTxovT yuradRebiT
iyvnen, ar iaron garkveul adgilebSi... faqtobrivad maTSi SiSis grZnobas
vaRvivebT.
sakuTari SiSis gandevnas, CaxSobas an ignorirebas azri ar aqvs. masTan
swori muSaobaa aucilebeli. Tu amas bavSvebs sworad avuxsniT, davinaxavT,
rogor daiwyeben isini am SiSze amaRlebas da mixvdebian, misi marTvis
sadaveebi maT xelSia.
bavSvs azrebi konkretulad Tu ara aqvs koncentrirebuli raime saganze
an movlenaze, mas ararealuri, abstraqtuli suraTebis warmosaxva SeuZlia.
ZilSi Cven xandaxan saSinelebebs vxedavT, radgan „materiasTan“ arasakmarisi
kavSiri sxvadasxva abstraqtuli formebis gamovlenis saSualebas iZleva.
Cveni movaleobaa avuxsnaT bavSvs, rom es mxolod warmosaxviTi movlenaa;
262
radgan sinamdvileSi forma yovelTvis eZebs rogor „gamovlindes materiaSi“.
Cven realur, materialur samyaroSi vcxovrobT, romelSic urCxulebi ar
arseboben, fantaziebi ki arseboben da sizmareTSi gvevlinebian. bavSvebs unda
avuxsnaT, rom SiSi informaciis naklebobiT aris gamowveuli da ara
realobisgan absoluturad mowyvetili qimerebiT.
xSirad, SiSi sakuTari Tavis dabali TviTSefasebiT aris gamowveuli.
aseT SemTxvevaSi mSoblebma bavSvi unda Seaqon da mis mimarT pativiscema
unda gamoxaton. dae, man icodes da igrZnos, rom yoCaRia da yvela TamaSebs
da davalebebs mSvenivrad arTmevs Tavs. yuradReba gaamaxvileT, rom is
amqveynad erTaderTi, gansakuTrebuli pirovnebaa. aseTi damokidebuleba mis
TviTSefasebas aamaRlebs. ris Sedegadac, bavSvi sakuTar TavSi darwmunedeba
da SiSis grZnoba naklebad Seawuxebs [2,107].
bavSvebSi arsebobs SiSis gamoxatvis sxvadasxva forma, Cven yuradRebas
gavamaxvilebT sibnelis SiSsa da misi gadalaxvis zogierT meTodze.
sibnelis SiSi: bavSvebSi sibnelis SiSi erT–erTi yvelaze ufro
gavrcelebuli SiSia.
fsiqologia da kabalis mecniereba gvixsnian, rom sibnelis SiSi
fundamentur, pirvelad SiSs warmoadgens. ar arsebobs adamiani, romelsac es
SiSi ama Tu im siZlieriT ar ganucdia. fsiqologia amtkicebs, rom mis
safuZvels movlenebis ganviTarebaze kontrolis dakargvis SiSi warmoadgens.
sibneleSi
sagnebi
sxvanairad
gamoiyurebian,
rac
mravalgvari
warmosaxvis SesaZleblobas iZleva.
sibnelis SiSis safuZveli, misi siRrmiseuli mizezi, sulieri sibnelis
SiSia, sinaTlis, siyvarulisa da sicocxlis wyaros gareSe darCenis SiSi.
sibnelis SiSi sasicocxlo aucileblobaa da misgan gaTavisufleba
saWiro ar aris.
sibnelis SiSis gadalaxvis gzebi: SiSis pozitiuri daniSnulebaa
xifasiTagan dacva. amavdroulaz misi sworad gamoyenebac unda viswavloT.
mag.: sibnelis SiSis SemTxvevaSi jobia, rom bavSvi fanjrebs gareT arsebuli
sibnelis SiSs SeeCvios, vidre RamiT marto iseirnos. magram rogor
davexmaroT maT Tavisi SiSis marTvaSi? ai, ramdenime martivi xerxi da
principi:
1)
viyoT gaxsnili da gamovxatoT TanagrZnoba
ecadeT waaxalisoT bavSvi, rom man Tavisi SiSi gagimxiloT. amisTvis
bavSvi unda gendobodeT, man Tqveni Tanadgoma unda igrZnos. uTxariT, rom
bavSvobaSi Tqvenc geSinodaT da xandaxan dResac geSiniaT.
2)
avuxsnaT bavSvs misi SiSis mizezi
Cven yvelas gvaqvs ucnobi nivTebisa da adgilebis mimarT SiSi, gveSinia
raime gamoucnobis. sibneleSi Znelia sagnis cnoba, isini ucxod gveCveneba.
3)
SevuvsoT bavSvs informaciis nakleboba SiSis Sesaxeb
bavSvma yvelaferi unda icodes sibnelis Sesaxeb, maSin is aRar
gamoiwvevs masSi gaurkvevlobis da ususurobis grZnobas.
rekomendaciebi
gadasalaxavad
da
savarjiSoebi
263
bavSvebSi
sibnelis
SiSis
1. TamaSi sibnelesTan da sinaTlesTan. bavSvma unda dainaxos, rom
sibneleSi faqtobrivad yvelaferi iseve rCeba. am mizniT SesaZlebelia
faranis gamoyeneba, misi CarTva–gamorTva da ganaTebis siZlieris varireba.
2. dRis ganmavlobaSi, SegiZliaT auxvioT bavSvs Tvalebi da oTaxSi ise
eTamaSoT. mas ecodineba, rom gareT sinaTlea, Tumca Tavis Tavs sibneleSi
aRiqvams.
3. waukiTxeT bavSvs moTxrobebi da leqsebi, romlebic bavSvebSi
sxvadasxva tipis SiSis gamovlenas da misi daZlevis xerxs aRwers.
sibnelis SiSis dasaZlevad bavSvebs SegviZlia SevTavazoT sxvadasxva
TamaSebi. mag.: TamaSi „Sen marto ar xar“.
auditoriad SeiZleba gamoviyenoT ojaxi, skola.
moswavleTa asaki ganisazRvreba 3 wliT.
mizani: vagrZnobinoT bavSvebs, rom viRac mxarSi udgas, zrunavs masze
da Tvalyurs adevnebs.
damxmare saSualebebia: ramdenime mzrunveli xeli da leibebi.
1)
vdebT leibs iatakze
2)
ufrosi adamiani leibis erTi mxridan saxiT bavSvisaken dgeba,
erT–erTi bavSvi meore mxridan, leibisaken zungiT.
3)
ufrosi gamoswevs xelebs win, bavSvis dasaWerad
4)
bavSvi daxuWuli TvalebiT ukan vardeba, ufrosis xelebze
5)
ufrosi iWers mas
6)
am varjiSis gameoreba sul cota orjer da saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi
iqamdea sasurveli, sanam bavSvi siamovnebas ar miiRebs da yvelanairi SiSi ar
gauqreba
7)
SevamowmoT yoveli axali SemTxvevis Semdeg iklebs Tu ara
bavSvis SiSi. Tu iklebs ratom?
SiSis aRmosafxvrelad, SegviZlia gamoviyenoT „roluri TamaSi“
miznobrivi auditoria: ojaxi, sabavSvo baRi, skola
asaki: 4-9 wlis bavSvebi
monawileTa raodenoba 2-4
mizani: bavSvi Tavad poulobs SiSis gadalaxvis gzebs
damxmare saSualebebi: ar aris
Tanmimdevroba (4-6 wlis bavSvebisTvis)
ojaxSi: ufrosi yuveba imis Sesaxeb, ramac pataraobisas SeaSina, Semdeg
ki sTxvovs bavSvs, aRweros situacia, romelSic man SiSis grZnoba ganicada.
jgufSi: wamyani sTavazobs jgufis wevrebs moyvnen imis Sesaxeb, rac maT
aSinebT. aqcentebi: TamaSis msvlelobisas, imisaTvis, rom TamaSis bolomde
SenarCunebuli iyos realurobis atmosfero, amave dros es yvelaferi
Zaldautanebeli unda iyos, kargi iqneba Tu aRwerac odnav dramatuli iqneba.
amrigad, SiSi bavSvebSi – es Zlieri da sakmaod gavrcelebuli
bunebrivi SegrZnebaa, mniSvnelovani patarebisa Tu didebisaTvis. amis
miuxedavad,
ara
erTi
Tavsatexi
gauCenia
mSoblebisaTvis
bavSvis
gulubryvilo da gulwrfel SekiTxvas: „ratom meSinia?“, „ra vqna, rom
meSinia?“ amdenad, bavSvTa swori ganviTarebisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs
bavSvebSi SiSis fatoris zust gansazRvras, Tu mis droul daZlevas.
264
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
avtorTa jgufi „SiSebi bavSvebSi“, Tb., 2010 w.
2.
buxuleiSvili i., „saojaxo aRzrdis aqtualuri problemebi da
ZiriTadi strategiebi“, Tb., 2012 w.
3.
nargiziSvili m, praqtikuli fsiqologia, Tb., 2011 w.
4.
www.bavshvi.com
5.
www.ucnaur.com
6.
www.parents.ge
Resume
Tamta Abuladze, Marim Kapanadze
Fears in Children
The work speaks about one of the most powerful and extended natural feelings – fears in
children.
The work discusses various reasons of fear in children and gives some psychological methods
and treatments for overcoming it.
morcxvobis problema bavSvebsa da
mozardebSi
salome cicqiSvili
soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti
fakulteti: ganaTlebis jgufi
izo buxuleiSvili
E-mail: [email protected]
ratom aris zogi adamiani morcxvi maSin, rodesac sxvebi ar arian?
erTi SesaZlebeli axsnaa buneba. dRevandeli periodis kvlevebi mowmobs, rom
bavSvebis daaxloebiT 10% “ibadeba morcxvi. dRes es problema aqtualuria
imenad, ramdenadac
morcxvoba gaxda erT-erTi mizezi mozardebSi
suiciduri SemTxvevebis gazrdisa.
simorcxve SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc diskomforti an Sekaveba
iseT siatuaciebSi, romlebic xels uSlis adamianis interpersonaluri an
profesiuli miznebis miRwevas. morcxvoba SeiZleba iyos qronikuli da
dispoziciuri,
anu
warmoadgendes
centralur
niSans
adamianis
TviTgansazRvraSi. is SeiZleba iyos mcire TavSekavebuloba da socialuri
ucnauroba, romelic bevr CvenTagans ugrZvnia axal situaciebSi, magram mas
SeuZlia
gadaizardos
ukiduresobaSi-adamianebis
mimarT
sruliad
Semakavebel SiSSi. bevri morcxvi damiani introvertirebulicaa. isini
upiratesobas aniWeben ganmartoebul, arasocialur moqmedebebsa da garemos.
arseboben
„morcxvi
eqstravertebi”,
romlebic
sazogadoebaSi
komunikabelurni, magram pirovnulad morcxvebi arian, amjobineben socialur
aqtivobebSi
CarTvas,
aqvT
socialuri
unarebi
amis
efeqturad
ganxorcielebisaTvis, magram eWvi eparebaT imaSi, rom namdvilad imsaxureben
265
sxvebis mowonebasa da pativiscemas.[1,564]
morcxvobis pirveli niSnebi vlindeba “Cvilobi” asakidanve.
odesme gifiqriaT, rom mozrdilTa Secdomebma SesaZloa pataras
simorcxvisken ubiZgos? mowiful asakSi ki es Tviseba mas mraval
dabrkolebas Seuqmnis. morcxv bavSvs iolad SeamCnevT. is Znelad amyarebs
urTierTobas sxva bavSvebTan, misi moZraobebi SeboWilia, qcevaSi ar SeimCneva
uSualoba da spontanuroba, uwyinari xumrobac ki swyins da ufro metad
iketeba sakuTar TavSi. simorcxve xasiaTis Taviseburebaa. is maSin iCens Tavs,
roca patara adamians xasiaTi uyalibdeba. erTi wlidan bavSvs uCndeba
ucnobi adamianebis SiSi.is damfrTxali umzers stumrebs da zogjer maT
gamoCenas tiriliT aprotestebs an dedis kalTas amoefareba da SeSinebuli
iyureba. Cven, ra Tqma unda, migvaCnia, rom zedmeti morcxvoba uaryofiTi
Tvisebaa da arasodes
davfiqrebulvarT imaze, rom is SesaZloa Zalze sasargeblo aRmoCndes.
magaliTad, morcxvi patara arasodes gaubams saubars ucnobs da ar gauCndeba
masTan erTad gaseirnebis survili. Tumca asakis matebasTan erTad
zedmeti simorcxve problemebs aCens - morcxv bavSvebs ar SeuZliaT sakuTari
azris mkafiod Camoyalibeba da dacva, susti nebisyofa aqvT, advilad eqcevian
Zlieri bavSvebis gavlenis qveS, cota megobari hyavT da zogjer Tanatolebi
dascinian kidec.
saSiSi ucnobebi, axal koleqtivSi adaptaciisTvis bavSvs dro sWirdeba.
ucnobi bavSvebis gacnobisas TiTqmis yvela patara frTxilad iqceva da es
sifrTxile swored
simorcxviT vlindeba. axal koleqtivSi patarebi ar Cqaroben TamaSSi
Cabmas,
umetesad Cumad arian, dros martoni atareben. Tu ase didxans
gagrZelda,
bavSvi
TandaTan
CamorCeba
Tanatolebs
ganviTarebiT,
komunikaciuri Cvevebis CamoyalibebiT. roca mozrdilebi cdiloben, daaCqaron
procesi da pataras
sTxoven, TamaSSi CaerTos, bavSvi ibneva. mas ar esmis, ratom unda
moiqces ase da ara sxvanairad. jer ver gaurkvevia, qcevis romeli tipi
airCios da romeli niSa daikavos koleqtivSi. is jer mxolod akvirdeba,
rogor moiqces sxva bavSvebTan - visTan daamyaros frTxili, zedapiruli
urTierToba da visTan Seupovari iyos. Tu mas adaptaciisTvis sakmarisi dro
ar miveciT, misi Sinagani logika aireva, patara ufro met Secdomas dauSvebs
da ufro ususuri gaxdeba. aucileblad unda gavacnobieroT, rom simorcxve,
romelic adaptaciis procesSi mJRavndeba, normaluri movlenaa. is mxolod
da mxolod exmareba bavSvs. mSoblebis yvelaze marTebuli taqtika is iqneba,
bavSvs morcxvobis ufleba mianiWon. gava xani da problema TavisTavad
mogvardeba.
aRzrdis Secdomebi, yvelaze saSiSi is morcxvobaa, romelic araswori
aRzrdis Sedegad yalibdeba. ase xdeba, roca mSoblebi bavSvSi superegos
kultivirebas iwyeben.
ra aris superego?
fsiqologebi gvarwmuneben, rom pirovnebis struqtura iyofa egod da
266
superegod (anu med da ze-med). ego aris is, radac bavSvi aRiqvams sakuTar
Tavs, xolo superego - is, rasac bavSvSi mSoblebi zrdian. roca am or egos
Soris Zalian didi gansxvavebaa, bavSvi morcxv da daTrgunul adamianad
yalibdeba. roca ded-mama yuradRebas mxolod bavSvis uaryofiT mxareebze
amaxvilebs, bavSvic mxolod cuds xedavs sakuTar TavSi. warmoidgineT, rom
pataras sabavSvo baRSi, zeimze, leqsi daaviwyda. Tu amas ar SevimCnevT, bavSvs
SevaqebT da vetyviT, rom SemdegSi ukeT gamouva, momdevno jerze is marTlac
warmatebiT warudgeba mayurebels. ar SeiZleba bavSvs cudi mexsierebis
gamo vusayveduroT, Torem momaval warumateblobaze fiqri yvelafers
aurdaurevs, Seqebis SemTxvevaSi ki bavSvs gauCndeba survili, sakuTari Tavi
nebismier situaciaSi ukeT warmoaCinos. ra Tqma unda, adamiani yovelTvis
idealuri ver iqneba. es arc aris saWiro. moulodneli warumateblobisa Tu
Secdomis dros morcxvi bavSvi sakuTar TavSi iketeba, eWvi epareba Tavis
SesaZleblobebSi da yoveli SeniSvna misTvis namdvil tragediad iqceva.
droTa ganmavlobaSi aseTi qceva ganmtkicdeba da morcxvoba xasiaTis
Tvisebad iqceva, ris Semdegac masTan brola Zalian gaWirdeba.
ra mogveTxoveba Cven?
unda vecadoT, aqcenti pataras miRwevebze gavakeToT. Tundac vxedavdeT,
rom bavSvs raRac ar gamosdis, mainc unda vuTxraT, rom yvelaferi
mSvenivrad gamouvida, xolo Tu moindomebs, momavalSi ufro ukeT gamouva.
ufro xSirad SeaqeT bavSvi warmatebis gamo da is dRiTi dRe ufro da ufro
metad darwmundeba sakuTar SesaZleblobebSi.
urTierTobis sirTuleebi, arian adamianebi, romlebTan urTierTobac
bavSvs ubralod ar surs, magram garemoebaTa gamo iZulebulia, maTTan
kontaqti hqondes. ra Tqma unda, amSemTxvevaSi patara Zalian morcxvi iqneba.
aseT situaciaSi ufrosebis mTavari Secdoma is aris, rom pataras aiZuleben,
urTierToba hqondes arasasurvel adamianTan. am dros bavSvs ganmartoebis
survili uCndeba, Tumca is verasodes ityvis xmamaRla: `ar minda am qalTan
TamaSi!~ am TavSekavebis mizezic morcxvobaa. orive SemTxvevaSi morcxvoba
droebiTia. is mxolod maSin iCens Tavs, roca patara misTvis uCveulo
mdgomareobaSia.
rogoria swori taqtika?
nu aiZulebT bavSvs, urTierToba hqondes adamianTan, romelic ar
uyvars. Tu sxva gamosavali ar aris, ecadeT, maqsimalurad gaulamazoT
arasasurveli adamianis gverdiT yofnis dro, magram Tu saSualeba gaqvT,
aseTi kontaqti saerTod aacileT Tavidan.
Cveni Secdomebi, ra Tqma unda, idealuri adamianebi, romlebic
yovelTvis saTanado urTierTobebs amyareben, ar arseboben. yvelas mogvdis
Secdoma da xSirad amas verc ki vamCnevT. Tu SevamCnieT, Cveni reaqcia
sxvadasxvanairia. zogierTs
sakuTar Secdomebze ecineba, magram arian adamianebi, visTvisac es
tragediaa. Secdomis molodinSi isini mudam daZabulni arian, cdiloben
gaTvalon TavianTi qcevis Sedegebi. es, ra Tqma unda, mozrdilebs exeba.
patara bavSvi Tavis qcevas da mis Sedegebs ver gaTvlis. amitomac cdilobs,
267
saerTod aaridos Tavi urTierTobas - Secdomis daSvebas es urCevnia. xSirad
mSoblebi nebiT Tu uneblieT bavSvis xasiaTis ama Tu im uaryofiTi Tvisebis
kultivirebas axdenen. zogjer es SeumCnevlad xdeba. verc ki vacnobierebT,
rogor vklavT gasaRviZeblad momzadebul damoukideblobis Canasaxs Cveni
uxeSi CareviT Tu yviriliT umniSvnelo warumateblobis gamo. SesaZloa,
banalurad JRerdes, magram bednieri bavSvis aRsazrdelad mSoblebi Tavad
unda Seicvalon.
Tqven avtoritaruli, mkacri mSoblebi xarT da migaCniaT, rom aRzrdis
Tqveneuli stili marTebulia? maSin Sedegebze ifiqreT. Tqven aRzrdiT
damjere, morcxv bavSvs, romelsac ara marto Tqvens winaSe, aramed
amxanagebTan, pedagogebTan, ezoSi xmis amoRebisac SeeSindeba. moridebul
pataras nacnobic cota hyavs, radgan mudam daZabulia da kontaqts
Tavsaridebs. aseTi bavSvebi nebismier, Tundac mosalodnel Secdomas mwvaved
ganicdian, radganac sakuTari Tavis ar sjeraT.
moridebuli bavSvi
verasodes gaxdeba lideri, radgan mas ar SeuZlia sakuTari azrebis mkafiod
Camoyalibeba da dacva. mas cota energia aqvs da imdenad aris daTrgunuli
mSoblebis mier, rom sakuTari egos warmoCena ar SeuZlia. aseT pataras
cxovrebaSi uamravi problema eqneba. amisTvis iRvwiT? albaT ara. amitomac
unda vceT pativi bavSvis pirovnebas dabadebidanve. morcxv bavSvTan
aucileblad unda vimuSaoT da misi xasiaTis es Tviseba davamarcxoT. Tu
mSoblebi aRzrdis stils ar Seicvlian, morcxvoba ufro da ufro metad
gaZlierdeba. mSoblebisTvis yvelaze rTuli sakuTari Tavis gardaqmnaa. rac
ufro mkacrni arian isini da rac ufro metad aiZuleben bavSvs rames,
miT ufro agresiuli xdeba patara, Tu is Zlieri pirovnebaa, xolo Tu
sustia - pasiuri da morcxvi. dafiqrdiT, marTebulad aZlevT Tu ara bavSvs
SeniSvnebs araswori qcevis gamo. arc imis aRniSvnaa saWiro, rom patara sxva
bavSvebis cud gavlenas ganicdis - amiT mas koleqtivs CamoaSorebT, rasac
namdvilad ar mohyveba kargi Sedegi. Tu pataras saqcieliT ukmayofilo xarT,
uTxariT, marTalia, kargad ver moiqca, magram mainc giyvarT. roca bavSvi
Tqvens siyvaruls grZnobs, yvelaferi marTlac kargad aris!
Tu xedavT, rom morcxvoba Tqvens Svils ukve Cvevad eqca da gindaT, mis
daZlevaSi daexmaroT, yuri ugdeT fsiqologebis rCevebs.
eTamaSeT bavSvs situaciuri TamaSebi. siuJeti ise SearCieT, rom patara
iyos
mTavari
personaJi,
romelsac
damoukidebeli,
zogjer
rTuli
gadawyvetilebis miReba mouwevs. kargi iqneba, Tu moaxerxebT da ubiZgebT,
sxva personaJebTan TamaSi wamoiwyos. ase is sakuTari azris Camoyalibebas da
dacvas iswavlis da gaigebs, rom sxva adamianebis darwmuneba arc iseTi Zneli
da saSiSia. TamaSisTvis gamoiyeneT zRapris siuJeti an Tavadve moigoneT
scenari. modi, patara daTvis beli iyos, romelsac gzaze didi daTvi Sexvda.
daavaleT bavSvs, daarwmunos didi daTvi, rom pataras gza dauTmos.
magaliTad, `patara daTvma~ Tqvas, rom dedasTan eCqareba, eSinia, ar
dauRamdes da ase Semdeg. mieciT saSualeba bavSvs, airCios misTvis sasurveli
zRapari. SeiZleba, bavSvma mglis roli Seasrulos, romelsac konfliqti aqvs
sxva personaJebTan. aseve - meliis an daTvis. kurdRlis roli morcxv bavSvs
araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar SesTavazoT - aseTi roli mas cxovrebaSic hyofnis.
268
Tumca SegiZliaT, patara mamac kurdRlad aqcioT, iseTad, romelsac arc
mglisa eSinia, arc meliisa da arc daTvisa. Tundac TamaSis dros bavSvs
yvelaferi ise ar gamouvides, rogorc Tqven gindaT, is mainc unda SeaqoT.
mTavaria, mas sakuTari Tavis rwmena gauCndes, Tundac misi Canasaxi. es mas
morcxvobis daZlevaSi daexmareba.
ivarjiSeT yvelgan, gamoiyeneT nebismieri SesaZlebloba. magaliTad,
seirnobis dros pataras daavaleT, rac SeiZleba met adamians hkiTxos,
romeli saaTia. ra Tqma unda, Tavdapirvelad bavSvi uars getyviT am Txovnis
Sesrulebaze, magram unda moigonoT damajerebeli mizezi, raTa swored
bavSvma dausvas SekiTxva ucnobebs. bavSvs urTierTobis gamocdileba
Camouyalibdeba da masTan erTad sakuTari Zalebis rwmenac gaezrdeba. bavSvi
cxovrebaSi uamrav xalxs Sexvdeba, romelTagan yvela ver iqneba
keTilganwyobili. ase rom, urigo ar iqneba, amisTvis winaswar moamzadoT.
patara Seityobs, rom adamiani yovelTvis erTnair gunebaze ar aris - xan
mowyenilia, xan mxiaruli, xan dafiqrebuli an dabneuli - da mixvdeba, rom
adamianebis
ganwyoba
sulac
ar
aris
mis
mimarT
damokidebulebis
gamoxatuleba, mere da mere ki imasac gaigebs, rom yvela adamianTan
urTierTobisas gansakuTrebuli midgomaa saWiro.adamianebis ganwyoba sulac
ar aris mis mimarT damokidebulebis gamoxatuleba, mere da mere ki imasac
gaigebs, rom yvela adamianTan urTierTobisas gansakuTrebuli midgomaa
saWiro. adaptaciis unari mas cxovrebaSi aucileblad gamoadgeba. did
daxmarebas gagiwevT artTerapia, romlis drosac bavSvi sxvadasxva siuJets
xatavs. naxati asaxavs imas, rac pataras aRelvebs. SeiZleba pataras
SevTavazoT daxatos ojaxi an sabavSvo baRi. xatvis dros patara
cxovrebiseul sirTuleebs gadalaxavs. fsiqologebma ician, rogor gaSifron
bavSvis naxatebi da pataras qcevis koreqciis gzebsac SemogTavazeben.
rekomendaciebi mSoblebs, pirveli Sexeba ganaTlebis sistemasTan
bavSvisTvis iwyeba sabavSo baRidan da skolis dawyebiTi klasebidan.
zogierTi bavSvisTvis baRisa da skolis garemoSi yofna Zalian saxaliso
gamocdilebaa: aseTi bavSvebi Zalian aqtiurad erTvebian yvelaferSi da mzad
arian yovelTvis pasuxi gascen maswavleblis yvela kiTxvas, mRerian xmamaRla
simReris
gakveTilze
da
cdiloben
yovelTvis
pirvelebi
iyvnen
yvelaferSi.sxva bavSvebi ki am dros naklebad aqtiurebi arian da nakelbad
komfortulad grZnoben Tavs baRisa da skolis garemoSi. moridebuli
baSvebisTvis aseTi situaciebi SeiZleba zedmetad damrTgunveli da
amaRelvebelic iyos. maT SeiZleba moeridoTklasSi xmis amoReba, cdiloben
jgufSi ukan daimalon, urCevniaT iyvnen TavisTvis da iTamaSon marto
kuTxeSi. Tqven albaT Zalian gindaT, rom Tqveni baSvisTvis saxaliso iyos
baRisa da skolis pirveli wlebi, magram Tu bavSi moridebulia da Tavs
kargad ver grZnobs skolisa da baRis garemoSi, ecadeT zedmetad ar
inerviuloT. am asakis bavSvebi jer kidev swavloben imas Tu rogor unda
aawyon
urTierToba
TanatolebTan
da
monawileoba
miiRon
jgufur
aqtivobebSi. bavSvebis didi nawili mainc ufro kargad grZnobs Tavs, roca
akvirdeba da baZavs sxvebs. sabavSo baRSi bavSvebis umravlesoba TamaSobs
interqatiulad, magram mainc aqvT socialur garemosTan SeCvevis momenti.
269
sabavSo baRsa da dawyebiT klasebSi baSvebi swavloben Tu rogor unda
moiqcnen axal situaciebSi, swavloben axal wesebsa da qcevebs. es aris
procesi,
romelsac
dro
sWirdeba.baSvebi
Zalian
gansxvavdebian
erTmaneTisgan TavianTi qcevebiT, iseve rogorc mozrdili adamianebi maTi
xasiaTis TvisebebiT: zogierTi maCviviT zedmetad aqtiuria da zogi kidev
Cumia rogorc Taguna. zogierT bavSvs ufro meti dro sWirdeba saklaso
rutinasTan, maswavlebelTan da klasTan Sesagueblad.
zogierTi rCeba
mordiebuli magram amaSi cudi araferia. zomieri simorcxve ar aris iseTi
problema, romelsac gamosworeba Wirdeba. misaRebia Tu baSvi wynari da
moridebulia ambobs baRis maswavlebeli Carls darbi. mieciT baSvebs
saSauleba TviTonve gaerkvion imaSi Tu ra aris komfortuli maTTvis. nu
ecdebiT gadaaqcioT es yovelive did problemad.ar aris aucilebeli Tqveni
Svili iyos hiper aqtiuri an pirvel rigSi mdgomi moswavle imisTvis, rom
kargad iswavlos. magram misi SiSis cotaTi mainc Semsubuqeba misTvis ufro
sasiamovnod gadaaqcevs skolaSi an baRSi yofnas, romelic Tavis mxriv xels
Seuwyobs bavSvs swavlaSi da namdvilad Rirs amaze zrunva.
daelaparakeT maswavlebels ambobs darbi, romelic aswavlis
Crdilo karolinaSi da aqvs bevr morcxv baSvTan muSaobis gamocdileba.
rogorc bevri sxva eqsperti da maswavlebeli, isic ambobs, rom
mniSvnelovania mSoblebi aqtiurad urTierTobdnen maswavleblebTan da
baRis/skolis TanamSromlebTan. mSoblebisa da maswavleblebis urTierToba
Zalian mniSvnelovani saSualebaa moridebuli bavSvis dasaxmareblad.
daiwyeT dakvirveba da SeadareT Tu rogor iqceva bavSi saxlSi da
rogor iqceva skolaSi an baRSi. risi gakeTeba uyvars Tqvens Svils, rac ar
aris skolisa da baRis aqtivobebis nawili? aris Tu ara iseT ram, risi
gakeTebac Tqvens Svils Zalian uyvars, magram es ar aris savaldebulo
saqmianoba skolaSi an baRSi. SeagroveT aseTi informacia maswavleblebisgan
da ecadeT moifiqroT Tu rogor SeiZleba ufro saxaliso gaxdes skolaSi an
baRSi yofna aseTi bavSvisTvis. SexvdiT maswavlebels da SeimuSaveT gegma,
ambobs meg zveibeqi, ojaxis konsultanti, eqrTani da san franciskos
kaliforniis universitetis asocirebuli profesori. ( miuxedavad imisa, rom
saqarTveloSi skolisa da baRis aqtivobebSi mSoblis CarTva adre
warmoudgenelic ki iyo, axla situacia nel-nela icvleba da
baRebi da
skolebi ufro metad modian mSoblebTan TanamSromlobaze. gansakuTrebiT
SesaZlebelia aseTi midgoma saqarTveloSi Tu baSvi kerZo baRSi an skolaSi
dagyavT).
●
ecadeT skolaSic/baRSic hqondes saSualeba akeTos misTvis
saintereso saqmeebi: magaliTad, Tu Tqveni Svili giJdeba xoWoebze, magram
skolaSi es Tema ar aris ganxilvis sagani, mieciT saSualeba waiRos misi
xoWoebis kolecqcia skolaSi. magram miaqcieT yuradReba, rom maswavlebelma
bavSvs
ar
moTxovos
formaluri
prezentaciis
gakeTeba.
sTxoveT
maswavlebels, rom misces bavSvs xoWoebze saubaris saSualeba. SesaZlebelia
maswavlebelma moawyos ganxilva xoWoebis Temaze da amisaTvis gamoiyenos
Tqveni Svilis koleqcia, rogorc vizualuri masala.Cikagoel lidia luisis
qaliSvils Zalian uWirda monawileoba mieRo dawyebiTi skolis aqtivobebSi.
270
dedam aRmoaCina, rom sakmaod dadebiTi Sedegi moitana misi sayvareli
saqmeebis waxalisebam skolaSi. me wavaxalise Cemi Svili skolaSi waeRo is
nivTebi da saTamaSoebi, romelTa Cvenebac undoda misi megobrebisTvis, ambobs
lidia. misi niJarebis kolecqcia, zazuna, lamazi qvebis koleqcia. es daexmara
mas sakuTari Tavi gaecno sxvebisTvis. Tu Tqveni bavSvi Tavidanve aqtiurad
ar
alaparakdeba
jgufelebTan,
misi
sayvareli
nivTebis
gaziareba
bavSvebisTvis daexmareba mas simorcxvis gadalaxvaSi. ase mas SeuZlia miiRos
monawileoba da igrZnos Tavi jgufis nawilad zedmeti laparakis gareSe, rac
ukve SeiZleba kargi dasawyisi iyos simorcxvis gadalaxvisTvis.
ara aqvs
mniSvhneloba Tqvens Svils ra uyvars: xoWoebi, katebi Tu matareblebi,
Tundac misi sayvareli wignis an saTamaSos gaziareba sxva baSvebisTvis
skolaSi an baRSi kargi saSualeba iqneba misTvis simorcxvis gadalaxvaSi.
Tqveni yofna saklaso oTaxSi daexmareba bavSvs ufro komfortulad
igrZnos Tavi axal garemoSi. Tqveni ganrigis gamo SesaZlebelia amis gakeTeba
xSirad ver moaxerxoT, magram Tu amas ramdenjerme mainc moaxerxebT
periodulad SesaZlebloba geqnebaT daakvirdeT ra cvlilebebs ganicdis
Tqveni Svili. bavSvebis umravlesoba mSoblis stumrobas baRSi an skolaSi
aRiqvams rogorc gansakuTrebul movlenas. me mivdiodi da vukiTxavdi xolme
julias klaselebTan erTad ambobs levisi, es mexmareboda gamego Tu ra
xdeboda skolaSi realurad.
Tu Tqven moaxerxebT da ewveviT Tqvens Svils skolaSi an baRSi,
daakvirdiT im TamaSebs, proeqtebs da sxvadasxva aqtivobebs, romlbsac Tqveni
Svili akeTebs skolis an baRis farglebSi da gaanalizeT Seefereba Tu ara
isini Tqveni Svilis moTxovnebs, aZleven Tu ara isini mas sakmaris stmuls da
SesaZleblobas warmatebis misaRwevad. SesaZlebelia, rom Tqveni Svili Tavs
aridebs TamaSebsa da aqtivobebs imis gamor, rom hgonia rom maTi gakeTebis
unari ar aqvs, ambobs kanzasis universitetis bavSvis ganviTarebis profesori
deil volkeri. Tu aqtivobebis didi nawili Tqveni Svilis SesaZleblobebs
aRemateba, daelaparakeT maswavlebels da sTxoveT maTi gamartiveba. Tu
Tqvens Svils uWirs yvela asos damaxsrovreba, maswavlebels SeuZlia
mxolod ramdenime asoze gaakeTebinos aqcenti garkveuli periodis
ganmavlobaSi.
Tu Tqvens Svils jer gargad ar aqvs gavarjiSebuli
makratelisa da webos gamoyeneba, ecadeT rom xatvac iyos misTvis erT-erTi
arCevani.
Tu raime bavSvis SesaZleblobebis aRemateba, ecadeT igi
gaamartivoT,
ambobs
vokeri.
ecadeT
Tqveni
Svili
ar
gaRiziandes.SesaZlebelia aseve, rom skolis aqtivobebi iyos Tqveni
SvilisTvis sakmaod mosawyeni, radganac isini zedmetad advilia.
Tu es
namdvilad asea, maSin ecadeT daelaparakoT maswavlebels amis Sesaxeb.
SesaZlebelia maswavlebelma aseT dros moiZios masalebi ufro maRali
klasebidan, rom gamoiyenos Tqveni SvilisTvis.
nu gaamaxvilebT yuradRebas mxolod problemur sakiTxebze. sasiamovno
da gasarTobi aqtivobebis gakeTeba saxlSi bavSvs daexmareba gadalaxos
RonisZiebebSi monawileobis SiSi. yvela jgufs skolaSi an baRSi aqvs
sayvareli simRerebi; gaarkvieT, romeli moswons yvelaze metad Tqvens Svils
da aqcieT igi Tqveni saRamos rutinis nawilad. es bavSvs daexmareba
271
simorcxvis gadalaxvaSi da skolaSic advilad amRerdeba jgufTan erTad.
mSoblebis treneri zveibeqis rekomendaciis mixedviT, sasargebloa
bavSvebisTvis skolobanas TamaSi TojinebTan erTd, radganac es exmareba maT
gaivarjiSon klasSi yofnis Cvevebi. mouwyveT Tqvens svils saxlSi skola
daTuniebiT. Tqven SegiZliaT daexmaroT bavSvs TamaSis organizebaSi da
monawileoba miiRoT TamaSSi, rogorc erT-erTma moswavlem. Tqven am dros
SeiZleba gaigoT Tu ra awuxebs mas; es SeiZleba iyos cudi baSvebi da
maswavlebeli, romelic dascinis. Tu Tqven sasacilo scenars moifiqrebT da
saxalisod gaiTamaSebT Tu rogor geSiniaT bavSvebis an maswavleblis. Tqveni
bavSvisTvis aseTi ramis mosmena Zalian sasacilo iqneba; sicili ki
daexmareba mas gadalaxos SiSis grZnoba da es ufro met TviTdajerebulobas
Sematebs. esaubreT bavSvs, dausviT kiTxvebi da miRebuli informacia
gamoiyeneT skolisa da baRis administraciasTan sasaubrod.
morcxvi studentebi, Seswavlili cxra qveynidan simorcxve yvelaze
maRalia zog aziur qveyanaSi,gansakuTrebiT iaponiasa da taivanSi,da yvelaze
dabalia israelSi.es gansxvaveba,garkveul wilad,miewereba imas,rom am aziur
qveynevSi kultura
ganapirobebs avtoritetisadmi damorCilebas da
sircxvilis
gancdas,Tu
adamianma
socialuri
Secdoma
dauSva;xolo
israelSi,amis sapirispirod,TuU adamiani riskze midis,es kulturulad
waxalisebuli da danaSaulis gancda eqsternalizirebulia meoTxe axsna
exmaureba bolo dros SeerTebul StatebSi simorcxvis
prevalentobis
zrdas:
axalgazrdebi
intensiurad
arian
CarTulni
eleqtronul
teqnologiebTan
muSaobaSi.didi
drois
gatareba,rogorc
wesi
simartoveSi,televizoris yurebaSi,videoTamaSebSi,internetis Tvalierebasa da
eleqtronuli fostis gagzavnaSi socilur izolacias iwvevs da amcirebs
yoveldRiur pirispir kontaqts.internetis intensiur gamoyenebas
aqvs
potenciali,adamianebs Tavi agrZnobinos martoxelad,izolirebulad da ufro
morcxvad.[1,564]
rodesac simorcxve sul ufro Zlierdeba,is adamianis cxovrebis axal
da axal aspeqtebSi iWreba,amcirebs socialur siamovnebebs da maqsimumamde
mihyavs socialuri diskomforti da izolacia.arsebobs ramdenime martivi
koncefcia da taqtika,romelTa Sesaxeb fiqrsa da gamoyenebis cdasac
vTavazobT morcxv studentebss.
rCevebi morcxv studentebs:
• gaacnobiereT, rom marto Tqvenar xarT mocxvi;yvela sxva adamiani
Tavisi morcxvobiT upro Tqveni msgavsia,vidre Tqvengan gansxvavebuli;
• simorcxve SeiZleba maSinac ki Seicvalos,rodesac masSi genetikuri
komponentia CarTuli,magram es moiTxovs Tavdadebasa da Secvlis ganzraxvas
iseve,rogorc nebismieri xangrZlivad arsebuli
Cveva,romlis Secvlac
gsurT;
• ivarjiSeT gaRimebaSi da mxedvelobiTi
adamianTa umravlesobasTan,visac xvdebiT;
272
kontaqtis
damyarebaSi
• iyaviT pirveli,vinc SekiTxvas dasvams an komentars gaakeTebs axal
socialur situaciaSi. saTqmelad momzadebuli gqondeT raime saintereso da
TqviT es pirvelma; yvela afasebs adamians,vinc “yinuls gaalRobs”, da
aRaravin ifiqrebs,rom Tqven morcxvi xarT;
• nu daimdablebT Tavs, aramed ifiqreT imaze, Tu ra SeiZleba gaakeToT
Semdeg, rom TqvenTvis sasurveli Sedegi miiRoT;
•
yurdReba gaamaxvileT imaze,rom sxvebs Tavi komforTtulad
agrZnobinoT. gansakuTrebiT swored is sxva morcxvi adamianebi moZebneT.es
Seamcirebs Tqvens TviTcnobierebas, rogorc morcxvi pirovnebis;
• gaivarjiSeT meditaciaSi,relaqsaciasa da idealuri scenaris gonebriv
vizualizaciaSi, sanam aRmoCndebiT situaciaSi, romelic, Cveulebriv, aZlierebs
Tqvens simorcxves;
Tu Tqven morcxvui xarT, vimedovnebT, rom gaizirebT am rCevebs.
studentebi,
romlebmac
gaiTvaliswines
es
rCevebi,
ganTvisufldnen
morcxvobis tyveobidan da “axali TavisuflebebiT: saves cxovrebaSi Seabijes.
es aris martivi fsiqologiis cxovrebaSi gamoyenebis erT-erTi upiratesoba.
Tuki Tqven morcxvi ar
xarT, SegiZliaT waaxalisoT Tqveni morcxvi
megobrebi da ojxis wevrebi, raTa maT am gziT Secvalon TavianTi cxovreba.
[1,565]
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1) zimbardo_fsiqologia da cxovreba; Tb.2008 gv.564-565;”ratom
zogi adamiani
morcxvi”;
aris
2) http://ganatlebageo.wordpress.com/tag/gavamxnevoT-morcxvi-bavSv/
3) http: ebageo.wordpress.com/2012/04/05/rogor-davexmaroT-morcxv///ganatl
4) http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge/pediatria/bavshvis-aghzrda/2171-2010-10-03-18-34-21.html
Resume
Salome Tsitskishvili
Problem of Shyness in Children and Adults
The work discusses one of the most important problems for today Problem of Shyness in
Children and Adults. Some opinions related to shy people are given, Psychological pecualrities of shy
children are analysed. And some advises and opinions for overcoming problem of shyness are formed.
273
autizmi
bavSvebSi
mariam durgliSvili
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi, I kursi suxiSvilis universiteti
izolda buxuleiSvili
filologiis doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49 555 56 23 49
ukanasknel xans autizms gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevdnen, rac misi
gaxSirebiT aixsneba, daavadebulTa raodenoba yovelwliurad izrdeba.
wlebis
ganmavlobaSi
autizms
miiCnevdnen
perceptuli
naklis
gansakuTrebul formad anu aRqmis meqanizmis darRveveda, rac xels uSlis
bavSvs, aRiqvas da swvdes situaciebs ise, rogorc es adamianTa Soris
normalur komunikaciisTvisaa saWiro. amgvari perceptuli defeqtebi marTlac
arsebobs da SeiZleba seriozuli problemebi
warmoSvas
bavSvis
ganviTarebisas. am jgufs
miekuTvneba
afazia, smeniTi aRqmis darRveva.
zogierT bavSvSi autizmi SeiZleba ganviTardes
afaziis an
sxva
perceptuli darRvevisa Tu ganuviTareblobis fonze. da mainc, aRqmis unaris
darRveva, Seferxeba Tu SezRuduloba Tavisuflad ver CaiTvleba autizmad.
isini ufro
sibrmavis, siyruis, emociuri darRvevebisa da organuli
mdgomareobebis msgavs rols TamaSobdnen. [1;100]
autizmi nervuli sistemis daavadebaa, romelic bavSvis ganviTarebis
SeferxebiT vlindeba. igi panikuri reaqciaa im momentze, roca 2-3 wlis
asakSi
,,me”
pirvelad
amcnobs
bavSvs
sakuTar
arsebobas.
autizmi
klasificirdeba, rogorc neiroganviTarebis
funqciis darRveva, romelic
gamoixateba xazgasmuli araadeqvaturi socialuri interaqciiT, komunikaciis
darRvevebiTa da interesTa da qcevis maneraTa
specifiuri seriiT.
miuxedavad imisa, rom autizmis specifiuri etiologia ucnobia, mravali
mkvlevari eWvobs, rom autizmi genetikurad ganpirobebuli sisustea garemos
xasiaTobrivi cvlilebebis mimarT.
autizmi yoveli 1000 bavSvidan 6-s emarTeba. igi gamovlenas iwyebs 15
Tvis
asakidan, xolo misi
sabolo formireba 3 wlis
asakSi xdeba.
mSoblebma, romlebic
SeSfoTebulni arian bavSvis ucnauri
saqcieliT,
yuradReba unda gaamaxvilon Semdeg niSnebze:

bavSvi uars ambobs mSoblebTan kontaqtze;

3 wlisaa, magram jer kidev ar laparakobs;

upiratesobas aniWebs marto yofnas da TamaSs;

ar eSinia garesamyarosi, magram ar surs, raime Secvalos Tavis
cxovrebaSi, r uyvars cvlilebebi da siaxleebi;

laparakobs monotorulad, TiTqos dazepirebuli teqstiT. sxvis
sityvebs eqsosaviT imeorebs. metyvelebis ganviTarebiT CamorCeba asaks.
pirvelad
autizmi
leo
kanerma
aRwera
(1943).
igi
gamoyofda
autizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Semdeg niSnebs:
1.
socialuri urTierTobis damyarebis uunaroba;
2.
komunikaciis mizniT metyvelebis gamoyenebis SeuZlebloba;
3.
cvlilebebisadmi Zlieri rezistentoba
4.
sagnebiT gataceba
274
5.
am maxasiaTeblebis gamomJRavneba 30 Tvis asakamde [1;109][2]
xSirad amboben, rom autistur tipuri ojaxuri garemo gaaCniaT. bavSvis
autizms ufro xSirad adgili aqvs inteleqtualur wreebSi da e.w. maRal
socialur fenebSi. autisturi bavSvebi yvela socailur fenaSi da mTels
qveyanaze gvxvdebian. arsebobs Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac bavSvis
autizmi
dabadebis momentidanve an Zalian adreuli bavSobidanve
Cndeba.
aris tendencia, ganasxvaon pirveladi da meoradi autizmi. pirvelad autizms
TanSobil mdgomareobad Tvlian, meorads ki sapasuxi qcevis formad. iSviaT
SemTxvevaSi, autizmis simptomebi skolamdel an saskolo asakSi mJRavndeba.
autisturi speqtris aSlilobis (asa) mqone bavSvebi xSirad sakuTar
saxelze sustad reagireben da TvalebiT kontaqts Tavs arideben, uWirT
sxvisi emociebis
aRqma, ar gaaCniaT TanagrZnobis unari, uWirT sxva
bavSvebTan TamaSi. komunikaciis
darRvevebi
mis rogorc
verbalur
(sityvier), ise
araverbalur (sxeulis eniT, JestebiT) nawils exeba.
auristuri speqtris aSlilobisas bavSvebi umetesad gvian idgamen enas
da
saubrisas
sakuTar Tavs
xSirad
mesame
pirSi ixsenieben. mxolod
ramdenime Temaze laparakobdnen, Tanac ise, rom Tanamosaubris azri arc ki
ainteresebT. ar iwyeben da erTvebian dialogSi. laparakoben arabunebrivi,
uCveulo toniTa da ritmiT (wamRerebiT an robotiviT). autisturi speqtris
aSlilobis
mqone
bevr
bavSvs aqvs ganmeorebiTi
moZraobebi (brunva,
triali, rxeva, xelebis
qneva) an TviTdamazianebeli qveca (kbena, Tavis
rtyma). xSirad aseT
bavSvebs
daqveiTebuli aqvT
tkivilis SegrZneba,
samagierod mZafrad reagireben xmaurze, Sexebaze, xunze... maT ar uyvarT
Caxuteba, xelSi ayvana, sxvebTan siaxlove. [1;101][2;3] am bavSvebidan zogs
saSualoze
dabali inteleqti aqvs, zogs-saSualo, zogierTs-saSualoze
maRalic ki. iSviaTad ki ,,autist geniosebsac”
vxvdebiT, romleTac aqvT
gansakuTrebuli musikaluri, maTematikuri an sxva saxis niWi.
autizmis
gamomwvevi
mizezebi
ucnobia,
SesaZloa
mizezi
iyos
metabolisturi wonasworobis rRveva, xSirad ki – stresi orsulobis dros,
bolo drois gamokvlevebma daadastures, rom ojaxebSi, sadac erTi autisti
bavSvi hyavT, meore aseTi bavSvis gaCenis riski daaxloebiT 5%-ia. ohaios
Statis saxelmwifo universitetis samecniero centris
mkvlevarebma
daaskvnes, rom orsulebs, romlebmac orsulobis 24-28 –ekviras gadaitanes
Zlieri stresi (mag. axloblis sikvdili, samsaxuridan daTxovna an Zlieri
SiSi), didi Sansi aqvT autizmiT daavadebuli Svilebi gauCndeT.
mkurnaloba kompleqsuria da mTeli sicoclis manZilze grZeldeba.
autizmiT daavadebuli ar ikurneba, magram swavlobs, iyos damoukidebeli,
sazogadoebis srulfasovani wevri, iTvisebs socialuri adaptaciis Cvevebs.
Terapia moicavs
damamSvidebel
saSualebebs, dietas, fsiqo-socialur
meTodebs, audiovokalur treningebs,. mkurnalobis
erT-erTi
ZiriTadi
rgolia autizmiT
daavadebuli bavSvebis
ojaxebis
urTierToba
gamocdilebis gaziarebis mizniT. [2]
dReisaTvis
autizmis
sruliad
gankurneba SeuZlebelia. daxmaeba,
pirvel rigSi, drouli da swori
diagnostikaa. bavSvis
Sefaseba unda
moxdes sfiqologis, nevrologis, fsiqiatris, metyvelebis
specialistis,
275
Terapevtis mier.
saWiroa sazogadoebam miiRos meti informacia am daavadebis Sesaxeb,
swored amitom saqarTveloSi 2010 wels Seiqmna ,,saqarTvelos autiszmis
sazogadoeba”. masSi
gaerTianebulni arian profesionalebi, autisturi
speqtris aSlilobis mqone pirTa mSoblebi da ojaxis wevrebi. am problemis
aqtualobis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos bavSvTa
nevrologTa da
neiroqirurgTa asociaciis TaosnobiT dafuZnda saqarTvelos autizmis
sazogadoeba. masSi gaerTiandnen profesionalebi, autizmis mqone pirTa
mSoblebi.
am ori organizaciis mcdelobiT Sedga Sexvedra dargSi moRvawe sxva
arasamTavroboebTan da saqarTveloSi pirvelad 2011 wlis 2 aprils
aRiniSneba autizmis gavrcelebis msoflio dRe. [3;4]
autisturi bavsvebis araviTar daxmarebas ar warmoadgens, Tuki ojaxi
usrulebs nebismier survils da Tavis cxovrebas urgebs mas.
aseve mniSvnelovania, mivceT
autistur
bavSvebs
sakuTari Tavis
realizaciisa da gamoxatvis
saSualeba im sferoSi, sadac
garkveuli
unarebi gaaCndaT (mag. ferweraSi, dramaSi da a.S.). mSoblebma unda
daarwmunon bavSvi, rom igi ojaxis iseTive Cveulebrivi wevria, rogoric
danarCenebi. mieciT saSualeba, TviTon Seadginos dRis reJimi-seirnoba, kveba,
Zili, TamaSi misi survilisamebr unda xdebodes. [2]
autisturi bavSvisTvis, albaT, saukeTesoa sxva tipis
Seferxebuli
bavSvebis garemoSi yofna. cerebruli dablis mqone bavSvTan Sexvedras
xSirad gamohyavs autisturi bavSvi misi izolaciidan, vinaidan umweo,
dambliani bavSvi aqtiuri Tanalgomas aRZravs sxvaSi. autisturma
bavSvma
SeiZleba izrunos
damblian bavSvze da mieSvelos mas, rasac
sxvebs
arasodes gaukeTebs.
autizmis msubuqi formisas bavSma SeiZleba moaxerxos Cveulebriv
skolaSi siarui normalur, jansaR bavSvebTan erTad, magram am dros mas
sakmarisi tolerantobiT unda Sexvdnen da maswavleblebs ar unda egonoT,
rom
swavlaSi CamorCenis
gamosworeba
damatebiTi
swavlebiTa da
momzadebiTaa SesaZlebeli. autisturi
bavSvisTvis
mTavari aris ara
swavaSi
winsvla, aramed zrdasrulobis raime
formiT
miRweva, rac
saSualebas miscems mas, icxovros da iSromos sxva adamianebTan erTad.
[1;117]
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
Tomas vaisi - ,,bavSvebi gansakuTrebul zrunvas rom saWiroeben”.
2.
www.google.ge
3.
Jurnali ,,aversi” #10(72),2010 w.
4.
www.autism.ge
Resume
Mariam Durglishvili
Autism in Children
The article is devoted to topical issues of today - children with autism. "The modern
definition of autism causes. The characteristic behaviors and manifestations of child lying autistic,
autism fighting method - the psychological and social aspects. The work is accompanied by a
recommendation for parents of children with autism.
276
tyuilis
fsiqologia
nino mazaniSvili
soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti, ganaTlebis fakulteti
xelmZRvaneli: izolda buxuleiSvili
pedagogikis doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected], [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
problema, romelsac Cvens statiaSi SevexebiT, urTulesia da metad
saWirboroto, mis met-naklebad gadaWrazea damokidebuli nebismieri eris,
sazogadeobis Tu civilizaciis bedi.
yoveli
adamiani
sicocxlis
ganmavlobaSi,albaT
erTxel
mainc
dausvamda Tavis Tavs kiTxvas, Tu rogor
gamoiWiros matyuara da ise
icruos, rom veravin daiWiros.
adamianuri siwrfelis mudmivi problema araerTxel qceula gansjis
sagnad mxatvrul da Tu
samecniero literaturaSi, romelic sicruis
problemas ganixilavda ori ZiriTadi-moralisa da sakuTriv fsiqologiis
poziciiT.
sxva adamianis SecdomaSi Seyvana, misTvis mcdari ,,rwmunebis“ STagoneba
SeiZleba iyos cnobieri an aracnobieri. mosaubris sicrueze SeiZleba
miuTiTebdes misi sityvebi, frazebi, pasuxebi da metyvelebis Taviseburebebi,
magram isini-araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar warmoadgens amis erTmniSvnelovan
mtkicebulebebs.[2,174]
Tanamosaubris sametyvelo qcevis niSnebis Seswavla saSualebas
mogcemT ganiviTaroT dakvirvebuloba, SeimuSaoT sakuTari qcevis gonivruli
stili. erT-erTi praqtikuli rekomendacia imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Tqveni
Tanamosaubris sityvebsa da jestebs Soris gansxvavebis SemTxvevaSi ufro
metad endeT Tqvens mxedvelobas da ara smenas.[2,175]
yvelasaTvis
kargadaa
cnobili,
rom
sicocxle
gadarCenisaTvis
brZolis procesia. cocxali arsebobisa da adamianTa istoriisaTvis erTi
Tvalis gadavlebiTac cxadia, rom sicocxle SeuZlebelia tyuilis fenomenis
gareSe. mainc rogor iwyeba tyuilis, an sicrue-simrudis istoria
kacobriobis biografiaSi? amis Sesaxeb saintereso cnobebs vpoulobT. jer
kidev indo-evropul miTologiaSi aRwerilia Tu rogor ostatobiT
iyenebdnen motyuebis iseT xerxebs, romlebsac xandaxan SeuZliaT saxtad
TviT gamocdili TaRliTebic ki datovon. aseTi formebia, magaliTad
SeniRbva da mimikria, romlebsac mwerebi da sxvadasxva saxis cxovelebi
iyenebdnen. magaliTad zogierTi jiSis xoWo saSiSroebis moaxlobisas
ostaturad emsgavseba mkvdars. aseTi saxis xerxebi warmoadgenen tyuilis
martiv e.w. axlomxedvelur tyuilebs.[1,14]
adamianebs gaaCniaT motyuebis gacilebiT Sors gamiznuli e.w. Caxveuli
tyuilebi,rogorc fsiqologiis klasikosi erik berni wers: adamianTa
urTierTobis
absoluturi umravlesoba
agebulia tyuilebisa da
urTierTmotyuebaze.[1,20]
Cveni civilizaciis ganmavlobaSi gamoigones motyuebis aTasobiT xerxi,
romelsac daarqves sxvadasxva
saxelebi: dabneva, WkuiT jobna, gacrueba,
xelze daxveva, gamoTayvaneba da a.S. aqedan gamomdinare tyuili bunebrivia
277
modis
adreuli
civilizaciidan
da
dakavSirebulia
gadarCenisaTvis
brZolasTan.[1,15]
rogorc
vxedavT,
tyuili
aris
yvelgan
arsebuli
da
metad
mravalferovani, amitom ismis kiTxva: SesaZlebelia Tu ara misi Seswavla? am
mizniT mecnier-mklevarebma moaxdines misi klasifikacia.
pirveli aseTi
klasifikacia Camoayaliba ingliselma filosofosma frensis bekonma,masze
adre arabma moazrovnem ab-ar- raxman al-jamarma Tavis wignSi ,,axdili
saburveli“ moaxdina tyuilis miseuli klasifikacia. saerTod tyuilis
klasifikaciebi
erTmaneTisagan
mniSvnelovnad
gansxvavdebian
midgomis
TvalsazriT.[1,32]
SeiZleba gamoiyos e.w. jgufuri an masobrivi motyuebebi, rodesac erTi
adamiani atyuebs mravals, an adamianTa erTi jgufi atyuebs meore jgufs.
motyuebis unari adamianebSi individualuria.[2,28]
alan pizi Tavis wignSi ,,sxeulis ena“ wers,rom Tu bavSvs tyuili
wamoscdeba, is maSinve pirze aifarebs xels. didebSi am Jestma miiRo ufro
SeniRbuli forma: isini tyuilis warmoTqmisas mxolod erTi TiTiT exebian
cxvirs, amiT isini cdiloben SeniRbon TviT pirze xelis afarebis
,,bunebrivi” jesti.
arsebobs
motyuebis
sxvadasxva
formebi:
urTierT
motyueba,
TviTmotyueba da sxva. TviTmotyuebas SeiZleba mivakuTnoT optimizmisa da
pesimizis ukiduresi formebi, romlis drosac adamiani iwyebs sinamdvilis
aRqmas ,,feradi „‟an ,,Savi“ saTvaleebiT. ,,yvelaze uaresi motyueba esaa
sakuTari Tavis motyueba“. ambobda Zvelad xalxi da gulisxmobdnen, rom
amgvari motyuebisagan gankurneba SeuZlebelia.
Cvens statiaSi yuradRebas SevaCerebT istoriul movlenaTa da saganTa
falsifikaciaze. damaxinjebebi, romelTac uSveben istorikosebi, aris ori
tipis: 1 gaCumeba, 2 falsifikacia gaCumebiT tyuili aris tyuilis yvelaze
,,msubuqi“ forma, magram amgvarma ,,Sesworebebma“ SeiZleba ise daamaxinjos
realuri movlenebi, rom veravin gaigos simarTle.[1,100]
motyueba, falsifikacia da siyalbe xSiria istoriaSi. gayalbebis sagani
SeiZleba iyos rogorc warsulis movlenebi,ise materialur kulturis
sagnebi (xelnawerebi, monetebi, skulturebi)
meore mxriv istoriuli gayalbebebi SeiZleba davyoT im miznebis
mixedviT,romlebsac isaxavdnen gamyalbeblebi:
--zogi, vinc ayalbebda realur faqtebs, imedovnebda politikuri
dividendebis miRebas;
-- meoreni fiqrobdnen mxolod pirad sargeblobaze;
--sxvebs amoZravebdaT ukiduresi pativmoyvareoba da gandidebis mania:
Sedegad, imas, rasac Cven veZaxiT realur istoriul movlenebs,
sinamdvileSi aris legendebis, Worebis, avi ganzraxvebis intrigebis, burusiT
moculi gadmocemebisa da nawilobriv namdvili faqtebis ucnauri narevi.
sxvanairad arc SeiZleba yofiliyo, radgan istorias weren adamianebi,
xolo isini, rogorc vnaxeT, cdebian nebsiT Tu uneblied, rogorc ar unda
moityuos istorikosma, iyos miukerZoebeli, es praqtikulad SeuZlebelia,
radgan masac gaaCnia emociebi, simpaTiebi, midrekilebebi da sxva adamianuri
278
sisusteebi.[1,100]
istoriul dokumentebisa da siZveleTa gayalbeba ar aris mxolod Cveni
drois Tavisebureba. mecnierebisaTvis cnobilia aseTi falsifikaciis
magaliTebi saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi. magaliTad safrangeTis erovnul arqivSi
inaxeba 558 wliT daTariRebuli aqti, romelTac mefe xilderberT pirveli
sent-vin-sentis saabatosaTvis misi mamulebis nawilis gadacemas iTxovs.
mecnierebma advilad ,,gamoTvales“ es siyalbe, radgan mocemuli dokumenti
damzadebuli iyo pergamentze maSin,roca me-6 saukunis aqtebi mzaddeboda
mxolod papirusze.
[1,104]
droTa ganmavlobaSi gaizarda mecnierTa mier istoriul gayalbebaTa
gamomJRavnebis unari Cvens droSi falsifikaciis xelovnebam da Tanamedrove
teqnikisa da masalebis gamoyenebam umaRles dones miaRwia. zogierTi Zvel
iaraRebs agrovebs. unda iTqvas,rom aq Zalian Znelia siyalbis dadgena aseTi
iaraRSi garegnoba, damuSavebis xarisxi, marTvis teqnika da Zveli daWdevebic
ki pirwmindad Seesabameba originals.[1,105]
frensis bekonis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT: ,,SeuZlebelia sakuTar TavSi
gaaerTiano ,,gvelis sibrZne“ da ,,mtredis Tviniereba“ Tu ar CawvdebiT
borotebis bunebas, mis
gareSe saTnoebas ara aqvs araviTari Sansi ufro
metic, patiosani adamiani verasdros SeZlebs gamoasworos uweso adamianebi
da Tavi daicvas maTgan, Tu rudunebiT ar gamoikvlevs borotebis siRrmeebs
da zedmiwevniT kargad ar gaerkveva maTSi.
amrigad, es aris urTulesi sakacobrio problema da Tu vinmes surs
ramis miRweva tyuilis im okeaneSi, bunebrivia kargad unda erekveodes masSi.
tyuilad ki ar aris naTqvami: ,,Tu ginda ar motyuvde, daumegobrdi tyuils.“
gamoyenebuli
lieteratura
1.
rene r, tyuilis fsiqologia, Tb., 2008
2.
aminovi, eriaSvili, saqmiani urTierTobis fsiqologia, Tb., 2008
3
http;//unhaur.com/
4
http;//fsiqologia.wordpress
Resume
Nino Mazanishvili
Psychology of Lie
Lie is eternal and everywhere existing phenomenon. Without studying it appropriately, a
human being cannot achieve any success.
The work talks about lie and its role in the contemporary civilization. Examples and facts of
historical event falsification are underlined.
279
mexsierebis saidumloebani
xatia meliqiSvili
lana SaraSiZe
soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti dawyebiTi ganaTleba
xelmZRvaneli: izolda buxuleiSvili
[email protected] [email protected]
557-53-42-20. 598-55-50-76
admianis erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli fsiqikuri Tavisebureba
mexsierebaa. jer kidev, Zveli berZnebi Tvlidnen, rom mexsierebis qalRmerTi
mnemosine, dedaa cxra muzisa, romlebic mfarvelobdnen im droisaTvis
cnobil yvela mecnierebas da xelovnebas. 1. gv. 113
adamianis tvini rom kompiuteri yofiliyo, Cven martivad SevZlebdiT
raime Cipis mierTebas Cven tvinebTan da sakuTari Tavis informaciiT
ganaxlebas, magram vai rom es, ase ar xdeba, adamianis tvini yvelaze ufro
rTul kompiuterul manqanazec ki rTulia da Sesabamisad masze zrunvac met
samuSaos moiTxovs.
yvela adamini Taviseburia, aqedan gamomdinare, yovel maTgans Tavisi
individualuri mexsiereba aqvs. damaxsovreba muSaobaa da am procesSi yvelas
sakuTari taqtika gaaCnia. zogs mxedvelobiTi mexsiereb aqvs, zogs smeniTi da
a. S. mxedvelobiTi mexsierebisgan gansxvavebiT,
smeniTi mexsierebis
SemTxvevebi iSviaTia. aseTi unaris mqone pirebi, smeniT ufro ukeTesad
imaxsovreben, vidre SexedviT. aseTi kategoriis warmomadgenlebi arian
ZiriTadad musikosebi da msaxiobebi.
mexsiereba aris, informaciis Senaxvis da aRdgenis unari. arsebobs ori
tipis mexsiereba: xanmokle da xangrZlivi. gamocdebis dros studentebi
umetesad cdiloben erTi Ramis ganmavlobaSi daimaxsovron didi raodenobiT
informacia, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi gamocdebis dasrulebisTanave qreba.
samyaro umexsierebod warmoudgenelia. TviT mgznebare warmosaxvasac ki ar
ZaluZs misi utyuari suraTis daxatva mexsierebis unaris gareSe, magram
adamianis yvela miRwevas Tu marcxs,
misi gamarjvebas Tu damarcxebas, aRmoCenas Tu dabnevas mxolod
mexsierebas mivawerT. tyuilad ki ar SeniSna gonebamaxvilurad frangma
moazrovnem f. laroSfukom: yvela uCivis Tavis mexsierebas, magram aravin
Civis keTilgoniereba mRalatobso. 1. gv. 117
mexsiereba warmodgenilia sami etapis, anu sami fazis saxiT, romlebic
gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan Tavisi fsiqologiuri struqturiTa da
konkretuli amocanebiT. es etapebia: informaciis aRbeWdva (kodireba), Senaxva
da aRdgena. TiToeuli am etapis arseboba aucilebelia mexsierebis
normaluri moqmedebisTvis. informaciis damaxsovreba da SemdgomSi misi
gaxsenebis unari, swavlisaTvis Zalian mniSvnelovania.
marTlac yvelgan gaigoneb: oh, es isev damaviwyda, wyeuli sklerozi da
TiTqmis arasodes amboben : cotaTi briyvi var, gansja ar SemiZlia, cota Tu
ram mesmis, udidesi fsiqologiuri sxvaobaa gamoTqmebSi: cudi mexsiereba
280
maqvs da briyvi var, TiTqmis iseTive, rogoric aseT aRiarebebSi: me
axlomxedveli var, da me ara maqvs sindisi. 1. gv. 117
mexsierebis mravalsacaviani sistema sami komponentisgan Sedgeba:
sensoruli mexsiereba, xanmokle mexsiereba da xangrZlivi mexsiereba. aris
mexsierebis aseTi formac: emociuri mexsiereba, romlis klasikur magaliTs
asaxavs i. gogebaSvilis iavnanam ra hqna?
nawarmoebis siuJetis mixedviT, bavSvobaSi lekebis mier gatacebuli
bavSvs ibruneben mSoblebi, magram samwuxarod mas bavSvobis mTeli periodi
mexsierebidan gahqroboda. qeTos mouyvanes ZiZa, aCvenes wyaro sadac uyvarda
yofna bavSvobaSi, amouRes misi sayvareli saTamaSoebi da a. S. magram man
mainc veraferi moigona, RviZli mSoblebis win idga lekis qali romelic
Tavs ucxo garemoSi grZnobda. Tumca, bolo dReebSi
aSkarad etyoboda
gancda da Cafiqreba imaze, Tu risTvis da ratom uCvenebdnen amdensiyvaruls
da ratom wuxdnen mis am mwuxarebaze ucxo adamianebi.
dedam advilad SeamCnia qeTos es sanugeSo cvlileba da imedi mieca.
calke am imedma da calke mSvenierma dilam karg gunebaze moiyvana magdani da
man sruliad uneburad, TavisTvis daiwyo RiRini iavnanisa. rac qeTo dahkarga,
mas Semdeg magdanis simReris xma aRaravis gaugonia.
patara xans ukan ise, uneblieT, gaixeda qeTosaken da gaocda: qeTos
aSkarad etyoboda saxeze aRelveba. cxadi iyo, rom raRacas igonebda da ver
ki moegonebina garkveviT. misi bunebis siRrmeSi didi xnis damarxuli xsovna
iRviZebda, magram ver ki gamoeRviZa. gonebis Ziridan, raRac sanatreli
mogoneba apirebda amoxeTqvasa, magram zevidan keckecad awvnen sxva
warmodgenani da uSlidnen maRla amosvlasa. magdanma es kargad SeamCnia da
Tavis xmas misca saocari metyveleba da mimzidveloba. uwin agvari simReriTa
da amave xmiT yoveldRe utkbobda magdani Tavis qeTos sipataravis dReebsa.
magdanis xmam uwia qeTos bunebis siRrmemdis, SesZra is Zirianad da
gaacocxla iq damarxuli bavSvobis naSTni, sagonebelni.
magdani Tan xmas aZlevda momxiblavs Zalas da Tan qeTos Sescqeroda
usazRvro dedobrivi siyvaruliT. qeToc TiTqmis sWamda TvaliT dedis
pirisaxesa da mRelvarebiT cdilobda, am saxezed amoekiTxa raRac didi
saidumlo da kidec amoikiTxa. qeTos aRelvebuli saxe TandaTan dawynarda da
pirisaxidan mTlad gadaeyara Savi Rrubeli, gansazRvruli sxivis naTeli
moefina saxeze da sixarulis sxivma dauwyo masze elvareba. uceb wamovarda
qeTo taxtidan, daiZaxa sanatreli xmiT dedav! mswarfl mivarda magdanTan,
moexvia orive xeliT da mxurvaled dauwyo kocna. dedasa da Svils TqrialiT
mosdiodaT cremli, magram es cremli iyo sixarulisa, Svebisa da lxenisa.
aRmoCnda, rom pirvelis wlebis CabeWdilebani da Casaxulebani ki ar
gamqraliyvnen da ar waSliliyvnen qeTos gonebaSi, Turme Rrmad eZinaT,
damarxulni iyvnen misi saxsovris siRrmeSi, ZirSi, rogorc mcenaris Teslia
damarxuli miwaSi, da zevidan maT efarebaT mTeli aTis wlis nanaxi da
nacadi daRestanSi yofnis drosa.
am CasaxulebaTa daZvra da gamoRviZeba SeeZlo mxolod romelsame
Zliersa da Rrma CabeWdilebas, swored ise, rogorc mcenaris Tesls zeviT
amoiyvans xolme gamacocxlebeli mzis siTbo - sinaTle. amisTana mzeebrivi
281
CabeWdilebis moxdena qeTos gonebaSi SesZlo mxolod samSoblo xmam,
sabavSvo simReram iavnanam, romelic yvelaze ufro Rrmad hqonda qeTos
Zvalsa da rbilSi gamjdari.
ukeT gvamaxsovrdeba is, rac Cvens interess iwvevs.
emociurad
amaRlebul mdgomareobaSi xandaxan, iseTi ram amotivtivdeba mexsierebidan,
romelic TiTqos didi xania daviwyebulia. mexsierebisaTvis aucilebalia
motivacia. adamiani romelic Tvlis rom, ucxo enis Seswavla ar SeuZlia, Tu
moxvdeba ucxo qveyanaSi, gamouval situaciaSi, aucileblad da uproblemod
iswavlis enas. mexsierebis
SesaZleblobebi usazRvroa. iTvleba rom, zrdasrul adamians SeuZlia
20-dan 100 000-mde sityvis damaxsovreba. Tumca arseboben adamianebi romelTac
aqvT universaluri mexsiereba. al. makedonelma misi yvela momris saxeli
icoda, unston CerCilma TiTqmis zepirad icoda Seqspiris mTeli Semoqmedeba,
bil geitss zepirad axsovs asobiT komputeruli kodi.
saSualod adamiani iyenebs sakuTari mexsierebis ara umetes 10%-s.
danarCeni Zala ki ikargeba, radgan Cven ar SegviZlia (an ar vindomebT)
mexsierebis bunebrivi kanonebis gamoyeneba. es kanonebi ki sruliad martivia
mag: STabeWdileba, ganmeoreba da a. S.
maS ase, Tu Tqven gsurT raime daimaxovroT, pirvel rigSi amisaTvis
saWiroa yuradReba movikriboT da miviRoT STabeWdileba. amisaTvis
gamoviyenoT ara mxolod vizualuri aRqma, aramed Sexeba da xmac. vizualuri
STabeWdileba yvelaze myaria. nervebi, romlebic Tvalsa da tvins akavSirebs
ocjer sqelia, vidre tvinisa yuris damakavSirebeli nervebi. mark tvens ar
SeeZlo sakuTari gamosvlebis damaxsovreba, sanam igi iyenebda Canawerebs.
magram roca man dasamaxsovreblad gamoiyena naxatebi, mas es problema
moexsna. mexsierebis meore kanoni-gameoreba. uamravma studentma icis zepirad
saswavlo wigni, xSiri gameorebis xarjze. da bolos mesame kanoni-asociacia.
erTaderTi SesaZlebloba, saimedod daimaxsovroT faqti, daakavSiroT raime
sxvasTan. gairkva rom, adamiani uneblied yovelives ki ar imaxsovrebs, aramed
imas, rac mWidro kavSirSia mis pirovnebasa da moqmedebasTan.
arsebobs mosazreba TiTqos gulmaviwyoba cudi mexsierebis niSania,
magram es ase araa. ubralod aseTi adamianebi garTulni arian sakuTari
fiqrebiT. xSirad mexsierebis darRvevas mivyavarT uyuradRebobamde, romelic
gamowveulia, magaliTad gadaRlilobiT, an im situaciiT romelSic imyofeba
adamiani.
mecnierbis azriT bavSvis Canasaxs mexsiereba 20 kviris Semdeg
uviTardeba. testebis dros dedis muclidan Canasaxisken gzavnidnen xmovan
signals, romelic nayofs esmoda. Semdeg ultra bgeriTi skaneriT
akvirdebodnen,embrionis reaqcias. aRmoCnda rom, Canasaxi reagirebda xmazeiwyebda tanis da fexebis moZraobas. marTalia, yoveli me-5 signalis mere igi
eCveoda am xmas da aRar reagirebda, magram 10 wuTis an 2-3-dRiani pauzis
Semdeg gagzavnil imave xmovan signals. mSvenivrad cnobda. mecnierebi Tvlian
rom, adamians SeuZlia gaixsenos, ra xdeboda mis Tavs, roca jer kidev dedis
mucelSi ijda. 2. gv. 168
yvelaze aqtiuri mexsiereba aris bavSvobisa da mozardobis asakSi,
282
rodesac Tavis tvinSi xdeba axali kavSirebis warmoqmna nervul ujredebs
Soris. swored amitom aris rom bavSvebi ase advilad iTviseben axal
informacias. mexsierebis aqtiuroba ganisazRvreba swored imiT, Tu ramdenad
advilad imaxsovrebs adamiani axals.
Cveulebriv axali informaciis daqveiTeba iwyeba daaxloebiT 60-65 wlis
Semdeg. es normaluri daberebis procesis amsaxvelia da rogorc wesi,
adamians yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi xels ar uSlis. xandazmuli adamianisaTvis
tipiuria is, rom maT naklebad amaxsovrdebaT axali informcia, magram Zalian
kargad axsovT ganvlili cxovrebis Tundac didi xnis winandeli faqtebi.
arsebobs mosazreba rom, Civilebi mexsierebis gauaresebaze matulobs
40 wlis asakis Semdeg. sinamdvileSi es ase sulac araa. ubralod
aqtiuri Seswavlis periodis Semdeg, iklebs swavlis unaris SesaZlebloba da
mexsiereba detrenirebis
stadiaSia. es xdeba imis gamo rom tvins da
Sesabamisad mexsierebas aRar aqvs samuSao da is dundeba. axla zogierT
qveyanaSi pensiaze gasvlis Semdeg, adamianebi abareben universitetebSi da
axalgazrdebze aranakleb Sedegianad abareben gamocdebs Tumca aseTi
SemTxvevebi iSviaTia.
zogjer axalgazrdebSic vxvdebiT mexsierebis daqveiTebas.
ra aris
amis mizezi? mexsierebis daqveiTebis mravali mizezi arsebobs, magaliTad
raime daavadeba an arajansaRi cxovrebis wesi: alkoholis Warbi raodenoba,
narkotikebi, samedicino preparatebis arasaTanado gamoyeneba.
saerTod yvelafris damaxsovreba SeuZlebelia. daviwyebis unars
udidesi roli aqvs adamianis mexsierebisaTvis. tvini unda ganTavisufldes
gamousadegari
da
arasaWiro
STabeWdilebebisagan.
mexsiereba
Tavad
aregulirebs Tavis tvirTs, emzadeba axali tvirTis misaRebad. amis Sedegad
Zveli infrmacia sulac ar qreba, aramed atiuri mexsierebidan gadadis
pasiurSi.
mexsierebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi mexsierebas ganagebs Tavis
tvinis limbruli sistema, romelic hipokamps, Talamuss, hipoTalamuss da
Tavis tvinis Sublis nawils aerTianebs. swored am ubnebSi ganviTarebuli,
paTologiuri cvlilebebi iwvevs mexsierebis moSlas, amnezias. amnezias
ganapirobebs aramarto Tavis tvinis travma,
aramed Tavis tvinSi sisxlis
mimoqcevis
mwvave
moSlac_insultic.
aseT
SemTxvevaSi
mexsierebis
daqveiTebasTan erTad irRveva metyveleba, viTardeba dambla, zogjer
pacients aviwydeba wera, kiTxva, ver cnobs asoebs, cifrebs, aviwydeba im
droisaTvis aqtiuri enebi. axsovs mxolod mSobliuri. amis naTeli magaliTia
yvelasTvis kargad cnobili qarTuli filmi fesvebi
swored mexsiereba
aZlevs adamians saSualebas iyos is, rac aris, imoqmedos garemomcvel
samyaroSi, Seimecnos sakuTari me.
imaze, Tu ra SeiZleba daemarTos siyvaruls amneziiT, moTxrobilia
frangi
fsiqologis
ribos
wignSi.
normaluri
da
daavadebuli
mexsiereba__erT axalgazrda qals romelsac Zalian uyvarda qmari,
mSobiarobis dros hqonda xangrZlivi gulyra, ris Semdegac absoluturad
dakarga yovelgvari mogoneba Tavis col-qmrul cxovrebaze. gaTxovebamdeli
cxovreba mSvenivrad axsovda, magram qmars ver ixsenebda. SemdgomSi man veRar
283
moigona rom hyavda qmari da Svili. mSoblebi da axloblebi umtkicebdnen
rom gaTxovili iyo. bolos mandaijera es yvelaferi mxolod imitom, rom
misTvis ufro ioli iyo
efiqra,
mTeli
wlis
mexsiereba
davkargeo,
vidre
is
rom
yvelaaxlobeli
tyuiso. am dajerebaSi aranair monawileobas ar iRebda, arc misi
Sinagani
rwmena da arc cnobiereba. igi xedavda qmars da bavSvs da ar
esmodarogor SeiZina isini. 1. gv. 115
aris, kidev erTi aseTi SemTxveva, cnobili fsiqologis a. lurias TavSi
daWrili pacienti l. zasecki gaxda gaunaTlebeli: da uceb me damaviwyda
yvela aso da ar SemiZlia maTi xelaxla daxsomeba. ar vijerebdi sakuTar
Tavs, rom uceb uwignuri gavxdi. rom me damaviwyda yvela aso...
me gadaveCie fanqris xmarebas: vatrialeb xelSi aqeT-iqiT da verafriT
ver vaxerxeb weris dawyebas...
udidesi aRmoCena, romelic gaakeTa TavisTvis l. zaseckimda ramac
Caayrna igi mwyobrSi, isev da isev mexsierebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. werisas,gviambobs l. zasecki-Tavidan saqme zustad ise wavida, rogorc kiTxvisas, e.i.
me didxaans ver movigone asoebi, maSin roca meCveneboda, TiTqos vicodi
isis~ni. magram uceb, mecadineobis dros profesori momiaxlovda, gamiRima da
mTxova, damewera ara aso-aso, aramed erTbaSad, xeli ar ameRo. ramdenjerme
CasvekiTxe, ra gamekeTebina da gavimeore sityva sisxli. bolos da bolos
aviRe fanqari da swrafad davwere sisxli. Tumc TviTonve aRar maxsovda, ra
savwere, radgan sakuTari naweris wakiTxva ar SemeZlo.
da man daiwyo wera!_wamoiZaxa saerTod ase TavSekavebulma a. luriam._is
ubralod werda, werda pirdapir , daufiqreblad, is werda... 1. gv. 113-114
raRacis daxsomeba SeiZleba swrafad da nela, bevris da mciresi. ra
Tqma unda saukeTeso mexsierebis mqoned Tvlian imas vinc ixsomebs swrafad
da bevrs. daxsomebulis Senaxva, ra Tqma unda yvelas erTnairad ainteresebs,
yvelas unda udanakargod Seinaxos yvelaferi. kargi mexsiereba isaa rom
swrafad da bevri daixsomo, didxans Seinaxo da zustad da droulad
aRadgino. albaT samyaros aRqmasac Taviseburi, sakuTari mexsiereba sWirdeba.
cxovrobda erTi adamiani,
romelsac absoluturi mexsiereba hqonda.
iyo Tu ara is bednieri? igi muSaobda erT-erTi gazeTis reportiorad.
redaqtorma miaqcia yuradReba, rom dilaobiT rodesac yvela mTeli dRis
ganrigs iwerda,
is arxeinad ijda. redaqtorma ifiqra saqmes ugulod
ekidebao da usayvedura. reportiorma iolad da Seucdomlad gaimeora mTeli
dRis ganrigi. ai, ase, jer kidev Cveni saukunis ocian wlebSi Sexvdnen S.
da im droisaTvis axalgazrda fsiqilogi a. luria, romelmac ukve Cvens
dReebSi dawera Tavis saocar pacientze patara wigni did mexsierebaze
me,__mogviTxrobs
a.
luria__Sevudeqi
S-sgamokvlevas
fsiqologisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli cnobismoyvareobiT, magram arc Tu didi imedebiT rom, cdebi
mogvcemdnen raime yuradsaRebs, magram pirvelive cdebma Secvala Cemi
damokidebuleba. Sevcbundi da sagonebelSi Cavvardi...
mravalricxovani cdebis mere iZulebulni gaxdnen eRiarebinaT, rom misi
284
mexsierebis moculobas mkafio zRvari ar qonda. praqtikulad usazRvro
aRmoCnda gamZleobac, is uSecdomod aRadgenda sityvaTa grZel sias, maTi
mosmenidan 15-16 wlis mere.
amdagvar SemTxvevebSi , igonebs a. luria, S.
jdeboda , xuWavda Tvalebs, Seyovndeboda, Semdeg ki ambobda: diax, diax... es
iyo Tqvens binaSi... Tqven ijeqiT magidasTan, me ki sarwevela skamSi... yvelas
nacrisferi kostiumebi ecva da miyurebdnen me ase... ai... me vxedav, ras
meubnebodiT Tqven da amas mosdevda mravali
wlis winaT mosmenili sityvaTa rigis uSecdomo aRdgena. 1. gv. 121 Tumca
dRes ukve cnobilia rom, mexsierebis darRvevebi uviTardebaT SedarebiT
axalgazrdebsac da amJamad kvlevis Tanamedrove meTodebze dayrdnobiT,
neiromecnierebi Tanxmdebian imis Taobaze rom mexsierebis dakargva aris
daavadeba romelic azianebs Tavis tvins 30-40 wlis asakidan, manamde sanam
Tavs iCens alchaimeris daavadebis pirveli simptomebi.
gvinda SevCerdeT am bolo xanebSi gavrcelebul daavadeba alchaimerze,
mexsierebis
gauaresebis
zogierTi
forma
calsaxad
biologiuri
warmoSobisaa. asakovani adamianebi, romlebic alchaimeris daavadebiT arian
daavadebulni, TandaTanobiT kargaven mexsierebas da xasiaTdebian pirovnebis
degradaciiT. es daavadeba aReniSneba 65 wels gadacilebul amerikelTa
daaxloebiT 10%-s, romelTagan daaxloebiT naxevari 85 welze metisaa.
alchaimeris daavadeba erTi SexedviT uwyinarad iwyeba - adreul
stadiebze erTaderTi TvalsaCino simptomi SeiZleba mexsierebis gauareseba
iyos, Tumca, mis ganviTarebas Tan axlavs pirovnebis ganuxreli degradacia.
am daavadebis Semdgom stadiebze adamianebi SeiZleba srulad CaikeTon
sakuTar TavSi da uyuradReboni gaxdnen, mat SeiZleba daaviwydeT sakuTari
colis da Svilebis saxelebic ki. cxadia, rom mexsierebis aseTi gauareseba
gacilebiT safuZvliani da tragikulia, vidre mexsierebis xandazmukobisTvis
Cveuli gauareseba.
bolo xans did yuradRebas ipyrobs alchaimeris daavadeba, romelic
sakmaod gaaxalgazrdavda - ukve 45-dan 60 wlamdec ki vlindeba. es daavadeba
adamians ukargavs SromiT unars, swyvets gare samyaros. alchaimeris
daavadeba sWirda aSS-is yofil prezident ronald reigans, romelic bolo
wlebSi axloblebsac ki ver cnobda.
Tu ra iwvevda am daavadebas jerjerobiT ucnobia. am sakiTxze
msoflioSi uamravi mecnieri muSaobs. xolo alchaimeris daavadebis
mkurnaloba rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia, radgan daavadeba swrafad
progresirebs da jerjerobiT iseTi preparatic ar arsebobs, romelic
problemas sabolood moagvarebda. mkurnaloba umTavresad iqiT aris
mimarTuli, rom Tavis tvinis sisxliT da Sesabamisad JangbadiT momarageba
gaumjobesdes.
mexsierebas asustebs agreTve stresi, gadaRla, Tavis travma, zogierTi
wamali (gansakuTrebiT - tkivilgamayuCeblebi da sedaciuri preparatebi),
mudmivi dieta, umravles SemTxvevaSi mexsierebis gaumjobeseba SesaZlebelia.
adre iTvleboda rom zrdasrul adamians tvinis neironebi aRar iyofoda da
nel-nela kvdeboda, magram armoCnda rom es ase ar aris. kvlevis Sedegebi
adasturebs rom, neironebi iyofa 70 wlis asakSic ki. axla mecnierebi Tvlian
285
rom, mexsierebis asakobrivi dasusteba, ara neironebis daRupvis, aramed maT
Soris kontaqtis darRvevis bralia rCevebi mexsierebis gaumjobesebisaTvis.
mexsiereba rom wesrigSi gvqondes, unda movuaroT, vavarjiSoT, Torem
mas Jangi edeba da Clungdeba. mexsierebisTvis sasargebloa
sufTa haerze didxans yofna
1)
fizikuri varjiSi,
2)
Zili aranakleb 8 saaTisa,
3)
yoveldRiuri kiTxva,
4)
kargi ganwyoba da sicili,
5)
iareT gamofenebze,
6)
koncertebze,
7)
imogzaureT,
8)
mexsierebas agreTve aumjobesebs musika, gansakuTrebiT ki klasika,
9)
bevri ikiTxeT,
10)
erideT stressa da uZilobas.
mexsierebis gaumjobesebas agreTve xels uwyobs xorci, Tevzi da zRvis
produqtebi, yveli da rZis produqtebi, marcvlovani kulturebi (lobio,
barda, xorbali, wiwibura da sxv.), Tafli.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1)
kolominski i., saubari fsiqikis saidumloebebze; Tbilisi, 1983 w.
(rusulidan naTargmni)
2)
nargiziSvili m. praqtikuli fsiqologia, Tbilisi, 2011 w
3)
http://ucnauri.com/
4)
http://www.ambioni.ge/rogor-gaviumjobesot-mexsiereba
Memory Mysteries
Khatia Melikishvili
Lana Sharashidze
Resume
The work speaks about memory – one of the psychic processes. The normal living process of
the human being is somehow depended on the normal mental ability. The work discusses the main
peculiarities of human being’s memory. Interesting cases of amnesia (form of mental pathologies) are
given. Recently widely-spread disease - as pathology of mental violation is discussed.
Finally, the work gives some recommendations for improving mental abilities.
286
daltonizmi, rogorc fsiqo-fiziologiuri fenomeni
marika miqava
saswavlo universiteti “rvali”
dawyebiTi ganaTlebis fakulteti
izolda buxuleiSvili
pedagogikis doqtori, profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
daltonizmi mxedvelobis erT-erTi sakmaod gavrcelebuli naklia,
romlis drosac adamiani ver arCevs erTmaneTisgan zogierT fers, metwilad
wiTelsa da mwvanes. es aris nawilobrivi feriTi sibrmave. feriTi sibrmavisa
da daqveiTebuli feriTi mxedvelobis mqone adamianebi garesamyaros Cvengan
gansxvebulad aRiqvamen, magram xSirad ver xvdebian amas. es imitom, rom
daltonizis mqoneni bavSvobidanve swavloben maT garSemo arsebuli sagnebis
ferebisTvis sazogadod miRebuli saxelwodebis darqmevas. maT gamudmebiT
esmiT da imaxsovreben, rom balaxi mwvanea, ca - lurji, sisxli - wiTeli.
garda amisa, SenarCunebuli aqvT ferebis simkveTris mixedviT garCevis
unaric.
1974 wels ingliselma fizikosma jon daltonma msoflios ganucxada,
rom zogierTi adamiani, mis msgavsad, dabadebidan nawilobrivi feradi
sibrmaviT itanjeba. 1, 71 jon daltonma pirvelma aRwera feradi ibrmavis es
forma, amitom am daavadebas saxeli swored jon daltonis pativsacemad
ewoda. Tavad daltoni ver aRiqvamda wiTel fers, magram Tavisi feradi
sibrmavis Sesaxeb 26 wlamde araferi icoda. mas sami Zma da sami da hyavda. am
sami Zmidan ori aseve ver arCevda wiTel fers. daltonma dawvrilebiT aRwera
Tavisi ojaxis feradi sibrmave wignSi, romelic 1794 wels gamoaqveyna. swored
am publikaciis Semdeg gaCnda termini "daltonizmi", romelic ara mxolod am
konkretuli formis, aramed sazogadod feradi sibrmavis aRmniSvnel sityvad
iqca. ferad sibrmaves specialuri poliqromatuli cxrilebis saSualebiT
adgenen. am cxrilebiT mxedvelobis Semowmeba SeiZleba okulistTan, ukidures
SemTxvevaSi - internetis saSualebiTac specialur saitebze. poliqromatuli
cxrilebi Sedgeba feradi tabulebisagan, romlebzec gamosaxulia sxvadasxva
feris cifrebi, wertilebi da geometriuli figurebi. daltonizmiT
daavadebuli adamiani ver arCevs am tabulebze gamosaxul ferad cifrebs misTvis es suraTi erTferovania. magram rogor davadginoT, sWirs Tu ara
daltonizmi bavSvs, romelic jer kidev ver cnobs cifrebsa da geometriul
figurebs? amaSi umartivesi testebi dagvexmareba. daltonizmi unda vieWvoT,
Tu bavSvi:
1. ferebs arasworad asaxelebs, gansakuTrebiT - wiTels, mwvanesa da
lurjs;
2. arasworad aferadebs suraTebs, magaliTad xis tans Savad xatavs,
balaxs ki yavisfrad;
3. bac vardisfer da bac mwvane nivTebs TeTrs uwodebs;
4. erT ferSi xedavs mowiTalo da momwvano nivTebs;
5. erTmaneTSi urevs narinjisfersa da bac mwvanes an muq mwvanesa da
287
mkafio wiTels.
mecnierebma safuZvlianad gamoikvlies daltonizmis gamomwvevi mizezebi.
Tvalis baduris agebulebis Seswavlisas specialistebma daadgines, rom is
centaluri nervuli sistemis gareT gamotanil modificirebul Tavis tvinis
qerqs warmoadgens. baduraze 132 milioni receptoruli ujredia, isini
SuqmgrZnobiare elementebis rols asruleben. 125 milioni Cxiri sinaTlis
miRebas da gamosaxulebis kontrastulobas uzrunvelyofs, 7 milioni kolba
ki yvela ferad niuanss iWers, Cxirebi kolbaze metad mgrZnobiarea da mcire
ganaTebis pirobebSic funqcionirebs. speqtris yvelaze did nawils wiTeli
kolbebi
Seadgenen
(Seicaven
yvela
Seferilobas
alisferidan
narinjisferamde);
saSualos
mwvane (zurmuxtisferidan yviTlamde);
mokles
lurji
(cisferidan iisferamde)
yvela erTad ki ferebs
astimulirebs. romelime erTi tipis fotoreceptorebis funqciis darRvevisas
yvela danbarCeni feris aRqmac icvleba. es imiT aixsneba, rom wiTeli,
mwvane
da
lurji kolbebi erTmaneTTan mWidrodaadakavSirebuli, (erTi
feris gaqrobiTac ki samyaro sruliad sxvagvarad iRebeba) 1, 71-72 eseigi,
arsebobs sami tipis kolba, romlebic Seicaven cilovan pigmentebs da
uzrunvelyofen ZiriTadi ferebis aRqmas. daltonizmiT daavadebulebi ki
ganicdian erTi, ori an samive pigmentis ararsebobas. pigmentis tipis mixedviT
ganasxvaveben daltonizmis sam formas:
1. triTanopia - iSviaTi SemTxvevaa. am dros yvela feri aRiqmeba rogorc
- wiTeli da mwvane.
2. proTanopia - am dros adamiani wiTel fers ver aRiqvams. wiTeli feri
erwymis muq mwvanes da muq yavisfers, mwvane - Ria nacrisfers. (mxedvelobis
swored es defeqti hqonda daltons. es adamianebi samyaros rux da Waobisfer
- yavisfer gamebSi xedaven. sayvareli qalis Rawvebze jansaRi vardisferi,
maTTvis mwvane laqebad aRiqmeba.)
3. deiteranopia - mwvane feri ereva Ria stafilosfers da Ria
vardisfers. wiTeli-mwvanes da Ria yavisfers.
daltonizmi - sakmaodgavrcelebuli darRvevaa, sadac Tvali ver
aRiqvams, erT an ramodenime ZiriTad fers. es aris memkvidreobiTi daavadeba,
romelic gamowveulia -qromosomis defeqtiT. aris SemTxvevebi rodesac
daltonizmi gamowveulia Tvalis an nervis dazianebiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom
mamakacebs qalebTan SedarebiT 20-jer xSirad gamouvlindebaT es daavadeba.
rogorc wesi umetesoba daltonikebisa ver arCevs romelime erT fers
magaliTad: wiTels, mwvanes an lurj-iisfers. aris SemTxvevebi rodesac ver
arCevs or fers erTad an ver arCevs vercerT fers. daltonikebi fers
aRiqvamen rogorc nacrisfers.
erTxel erT mxatvars uCveulo ambavi SeemTxva - man mdidari
damkveTisaTvis
pol gogenis cnobili naxatis asli Seqmna. damkvaTma
namuSevari daiwuna, radgan gogenis tilo wiTel ferebSi iyo Sesrulebuli,
asli ki yavisferSi. gamoirkva, rom mxatvars darRveuli hqonda ferebis aRqma.
imis miuxedavad, rom es defeqti mas Zvirad daujda, misma namuSevarma saxeli
mainc gaiTqva. ofTalmologebi am suraTs xSirad daltonizmis gamosavlen
klasikur testad iyeneben. Tumca, aseTi testis Sedegi yovelTvis
ar
288
gamodgeba daltonizmis dasadastureblad.
eqimebi amtkiceben, rom zRvis
avadmyofobiT daavadebulni, droebiT daltonikebic xdebian. igive SeiZleba
moxdes TviTmfrinaviT, avtomobiliT mgzavrobisas, atraqcionze xanrZlivad
yofnisas. ferebisadmi mgrZnobelobis daqveiTeba saerTo da mxedvelobiT
gadaRlas ukavSirdeba. am dros TiTqos yvelaferi erTmaneTs erwymis
TvalebSi cimcimebs. daRlilobis mosaxsnelad naxatebis galereas unda
vewvioT, reproduqciebis albomi unda davaTvalieroT. kargia e.w. magiuri
suraTebis daTvaliereba, roca uamrav ferad wertilSi mxatvris mier
Camalul gamosaxulebas veZebT.
SeiZleba xelsaqmesac mivmarToT,feradi
Zafebis daxarisxebis drosac ki ferebisadmi mgrZnobelobas vavarjiSebT.
varjiSis Semdeg daRliloba ixsneba da SeiZleba normaluri viTarebis
aRdgena. 1, 71
Cveni sicocxle Cvens grZnobis organoebzea damokidebuli, ufro
sworad, im informaciaze, romelsac isini agroveben CvenTvis Cvens irgvliv
arsebuli sagnebis feris, sunis, gemos, xmis da sxva TvisebaTa Sesaxeb.
dadgenilia, rom mxedvelobis organo, Tvali, yvelaze met informacias krebs
- es informacia yvela grZnobis organos mier Sekrebilis 67,8%-s Seadgens.
mas smenis organo - yuri mosdevs. mis mier Segrovili informaciis wili
21,2%-ia. SexebiT informaciis 7,1%-s viRebT, ynosviT - 2,2,%-s, xolo gemovnebis
organoTi - 1,7%-s. magram yvela iseTad ver aRiqvams samyaros, rogoric is
sinamdvileSia - mraval adamians dazianebuli aqvs grZnobis organoTa
funqciebi. grZnobis organoTa dazianebis gansazRvruli nawili ki genetikuri
faqtorebiT aris gamowveuli. am organoTa normaluri muSaoba aTasobiT
genis normalur funqciobazea damokidebuli, dazianebuli geni ki darRvevebs
iwvevs,
rac
sabolood
organos
funqciobaze
aisaxeba.
daltonizmi
mxedvelobis defeqtia. es "feradi sibrmave" memkvidreobiT gadaecema.
daltonizmiT msoflioSi mamakacTa 2-8% da qalTa 0,5%-ia daavadebuli.
daltonizmi ferebis aRqmis darRveviT vlindeba. daavadebuli ver arCevs erT
an ramdenime fers,
anu mokled rom davaxasiaToT,
daltonizmi aris
mxedvelobis nakli, kerZod, nawilobrivi feriTi sibrmave, romlis drosac
adamiani erTmaneTisgan ver ganasxvavebs zogierT fers, metwilad - wiTelsa
da mwvanes. zogierTs ki ar SeuZlia yviTeli feri lurjisgan ganasxvaos.
daltonizmi bolo dromde ganukurnebel senad miaCndaT, magram 2009
wels amerikelma mecnierebma SeZles, genuri inJineriis meTodebiT ganekurnaT
daltonizmisgan samxreT amerikaSi gavrcelebuli maimunebis erT-erTi
saxeobis, Cveulebrivi saimiris, warmomadgenlebi. maimunis am saxeobis mamrebi
daltonizmiT arian daavadebulni. isini dabadebidan ver arCeven wiTel da
mwvane ferebs. maT baduraSi gamomuSavdeba mxolod ori saxis SuqmgrZnobiare
cila, srulyofili feradi mxedvelobisTvis ki, rogorc cnobilia, aseTi
sami saxis cilaa saWiro. amerikelma mecnierebma am saxeobisori mamri
Tandayolili daltonizmisgan xelovnuri virusis saSualebiT gankurnes,
romelSic
Canergili
iyo
adamianis
mesame
SuqmgrZnobiare
cilis
masinTezebeli geni. es genmodificirebuli virusebi ineqciis saSualebiT
SehyavdaT maimunebis TvalebSi da Semdgom maTi mxedvelobis cvlilebebs
akvirdebodnen. maimunebma wiTeli feris garCeva virusis ineqciidan me-16
289
kviras daiwyes. kidev oTxi kviris Semdeg mxedveloba swrafad da
radikalurad gaumjobesda. amerikel mecnierTa mier miRebul Sedegs udidesi
praqtikuli
mniSvneloba
aqvs:
adamianSi,
iseve
rogorc
am
maimunebSi,daltonizmi gamowveulia Tvalis baduraSi SuqmgrZnobiare cilebis
ararsebobiT, am eqsperimentma ki daadastura, rom daltonizmis genetikuri
koreqcia SesaZlebelia.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
gvelesiani z. daltonikebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli fiziologiuri
Taviseburebebis swavlebisaTvis, Jurnali sazrisi
22
Tbilisi
2006.
2.
http://daltoniki01.blogspot.com/
3.
http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge/skhvadaskhva/genetika/2005-2010-07-01-10-24-27.html
4.
http://allmed.ge/darrvevebi/
Resume
Marika Mikava
Daltonism as Psycho-Physiological Phenomenon
The work speaks about the lack of vision – daltonism. The history of the word ―daltonism‖ is
explained. Physiological peculiarities of people with daltonism are described. Caused reasons of
daltonism are analysed and some intersting histories about them are given.
Религия- форма общественного сознания
Кязымзаде Рафик, Бодурова Севда, Гусейнова Моминат
[email protected], sevda [email protected], [email protected]
Рук. И. Бухулеишвили
Сегодня всѐ чаще можно услышать о провокациях или столкновениях людей на
религиозной основе. В канун христианских праздников все чаще звучат взрывы в православных
храмах – в Египте и Ингушетии. В свою очередь это вызывает недовольство и беспорядки со
стороны христианского населения. Но почему-то мало кто пытается докопаться до сути и
выяснить, кому в действительности выгодна эта вражда, и кто является истинным зачинщиком
и организатором тех событий… В каждой современной религии, к сожалению, имеет место
нетерпение к людям другой веры, переходящее во вражду. Но всѐ это дела людские, и к
истинной вере не имеющие ни малейшего отношения. Не секрет, что сегодня кому-то очень
выгодно руками радикальных исламистов развязывать вражду между самыми популярными
мировыми религиями –исламом и христианством, ведь таким образом они втягивают в этот
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конфликт максимальное число людей, на что, по-видимому, и рассчитано. Их глашатаи
убеждают мусульман в том, что якобы сам Пророк Мухаммед призывал на «войну с
неверными», коими в их трактовке являются все, кто не исповедует Ислам. На этом и держится
страх правоверного мусульманина, считающего чуть ли не целью своей жизни войну с
неверными. Но если вдуматься – за этим страхом лишь навязанная кем-то иллюзия, попросту
пустота. Действительно ли Пророк Мухаммед призывал убивать всех, кто не придерживается
традиций Ислама, так как это пытаются представить «толмачи» Корана? Давайте обратимся к
официальной истории. До наших дней сохранился документ, продиктованный Мухаммедом, в
котором перечисляются обязанности мусульман по защите христиан, живущих среди них.
Документ носит название «Обещание монастырю св. Катерины». В 628 г. делегация из
монастыря св. Катерины пришла к Пророку Мухаммеду и попросила его защиты. Он в ответ
предоставил им перечень прав, которые выборочно приводятся ниже: «Это послание от
Мухаммеда, сына Абдуллы, пусть будет соглашением с принявшими Христианство, далеко или
близко, мы с ними. Поистине я, помощники и мои последователи защищают их, потому что
христиане – наши сограждане, и по воле Аллаха я выступаю против всего, что может их
обидеть… …Никто не разрушит дом их религии и не повредит его и не унесет из него ни
единой вещи в жилища мусульман… …Никто из мусульман не должен нарушать это
соглашение до самого Судного дня» Здесь есть очень важные фразы, о которых, видимо,
забывают упомянуть те, кто планирует и развязывает провокации в православных храмах.
Не террактам в христианских церквях оказывается учил Пророк Мухаммед. Как сказал
профессор Муктедар Хан, возглавляющий отделение исламских наук в университете Делавера:
«Ключевые фразы в этом послании –первая и последняя. Они делают это обещание вечным и
универсальным. Мухаммед (мир ему) подчеркивает, что мусульмане – всегда рядом с
христианами, далеко или близко, что означает – это обещание касается не только монастыря св.
Катерины. Те, кто стремятся усилить разногласия между мусульманами и христианами,
обращают внимание на их расхождения и делают упор на зоны конфликта взглядов. Но когда
людям напоминают о таких вещах, как обещание Мухаммада христианам, это устраняет
разногласия и вдохновляет мусульман возвыситься над межобщинной нетерпимостью и
порождает добрую волю в христианах, которые, по-видимому, живут в страхе перед исламом
или мусульманами». Когда человек становится выше любых навязываемых кем-то разногласий,
он начинает понимать, что в какой бы стране он ни жил, к какой культуре бы не принадлежал,
всегда ценными остаются лишь его человеческие качества. Именно те, которые отличают нас
Людей от животных. Память о таких людях бережно храниться в сокровищнице каждого
народа, и такими людьми, по-видимому, и были Иисус, Мухаммед, Будда и другие истинно
Великие. Осознав это, быть может мы поймем, что ПРАВОверный и ПРАВОславный –слова
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одного корня Религия принадлежит к тем явлениям, которые сопровождают человечество и
человеческие отношения на всем пути их существования и трансформации .Религия является
одной из форм (наряду с философией, правом, искусством, наукой и др.) общественного
сознания (общественной жизни) социальных групп и личностей, с помощью которой люди
общаются (пытаются общаться) с реальностью, лежащей за пределами обыденного опыта и
представленной в голове человека в иллюзорно-фантастических образах и понятиях. Вопервых, религия — это специфическая форма общественного сознания (общественной жизни)
людей, имеющая собственные особенности и вызывающая своеобразные состояния психики
верующих Человечеству знакомо множество религий. Основные подходы к их классификации
также
многообразны.
Существуют
нормативные,
географические,
этнографические,
философские, морфологические, лингвистические и другие принципы ее классификации. Для
психологии важно классифицировать религии сразу по двум основаниям — по направленности
и географическому признаку, позволяющим четко обозначить и их специфику, и видимое
невооруженным глазом их одинаковое происхождение, сходство. Обычно различают религии:
• авраамического монотеизма (веры в единого Бога), вырастающие из древнего
иудаизма и включающие в себя иудаизм, христианство и ислам;
• индийского происхождения, представленные индуизмом, южным буддизмом
(тхеравада), джайнизмом и сикхизмом;
• дальневосточные — конфуцианство, даосизм, синтоизм, северный буддизм (махаяна)
.... Ислам (Islam) — монотеистическая (авраамическая) мировая религия. Слово «ислам» имеет
несколько значений, буквально переводится как мир. Другое значение этого слова — «предание
себя Богу» («покорность Богу»). В шариатской терминологии ислам — это полное, абсолютное
единобожие, подчинение Богу, Его приказам и запретам, отстранение от многобожия (ширка).
Людей, которые покорились Богу, в исламе называют мусульманами.
С
точки
зрения
Корана,
ислам
—
единственная верная религия человечества, еѐ
последователями
были
все
пророки.
В
окончательном виде ислам был представлен в
проповедях Пророка Мухаммада, получившего
сведения о новой религии в виде Божественного
Откровения. С точки зрения ислама, последователи древних пророков отошли от
первоначального пути, который был указан им Богом, a священные тексты древних книг
постепенно искажались. Каждый раз для обновления истинной веры (ислама) Господь
отправлял к разным народам своих посланников, в том числе Авраама, Моисея, Иисуса.
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Последним Посланником был Мухаммад, принесший человечеству ислам в окончательном
виде. По мнению ислама, после пророчества Мухаммада все предыдущие Законы были
отменены Богом, а их основные принципы были усовершенствованы и стали частью ислама.
Ислам — одна из мировых религий, возникшая в начале VII в. н.э. на Аравийском полуострове.
Бог ислама (Аллах) — бог воздаяния за дела, бог-судья. В отличие от христианства
ислам никогда не был религией угнетенных. В нем сформировалось жесткое представление о
власти и политической организации в обществе. Ислам оказался идеальной религиознополитической основой для централизованного государства и ведения военных действий против
его врагов. Ислам предписывает быть справедливым, воздавать за добродобром, за зло — злом,
быть щедрым, помогать бедным Христианство — одна из мировых религий, имеющая три
основные ветви: православие, католицизм и протестантство. Общим признаком, объединяющим
всех ее представителей, является вера в триединого Бога, а Иисус Христос при этом выступает
как Богочеловек, Спаситель мира. Главным источником христианского вероучения служит
Священное Писание — Библия, особенно ее вторая часть — Новый Завет. К основным
особенностям христианства относятся: единственный путь спасения — уход от испорченного,
греховного мира в себя, внутрь собственной личности; противопоставление плотским
удовольствиям строгого аскетизма, а высокомерию и тщеславию — сознательного смирения и
покорности, которые будут вознаграждены после наступления Царства Бо-жиего на земле.
Христианство провозглашает равенство всех людей как грешников, порождает у них надежду
получения свободы простым и понятным способом — через познание божественной истины,
которую принес на землю Христос, чтобы навсегда искупить все человеческие грехи и пороки.
Христианская апологетика утверждает, что в отличие от всех остальных религий мира
христианство не создано людьми, а дано человечеству Богом в готовом и законченном виде.
Литература:
1.
www.hristiansto.ru
2.
www. Energodar.net
3.
www. Whyislam.ru
Religion - a form of public consciousness
Kyazymzada Rafik, Bodurova Sevda, Guseynova Mominat
Summary
In article the special attention is emphasized distinction and the importance of two fundamental
religions – Islam of Christianity.
293
rac ufro berdeba, miT ufro gabeduli xdeba
daviT Crdileli
biznesis administrireba II kursi
TinaTin giorgaZe
[email protected]; Tel: 599772466
komunikaciis SesaZleblobebma sazogadoebaSi dRes-dReobiT globaluri
maStabebi
miiRo.
Aadamianebi
uamrav
wignebs
kiTxuloben
cxovrebis
ganmavlobaSi, SeuZlebelia yvela maTganis wakiTxva originlaSi, amitom
Targmanis xarisxs didi mniSvneloba eniWeba. mTargmenlma sworad unda
moaxerxos, ara mxolod Sinaarsis, aramed mwerlis ganwyobis, epoqis,
mocemuli realobis ise gadmocema, rom ar daamaxonjos originali.
sxvadasxva mwerals Tavisi damaxasiaTebeli weris manera aqvs, zogi advilad
gasagebia, zogi rTuli eniTaa dawerili, zogisTvis elitaruli enobrivi
kulturaa damaxasiaTebeli, zogisTvis ki bilwsityvaoba. Mmiuxedavad enis
codnisa, adamiani informaciis did nawils mSobliuri enis saSualebiT iRebs.
Tanamedrove msoflioSi normad iqca, ara mxolod mSobliuri, aramed ucxo
enis da Tanac ara erTis codna, magram mTagmneis roli, rogorc mediatoris,
kulturaTSoris komunikaciis sferoSi kvlav aqtualuria.
XX saukunis egzistencializmis gavlena da “absurdis” Teoriis kvali
tradiciul midgomebze igrZnoba. Gj. d. selinjeris romanSi “The Cather in the
Rye‖ “TamaSi Wvavis yanaSi”.
moTxroba atarebs aRsarebis xasiaTs da rogorc es aRsarebis dros
xdeba xolme, mTxrobeli holden kolfildi (mTxrobelis saxeli da gvari
modis frazidan “hold on caul field‖, “ar gamoxvide pirvandeli mdgomareobidan,
anu Cvilis mdgomareobidan”. savaraudoa, rom Cvili selinjeris gagebiT
ukavSirdeba qristes motivebs. rwmenis Tavisufleba ki iseTi ramaa, yvelas
rom aRelvebs, gansakuTrebiT liberaluri Riebulebis adamiaanebs) iZiebs
Tavis cxovbeas, romelic man gaacnobiera da aRsarebis bolos midis dadebiT
daskvnamde.
daumorCilebeli, meamboxe holden kolfildi meores mxriv mSiSara,
sevdiani magram mosiyvarule biWia, ar SeidZleba mkiTxveli gulgrili darCes
misi siyvarulis mimarT Tavis patara da fibiasadmi. is ver egueba
TvalTmaqcobasa da siyalbes “minda vidge cicabo mTis piras da daviWiro
yvela, vinc daRma daSvebas daiwyebs, Tu isini sirbiliT daeSvebian, verc ki
dainaxaven saiTken mieqanebian. Mme iq rogorRac unda aRmovCnde da isini
daviWiro”.
ZiriTadi WeSmariteba romanSi isaa rom holden kolfildi, es jer kide
bavSvuri sawyisi, cdilobs gaarkvios, rom am qveyanaze aris sikeTe da
siborote, WeSmariteba da samarTali. Hholdenis aRsareba kidev erTi
spiralia romanis xraxnisebur sistemaSi. Ees aris individualuri gza,
gaerkves pirovnebad Camoyalibebis da sxvebTan urTierTobiis labirinTSi.
294
Txrobis procesSi mTavari gmiri
sulierad yalibdeba, iZens
cxovrebiseul gamocdilebas, Tumca erTi SexedviT is tovebs uaryofiTi,
yvelafris uarmyofeli, adamianis STabeWdilebas, romelsac samarTlianoba
swyuria. moTxrobis bolo xazebze marTebulad Jrers maswavlebel antolinis
sityvebi:
“adamianuri moumwifeblobis niSani is aris, roca iswrafis vaJkacurad
Seewiros saqmes, xolo momwifebuli adamiani cdilobs mSvidad icxovros da
am saqmes emsaxuros”. (v. WilaZe)
“amaRlebuli miznisTvis Tavis dadeba umwifari kacis niSania, xolo
imave miznisTvis mdablad cxovreba-zdasrulis” (g. WumburiZe)
yuradRebas iqcevs is faqtic, rom romanSi movlenebi xdeba ara
realobaSi, aramed mTxrobelis qvecnobierebis gavliT. Ees Tavisebureba
fiqsirdeba romanis dasawyissa da boloSi.
romanis pirveli da bolo Tavi Zalian lakoniuria, Tumca ZiriTadi
movlenebi swored aq xdeba. sxva TaviseburebebTan erTad aRsaniSnavia wignSi
gamoyenebuli ena, Jargoni, intimuri scenebis aRwera, bilwvsityvaoba,
romelic
sxvadasxva
TargmanebSi
sxvadasxvanairad
Jrers
es
imazea
damokidebuli, Tu romel periods ekuTvnis Targmani da rogori cenzuris
pirobebSia
gamocemuli
o.
WeliZis
Targmani
ufro
akademiuri
da
literaturul enazea gadmoqarTulebuli, siTamame igrZnoba gia WumburiZis
TargmanSi mas saTauric sxva aqvs “kldis napirze, Wvavis yanaSi” Tumca es
ori saTauri rusul TargmanebSi gvxvdeba. rita-raiT-kovaliovam Tavisi
SesaniSnavi TargmaniT Tema daxura, magram mas moyva m. nemcovis Targmani,
romelsac aseve bevri Tayvanismcemeli hyavs.
romanis dasawyisSi mTxrobeli Tavis aRsarebas uwodeb: “madman
stuff‖,“iseTi feTiani ambavi minda giamboT” v.WilaZe “ra sibriyve gadamxda
Tavs” g. WumburiZe
romanSi uxvadaa sakamaTo frazebi, jobda maTi Targmna TavSekavebulad
Tu gabedulad. AalbaT jobda ise rogorc mas holdeni Tavis qvecnobierebaSi
gaifiqrebda. Aam frazebs wlebma siTamame Semata: ―got pretty run-down‖ ―that stuff
doesn’t interest me too much right now‖ ―I think I ever miss that goddam Maurice‖
“dekemberi idga, cioda-ZaRli ar gaigdeboda gareT wamoidgineT ra
susxi iqneboda im idiotur gorakze”. (v.WilaZe)
“axla dekemberi iyo da im dedaimasqnil goraze ise cioda, rogorc
dedabris ubeSi”. (g.WuburiZe)
“fexebze ar ekida” (v. WilaZe) “sul qinZze kidia (g. WumburiZe)
“kai TamaSi kia Cemma mzem” (v. WilaZe)
“TamaSi ara, is kide . . . gavkari egeT TamaSs”. (g. WumbiriZe)
295
“is oxeri morisic ki momenatra – meTqi” ((v. WilaZe)
“mgoni is viriSvili morisic ki maklia TvalSi” (g. WumburiZe)
yvela dros Tavisi damaxasiaTebeli fenomeni aqvs, isini ara mxolod
kulturis, aramed ideologiis matareblebi arian, amitom Targmans didi
mniSvneloba eniWeba, raTa ar dairRves balansi. romanSi Cans ideaTa
erTianoba. selinjers Tavmoyrili aqvs ZiriTadi Teoriebi sxvdasxva
mecinierebebidan rogoricaa: albaTobis Teoria, filosofia, XX saukuniis
Sua periodis literatura romelic ukavSirdeba post totalitarur
kulturas, amitom misi naSromi mravalmxriv sainteresoa mkiTxvelisaTvis da
TviT selinjerisTvisac, ratom gauCinarda selinjeri” Wvavis yanaSi” romanis
daweris Semdeg? . . .
gamoyenebuli literatura

“The Catcher in the Rye‖ by J.D Salinger

“TamaSi Wvavis yanaSi” vaxtang WilaZis Targmani

“kldis piras Wvavis yanaSi” gia Wanturias Targmani

“Над пропастью во ржи“Ритой Райт-Ковалевой

“Ловец на хлебном поле“ Максим Немцов

www.webground.su

www.ueje.nejp
Resume
David Chrdileli
Growing Older, Becomes Braver
Above written article is connected with the importance of well-known novel ―The Catcher in
the Rye‖ by J.D Salinger and the peculiarity of its language, ways of its Georgian translation and bold
attitude of expressing author’s feelings in foreign language.
296
mxatvruli narativis kvlevis Tanamedrove meTodologia
bedisa dumbaZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti
janjRava nino
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli profesori
E-mail:[email protected] Tel. 599 15-26-40
roca
vlaparakobT
Tanamedrove
humanitaruli
azrovnebis
translingvistur paradigmaze da am SemTxvevaSi vefuZnebiT r. bartis mier
SemoTavazebul terminologias, saWiroa pirvel rigSi gvqondes imis
ierTmniSvnelovani ganmarteba, Tu ras vgulisxmobT terminebiT `paradigma~
da `translingvistika~. swored am ori terminis mniSvnelobaTa sinTezi unda
iyos imis Teoriuli da meTodologiuri winapiroba, Tu rogor unda
xdebodes mxatvruli narativis analizi.
termini `paradigma~ nebismier SemTxvevaSi unda gagebul iqnas rogorc
imis maCvenebeli koncepti, Tu rogor xedavs esa Tu is mecnieruli
disciplina sakuTari kvlevis obieqts da ra miaCnia mas am obieqtis yvelaze
ufro arsebiT niSnad. magram, swored aqedan gamomdinare paradigmis koncepts
aqvs meTodologiuri aspeeqtic, anu gansazRvravs obieqtis kvlevis modussa
da mimarTulebas. Sesabamisad, roca vlaparakobT Tanamedrove lingvisturi
azrovnebis paradigmaze, unda gavmijnoT erTmaneTisagan am paradigmis ori
done _ metaparadigmuli da subparadigmuli doneebi. metaparadigmul doneze
unda vigulisxmoT, rom Tanamedrove lingvistika mTeli Tavisi arsebobis
ganmavlobaSi Tavis obieqts, anu enas xedavs semiotikurad, anu rogorc
niSnobriv movlenas, subparadigmul doneze ki icvleba enis semiotikuri
donis modusebi: sistemur-semiotikuri paradigmis SemTvevaSi mkvlevaris
yuradRebis centrSi eqceva ena rogorc sistema, momdevno anTropocentruli
paradigmis SemTxvevaSi ki aqcentirebulia sistemis aqtualizaciis Sedegi,
anu diskursi. amave dros, unda aRiniSnos, rom dReisTvis lingvistikaSi
dominirebs lingvokulturologiuri paradigma, anu is paradigma, romlis
farglebSi enis rogorc niSnobrivi polusi, anu sistemac da diskursic
Sinaganad
da
arsebiTad
ukavSirdeba
kulturas,
Sesabamisad
termin
`konotacias~, romelic wina paradigmebis periodSi gamoiyeneboda subieqturi
modalobis
gamosaxatavad,
eniWeba
lingvokulturologiuri
statusi.
kulturuli konotacia miuTiTebs ama Tu im enobrivi struqturis
mimarTebaze kulturasTan.
termini
`translingvistika~
ki
gulisxmobs
mTeli
humanitaruli azrovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel im Sinagan
romlis Tanaxmad es azrovneba efuZneba lingvistikas rogorc
niSnavs Semdegs: mTeli adamianuri sinamdvile danaxulia
danaxulia ena Tanamedrove lingvistikis metaparadigmul
diqotomiurad struqturirebul niSnobriv movlenas.
humanitaruli
azrovnebis
translingvisturi
297
paradigma
Tanamedrove
struqturas,
models, rac
ise, rogorc
doneze, anu
gulisxmobs
pirvel rigSi adamianuri sinamdvilis niSnobriv-diqotomiur xedvas da
swored es unda miviCnioT am paradigmis ^Teoriul aspeqtad. magram amgvari
Teoria, Tavis mxriv, gulisxmobs kvlevis iseT axal meTodologiasac,
rogoricaa interdisciplinaruli meTodologia;
Tanamedrove naratologia rogorc mxatvruli narativis Teoriuli
xedva, warmoadgens translingvistikis im sferos, romlis kvlevisas amave
dros unda xdebdodes mTeli im paradigmuli gzis gaTvaliswineba, romelic
gavlili
aqvs
Tanamedrove
lingvistikas
da
romelic
moiTxovs
interdisciplinarul midgomas, rac niSnavs Semdegs, erTis mxriv mxatvruli
narativi warmoadgens mxatvrul diskurss, anu mxatvrul-verbalur teqsts da,
Sesabamisad, misi kvleva unda daefuZnos im principebs, romlebic safuZvlad
edo yovel linvistur paradigmas. e.i. semiotikurobis. semiotikurobisa da
sistemurobis, anTropologizmisa da komunikaciurobis principebs. magram,
amave dros, mxatvruli narativis interdisciplinaruli kvleva gulisxmobs
erTdroulad imasac, rom igi unda miviCnioT (rogorc amas moiTxovs
lingvokulturulogiuri
paradigma)
mxatvruli
kulturis
rogorc
semiotikuri sistemis aqtualizaciad.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
Р. Барт. Лингвистика дискурса. in: Система моды. Статьи по семиотике культуры,
Москва, 2003.
Resume
Bedisa Dumbadze
Modern Methodology of Fiction Narrative Research
The report deals with the interpretation on the term proposed by R. Bart that is with
―translinguistics‖. It is supposed that this term should be given a paradigm interpretation both from
theoretical and methodological points of view. As for narratology it should be understood as one of the
domains of translinguistics.
298
sazogadoeba
ana mamulaSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli saswavlo universiteti seu
socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis fsiqologiis specialobis II kursi
maia kiknaZe
filosofiis akademiuri doqtori
,,adamiani qmnis sazogadoebas da sazogadoeba xdis adamians adamianad”
sociologiis TeoriaTa Soris mTavari sazogadoebis cnebaa. is yvela
sociologiur TemasTan SedarebiT zogadobis maRali xarisxiT gamoirCeva.
sociologiisaTvis
sazogadoebis
cnebas
imitom
aqvs
gansakuTrebuli
mniSvneloba, rom mis gagebazea damokidebuli sociologiis, rogorc mTliani
mecnieruli sistemis xasiaTi. Tanamedrove amerikeli sociologi neil
smelzeri Tavis wignSi ,,sociologia” ambobs, rom am sityvas yoveldRiur
metyvelebaSi yvelani Tavisuflad viyenebT, magram mecnierebisaTvis misi
ganmarteba dRemde didi Tavsatexia. mTavar siZneles ki sazogadoebis Sesaxeb
arsebuli mosazrebaTa simravle qmnis.
arsebobs sazogadoebis warmoSobis gansxvavebuli Teoriebi. erTis
mixedviT sazogadoeba adamians misca RmerTma. meores mixedviT sazogadoeba
bunebrivad
warmoiSva,
erTeuli
adamianebisagan
maTi
bunebrivi
moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad. mesameni ki Tvlian, rom sazogadoeba
adamianiTa Segnebuli moqmedebis Sedegia da igi ar aris xelovnuri
warmonaqmni. meoTxeni miiCneven, rom sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo adamianTa
Soris arsebuli konfliqtis mosagvareblad Seiqmna. jer kidev aristotele
SeniSnavda, rom sazogadoeba moqalaqeTa erTobliobaa, romelic sakuTari
arsebobisaTvis sakmarisia. hobsi, ruso da loki ambobdnen, rom sazogadoeba
kontraqtiT gaerTianebul adamianTa erTobaa. sociologiis mama konti
miiCnevda, rom sazogadoeba socialuri organizmis Semadgeneli elementebis
erTobliobaa.
tards
miaCnda,
rom
sazogadoeba
mimbaZvel
adamianTa
erTobliobaa. am yvelaferTan erTad sazogadoeba adamianTa urTierTobaa,
romelic mravalgvari SeiZleba iyos. amitom SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom
sazogadoeba urTierTobaSi myof adamianTa gaerTianebaa, romelic istoriuli
da kulturuli xasiaTis mqonea.
sazogadoeba
aris
adamianTa
specifiuri
urTierToba,
romelic
gaerTianebulia
istoriulad
Camoyalibebuli
urTierTkavSirisa
urTierTzemoqmedebis
formebiT.
sazogadoeba
xasiaTdeba
mdgradobiT,
mTlianobiT TviTganviTarebiT da socialuri Rirebulebebis, normebis
mocemulobiT, romlebic gansazRvraven adamianTa qcevas sazogadoebaSi. aseve
sazogadoebas axasiaTebs socialuri, samarTlebrivi, zneobrivi da sxva
299
urTierTobebis regulacias. sazogadoeba aris socialuri sistema, romelic
gamoirCeva:

ierarqiuloba

Riaoba

TviTregulacia

informaciuloba

TviTdeterminirebuloba

TviTorganizacia
sazogadoebis centraluri principia samarTlianoba. imisaTvis rom
miRweuli iqnas samarTlianoba, runda Sesruldes ori principi:

yvela adamiani Tanasworia

unda daexmaro Raribs da susts
adamians sWirdeba sazogadoeba TavdacvisaTvis. sazogadoebis arseboba
moiTxovs, socialuri ierarqiis arsebobas, Zalauflebas, Semosavlebs,
socialur statuss Soris. magaliTad ganasxvaveben umaRles klass, saSualo
klass da dabal klass. socialuri statusi aris individis mier dakavebuli
mdgomareoba, romelic ganisazRvreba ekonomikuri, politikuri, erovnuli,
asakobrivi
da
sxva
niSnebiT.
sazogadoebas
unda
SeeZlos
TviTregulaciarogorc unari SeinarCunos Sinagani mdgomareobis mdgradoba,
TviTkoordinaciis meSveobiT.
sazogadoeba adamianTa erToblivi cxovrebis Sedegad warmoSobili
sinamdvilea, Tumca erTad cxovreba sazogadoebis arsobriv niSans ar
warmoadgens, radganac erTad cxovreba biologiuri samyaros calkeul
warmomadgenelTaTvisac da a. S. Tumca adamianebisagan gansxvavebiT arcerTi
bunebrivi
erToba
Segnebuli
kavSiris
Sedegad
ar
aris
Seqmnili.
sazogadoebis specifikis gamomxatvelia termini sociumi. es imas niSnavs, rom
mxolod
adamianebi
arian
iseTi
arsebebi,
romlebic
erTmaneTTan
dakavSirebuli arian erToblivi cxovrebiTa da saqmianobiT, Segnebuli, myari,
aucilebeli da ganmeorebadi urTierTobebiT. sazogadoeba- e saris sociumi,
romelsac Sromis socialuri danawileba axasiaTebs. sazogadoebis cneba
adamianTa Tanacxovrebis kanonzomierebaTa gacnobierebas gulisxmobs. misi
interpretaciis araerTi paradigmaa cnobili sociologiaSI. paradigm or
umTavres kiTxvaze pasuxs gulisxmobs: ra aris sazogadoeba? ratom da rogor
icvleba is?
emil diurkemi- funqcionalisturi paradigm—is mixedviT, miuxedavad
imisa, rom sazogadoeba subieqtebis erTobliobaa, is obieqturi bunebis
matarebelia da raoden ucnauradac undamogeCvenoT, igi individebisagan
300
Seqmnili, magram maTgan damoukidebeli realobaa. is ufro metia vidre
individebisagan Seqmnili, magram maTgan damoukidebeli realobaa. is ufro
metia, vidre individTa ubralo jami. Cvens mier Seqmnili realoba, CvenTan
mimarTebaSi garegani da maiZUlebeli xasiaTis mqonea.misi arseboba win
uswrebs Cvens arsebobas: sazogadoeba arsebobda Cvenamde da Cvens Semdegac
iarsebebs. radganac is totaluri realobaa, mas Cvenze zemoqmedebis Zala
aqvs da Sesabamisad igi mimarTulebas Zlevs Cvens azrebs da moqmedebebs.
diurkemma daadgina, rom sazogadoebis mTlianobis uzrunvelyofa da
SenarCuneba misi Semadgeneli socialuri elementebis funqciis gareSe
SeuZlebelia. am azriT, sazogadoeba erT mTlianobad Sekruli sistemaa,
romlis yoveli elementi garkveuli funqciis matarebelia. Tundac iseTi
uaryofiTi movlena, rogoric danaSaulia, diurkemis mixedviT garkveuli
socialuri funqciis matarebelia.socialuri TvalsazrisiT igi ,,normaluri”
movlenaa, radganac mis gareSe sazogadoeba ar arsebobs. diurkemma isic
SeamCnia,
rom
tradiciul
sazogadoebasTan
SedarebiT
Tanamedrove
sazogadoeba naklebad zRudavs adamians, rac diurkems maincdamainc ar
moswons,
radganac
masSi
anomiis
saSiSroeba
imaleba.
tradiciuli
sazogadoeba meqanikuri solidarobis principzea agebuli, rac Sromis
danawilebasa da ekonomikuri saqmianobis specializaciaSi gamoixateba.
gerhard lenski- sociokulturuli paradigma: cnobili amerikeli
sociologis Gerhard lenskis Sromebi sxvadasxva tipia sazogadoebebs Soris
kolosaluri gansxvavebebis danaxvaSi gvexmareba. man ZiriTadi aqcenti im
cvlilebebze gadaitana, romelic sazogadoebaSi axali teqnologiebis
danergvas
moaqvs
Tan.
misi
azriT
socialuri
cvlilebebis
temps
teqnologiebi ganapirobeben, Sesabamisad sazogadoebis tipologiasac is
udevs safuZvlad. lenskim aCvena, rom axali teqnologiebi sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis siRrmeSSi aRwevs da mTlianad moicavs mas.
karl
marqsikonfliqtologiuri
paradigma:
konfliqtologiuri
paradigmis mixedviT, warmoeba da ekonomikuri faqtorebi sazogadoebis
arsebobisa da cvalebadobis ganmsazRrelni arian. Sesabamisad, sazogadoebis
istoria warmoebis, ekonomikis ganviTarebis istoriaa, is gansazRvravs
sazogadoebis da adamianis aramarto fizikur arsebobas, aramed sulier
cxovrebasac. marqsis mixedviT, yoveli sazogadoebis bazisze garkveuli
zednaSenia aRmarTuli, e.i. sazogadoebis politikuri, samarTlebrivi,
zneobrivi, kulturuli da a.S. Rirebulebani. bazisi adamianTa warmoebiTi
urTierTobebisa da sazogadoebis ekonomikuri wyobilebaa. sazogadoebas
warmoeba ganapirobebs, magram igi mTeli rigi konfliqtebis matarebelia.
konfliqtis wyaro ki socialuri uTanasworobaa, socialuri konfliqti
pirvel rigSi klasTa Soris brZolas gulisxmoba. marqsistuli Teoriis
mixedviT, kapitalizmi aramarto klasTa Soris brZolas aramed gaucxoebasac
gulisxmobs. amitom marqsisTvis miuRebelia. man gaucxoebis oTxi forma
gamoyo:1. Sromis procesisagan gaucxoeba; 2. Sromis produqtebisagan
gaucxoeba; 3. sxva muSebisagan gaucxoeba; 4. adamianis arsisgan gaucxoeba.
sazogadoebis tipebi:
arsebobs sazogadoebis ramdenime tipi. isini
301
erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian sakuTrebis formiT, dominanti socialuri
institutebiT, kulturiT, cxovrebis wesiTda materialuri warmoebis
saSvalebebis doniT. amrigad sazogadoebis ganviTarebis niSnebi mravalgvaria.
monadireTa
da
SemgrovebelTa
sazogadoeba:
yvelaze primitiuli
sazogadoebebi monadireobiTa da Semgrovebluri meurneobiT inaxaeven Tavs,
rac primitiuli iaraRebis gamoyenebas gulisxmobs. lenski miiCnevds adamianis
gaCenidan moyolebuli Zvw. XII aTaswleulamde yvela adamiani an monadire an
Semgrovebeli iyo. msgavsi sazogadoebebi kacobriobis istoriaSi mravlad
yofila da arian dResac. cxovrebis am wesis mimdevari adamianebisacxovrebel
adgils xSirad icvlian. sazogadoeba gvarovnul principzea agebuli. am
tipis sazogadoebis adamianebi erTmaneTisagan TiTqmis ar gansxvavdebian,
Tumca garkveuli asakobrivi genderuli Taviseburebebi aqac aris. ZiriTadi
saqmianobiT janmrTeli da SedarebiT axalgazrdebi arian dakavebuli.
genderuli upiratesoba, lenskis mixedviT, amgvar sazogadoebaSi arcerTi
sqesis warmomadgenels ar aqvs, erTaderTi adamiani vinc yvelas pativiscemas
imsaxurebs Samania.
miwadmoqmedTa da mesaqonleTa sazogadoeba: daaxloebiT 10-12 aTasi
wlis winaT momxdarma teqnologiurma cvlilebebma sazogadoebis formireba
gamoiwvia. adamianebma Sromis primitiuli iaraRebiT miwis damuSaveba da
mosavlis moyvana daiwyes, Tumca am saqmianobas mxolod adamianTa garkveulma
nawilma mihyo xeli, kerZod ki imaT romlebic nayofier miwaze cxovrobdnen,
xolo udabnosa da mTaSi mcxovreblebma ki cxovelebis moSinaureba daiwyes
da mesaqonleobas mihyves xeli. cxovelTa moSinaurebam da miwadmoqmedebam
produqtebis warmoeba sagrZnoblad gazarda, aman Tavis mxriv xelosnoba da
vaWroba ganaviTara.
agraruli
sazogadoeba:
agrokulturis
Camoyalibeba
guTnis
gamogonebasa da misi saSvalebiT xvna-TesvasTanaa dakavSiebuli. am faqts
lenski ,,civilizaciis gariJraJs” uwodebs. am droidan moyolebuli
msoflios mosaxleobis didi nawili sasoflo-saqmianobiT iyo dakavebuli,
Tumca mrewvelobac viTardeboda. agrokulturam sazogadoebaSi manmade
arsebuli genderuli balansi daarRvia da mamakacs qalTan SedarebiT meti
upiratesoba mieniWa.
d. belis miekuTvneba sazogadoebrivi istoriis ganviTarebis danawileba
3
stadiad:
industriandeli
(tradiciuli),
industriuli
da
postindustriuli. tradiciulisazogadoebis ganviTarebis ganmsazRvreli
faqtoria soflis meurneoba. mTavari socialuri institutebia eklesia da
armia. tradiciulia sazogadoeba, romlis wevrTa cxovrebas tradiciebi da
adaT-wesebi marTaven. industriuli(samrewvelo sazogadoeba) yalibdeba me-18
saukuneSi industriuli revoluciebis Sedegad. am sazogadoebis ganviTarebis
ganmsazRvreli faqtoria mrewveloba. ZiriTadi ekonomikuri resursia ara
miwa, aramed adamianis mier gadamuSavebuli masala. igi fabrika-qarxnuli
warmoebis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs, industrializacia moiTxovs sul ufro
met kvalificiur muSaxels, rac codnaze moTxovnas zrdis. industriulma
302
teqnologiam ojaxis transformacia gamoiwvia. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa
qalaquri cxovrebis wesis damkvidreba, sayuradRebo faqtia agreTve
mecnierebis ganviTareba, romellic industriuli sazogadoebis Tanamdevi
procesia. am tipis sazogadoebebis ZiriTadi nawili ZiriTadad evropasa da
aziaSi gvxvdeba,
postindustriuli
sazogadoeba-
mas
zogjer
informaciul
an
postmodernul sazogadoebas uwodeben. am sazogadoebaSi mravalferovnebaa.
1962 wels amrikelma akonomistma friston meklapma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom
SesaZlebelia codnis warmoeba, gadaadgileba da Sesabamisad nebismieri
produqtis
msgavsad
yidva-gayidva.
postindustriuli
sazogadoebis
Camoyalibebas xeli Seuwyo teqnologiuri ganviTarebis momdevno fazaSi
Sesvlam. postindustriuli sazogadoebis ekonomika ,,servisul meurneobazea”
agebuli.mas maRali marketinguli kultura axasiaTebs, rac TavisTavad
pirovnebaTaSorisi komunikaciebis, ganaTlebis da mecnieruli kvlevebis
prioritets
gulisxmobs.am
tipis
sazogadoebis
sinonimia
,,codnis
sazogadoeba”
Ria da daxuruli sazogadoeba- Ria da daxuruli sazogadoebis cneba
avstro-ingliselma filosofosma da sociologma, karl raimund poperma
SemoiRo. daxuruli sazogadoeba statikuri socialuri struqturiT,
SezRuduli mobilurobiT, inovaciebisadmi uunarobiT, tradicionalizmiT da
dogmaturi avtoritaruli ideologiiT xasiaTdeba. daxurul sazogadoebas
safuZvlad udevs Sexeduleba, rom mmarTVelebi floben absolitur
WeSmaritebas da mis safuZvelzea agebuli sazogadoebrivi struqtura, amitom
misi Secvla ar SeiZleba da danaSaulia. Ria sazogadoeba gamoirCeva
dinamiuri
socialuri
struqturiT,
maRali
socialuri
mobilobiT,
inovaciurobiT, kriticizmiT, individualizmiT da demokratiuli ideologiiT
xasiaTdeba. Ria sazogadoebis fundamentur Rirebulebebs warmoadgens:
sityvis Tavisufleba, religiuri Tavisufleba, SiSisagan Tavisufleba,
gaWirvebisagan Tavisufleba, socialuri pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba. Ria
sazogadoebaSi saxelmwifo ideologia srulebiT ar arsebobs. masSi didi
asparezi eTmoba SemoqmedebiT azrovnebas da novaciebs. Tu daxurul
sazogadoebaSi
yvelas
magivrad
erTi
adamiania
pasuxismgebeli,
Ria
sazogadoebaSi piriqiTaa da yoveli calkeuli adamiania pasuxismgebeli,
amitom am tipis sazogadoeba pasuxismgeblobisadmi gansakuTrebuli midgomiT
gamoirCeva.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
v. erqomaiSvili, filosofia Tbilisi 2013
2.
v. ramiSvili, filosofia Tbilisi 2010
3.
k. qecbaia, sociologiis Sesavali Tbilisi 2011
303
Society
Ana Mamulashvili
Resume
In spite of many ideas related to society, everyone agrees that the main concept of sociology
describes regulated unity, co -habitation of people on the certain sphere. It has the face of structural
wholeness. Joint of people, their co-working is necessary either for individual or for achieving public
goals.
inglisuri enis istoria misi periodizacia
Teona mosiaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiti
II kursi saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi
xelmZRvaneli: nona kobalaZe
E-mail:[email protected] Tel:598171045
E E-mail:[email protected] 551 55 11 21
yvela ganaTlebulma adamianma unda icodes aramarto Tavisi mSobliuri
enis struqtura, aramed Seswavlili ucxo enis struqturac. misi adgili
msoflios enebis sistemaSi, misi mimarTeba, damokidebuleba sxva enebTan, enis
leqsikuri maragi da am maragis gamdidrebis da gamravalferovnebis wyaroebi
da saSualebebi. inglisuri enis ganviTareba asaxavs ingliseli xalxis
politikuri, socialuri da kulturuli ganviTarebis istorias. dRevandeli
inglisuri ena asaxavs ganviTarebis mraval saukunes.
Cveni kvlevis mizans warmoadgens inglisuri enis istoriis da misi
periodizaciis kvleva da is, Tu rogor iqca inglisuri ena sinTezuri enidan,
romelsac mkveTrad gamoxatuli fleqsiuri sistema da Sesabamisad, rTuli
morfologiuri struqtura gaaCnda analizur enad, sadac gramatikuli
kategoriebi aRweriTi saSualebebiT iwarmoeba da sadac ufro mniSvnelovani
adgili sintaqss da winadadebaSi sityvaTa wyobas ukavia.
ena viTardeba da icvleba saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi. rogorc ki ena
ganviTarebas wyvets, igi kvdeba. klasikuri laTinulri, magaliTad mkvdari
enaa, radgan TiTqmis 2000 wlis manZilze igi ar ganviTarebula, ar Secvlila.
cocxal enaSi es cvleleba da ganviTareba SeiniSneba misi leqsikuri maragis
cvlaSi. Zveli sityvebi kvdeba da amovardeba xmarebidan, axali sityvebi
Semodis, arsebuli sityvebi icvlian mniSvnelobas. aseve icvleba enis
gramatikuli da fonetikuri wyobac.
inglisurma enam enobrivi struqturis yvela doneze (leqsikuri,
gramatikuli, fonologiuri ) kardinaluri cvlilebebi ganicada misi
ganviTarebis procesSi, raSic garkveuli roli iTamaSa rogorc Sida
enobrivma anu intralingvisturma, ise gare enobrivma, anu eqstralingvisturma
304
faqtorebma.
enobrivi
kontaqtebiT
gamowveul
Sida
struqturul
movlenebs
ganekuTvneba e.w."substratis" da "superstratis" SemTxvevebi. "substrati" is
movlenaa, roca mosaxleoba iRebs qveynis dampyrobTa enas da Seaqvs masSi
sakuTari enis elementebi. "superstrati"ki roca gamarjvebuli damarcxebulis
enas iRebs da masze garkveul gavlenas axdens.
ena, rogorc sistema, arsebobs socialur drosa da sivrceSi.
lingvisturi kvlevac enisadmi orgvar midgomas gulisxmobs, erTi Seiswavlis
enas droSi, mis cvalebadobas drois garkveul monakveTSi, meore ki
ganixilavs enas sivrceSi- mis garkveul mdgomareobas dinamikaSi. pirvel
midgomas diaqronuli ewodeba, xolo meores-sinqronuli.
enis sinqronul WrilSi Seswavlisas mas vixilavT rogorc sistamas,
romlis elementebi erTmaneTis gverdiT Tanaarseboben. diaqronul WrilSi
Seswavlisas ki rogorc sistemas, romlis SigniTac yoveli elementi icvleba,
moZraobs, viTardeba.
inglisuri enis istorias sam periodad vyofT:
I_Zveli inglisuri periodi_Old English-OE
II_saSualo inglisuri periodi_MMiddle English-ME
III_ axali inglisuri periodi_New English-NE
enis istorias viwyebT V saukunidan_germanelTa tomebis britaneTis
teritoriaze gadmosaxlebis droidan. nawili mecnierebisa fiqrobs, rom enis
istoria daviwyoT VII saukunidan e.i. damwerlobis dasawyisidan. werilobiTi
Zeglebi inglisur enaze mxolod VIII saukunidan mogvepoveba. Zveli
inglisuri periodi ganisazRvreba XI saukunemde, 1066 wlamde, rodesac
normanebi daesxnen Tavs britaneTis teritorias.
Zveli nglisur periods pirobiTad or nawilad vyofT:
I_ adreuli Zveli e. w. damwerlobiTi inglisuri periodi
Pre-written old English Period- (450-700 )
II_gviani (damwerlobisdroindeli) Zveli inglisuri periodi
Late Written Old English Period-(700-1066 )
am periods sxvagvarad anglo-saqsur periodsac uwodeben. Anglo-Saxon
Period.
Zveli inglisuri ena iyo tipiuri goTuri ena wminda germanuli
leqsikiT da mcire sazRvargareTuli sityvaT sesxebiT. Zveli inglisuri ena
iyo sinTezuri, fleqsiuri ena, kargad ganviTarebuli morfologiuri
kategoriebis sistemiT.
XIX saukunis cnobili ingliseli mecnieri henri suiti Zvel inglisur
periods uwodebda "srul daboloebaTa periods" :The Period of Full Endiongs". am
periodSi umaxvilo marcvalSi sityvis bolos mosalodneli iyo yovelgvari
bgeris arseboba. morfologiuri sistemis rRveva daiwyo X_XI s.s-Si.
saSualo inglisuri periodi M(Middle English)-moicavs XI-XV saukuneebs.
305
igi iwyeba normanuli dapyrobiT Norman Conquest da grZeldeba sabeWdi
manqanis gamogonebamde (1475 w.) saSualo inglisuri periodi (1066_1475w.w.) or
nawilad iyofa.
I_ adreuli saSualo inglisuri periodi
Early Middle English Period- (1066-1360w.w.)
II_gviani anu klasikuri saSualo inglisuri periodi
Late or Classical Middle English Period- (1360-1475w.w.)
I periodi grZeldeba XIV s. I naxevramde. es aris skandinaviuri da
franguli dapyrobebis periodi. normanebis periodSi inglisSi oficialur
enas franguli ena warmoadgenda. es iyo gabatonebuli ena literaturaSic.
inglisuri ena Tavisi adgilobrivi dialeqtebiT mxolod mdabio xalxis
salaparako enad gamoiyeneboda.
II periodi grZeldeba XIV s. I naxevridan XV s. II naxevramde. es periodi
moicavs saSualo saukuneebis didi ingliseli mwerlis jefri Coseris epoqas
da warmoadgens inglisuri renesansis winamorbeds. es aris periodi, rodesac
inglisuri
ena
aRsdga
Tavis
uflebebSi,
rogorcsaxelmwifo
da
saliteraturo ena. werilobiT da saliteraturo enas safuZvlad udevs
londonuri dialeqti. am periodSi xdeba fleqsiebis gaTanabreba metyvelebis
yvela nawilSi. bolokidur umaxvilo marcvlebSi yvelgan Cndeba aso "e". henri
suiti am periods uwodebs "SeTanasworebul daboloebaTa periods"_ "The
Period of Levelled Endings".
1475 wels ingliselma uiliam keqstonma gamoiyena sabeWdi manqana, ramac
didi cvlilebebi moaxdina enaSi.
aqedan daiwyo
axali inglisuri
periodi_New English, romelic sam nawilad iyofa:
I_ adreuli axali inglisuri periodi
Early New English- (1476-1660)
II_normalizaciisa da SesworebaTa periodi an " neo klasikuri epoqa"_
The age of Normalization and Correctness or "Neoclassical Age"- (1660-1800)
III_ gviani axali inglisuri periodi anu Tanamedrove inglisuri
periodi_Late New English or Modern English (Mod E) Period-(1800-up to now).
axali inglisuri enis I periodi iwyeba 1476 w. da grZeldeba 1660
wlamde. igi moicavs Seqspiris epoqas da aris gardamavali periodi saSualo
periodis londonuri literaturuli epoqidan renesansis epoqamde. am
periodSi daiwyo leqsikuri da fonetikuri cvlilebebi, daiwyo gardaqmnebi
xmovanTa sistemaSi, romelmac sabolood migviyvana im movlenamde, rasac
marTlwerasa da warmoTqmasSoris gansxvaveba hqvia. umaxvilo marcvalSi
daikarga xmovani, XV s. daikarga fleqsiebi. am periods henri suiti uwodebs
'"dakargul daboloebaTa periods"_ "The Period of Lost Endings."
II periodi iwyeba XVIIs. II naxevridan da grZeldeba XVIII s. bolomde. am
periodis yvelaze RirsSesaniSnavi movlena isaa, rom inglisuri ena gascda
britaneTis kunZulebis farglebs da gadavida pirvel rigSi CrdiloeT
306
amerikis kontinentze.
III anu Tanamedrove inglisuri speriodi iwyeba
1800wlidan da
grZeldeba dRemde. am periodSi Camoyalibda klasikuri literaturuli ena,
romelic gansxvavdeba salaparako inglisuri enisa da misi dialeqtebisagan.
rogorc davinaxeT, inglisuri enis istoriis periodebad dayofa
dakavSirebulia aramarto istoriul_qronologiur movlenebTan, aramed im
cvlilebebTanac,
romelic
ganicada
inglisuri
enis
gramatikulma,
leqsikurma da fonetikurma wyobam 15 saukunis ganmavlobaSi.
enis istoriis Seswavla saSualebas gvaZlevs ufro Rrmad SevimecnoT
Tanamedrove inglisuri ena, aRviqvaT igi rogorc ganviTarebis xangrZlivi
procesis Sedegi da ganvsazRvroT misi adgili sxva enebTan mimarTebaSi.
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
Albert C .Braugh and Thomas Cable ― A history of the English language‖, London, Henley and
Boston, 1978
Ilush V.A. ― History of the English Language‖, Moscow, 1973
Rastorgueva T.A. ―A history of English‖ Moscow, 1983
Morton A. L. ― History of England‖, London, 1950
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_English_language
http://www.englishclub.com/english-language-history.htm
http://www.studyenglishtoday.net/english-language-history.html
http://www.anglik.net/englishlanguagehistory.htm
http://www.merriam-webster.com/help/faq/history.htm
http://www.llp.armstrong.edu/5800/histno.html
The History of English Language
Resume
Teona Mosiashvili
English is a West Germanic language. brought to Britain by Germanic invaders. Initially, Old
English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of
Britain. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually became predominant. The English
language underwent extensive change in the middle Ages. Written Old English of AD 1000 is similar
in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languages such as Old High German and Old Norse,
and completely unintelligible to modern speakers, while the modern language is already largely
recognizable in written Middle English of AD 1400. The transformation was caused by two further
waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family,
who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries; the second by the Normans
in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called
Anglo-Norman. A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from AngloNorman.
307
personalis SerCeva da maTi stimulireba
mariam demurovi da nona mosiaSvili
a(a) ip goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universiteti
socialur mecnierebaTa biznesisa da samarTalmcodneobis fakulteti
finansebis specialobis III kursis studentebi:
nino liparteliani
goris saxelmwifo saswavlo universitetis sruli profesori
[email protected] tel: 598667668; 59843546
dRevandeli biznesis umniSvnelovanes elements warmoadgens adamianuri
kapitali. [stenli fiSeris mixedviT adamianuri kapitali aris adamianSi
gansxeulebuli unari miiRos Semosavali, anu igi moicavs dabadebisTanave
miRebul unars da talants, aseve ganaTlebas da SeZenil kvalifikacias].
yoveli qveyana, romelic miznad isaxavs civilizebuli, liberalur da
demokratiul Rirebulebebze dafuZnebuli samoqalaqo sazogadoeba Seqmnas,
miznis misaRwevad gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs maqsimalurad meti
investiciebi Cados adamianuri kapitalis ganviTarebaSi, saidanac fizikur
kapitalTan SedarebiT ukugeba mniSvnelovnad maRalia. dRes menejmentis
praqtikulad yvela specialisti aRiarebs, rom XXI saukunis firmis
warmatebas ZiriTadad ganapirobebs adamianuri faqtori.
„aucilebelia
„kargma
adamianebma“
sargebloba
moitanon
bunebaSi,sxvanairad rom iyos ar SeiZleba,xolo CvenTvis isini sargeblobas
moitanen im SemTxvevaSi Tu Cvens saqmeebs sworad ganageben“ [sokrate]],
amitom xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom organizaciis yvela elements Soris
unikaluri roli akisria mis cocxal komponents-adamians.
momsaxure
personalis gareSe arc erT organizacias ar SeuZlia arseboba da dasaxuli
miznis miRweva. amisaTvis saWiroa kandidatebis Seswavla da maTi SerCeva im
specialobis mixedviT, romelic firmisTvisaa saWiro. personalis SerCevis
procesi mniSvnelovania 3 mizeziT:
pirveli - Tqveni samuSaos efeqturoba didaa damokidebuli Tqveni
daqvemdebarebulobis
muSaobis efeqturobaze. saWiro unarebis armqone
muSakebi imuSaveben warumateblad, rac uaryofiTad aisaxeba Tqvens
saqmianobaze.
meore mizezia personalis SerCevis siZvire, amerikuli
standartiT saSualod, es danaxarji udris 47000 dolars weliwadSi (aq
Sedis Zebnis, gasaubrebebis, rekomendaciis Semowmebis, mgzavrobis da sxva
xarjebi ). mesame mizezia arakeTilsasurveli iuridiuli situacia, erTis
mxriv, unda iqnes daculi kanoni samuSaos Tanasworuflebianobisa, xolo
meores mxriv, sul ufro metad izrdeba damsaqmebelTa winaaRmdeg sarCelis
raodenoba
„samuSaoze
arakeTilsindisierad
miRebasTan“
dakavSirebiT.
gansakuTrebiT, xSirad, sasamarTlo akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas damsaqmeblebs
im SemmTxvevebSi, roca kriminaluri warsulis mqone muSakebs eZlevaT
klienTa saxlebSi SeRwevis SesaZlebloba. eqspertebi amtkiceben, rom
arakeTilsindisieri
daqiravebis
ricxvi
sul
ufro
matulobs.
308
daqiravebulebma unda icodnen zustad, Tu ra moTxovnebs uyeneben maT.
magaliTad, daxasiaTeba „aramoZalade“ namdvilad ar iqneba im unarebis
CamonaTvalSi, rac moeTxoveba remontis specialists, Tumca swored am
pirobis Seusruleblobam gamoiwvia Zalian bevri sarCeli damsaqmebelTa
winaaRmdeg. amitom damsaqmeblebs uwevT lavireba da SesarCevi procedurebis
daxvewa. erTis mxriv, maT unda gamoavlinon saWiro Tvisebebi da meores
mxriv, unda uzrunvelyon usafrTxoeba am sityvis farTo gagebiT. warsulSi
xelmZRvanelebi xSirad arCevdnen axal TanamSromlebs kadrebis samsaxurebis
gareSe. am dros isini eyrdnobodnen sakuTar intuicias da gamocdilebas,
agreTve rekomendacias wina samuSao adgilidan. xSiri Secdomebi ki iwvevda
TanamSromelTa xSir ganTavisuflebas da axlis daniSvnas.
personalis
SerCevis sistema gansxvavebulia aSS-sa da iaponiaSi. garkveulwilad, iaponur
firmebSi ,,organizacias argeben adamians”. aq ufro nakleb yuradRebas aqceven
specialur codnas, unar-Cvevebs da praqtikul gamocdilebas,
romelic
saWiroa Tanamdebobrivi movaleobebis dauyovnebeli SesrulebisaTvis da
koncentrirebulni arian individualur potencialze da swavlis xarisxze. es
imiT aixsneba, rom iaponur firmebSi ama Tu im pirovnebis daqiraveba xdeba,
rogorc wesi, xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. konkretuli specialuri unarCvevebis da gamocdilebis miReba xdeba uSualod firmaSi. anu maT firmaSi
xdeba momzadeba da kvalifikaciis amaRleba. kadrebTan muSaobis mTeli
sistema aq morgebulia ,,mudmivi daqiravebis” princips. aSS-Si ki upiratesobas
aniWeben iseTi momuSaveebis daqiravebas romlebsac gaaCniaT praqtikuli
gamocdileba, profesiuli codna da unar-Cvevebi. aseT SemTxvevaSi axali
momuSaveebis swavlebaze gacilebiT naklebi danaxarjebia saWiro da
daqiravebuls SeuZlia pirdapir Seudges masze dakisrebuli movaleobebis
Sesrulebas.
dRes, warmatebuli organizaciebi, rogorc dasavleTSi, aseve
post-sabWour sivrcesa da saqarTveloSi, zrunaven ara mxolod personalis
SerCeva-ganviTarebaze da efeqtian marTvaze, aramed axali, inovaciuri
resursebis
moZiebazec.
organizaciaTa
umravlesoba
iyenebs
vakantur
Tanamdebobebze SerCevis gavrcelebul proceduras, romelsac kadrebis
ganyofileba axorcielebs.
personalis SerCevis tipiuri procedura moicavs
6 safexurs, esenia: >>gancxadebis blankis da biografiuli anketis Sevseba;
>>testireba;
>>winaswari
SesarCevi
gasaubreba
(gamokiTxva);
>>rekomendaciebis
da
dakavebuli
Tanamdebobebis
siis
Semowmeba;
>>samedicino Semowmeba;
>>gadawyvetilebis miReba. SerCevisas xSirad
gamoiyeneba sareklamo gancxadebebi vakanturi samuSao adgilebis Sesaxeb.
aseTi gancxadebebis saSualebiT SesaZlebelia efeqturi Sedegebis miReba
minimaluri danaxarjebiT.
Tanamedrove pirobebSi damqiraveblisa da
daqiravebuls Soris urTierTobas awesrigebs daqiravebis sakontraqto
sistema. igi momuSaves kontraqtis moqmedebis vadaSi aZlevs dasaqmebis
garantias, xolo administracias avalebs uzrunvelyos es ukanaskneli Sromis
pirobebiT da Sesabamisi anazRaurebiT.
mravali kompania iyenebs axali muSakebis swavlebas imis gamo, rom ar
moxdes maTi denadoba erTi samuSaodan meoreSi rac amcirebs warmoebas da
Sromis nayofirebas. aseve Tuki adamians sakuTari saqme ar uyvars, igi mas
309
warmatebiT ver Seasrulebs. konkretuli muSakis warumatebel saqmianobas ki
mTliani organizaciis warumateblobaSi Seaqvs wvlili da piriqiT, saTanado
muSaki erT-erTi mTavari ganmapirobebelia biznesSi gamarjvebis albaT,
swored amitom aris rom Tanamedrove organizaciebi sakuTar saqmeze
Seyvarebul TanamSromlebs eZeben da vakansiebis ganTavsebisas aplikantebs
erT-erT aucilebel pirobad TviTmotivirebulobas uyeneben.
Tumca
gamokvlevebma uCvenes, rom muSaki maqsimalurad motivirebulia samsaxurSi
ayvanidan sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi.
Semdeg ki, Tuki ar arsebobs rigi
wamaxalisebeli faqtorebi, mas es motivacia uqveiTdeba. HR-menejeris erTerT mTavar funqcias warmoadgens personalis motivacia, rac, samwuxarod
xSirad ugulebelyofilia.
mmarTvelobiT personals aviwydeba, rom maTi
mTavari aqtivi swored rom adamiania, romelic qmnis im faseulobas, romlis
meSveobiTac is izidavs momxmareblebs da saboloo jamSi iRebs mogebas, rac
Tavis mxriv, biznesis ganxorcielebis mTavar mizans warmoadgens. amasTan,
rac ufro motivirebulia muSaki, miT ufro warmatebulia kompania.
ra
ganapirobebs motivacias personalSi?
xelfasi,
sityvieri waxaliseba,
samuSao garemo,
megobruli atmosfero,
profesiuli ganviTareba. mag:
kadrebis momzadebis da gadamzadebis mizniT,
wamyvani kompaniebi iyeneben
calkeul universitetebTan da kolejebTan saxelSekrulebo urTierTobaTa
formas.
erT-erTi aseTi kompaniaa „motorola,“
romelsac aqvs centruniversiteti,
sadac axdens weliwadSi 100 aTasi muSakis momzadebas,
gadamzadebas da socialur uzrunvelyofas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
avTandil nukraZe ,,personalis mozidva, SerCeva, daqiraveba“ Tb. 2008 i.
WavWavaZis universiteti
mewarmis samagido wigni. Tb. 2009 axalgazrda ekonomistTa asociacia
http://pragenti.wordpress.com;
www. Netexpo.ge; www.gbc.ge;
www. Securities.com; www.google.ge;
www.gaap.ru/biblio ; www. e-info.ge;
www. factiva.com. ru; www. kursowiki.ru;
Resume
Mariam Demurovi
Nona Mosiashvili
Stuff Selection and Stimulation
Plan, select, and take a decent shot; Make sure that the distributed duties clear and realistic; Let
the individual interests of the organization and the opposite people not be with each other, creating a
warm and attractive work environment; Make sure that the system is fair and transparent feedback and
rewarding; Ensure staff development systems - gave them the opportunity to utilize their potential, to
maintain their confidence, give them hope of future days.
310
Charlotte Bronte “Jane Eyre”
N
Nino Acharadze
Ilia Chavchavadze University
Faculty of Art and Science,
Supervisor: Ekaterine Maruashvili
Jane Eyre is a famous and influential novel by English Writer Charlotte Brontë. It was
published in London, England in 1847 by Smith, Elder & Co. with the title Jane Eyre. An
Autobiography under the pen name "Currer Bell". The American edition came out the following year
published by Harper & Brothers of New York.
Jane Eyre is a first-person narrative of the title character. The novel goes through five distinct
stages: Jane's childhood at Gates head, where she is emotionally and physically abused by her aunt and
cousins; her education at Logwood School, where she acquires friends and role models but also
suffers privations; her time as the governess of Thorn field Manor, where she falls in love with
her Byronic employer, Edward Rochester; her time with the Rivers family at Marsh's End (or Moor
House) and Morton, where her cold clergyman-cousin St John Rivers proposes to her; and her reunion
with and marriage to her beloved Rochester. Partly autobiographical, the novel abounds with social
criticism. It is a novel considered ahead of its time. In spite of the dark, brooding elements, it has a
strong sense of right and wrong, of morality at its core.
Jane Eyre is divided into 38 chapters and most editions are at least 400 pages long (although
the preface and introduction on certain copies are liable to take up another 100).
Jane Eyre is not only a love story; it is also a plea for the recognition of the individual's worth.
Throughout the book, Jane demands to be treated as an independent human being, a person with her
own needs and talents. Early on, she is unjustly punished, precisely for being herself — first by Mrs.
Reed and John Reed, and subsequently by Mr. Brocklehurst. Her defiance of Mrs. Reed is her first
active declaration of independence in the novel, but not her last. Helen Burns and Miss Temple are the
first characters to acknowledge her as an individual; they love her for herself, in spite of her obscurity.
Rochester too loves her for herself; the fact that she is a governess and therefore his servant does not
negatively affect his perception of her. Rochester confesses that his ideal woman is intellectual,
faithful, and loving — qualities that Jane embodies. Rochester's acceptance of Jane as an independent
person is contrasted by Blanche and Lady Ingram's attitude toward her: they see her merely as a
servant. Lady Ingram speaks disparagingly of Jane in front of her face as though Jane isn't there. To
her, Jane is an inferior barely worthy of notice, and certainly not worthy of respect. And even though
she is his cousin, St. John Rivers does not regard Jane as a full, independent person. Rather, he sees her
as an instrument, an accessory that would help him to further his own plans. Jane acknowledges that
his cause (missionary work) may be worthy, but she knows that to marry simply for the sake of
expedience would be a fatal mistake. Her marriage to Mr. Rochester, by contrast, is the marriage of
two independent beings. It is because of their independence, Brontë suggests, that they acknowledge
their dependence on each other and are able to live happily ever after.
311
Bibliography
Charlotte Bronte „‟Jane Eyre”. Free encyclopedia.
reziume
nino aWaraZe
Sarlota bronte “jein eari”
jein eari aris pirivneba, romelic TviTon gadmogcems sakuTar ambavs.
Romani Sedgeba xuTi Tavisagan: jeinis bavSvoba geiTsedSi, sadac is
emociurad da fizikurad Sewuxebulia Tavisi bicolis da biZaSvilebisgan;
misi swavla lovudis skolaSi, sadac is iZens megobrebs; misi aRmzrdelad
muSaoba TornfildSi, sadac mas uyvardeba; cxovreba riverebTan da dabruneba
ukan TornfildSi.
naxevrad avtobiografiuli romani asaxavs jeinis cxovrebas. is savsea
cinizmis elementebiT, magram jeins aqvs Zlieri gZnoba moralobis rom
moipovos sakuTari adgili sazogadoebaSi.
William Shakespeare-the Bard of Avon
Nana Tsutskiridze
Sukhishvili Teaching University Business Administration, 2 course
Supervisor: Ekaterine Maruashvili
The last half of the XVI and the beginning of the XVII centuries are known as the golden age
of English literature. It was the time of the English Renaissance and sometimes it is called ―The Age of
William Shakespeare‖.
William Shakespeare was born on 23 April, 1564 was an English poet and playwright, now
widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world ’s most famous dramatist.
He is often called England’s national poet and the ―Bard of Avon‖. William Shakespeare was born and
raised in Strafford-upon-Avon, in the south of England. Around 1585 William Shakespeare left
Strafford and moved to London where he began his successful career in the theatre. Little is known
about this period of his life, but he was certainly well established both as an actor and popular
playwright. In London his plays were staged mainly at The Globe Theatre, which he partly owned
himself. Soon he began to write plays, and a few years became a well-known author.
His works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets and several poems. William Shakespeare ’s plays
have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any
other playwright. William Shakespeare’s experience as an actor helped him greatly in the writing of his
plays. His knowledge of the stage and his poetical genius made his plays the most wonderful ones ever
written. Among his plays there are deep tragedies, such as Hamlet, King lear, Othello, Macbeth,
312
light comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor, All‟s Well That Ends Well, Twelfth Night,
historical dramas, such as Henry IV ,Richard III, and the most important beautiful 154 Sonnets.
My favorite play from his works is 154 Sonnets, I think it is extraordinary and careful play
because there are many wonderful events about life.
Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As, to behold desert a beggar born,
And needy nothing trimmed in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn,
And gilded honor shamefully misplaced,
And maiden virtue rudely trumpeted,
And right perfection wrongfully disgraced,
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly doctor-like controlling skill,
And simple truth miscalled simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill:
Tired with all these, from these would I be gone,
Save that, to die, I leave my love alone.
William Shakespeare is a respected poet and playwright in Georgia as well. His plays were
first translated in the 19th century by Ivane Machabeli and today all of Shakespeare’s major plays
have been translated into Georgian. Theatres in our country have a long and interesting history of
staging William Shakespeare’s plays in Georgian and some of the productions have been successfully
performed abroad, including in England and Scotland.
William Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford, where he died 1616.He was
buried in the church of Strafford. A monument was erected to the memory of the great playwright in
the Poet’s Corner in Westminster Abbey.
Bibliography:
1. William Shakespeare Sonnets (154).
2. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.
313
uiliam Seqspiri
nana cucqiriZe
reziume
mocemuli Tema exeba udidesi ingliseli mwerlis uiliam Seqspiris
cxovrebas, kerZod, mis bavSvobas. uiliam Seqspiri aris pirovneba, romelmac
dawera “romeo da julieta”, “hamleti” da sxva. magram miuxedavad am piesebisa,
man dawera 154 soneti da yvelaze STambeWdavi 66 soneti, romelSic man asaxa
Tavisi ganvlili cxovreba da problemebi.
mixeil javaxiSvilis publicistika
mariam xaniaSvili
soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti
humanitaruli fakulteti _ qarTuli ena da literatura
nino mindiaSvili
soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent profesori
EE-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
“arsena marabdelis” epilogSi m. javaxiSvili wers: “sul ubralo
sofels maSin gauvardeba saxeli, Tu iq didi vaJkaci daibada”. misi naTqvami
gamarTlda. Zvelad borCalod wodebuli ori mivardnili sofeli - weraqvi
da sioni, samudamod Sevida istoriaSi, radgan iq didi mwerali da moRvawe,
mixeil javaxiSvili daibada.
mixeil
javaxiSvilma,
Tavisi
mxatvruli
da
publicisturi
nawarmoebebiT,
umal
miipyro
sazogadoebis
yuradReba.
ganaTlebulma
axalgazrdam, pirdapiri da principuli pozicia gamoamJRavna da saocari
siTamamiT Caeba im drois sazogadoebriv da politikur cxovrebaSi. Tavis
werilebSi is zogadsakacobrio Temebsa da sakiTxebsac ixilavda. Tavidanve
masSi igrZnoboda is Semtevi paTosi da mebrZoli suli, romelic mis bunebas
axasiaTebda. samwerlo asparezze gamosvlis dRidan, sicocxlis bolomde,
mixeili Tavisi xalxis erTguli darCa, cdilobda, epoqas ar CamorCenoda da
yofiliyo Tavisi xalxis gamomxatveli, axali epoqisa da cxovrebis
amsaxveli. jer kidev sakmaod axalgazrdam, Tamamad gamoTqva Tavisi azri
literaturasa da xelovnebaSi axali Tvalis, axali Temis, axali adamianis
dasamkvidreblad.
mixeil
javaxiSvilis
publicisturi
werilebi
mkiTxvelTa
gansakuTrebul mowonebas imsaxurebda.
1904 wlidan mixeili “iveriis”
redaqtori gaxda. ase, rom. ymawvili, romelsac erT dros saguramoSi
“iliaoba” dRes didma iliam gza dauloca, axla TviT ilias daarsebuli
gazeTs redaqtorobda. mixeili iyo erTi imaTgani, visac arasodes ganelebia
eris didi moZRvaris siyvaruli.
314
1906 wels adamaSvili gazeT “glexs” redaqtorobda metismeti
gabedulebisaTvis
mwarali
pasuxisgebaSi
iqna
micemuli.
filipe
gogiCaiSvilis TanadgomiT mixeili, moaxerxebs sazRvargareT gamgzavrebas da
amiT sasjelisagan Tavis daRwevas
1906-1907 wlebSi mwerali Jenevasa da parizSi cxovrobs. ismens leqciebs
da cdilobs srulyofilad daeuflos evropul literaturas. wers
publicistur werilebs, moTxrobebs da samSobloSi agzavnis.
1907 wlis martSi mixeili kvlav TbilisSia. msaxurobs gazeT “isris”
radaqciaSi.
es is redaqciaa, romelmac pirvelma Seityo 1907wlis 30 agvistos
momxdari erovnuli tragediis Sesaxeb. gaognebuli mwerali meore dResme
saguramoSi midis, sadac misTvis bavSvobidanve mSobliuri iyo yvelaferi. is
Rame iq gaaTia saSineli da mtanjveli fiqrebiT. “arasodes ar damaviwydeba is
Rame,- ogonebda mwerali,- sxvebma damaswres da loginebi dairiges, darCa
mxolod erTi baliSi, ilias sisxliT mosvrili baliSi romelic mokvlis
dros zurgis ukan edo. bevri yoymanis Semdeg Zlivs gavbede: is baliSi
kaklis qveS wyarosTan davde, zed cxvirsaxoci davafare da fsiqiurad
datanjulma mamlis yivilisas Zlivs CaviZine.”
ilias
gardacvalebis
Semdeg
javaxiSvili
iZulebulia
kvlav
sazRvargareT, safrangeTSi gaemgzavros. ukan brundeba 1909
wels da
saTaveSi udgeba Jurnal “ers”. 1910 wels kvlav daapatimres samSoblos
siyvarulis gulisTvis miusajes 1 wliT cixe da 5 wliT saqarTvelodan
rostovSi gadasaxleba.
mixeilis mizani iyo TanamgrZnob patriotebTan erTad ilias anderZis
aRsruleba- samSoblos gaTavisufleba. da, ai, 1915 wels radikalurad
ganwyobilma erovnul moRvaweTa axalgazrdebis jgufma gamosca im
droisaTvis yvelaze mZafri, Tavisuflebis
zarebis damarisxebeli gazeTi ” saqarTvelo”, romlis redaqtori iyo
adamaSvili. kvlav gaixsenes adamaSvili iq, sadac jer ars da kavkasiis
samxedro olqis ufrosma ” urCia”,kavkasias gaSoreboda. . . iZulebuli gaxda
literaturul saqmianobas CamoSoreboda. 1916 wlidan wiTeli jvris
sazogadoebis xaziT mixeili sparseT-osmaleTis frontze gaemgzavra da
mTeli weliwadi sparseTSi dahyo.
samSobloSi mixeili 1917 wels brundeba. am wels daarsda saqarTvelos
erovnul-demokratiuli partia. am partiis wevrebi da maT Soris mixeili
daucxromlad ibrZvian saqarTvelos TavisuflebisaTvis. 1918 wlis 26 maiss
mefisnacvlis yofili sasaxlis Tavze saqarTvelos erovnuli droSa
afrialda. mixeils TavisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi lomis wili edo, magram,
kvlav
bedis
ironia.
saqarTvelos
mTavroba,
faqtobrivad,
social
demokratebma Seadgines. im xalxma, vinc Tavis droze swored saqarTvelos
damoukideblobis ideis Casaklavad ibrZoda. . javaxiSvili da misi megobrebi
315
amjeradac opoziciis kuTxeSi aRmoCdnen. parlamentSi, rogorc iTqva,
umravlesobas socializmis mqadagebeli social-demokratebi warmoadgendnen,
romlebisac javaxiSvils araferi swamda. erTgan mas Cauweria: „socializmis
ideam ganuzomeli zarali moutana saqarTvelos da SemdegSic ukidures
xifaTs uqadis”. magram raki Tavisufal saqarTvelos eRirsnen, ganze mainc
aravin gamdgara. javaxiSvili sxvadasxva dawesebulebebSi msaxurobda. kalami
gverdze gadado da qveynis ekonomikur moRonierebas uwyobda xels. marTalia,
male Sewyda 117 wlis Semdeg aRdgenili saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis
arseboba. 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals qarTveli eri kvlav dapyrobili aRmoCnda
bolSevikuri ruseTis mier.
mixeil javaxiSvils sazogadoeba icnobs,rogorc saintereso mweralsa
da mxatvruli teqstebis avtors. Tumca, aranakleb mniSvnelovania misi
publicisturi werilebi. SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom misi saxiT qarTul
mwerlobas hyavs ubadlo mesityve. gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa is werilebi,
sadac aanalizebs qarTul enasTan dakavSirebul problemebs da Cveni kvlevis
saganic mixeil javaxiSvilis is werilebi, romlebic swored am sakiTxebs
exeba.
“udidesi amocana enis dawmendaa da am saqmis pirveli meTauri qarTveli
mwerali unda iyves. xolo am ukanasknels rom SeeZlos sxvaTa mxileba, jer
TviT unda ganikurnos”. es sityvebi mixeil javaxiSvils ekuTvnis werilSi
“qarTuli ena”.
mTavar problemad avtori enis gauwmendaobaSi
xedavs.amtkicebs, rom
provinciuloba miuReblad ar miaCnia. albaT, TiToeulma Semoqmedma ubralod
is unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom yvela nawarmoebs individualuri midgoma
sWirdeba. magaliTad, javaxiSvilis azriT,
sul ar mouxdeboda vaJas
Semoqmedebas
literaturuli
ena.
mwerlis
amocanaa
miyves
ZiriTad
samwerlobo enas, provinciidan motanili sityvebi ki mxolod mis Senakadad
gamoiyenos.
werili qarTul enaze 1924 wlis 20 maiss daiwera. am dros qarTul enas,
qarTul literaturas, qarTul kulturas cudi dRe adga. gansakuTrebiT
proletari
mwerlebisgan,
romlebic
proletariatis
diqtaturisadmi
apirebdnen qarTuli mwerlobisa da saerTod kulturis daqvemdebarebas.
.maTTvis mTavari iyo bolSevikuri Temebi, xolo
formebi,
gamoxatvis
saSualebebi, xarisxi mniSvnelovani ar gaxldaT. amgvari movlenebis
winaaRmdeg yovelTvis ilaSqrebdnen namdvili qarTveli mwerlebi. swored
amgvar gulistkivils gamoxatavs mwerali am teqstSi.
mixeil javaxiSvili samwerlobo-publicistur asparezze gamodis 1903
wels. pirvelad man SeaRo gazeT “cnobis furcelis” redaqciis kari da am
organos sasurveli TanamSromeli gaxda.
javaxiSvili arsebuli reJimis wnaaRmdeg ilaSqrebs, Tavs esxmis mas,
amxels mis velur bunebas,sicrues da yalTabandobas. mis werilebSi ruseTis
cxovrebidan iseTi ambebia aRebuli, romelic amxels TviTmpyrobelobas mefis
316
xelisuflebisas, mis pirsisxlian da jalaTis saxes. werilebSi yvelgan
gabedulad igrZnoba avtoris zizRi arsebuli weswyobilebisa da Savbneli
reaqciis mimarT. amave dros werilebs wiTel zolad gasdevs didi siyvaruli
da simpaTia daCagrulTa da SeviwrovebulTa mimarT, revoluciis mimarT.
ufro metic, am werilebSi avtori mosCans Seupovar, gabedul, uSiSar da
anTebul revolucionerad, romelic Tavisi mgznebare publicistikiT
aTasebis
gulebs
aanTebs
revoluciis
xanZris
gasaRviveblad
da
gasaZliereblad.
“isev qarTuli enis Sesaxeb” - am werilSi avtori TiTqmis imave
problemas svams rasac pirvelSi. SeSfoTebas gamoTqvams damaxinjebul enaze.
im Jargonebze, romlebsac SegviZlia TiTos qarTuli ramdenime sityva
davaxvedroT, magram yvelaze cudi isaa, rom es Jargonebi Cvevadaa qceuli.
”uceb rom Cvenma winaprebma wamoiwion da yuri ugdon dRevandel qarTuls,
nebayoflobiT ukanve Cascvivdebian saflavebSi”
ambobs javaxiSvili da
SiSobs ar gadaSendes SoTas, ilias, akakis ena. mTavar gamosavlad asaxelebs
sakuTar Tavze, ojaxze muSaobas, enis gadasarCenad.
es werili dResac aqtualuria,
miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli ena
saxelmwifo enaa, problema isev dgas. xSirad gaigonebs kaci: ”spiCka”, “daJe”,
“imenna” da ase Semdeg. ver iqna da rusuli sityvebi ver moviSoreT. Tu
gvinda,
rom
saqarTvelom
namdvilad
miaRwios
Tavisuflebas,
unda
gavumklavdeT imperiis Semotevebis Sedegad datovebul manks da davamarcxoT.
me-20 saukunis damdegs uamravi qarTveli moswyda samSoblos da
ucxoeTSi gadaixvewa. mwerali Tavis piblicistur werilebSi exmaureba
axalgazrdebis wasvlas sakuTari ojaxebidan da maT samudamo gaucxoebas.
arada, qveyana usaso mdgomareobaSi imyofeboda.
cxadia,
daiwyeboda
genofondis Semcireba. am savalalo Sedegebis molodinma aaRebina kalami
mixeil javaxiSvils xelSi.
sabWoTa xelisuflebis mTavari sazrunavi metyvelebis iaraRi “ena” iyo
da aqtiurad cdilobda qarTuli enis gadagvarebas. javaxiSvils es mTavari
problema aqvs dasmuli werilSi “qarTulis damaxinjebani”.
erT-erTi pirvelTagani, vinc xma aimaRla qarTuli enis dacvisTvis da
gaafTrebuli brZola gamoucxada masSi yovelgvar simaxinjes, qarTuli
sityvis didostati mixeil javaxiSvili gaxldaT. igi Zlier ganicdida am
faqts da gulistkiviliT aRniSnavda, rom qarTulma mwerlobam ver mouara
xucesis, merCules, mTawmindelis, SoTas da sxvaTa enas. misi sityviT
“dRevandelma literatorma veRar zida samemkvidro ganZi da lafSi Caagdo”.
mwerali daundobeli iyo inteligenciis im nawilis mimarT, vinc gulgrilad
ekideboda am saqmes da TiTqos Seugneblad uwyobda kidec xels qarTuli enis
damaxinjebas.
Zalian sainteresoa javaxiSvilis werili arsena marabdelze. sadac is
ganixilavs arsenas pirovnebas. imas, Tu ram misca sababi daewera arsenaze
romani da Semdeg ukvdavad eqcia. aq zogi personaJi mogonilia, zogic
317
namdvili,
magram
TiToeuls
Tavisi
prototipi
hyavs
mwerlis
TvalsawierSi.nawarmoebis Sesaxeb kritikasa da rCeva-darigebebs mwerali
ganixilavs publicistur werilSi “pasuxi arsena marabdelis irgvliv
gamarTul disputze”, ambobs sxvebis azri gasaTvaliswinebelia, Tumca
viRacam sTqva; “yvelas mousmine, magram bolos mxolod Sen Tavs daujereo”.
asec iqceva mwerali,ambobs-“bodiSs vixdi,magram yvelafers isev Cemi WkuiTa
da gonebiT gadavWrio.
es istoriuli romani 1933-36 wlebSi daiwera. am periodis sisxliani
represiebis fonze romanma kidev ufro daamZima xelisuflebis mwerlisadmi
damokidebuleba. romanSi naCvenebia xalxis brZola erovnuli da socialuri
TavisuflebisTvis, swored meoce saukunis pirvel saxevarSi. me-20 saukunis 20iani wlebis saqarTvelo arsebiTad imave movlenebiT xasiaTdeba, rogorc
romanSi asaxuli me-19 saukunis pirveli naxevari. javaxiSvili iZulebulia
amoefaros istoriis Tematikas, warsulSi moiZios iseTi ambebi da siuJetebi,
rac mis TanamedroveTa Tvalwin xdeba. warsulis saxiT ilaparakos im
problemebze, romelic axalgazrdebs awuxebT da ver gamouTqvamT. arsena
marabdelis epoqa axlosaa mwerlis epoqasTan. swored es romani gaxda erTerTi safuZveli imisa, rom 1937 wels mwerali daepatimrebinaT da Semdeg
sikvdiliT daesajaT.
is eris majiscemas miyuradebuli mamuliSvili iyo, rogorc pavle
ingoroyvas uTqvams, igi mwerlobaSi publicistikidan da politikidan movida.
rac imas niSnavs,rom cxovrebis SuagulSi trialebda da sazogadoebrivi
problemebis arsi „ZiriT Ziramde hqonda gaCxrekili“.
avtobiaografiaSi javaxiSvili wers: ”adamaSvilis moRvaweobis mTavari
mizania saqarTvelos Tavisufleba,saqarTvelos avonomia”. misi am sityvebis
sinamdvilesa da sialaleze xom misive Semoqmedeba miuTiTebs, romlis
skrupulozurad gacnoba imeds gvitovebs, rom
didi mwerlisa da
publicistis Sroma da garja uSedegod ar Caivlis qarTveli erisTvis.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
javaxiSvili mixeili, werilebi ,Tb.,1980 w.tV
Publicism of Mikheil Javakhishvili
MMariam Khaniashvili
Resume
The work discusses publicism one of the greatest writers of 20th century – Mikheil
Javakhishvili.
The target of the above article is to discuss letters of Mikheil Javakhishvili dedicated to
Georgian language. In the letters the writer speaks about issue related to Georgian language. The main
problem for writer is to pollute language and thinks that everyone should analyse the issue of languge
purity.
318
okribis karstuli masivebi
Temur kublaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis biznesis administrirebis
II kursis studenti
namoraZe leila
suxiSvilis universitetis mowveuli maswavlebeli
[email protected]
Tel: 599 38 00 43
karstuli
reliefi saqarTveloSi farTodaa gavrcelebuli(6.4%) da
bunebriv pirobebSi karbonatuli qanebis wyalSi gaxsnas ukavSirdeba. karsti
umTavresad Cveni qveynis dasavleT nawilSia gavrcelebuli. aq gvxvdeba
rogorc Tanamedrove, moqmedi karsti, ise Zvelic-paleogenuri asakisa.
saqarTveloSi 1300-ze meti karstuli siRruea cnobili. maTi jamuri siRrme 55
km-s, xolo sigrZe 240 km-s aRwevs.
qveynis karstis grandiozulobaze miuTiTebs okribis teritoriaze
(istoriuli
mxare
dasavleT
saqarTveloSi.
moicavs
tyibulis
municipalitetis teritorias. mTagoriani mxarea; misi farTobi 478.2 kv.kmia.)
arsebuli karstuli
cxrajvaris mRvimeebi.
masivebi:
cucxvaTis,
tyibula-Zevrulas
da
cucxvaTis mRvime mdebareobs tyibulis raionis sofel cucxvaTis
samxreTiT, okriba-argveTis serze, zRvis donidan 250-400 m-ze. adgilobrivi
mosaxleoba am mRvimur sistemas „maRaras“ saxeliT moixseniebs. mRvimuri
kompleqsi gamomuSavebulia cucxvaTis qvabulSi gamdinare patara mdinarisSabaTaRelis mier qvedacarculi asakis masiur kirqvebSi. Sesasvlelebi aqvs
okriba-argveTis seris orive mxareze.
cucxvaTis qvabuls wagrZelebuli forma aqvs. Tavisi siZveliTa da
sarTulebis raodenobiT mRvimes msoflioSi meore adgili ukavia. profesor
levan maruaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT Catarebulma eqspediciam mRvimis 75 m-ian
vertikalur WrilSi 13 sarTuli gamoyo.
pirveli sarTuli adamianisaTvis gauvali viwro xvrelia, romelSic
mdinare SabaTaRelis mudmivi nakadi gaedineba.
meore sarTuli, anu mTavari talani giganturi bunebrivi gvirabia,
romlis sigrZe- 200 m, sigane-10-30 m, simaRle ki-10-28 m-ia. mdinaris nakadi aq
mxolod wyaldidobis periodebSi gadadis.
mRvimis zeda sarTulebi TiTqmis mSralia, qveda sami sarTulisagan
gansxvavebiT, isini gamWoli ar aris da mxolod TiTo Sesasvleli aqvs.
mRvimeeebSi ar gvxvdeba naRvenTi formebi, samagierod, SabaTaRelis
Senakadebs gamomuSavebuli aqvT xSiri da Rrmad CaWrili xeobebi; SabaTaRele
amJamad amuSavebs kalapotisqveSa sadinars, romelic uaxles iarusad
319
SeiZleba iqnas miCneuli.
cucxvaTis mRvimeebSi pirvelyofili adamiani savaraudod paleoliTis
xanidan cxovrobda, rac dasturdeba aq napovni kaJis iaraRebiT, cxovelTa
ZvlebiTa da neandertalelis kbiliT. uZvelesi adamiani mRvimes religiuri
miznebiTac iyenebda - erT-erT maTganSi aRmoCenilia erTmaneTze dawyobili
daTvis Tavis qalebi da wina TaTebi, rac msxverplSewirvis rituals unda
asaxavdes.
qarafSi gaxsnil mRvimeebSi SemorCenilia feodaluri xanisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli qviTkiris kedlebi, safexurebi da Tixis WurWeli.
cucxvaTis mRvimovani, rogorc unikaluri bunebrivi da arqeologiuri
Zegli, saxelmwifo nakrZalad aris gamocxadebuli.
tyibula-Zevrulas mRvimis Casasvlelebi mdebareobs tyibulisa da
Terjolis raionebis sazRvarze, okriba-argveTis seris flatis ZirSi, sofel
Zevris maxloblad zRvis donidan 490m-ze. mRvimis gamokvleuli nawilis
sigrZe 1600 m-ia, fskeris farTobi 5500 kv.m, xolo moculoba 35000 kubur
metrs uaxlovdeba. gamomuSavebulia zedacarcul Sreebriv kirqvebSi.
mRvimis samive Sesasvleli mokle Webisa da daxrili safexurebis
monacvleobiT ukavSirdeba subhorizontalur galereas, romelic mraval
ganStoebas Seicavs. isini Sedgeba rogorc mokle da wyliani, ise grZeli da
mSrali nawilebisagan. 220m -is siRrmeze galerea sifonuri tbiT ixSoba.
cxrajvaris mRvime mdebareobs
tyibulis Crdilo-dasavleTiT, raWis
qedis
(naqeralas)
samxreT
ferdobze,
zRvis
donidan
1435
m-ze.
gamomuSavebulia qvedacarcul sqelSreebriv kirqvebSi. Sesasvleli kirqvis
giganturi lodebiT aris Caxergili.
mRvimis wina nawili erTiani grandiozuli darbazia (simaRle- 6-7m,
fskeris farTobi- 3000 kv.m, xolo moculoba-17000 kub.m-ia). cxrajvaris mRvime
Sedgeba viwro yeliT dakavSirebuli ori nawilisagan, romelTa jamuri
sigrZe 470 m-ia. meore nawili erT-erTi udidesia axali aTonis mRvimis
„qarTvel speleologTa darbazis“ Semdeg.
cxrajvaris
mRvimis
erT-erT
ubanze
SemorCenilia
bunebrivad
moCuqurTmebuli
stalagmitebi.
Weri
TeTri
naRvenTi
formebiTstalaqtitebiTa da kalcitis fardebiT , fskeri ki stalaqtitebis
namtvrevebiTaa mofenili, rac Weris periodul Camoqcevaze migvaniSnebs. aqve
mikvleulia mRvimuri daTvis Tavis qala da sxva nawilebi. savaraudod aq
winaT arsebobda erTi mRvimidan meoreSi gasavleli, saidanac daTvebi wylis
dasalevad Sediodnen. Semdeg mRvimis Weri Camoiqca, Sesasvleli amoqola da
mRvime daTvebis sasaflaod aqcia. axla mxolod viwro xvrelia SemorCenili.
okribis teritoriaze arsebuli mRvimovani sistema unikaluria. misi
Seswavla
mniSvnelovania
rogorc
mecnieruli
,
ise
praqtikuli
saWiroebebidan
gamomdinare-turistuli
da
samedicino
TvalsazrisiT.
320
dReisaTvis mRvimeebis kvleva garTulebulia
ZviradRirebuli aparaturis arqonis gamo.
misi
specifikurobisa
A
da
adgilobrivi mosaxleoba miiCnevs, rom mRvimeebis popularizaciis
SemTxvavaSi mimdebare soflebi turistul funqcias SeiZens, rac momgebiani
iqneba ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT.
mRvimeebis turistuli eqsploatacia sifrTxiles moiTxovs. maTi
keTilmowyoba da ganaTeba safrTxes uqmnis naRvenTi formebis arsebobas.
mRvimis aqtiuri ventilacia Weridan
stalaqtitebis
mtvrevas iwvevs
(saTafliis mRvime), xolo Tanamedrove dekoratiuli ganaTebis pirobebSi
Cndeba mcenareebi (promeTes mRvime), rac arRvevs
mikroklimats. misi
SenarCuneba ki mRvimis arsebobis aucilebeli pirobaa.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. m. alfeniZe, z. seferTelaZe, e. daviTaia, k. xaraZe ,,saqarTvelos
fizikuri geografia” , Tbilisi 2009.
2. ,,saqarTvelos bunebrivi saocrebani”, saymawvilo enciklopedia
t. IX, gamomcemloba ,,dila”, Tbilisi 2008.
3.
l. maruaSvili
,,mRvimeTmcodneobis safuZvlebi”,
Tbilisi 1973.
4. www.imereti.ge
5. www.apa.gov.ge
6. www. ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/okriba
Okriba Karstic Massive
Temur Kublashvili
Resume
Georgia is a unique country from the point of view of spreading of the karstic relief. The
work deals with the caves existing on the Okriba territory in West Georgia. These caves are famous for
their worldwide importance.
321
gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqone adamianebis sazogadoebasTan
integraciis procesSi masmediis saSualebaTa roli da mniSvneloba
dea svaniZe, sofo jaWvaZe
soxumis saxelmwifo universitetis ganatlebis fakultetis III kursi
rusudan fifia
soxumis sax. universitetis filologiis doqtori,
asocirebuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
Cven garemoSi mravali gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqone adamiani
cxovrobs. tradiciulad, sazogadoebis es garkveuli nawili ase Tu ise jer
kidev socialuri da politikuri cxovrebis miRma rCeba. sazogadoeba,
rogorc wesi, naklebad icnobs maT. gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqone
adamianisTvis ki sazogadoebis sruluflebian wevrad yofna sirTuleebis
gadalaxvas niSnavs, fizikuri da Ffsiqologiuri barierebis daZlevas.
Tu ratom arian isini `uxilavni~ da naklebad CarTulni sazogadoebriv
cxovrebaSi, amis mravali mizezi arsebobs, maT Soris erT-erTi mniSvnelovani
sazogadoebaSi arsebuli negatiuri ganwyobaa. negatiuri ganwyobis mowmeni
Cven TviTon gavxdebiT, rodesac gavecnobiT fizikur, socialur da
fsiqologiur barierebs, romlebic xels uSlis integraciis process.
Catarebulma kvlevebma gamoavlina am adamianebTan dakavSirebiT sazogadoebis
sxvadasxvagvari xedva. gamokiTxulTa 45% Tvlis, rom aseT adamianebs aqvT
arasrulfasovnebis
gancda, ris gamoc isini skolaSi wasvlisgan Tavs
ikaveben, nawili ki miiCnevs, rom aseT bavSvebs an ar aqvT swavlis survili, an
ar SeuZliaT swavla.
gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqoneTa mimarT swori sazogadoebrivi
azris
Camoyalibebas
SeuZlia
daarRvios
sazogadoebaSi
arsebuli
stereotipebi.
TiToeulma
adamianma
unda
Seignos,
rom
SezRuduli
SesaZleblobis mqone pirebs TanagrZnoba da Tanadgoma sWirdebaT, raTa maT
sazogadoebisgan mowyvetilad ar igrZnon Tavi, zedmet tvirTad da
usargeblo adamianad.
mogexsenebaT, SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone ar niSnavs mxolod
gonebaSezRuduls da rom maT Soris bevri uniWieresi adamiania, romelTa
gonebriv SesaZleblobebTan SeiZleba fizikurad sruliad normaluri
adamiani verc ki mivides. istoriam mravlad Semogvinaxa msgavsi magaliTebi,
roca smenadakarguli adamiani saocar musikas, xolo brma mxatvari ki
msoflio Sedevrebs qmnida. [3;gv.243]
amdenad, msgavs adamianTa mxolod avadmyofebad aRqma da maTi
erTgvarad
`mokveTa~
aqtiuri
sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebidan
araTu
arasasurveli faqti, aramed danaSaulic kia. am adamianebs ufleba aqvT,
icxovron da iRvawon TavianTi SesaZleblobebis farglebSi. yovelive amis
misaRwevad ki aucilebelia masmediis sasualebebis aqtiuri propaganda.
masmedia Zlieri saSualebaa sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaqmnelad. Tu uaxloes
istorias gadavxedavT, aSkarad SeimCneva SezRuduli SesaZleblobis mqone
322
adamianTa gaaqtiureba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi.
saqarTveloSi sabWoTa kavSiris periodSic ki arsebobda usinaTloTa
sazogadoeba, romelsac hqonda Tavisi mcire sawarmoebi, sadac dasaqmebuli
iyvnen usinaTlo adamianebi da iqmneboda farTo gamoyenebis produqcia. roca
aseTi adamiani grZnobs, rom sargeblobis motana SeuZlia da mZime tvirTad
ar awveba garSemo myofT, es ukve misi gamarjvebaa im tkivilze, romelsac
guliT daatarebs Tavisi fizikuri naklis gamo.
aRiarebulia, rom erT-erTi mniSvnelovani barieri, romlis gadalaxvac
SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebs uwevT, aris sazogadoebis
damokidebuleba maTdami. samwuxarod, sazogadoeba jer kidev ar aris mzad
aRiqvas isini srulfasovan da sruluflebian wevrebad. jer kidev Zlieria
gaucxoebisa da `sinanulis~ faqtori, maTze saubrisas xSirad gaismis
sityvebi: `sabralo~, `sawyali~, `ubeduri~ da a.S. rac ara marto araeTikuri,
aramed damamcirebelic kia.
dRes skolebSi unarSezRudul bavSvTa swavlebis sakiTxi sabolood
formirebuli da Camoyalibebuli ar aris. sxva sakiTxia ramdenadaa
dainteresebuli ama, Tu im skolis direqcia, rom maTTan msgavsi
SesaZleblobebis bavSvebma iswavlon. arc isaa gamoricxuli, rom gaaCndes
kiTxva: xom ar daafrTxobs mSobels is, rom misi Svili erT klasSi iqneba
SezRuduli SesaZleblobis mqone bavSvTan? xom ar SeuSlis es xels mis
Svils srulfasovani ganaTlebis miRebaSi? garda amisa, dResdReobiT
saqarTvelos
skolebSi
ar
aris
pirobebi
imisa,
rom
SezRuduli
SesaZleblobebis mqone pirebma damoukideblad (individualurad) SeZlon
gadaadgileba. Zalian mniSvnelovania, skolas hqondes iseTi asasvleli
saklaso oTaxamde, biblioTekamde da a.S, romelsac savarZelSi mjdomi
adamiani gamoiyenebs.
CvenTan
jer
kidev
ar
danergila
politikurad
koreqtuli
terminologia. mdgomareobis Sesacvlelad propaganda unda gaewios iseTi
gansazRvrebebisa da cnebebis damkvidrebas, romlebic ar iwvevs negatiur
asociaciebs. [2;gv.46]
terminebi, romlebic ar unda gamoviyenoT Sez. Ses. Mmqone pirebis
mimarT: 1. SezRuduli SesaZleblobis mqone piri ar unda movixsenioT
invalidad, xeibrad; 2. gansakuTrebuli saWiroebis mqone bavSvi _ avadmyofad,
defeqturad; 3.adamiani, romelsac gansakuTrebuli zrunva sWirdeba _
arasrulfasovnad; 4. pirovneba, romelic etliT gadaadgildeba _ etls
mijaWvul adamianad; 5. Tandayolili SezRudva _ Tandayolil defeqtad; 6.
gonebrivi ganviTarebis Seferxebis mqone pirovneba _ gonebaClungad,
gonebrivad arasrulyofilad, debilad; 7.Ffsiqikuri problemebis mqone piri,
sulieri an emociuri darRvevebis mqone _ giJad; 8. susti mxedvelobis mqone,
mxedvelobis SezRudvis mqone, usinaTlo _ brmad an brucianad; 9. smenis
SezRudvis, smenisa da metyvelebis darRvevis mqone bavSvi _ yrud da yrumunjad. [2;gv.47]
ra grZnobebi, emociebi da asociaciebi SeiZleba gamoiwvios mkiTxvelSi
am sityvebma? aRmoCnda, rom:
etls mijaWvuli asocirdeba _ ganwirulobasTan;
323
yru-munji _ urTierTobis sirTulesTan;
uxelo `paralitiki~ TanagrZnobas, sibraluls iwvevs;
gonebaClungi,
dauni
_
zizRTan,
dakavSirebulia
usiamovno
moulednelobasTan, saSiSroebasTan, safrTxesTan.
rogori
unda
iyos
sazogadoebis
warmodgena,
damokidebuleba
gansxvavebul adamianebze, Tuki statiebSi gamoyenebuli TiToeuli sityva
zemoTqmul emociebs iwvevs:
erT-erT gazeTSi gamoqveynda statia, romelic integrirebuli swavlebis
sakiTxs Seexo. sakiTxis mimoxilvis Semdeg avtori statias ase amTavrebs:
`Cveni
jamrTeli
bavSvebi
isedac
ar
iklaven
Tavs
swavliT
da
unarSezRuduli moswavleebis gverdiT miiReben ki srulyofil ganaTlebas? ~
qarTul presasTan erTad gavecaniT ucxour presas, romlis wakiTxvamac
sruliad sapirispiro ganwyobaze dagvayena, es iyo statiebi Cveulebriv
adamianebze, maT saintereso pirad da profesiul cxovrebaze.
sainteresoa piter radkes mosazreba gansxvavebul adamianTa sakiTxebsa
da masmediaze. piter radke germaniis erT-erT qalaqSi mdebare patara
telestudiisa da filmebis mwarmoebeli kompaniis mTavari menejeri da
redaqtoria. is ukve 19 welia, uSualod muSaobs gansxvavebuli adamianebis
sakiTxebTan dakavSirebul Temebze. piter radke aseve gaxlavT evropis
gansxvavebul adamianTa forumis sakomunikacio komitetis aqtiuri wevric.
moviyvanT nawyvets masTan interviudan:
`_ batono radke, iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom masobrivi sainformacio
saSualebebi gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobebis mqone
adamianebs nakleb
yuradRebas uTmobs. Tqven rogor TvliT, es ubralod imis bralia, rom
sazogadoeba ar aris dainteresebuli maTi cxovrebiT, Tu ubralod am
adamianebTan urTierTobis damyareba raRacis SiSiT aris gamowveuli?
_ gansxvavebuli adamianebis yoveldRiuri cxovreba sakmaod izidavs
sazogadoebas, magaliTisTvis sakuTar Tavs moviyvan. adamianebma arc ki ician,
Tu rogor SevZeli cxovrebaSi raimesTvis mimeRwia, isini ufro gaocebuli
miyureben, rodesac manqanaSi vjdebi da verc ki warmoidgenen, Tu rogor
SevZleb sruli datvirTviT vimuSao samsaxurSi.
Cven unda SevwyvitoT fiqri imaze, rom Cveni cxovreba ar aris
saintereso sazogadoebisTvis da SevecadoT, rogorme SevamciroT is zRvari,
rac
arsebobs
Cvensa
da
im
adamianebs
Soris,
romelTac
dRes
`aragansxvavebulad~ moiazreben... Cven unda gadavlaxoT Cven win arsebuli
nebismieri
barieri.
Cven
unda
gadaviqceT
`uxilavi~
moqalaqeebidan
`xilulebad~ da Tu Cveni moqalaqeebi ar movlen CvenTan stumrad, Cven
vewvioT
maT
Sin
media
kompaniis
warmoebiT
(statiebiTa
da
TV
JurnalistebiT)~.
SezRuduli SesaZleblobis mqone pirebis mimarT interess iCenen
sportuli federaciebi. magaliTad, ramdenime kviris win gaimarTa Sejibri
jomardobaSi, romelSic monawileobdnen etliT mosiaruleebi, aseve uaxloes
momavalSi igegmeba paraplaniT frena.
Cven garSemo mcxovrebi gansxvavebuli SesaZleblobis mqone adamianebi
zogi am gansxvavebulobiT daibadnen an Semdeg SeiZines _ cxovrebis manZilze,
324
Tumca amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba ar aqvs. ubralod, gansxvavebuloba
moiTxovs gansakuTrebul pirobebs, specifikuri saWiroebebidan gamomdinare.
magaliTad, maT sWirdebaT etlebi, sasmeni aparatebi, megzuri ZaRlebi... magram
gacilebiT Znelia, ebrZolo uxilav sirTuleebs _ sazogadoebis uaryofiT
damokidebulebas.
JurnalistTa
informirebulobis
gazrda
gansxvavebul
adamianTa
sakiTxebis garSemo xels Seuwyoobs koreqturi leqsikuri erTeulebis
SerCevas da yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi danergvas, rac Tavis mxriv gansxvavebul
adamianTa imijis Seqmnas da pozitiuri sazogadoebrivi azris formirebas
ganapirobebs.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. avtorTa jgufi: r. fifia, i. buxuleiSvili. Jurnali `ganaTleba,
axali xedcva da axleburi midgomebi~ (soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti).
2. viswavloT erTad, inkluziuri ganaTleba.
3. avtorTa jgufi: mark l. bedSou, nensi j. roizeni, gaetano r.
lotreCiano. `bavSvebi SezRuduli SesaZleblobebiT~.
The Role and Importance of Media for Disabled People to be Integrated in Society
Dea Svanidze, Sopo Jachvadze
Resume
The works speaks about society’s dependence towards desabled people and the role of media in
this process. The author thinks that spreading information about disabled people by journalists will
contribute to select corrective lexical units and to estabilsh them in everyday life. It will cause to form
positive public opinion towards disabled people.
qarTuli tansacmeli, fexsacmeli da Tavsaburavebi
mariam arCuaZe, irina yaziSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
turizmis specialobis II kursi
badri razmaZe
istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori
Tavisi xangrZlivi evoluciis gzaze adamianma Seqmna tanisamosi.
msoflios sxvadasxva xalxebma tansacmeli miusadages sakuTari qveynis
bunebriv, saomar, nadirobis, Sromisa da kulturuli dasvenebis pirobebs da,
amasTanave, im nedleuls, romelic konkretul geografiul garemoSi saamisod
325
moepovebodaT (tyavi, matyli, seli, kanafi, bamba, abreSumi da a.S.).
vinaidan tyavi da qsovili drois gamocdas ver uZlebs, arqeologebi
qsovilis mxolod fragmentebsa da nafleTebs pouloben, specialistebi
tansacmlis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad msjeloben im naxatebiT, qandakebebiT,
qsoviliani keramikiTa da antikuri periodis istorikosebisa da mwerlebis
CanawerebiT, romlebmac Cvenamde moaRwia.
gamoCenili germaneli mxatvari da kulturologi, berlinis samxatvro
akademiis profesori german veisi (1822_1897w.w.) Tavis wignSi ,,civilizaciis
istoria, romelic sam tomadaa gamocemuli da civilizaciis enciklopedias
warmoadgens, sxvaTa Soris, Cveni planetis xalxTa tanisamossac aRwers
dawyebuli Cvens eramde, meoTxe aTaswleulidan, vidre
saukunemde Cveni
welTaRricxviT.
german veisis samtomeulis wakiTxvis Semdeg, qarTvel kacs uli siamayiT
evseba imis gamo, rom Cven, msoflios mraval sxva erisgan gansxvavebiT,
sakuTari niWiT, axlis mudmivi ZiebiTa da daucxromeli SromiT Segviqmnia
sakuTari originaluri tansacmeli, fexsacmeli da Tavsaburavebi.
Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom qarTuli erovnuli tansacmeli imdenad
xandazmuli,
mravalferovani,
natifi,
esTetikurad
da
higienurad
srulyofili da, amasTanave praqtikulia, rom msoflios nebismieri xalxi
iSviaTad Tu gauwevs mas metoqeobas.
Cveni winaprebi adridanve flobdnen safeiqro xelovnebas, romelic
gvain antikur xanaSi ganviTarebis maRal dones aRwevs.
bedenis erT-erT samarxSi mikvleulia Teqis, fardagis da qsovilebis
fragmentebi, romlebic Zv.w. aTaswleulis dasawyisiT TariRdeba.
mkvlevarebs dRemde ver daudgeniaT, ras warmoadgenda e.g. oqros
sawmisi, erT-erTi versiis mixedviT, romelic safeiqro saqmis specialistebs
ekuTvniT, oqros sawmisad miCneulia ara cxvris tyavi, aramed unatifesi
qsovili, romelsac kolxebi selisagan amzadebdnen. varaudobdnen, rom iseTi
qsovili, romelsac erqva wyali
an haeri, mzaddeboda imdenad wminda
Zafisgan, romlis miReba Tanamedrove sarTav manqanebzec ki metad
Znelia da SeuiaraRebeli TvaliT ar Canda, aseTi maRali normis Zafis
narTi, roca saeqsfortod gahqondaT, erTi grami ormoci grami oqro Rirda
da swored amis gamo miCneuli iyo ,,oqros sawmisad. Zvel berZnebs
ainteresebdaT aseTi narTis miRebis teqnologia. romlis saidumloc
grZneulma medeam kargad icoda da, ra Tqma unda, argonavtebis laSqrobis
ZiriTadi mizanic, albaT, es gaxldaT.
jer kidev Zv.w.
V saukuneSi herodote Tu sagangebod amaxvilebs
yuradRebas kolxuri selis qsovilze, romelsac kolxeTSi egviptelTa
msgavsad amuSavebdnen, qsenofonte mouTiTebda xalibebisa da mosinikebis
selis tansacmelze, strabonis drosac kolxeTSi amuSavebdnen sels da
kanafs. seli qveynis gareTac
gahqondaT. maRali xarisxis Salis Zafis
misaRebad saWiro iyo nazmatyliani cxvris moSeneba. saqarTveloSi cxvris
Zvlebisa da misi sakreWi makratlebis (duqardebis) mravlad aRmoCena
safuZvels iZleva vivaraudoT mecxvareobis farTo gavrceleba anikur xanaSi.
savaraudoa, rom qarTuli Cacmuloba ukve antikur xanaSi Camoyalibda.
326
samosi weliwadis drois sesabamisi mzaddeboda, zamTarSi-sqeli da Tbili,
zafxulSi - grili da Txeli.
saqarTveloSi, rogorc amas werilobiTi wyaroebi adasturebs, farTod
iyo gavrcelebuli ,,samoseli tyavisani, ,,samoseli cxovarTa tyapuWi.
uZvelesi warmoSobisaa qarTuli nabadi, romlis Sesakravi grZeli brinjaos
sakinZebi Zv.w.
aTaswleulidanaa CvenSi cnobili. ase rom, qarTvelma erma
saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi SeimuSava Cacma-daxurvis unikaluri wesi da
qarTulma erovnulma kostiumma mecxramete saukunis 20-ian wlebamde
SeinarCuna Tavis funqciuri daniSnuleba.
qarTuli erovnuli Cacmulobis mravalferovnebisa da originalurobis
sailustraciod sakmarisia qalisa da mamakacis Cacmulobis elementebis
Semdegi CamonaTvali:
I. mamakacis Tavsaburavi - 1) qeCis qudebi: TuSuri, xevsuruli, svanuri,
imeruli, megruli; 2) yabalaxi; 3) imeruli ,,fafanaki; 4) fafaxi - glexuri da
qalaquri.
II. qalis Tavsaburavi: mandili, Tavsakravi, xilabandi, TavSali, leCaqi,
abreSumis Tavsafari - ,,baRdadi, Cixti, kopi, Ciqila.
III. perangi: qarTluri, xevsuruli, TuSuri, aWarul-megrul-guruli.
IV. Sarvali da Coxa-axaluxi: qarTluri Sarvali, qarTlur-kaxuri
axaluxi da naqsovi qamari (,,xonjari), xevsuruli ,,Sarvali, imeruli axaluxi,
imeruli Sarvali, aWarul-guruli Sarvali (,,Caqura), aWarul guruli
axaluxi, qalis ,,SeidiSi, qalis inglisouri Sarvali, qalis aWaruli
Sarvali, glexis qarTuli Coxa,masrebiani Coxa,xevsuruli Coxa, aWarulguruli Coxa.
V. qalis qarTuli zeda Casacmeli ,,qaTibi, TuSuri kaba, winsafari,
xevsuruli ,,tyavi, ,,sadiaco da zeda samosi.
VI. fexsacmeli: qalamani, qoSi, Ceqma, moxeuri qalamani, svanuri
dawnulZirebiani qalamani, wuRa-mesti, TuSuri naqsovi ,,CiTa
xevsuruli
,,TaTebi, natis aWaruli lafaCini, xis qoSebi.
amrigad, rogorc davinaxeT, qarTvelebi SesaniSnavad imosebodnen. maT
hqondaT Sroma - saqmianobis, saomari moqmedebis, mTisa da barispirobebis
Sesaferisi universaluri Tavsaburavi, tansacmeli da fexsacmeli, ris
Sesabamisadac erma SeimuSava Cacma-daxurvis originaluri tradiciebi,
romelTa angariSis gaweva savaldebulo iyo rogorc qalebis, ise
mamakacebisaTvis. magaliTad, didad samarcxvino yofila saukuneSi qarTveli
kacisaTvis Tavsaburavis gareSe gamoCena, razedac metyvelebs rusTavelis
,,vefxistyaosnis Semdegi monakveTi:,, vinca iyos uaresi, TavSiSveli, sam dRers
vlides-o.” aseTive normebs eqvemdebareboda qalisa da mamakacis sxva
Sesamosic. ra Tqma unda, aziisa da evropis gzajvaredinze mcxovreb ers
zomierada aqvs SeTvisebuli, rogorc aRmosavluri, ise dasavluri Cacmadaxurvis elementebic.
bunebam TiToeuli adamianis garegnobas ganumeorebeli individualoba
mianiWa da moCvenebiTi garegnuli msgavseba xSir semTxvevaSi sruliad
gansxvavebul midgomas moiTxovs ama Tu im pirovnebis garegnuli ieris
gaformebaSi, radgan arsebobs raRac Sinagani, faruli niSan-Tvisebebi,
327
romlebic gadamwyvet rols asruleben tansacmlis formisa da feris
SerCevaSi. swored amis gamo TiToeulma pirovnebam unda Seiqmnas Cacmulobis
sakuTari ansambli. sityva ,,ansambli arqiteqturidanaa nasesxebi da aseTi
saxiTac gamoiyeneba xolme ,,Cacmulobis ansambli. Cacmulobis ansamblSi
ganasxvaveben ZiriTad nawilebs: palto, kaba, kostiumi da maT danamatebs:
fexsacmeli, Tavsaburavi, xelCanTa da samkaulebi. ansamblis Sesaqmnelad
SeiZleba dagvWirdes sami, xuTi an aTi nivTic ki da yvela es nivTi unda
qmnides erT mTels anu unda iyos urTierTTan harmoniulad Serwymuli.
gulsatkenia, rom eri, romelsac Cacma-daxurvis SesaniSnavi tradiciebi
hqonda da sxvisgan sasesxebeli TiTqmis araferi sWirda, dRes brmad iziarebs
qarTvelisTvis yovlad Seuferebeli Cacma-daxurvis ucxour wesebs.
Tu yuradgebiT davakvirdebiT, davinaxavT, rom qarTveli qalebi
Tojinebad gadaaqcies da rogorc sur, ise acmeven. maT elvis siswrafiT
miatovebines kabebi da SarvlebiT Seucvales, Semdeg weli mouRiaves da
sasircxo organo - Wipi gamouCines, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Wipi dRes epidemiad
iqca, aravin uwyis, xval ra formaSi vixilavT Cven saTayvanebel qarTvel
qalebs.
bolos unda aRiniSnos, rom erSi,
rogorc soflad ise qalaqSi,
mravlada gvyavs sanaqebo, kargi ojaxiSvili qaliSvilebi da qalebi,
romlebic egre iolad ara xdebian modis yurmoWrili monebi, imosebian
uzadod, maT SesaniSnavad aqvT erovnuli tanisamosis Sesabamisi da,
amasTanave, individualobis gamomxatveli Cacma-daxurvis SesaSuri gemovneba.
vuyurebT maT, vRebulobT umaRles esTetikur siamovnebas da gveZleva imis
imedi, rom qarTveli qali momavalSic CvenTvis saamayo da saTayvano iqneba.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1 b. razmaZe
,,SevinarCunoT jansaRi qarTuli tradiciebi
gamomcemloba ,,universali Tbilisi 2009w. (gv.14_300)
2 r. TofCiSvili ,,saqarTvelos eTnologia Tbilisis
unuversitetis gamomcemloba 2008w. (gv. 235-238)
3 n. brailaSvili ,,aseTi maxsovs saqarTvelo gamomcemloba
,,xelovneba 1990w. wigns paginacia ar gaaCnia, aris
ilustraciebis nomrebi.
4 veisi german ,,civilizaciis istoriagamocemulia sam tomad,
moskovi ,,eksmo-press 1998w.
Georgian Clothes, Footwear and Headwear
mxolod
Mariam Archuadze
Irina Kazishvili
Resume
At the present thesis is well reviwed about clothes, shoses and hedgeare’s history. It is
important to use German Vice’s encyclopedia during working about this topic. The speakers touch
Bronze Age, antique period and finish to reviewing by twentieth century. Altogether this thesis whit its
contents fully reflects Georgian clothes evolution way.
328
individualur stilTa statistikuri Seswavla sintaqsur doneze
E
ekaterine maruaSvili
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti
nugzar sixaruliZe
saqarTvelos teqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti sruli profesori
stilistika aqamde TiTqmis ar iyenebda im saSualebebs, rac moutana
enaTmecnierebas
meTodebs
axalma,
stilistika
maTematikurma
iRebs
da
jer-jerobiT
kibernetikulma
mxolod
ori
meTodebma.
wyarodan:
am
erTia
maTematikuri stilistika, xolo meore _ informaciis Teoria (kibernetikis
Teoriuli safuZveli). maSin roca enaTmecnierul SromebSi am or wyarosTan
erTad farTod gamoiyeneba ukve iseTi disciplinebi, rogoricaa simravleTa
Teoria da maTematikuri logika.
stilistikas yovelTvis iyenebdnen stilistikuti kvlevisas, magram igi
arasodes
ascilebia
ariTmetikikis
dones,
dRes
ki
mkacri
maTematikuri
aparatis saSualebiT xdeba metyvelebis stilistikuri struqturebis dadgena
da aRwera.
sruliad axalia stilis kvlevisas informaciis Teoriis gamoyeneba. es
siaxle
gamoixateba,
rogorc
kvlevis
meTodikaSi,
ise
stilistikisadmi
Tanamedrove mecnierul midgomaSi, Zveli problemebis axlebur gadawyvetasa
da
axali
problemebis
gamoyenebiT
seriozul
dasmaSi.
Sedegebs
vidre
miaRwevs,
stilistika
saWiroa
axali
meTodebis
stilistikur
cnebaTa
formalizacia, rac did siZneleebs warmoadgens, vinaidan ena da enobrivi
stili iseTi rTuli sazogadoebrivi warmonaqmnia, rom masSi yvelaferi ar
emorCileba zust aRweras. es aris erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom dRemde ar aris
sayovelTaod
miRebuli
ganmarteba
stilis
cnebisa
Tumca
stilis
Semswavleli disciplina didi xania arsebobs. cxadia, rom verc mxolod
maTematikuri
meTodebis
saSulalebiT
moxerxdeba
stilis
cnebis
Camoyalibeba; magram am meTodebs SeuZliaT zustad daadginos da aRricxos
stilis iseTi tendenciebi, rogoric fiqsirebuli formis ganmeoreba da
fiqsirebuli
Taviseburebani
gamijvnis
formis
enis
Teoriul
darRvevaa;
raodenobrivad
Seiswavlos
Tavisi
Seitanos
yvela
doneze,
da
praqtikul
wvlili
sakiTxebSi,
rac
stilis
ena-stilis
xels
Seuwyobs
Semdegi
ZiriTadi
stilistikas, rogorc obieqturi mecnierebis Camoyalibebas.
M
metvelebis
stilis
kvlevisas
sakiTxebis gamoyofa:
329
miRebulia
“1. ra saxis gamomxatvelobiTs funqcias asrulebs garkveul sityvaTa
SerCeva, ra daniSnuleba gansazRvravs maincdamainc am garkveuli leqsikiT
sargeblobas gacilebiT ufro farTo leqsikuri maragidan?
2.
ra
gamomxatvelobiTs
saxecvlilebas
iZleva
sityva
konteqstis
mixedviT, ra da ranairi Sinaarsebis gadmocema xerxdeba erTi da imave
sityviT, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra enobriv viTarebaSia igi gamoyenebuli?
3. ra daniSnulebas emsaxureba da upasuxebs sxvadasxva saxis Sesityveba,
sityvaTa
garkveuli
saxiT
SeTanxmeba,
maTi
rigi
da
Tanmimdevroba?
ra
gamomxatvelobiTs Zalas Seicavs sityvier monacemTa garkveuli ganlageba
gabmuli metyvelebis ama Tu im monakveTsa da saxeobaSi?”
stilistikis
zemodxsenebuli
sakiTxebis
damuSavebisas
warmatebiT
SeiZleba gamoviyenoT statistikuri meTodebi, radgan aq naTlad Cans enobriv
movlenaTa raodenobrivi analzis aucilebloba.
vinaidan es sakiTxebi stilistikis ZiriTadi sakiTxebia, romlebic metad
rTul da amave dros, did sferos Seexeba, amitom maTi gadawyvetisaTvis
aucilebelia
mravalferovani
masalis
damuSaveba,
yvela
im
Seswavla, romelic ukavSirdeba ZiriTadi sakiTxebis wres. aseT
Cveni
kvlevisaTvis
mizanSewonilia
zogadi
sakiTxebidan
sakiTxis
viTarebaSi
konkretuli
sakiTxebis gamoyofa da amave dros, sakvlevi masalis Semofargvla.
kvlevisaTvis
aRebulia
mxatvruli
literatures
nimuSebi,
romelTa
stilistikuri analizi warmoebs rogorc garegani stilistikis (stylistique
externe), ise Sinagani stilistikis (stylistique interne) sferoSi. Aaqve mocemulia
individualur avtorTa stilistikuri maxasiaTeblebis dadgenis cda erT
SeTxvevaSi, leqsikur, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi sintaqsur doneze.
L
elegardis gamokvlevis negatiuri Sedegi, ra Tqma unda ar niSnavs imas,
rom
meTodi,
rogorc
aseTi,
Seufardebelia
avtorebis
dasadgenad.
im
kvalifikaciiT, rasac am meTods herdani aZlevs (DR-is gamoiyeneba rogorc
albaTuri
Sefardebisa),
elegardis
procedura
warmoadgens
axal
statistikur meTods avtoris stilis dasadgenad. marTalia, elegardma ver
miaRwia sasurvel Sedegs iuniusis problemis kvlevisas, magram mis mier
Semotanilma
Sefardebam
moulodnelad
migviyvana
albaTur
Sefardebamde,
romelic stilTa gansxvavebulobis axali parametria.
aqamde gvqonda leqsikis xmarebulobis ori maxasiaTebeli-xdomilebaTa
sixSire,
rogorc
cvalebadobis bazis
da msgavsi stilebisaTvis
saerTo
leqsika. axla maT miemata albaTuri Sefardeba, rac naTels mohfens leqsikis
330
struqturis mTlianobis Seswavlas.
amave
dros,
es
Sefardeba
iyenebs
ena-stili
mimarTebis
axleburad
ganxilvis sakiTxs, kerZod, rogor erTiandebian, Tanxmdebian ena da stili
xSiri
elementebis
warmoqmnisas.
is,
rom
elementTa
sixSire
leqsikis
gamoyenebisas mxolod nawilobriv aris stilis saqme, herdanma aTi wlis
winadac aRniSna (G. Herdan, Language as Choice and Chance, gv. 35-41), magram sruli da
zusti formulireba enasa da stils Soris arsebuli mimarTebisa jer aravis
moucia. leqsikis struqturis axali maxasiaTebeli (DR), cxadia, mniSvnelovan
biZgs miscems ara marto am sakiTxis ganviTarebas, aramed, igi uaRresad
mniSvnelovani iqneba lingvisturi kodis damuSavebis cnebisaTvis leqsikis
doneze.
Ggamoyenebuli literatura
1.
gr. kiknaZe “metyvelebis stilis sakiTxebi”, Tbilisi 1957.
2.
M. Riflaterre, Stylistic context, Word 16, 1960.
3.
G. Herdan, Quantitative Lingvistics, London, Butlerworths 1964.
4.
P.Guiraud, Problems et methods de la statistique Linguisique, Paris, 1960.
5.
J. Mersand, Chauce s Romance Vocabulary, New York, 1939.
Resume
Ekaterine Maruashvili
Statistical studying of Individual Styles on the Syntax Level
In this study, speech synthesis system in speech characteristics of various speaking styles was
assessed.
The results of the present analysis being as encouraging as they are, future research will focus
on the following aspects: addition of new styles, annotation of syllabic prominence in the database for
enhancing the selection of units according to their accentuation, better technical integration of the
style.
The research aims in currency study is to investigate connections between speech styles and
statistic.
331
metyvelebis stilebi sametyvelo kvlevaSi
ekaterine maruaSvili
saqarTvelos teqqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti
nugzar sixaruliZe
sruli profesori
saqarTvelos teqqnikuri universitetis doqtoranti
am prezentaciaSi me Sevecdebi gavce preliminaruli pasuxi
SekiTxvas, romelic exeba salaparako stilis sametyvelo kvlevas:
xuT
(1)
ra tipis monacemebia gamoyenebuli salaparako stilis kvlevisas?
(2)
ra aris Sedarebuli erTmaneTs sametyvelo stilis kvlevisas?
(3)
romelia fonemuri da fonologiuri korelatebi sametyvelo
stilebSi?
(4)
ra iqna gamokvleuli fonemur da fonologiur stilebSi?
(5)
ra saxis kategoriebi iqna gamoyenebuli, rom gangvesazRvra
sametyvelo stilebi?
Aamis gasaketeblad me gamoviyeneb masalebs “The Phonetics and Phonology of
Speaking Styles‖, romelic warmodgenili iqna barselonaSi 1991 wlis oqtomberSi
(LIisterri & Poch (Eds.) 1991). Me mjeravs, rom am stilebis koleqcia Seiqmna da
ganaxlda erTsa da imave dros da warmoadgens farTo rigs fonemuri da
fonologiuri sametyvelo stilebis kvlevisas.
masalis tipi, romelic gamoyenebul iqna da Semdeg klasicifirda or
mTavar jgufad: erTi warmoadgenda metnaklebad moumzadebel situaciebs da
meore warmoadgenda winaswar momzadebul teqsts; ukanaskneli ganixila,
rogorc
“gadabmuli
metyveleba”
da
pirveli,
rogorc
“spontanuri
metyveleba”, romlebic ganxilul iqna konvenciis avtorTa mier.
“spontanur metyvelebaSi” Cven gamovarCevT sami tipis masalas,
damokidebuls garemosamyaroze, romelSic isini moiazrebian: nimuSebi
Cawerilia laboratoriul pirobebSi, nimuSebi Cawerilia radiosa da
satelevizio gadmocemebis dros, da nimuSebi Cawerilia mSobliuri enis
molaparakis garemopirobebSi. TxuTmeti ganxiluli statiidan, romlebic
ganixilaven mimarTulebas, Tormeti ganxorcielda laboratoriaSi, oTxi
dasaxmareblad gadaeca radiosa da televizias, mxolod erTi iqna Cawerili
molaparakesTan normalur garemopirobebSi. Cven migvaCnia, rom rasac vuwodeT
“spontanuri metyveleba”, misi umetesi SemTxvevebi citirebulia aramSobliuri
situaciidan, mag. laboratoriaSi, sadac mosaubre irCevs Tavis mSobliur
konteqsts, rom awarmoos sametyvelo nimuSebi eqsperimentuli kvlevisaTvis.
neba momeciT warmogidginoT ufro zusti gamokvlevebi sametyvelo
nimuSebisa, romlebic miRweul iqna laboratoriul pirobebSi. isini
Cveulebriv miiRweoda intervius dros, romlebic aRwerilia zogierTi
avtoris mier, rogorc “directed” an “semi-directed”. umetes SemTxvevebSi mosaubre
pasuxobs gamomcdels misi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis Sesaxeb, samsaxurze,
bavSvobaze, swavlaze, karieraze da sxv. pasuxebi xSirad emsgavseba mokle
monologebs, mas Semdeg rac mkvlevari cdilobs SeaRwios an Caerios
332
naklebad, Tu es SesaZlebelia mocemul pirobebSi. svams SekiTxvebs, mxolod
maSin, roca subieqti iRleba an iqanceba mocemuli Temis irgvliv. aSkaraa,
rom es ar aris ubralo saubari, mas Semdeg rac mimzidveli cvlileba
varaudisa aris ZaldatanebiTi. “interviu”- gamoyenebuli bevri avtoris mier –
Cans metad aqtualuri am mokle statiaSi. Uaxloesi miaxloeba bunebriv
situaciasTan SeiZleba miRweul iqnas, rodesac molaparake saubrobs Tavis
da mkvlevaris mier arCeul megobarTan (hansoni 1991).
ufro
metad
gamocdil
SemTxvevebSi,
gansakuTrebuli
amocanaa
daniSnuli subieqtisTvis im mizniT, rom gamovlindes spontanuri saubari. es
amocana SeiZleba metnaklebad daZabuli iyos. erTis mxriv Cven vnaxeT
kontinuumis gacilebiT meti bunebrivi amocanebi, rogorc yoveldRiuri
mgzavrobis aRwerisas. meores mxriv, sverti (1991) iyenebs sivrciT badis msgavs
qsels, romelic STagonebulia linearizaciul eqsperimentSi, romelic
Seiqmna leventis mier da Sejamebulia (1989: 140-144). araferi ise Rirebuli ar
iyo,
rogorc
zogierTma
mkvlevarma
airCia
interviu
professional
mosaubresTan. maT mouxdaT daebronaT es sakuTar gonebaSi, rom TiTqos isini
ar iyvnen profesionali mosaubreebi, magram maT uxdebodaT warmoedginaT
sakuTari Tavi, magram CautardaT interviu zogad topikebSi. erT-erTi mizezi
amis gakeTebisa Seamcirebs stresis raodenobas, romelic gamowveulia
studiis pirobebSi da gadasaRebi aRWurvilobis win. es stimuls miscems met
bunebriv produqciebs, magram aseve arsebobs safrTxe, rom gamsaubreblebis
muSaoba mediasTan midrekilebas iqoniebs, rom gamoiyenos misi “profesiuli”
stili mocemul garemocvaSi, romelic ketavs mas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. Barry, M.C (1984) “connected speech: processes, motivations, mpdels”, Cambridge Papers in
ohonetics and Experimental linguistics 3: 2.1-2.16
2. Delgado, M.R. – Freitas, M.J. (1991) “Temporal atructures of speech: “Reading news on TV”, in
Proceedings of ESCA Workshop „Phonetics and Phonology of Speaking Styles: Reduction and
Elaboration in Speech Communication‟. Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, 30 September-2 October 1991. Pp
19-1 – 19-5.
3. Dressler, W.U. – Wodak, R. (1982) “Sociophonological methods in the study of sociolinguistic
variation in Viennese German”, Language and Society 11: 339-
Speech Styles in Speech research
Ekaterine Maruashvili
Resume
This work refers to the stylistically analysis researching different syntax level. But our
producing survey may be called syntactical, because our research object was not dependence between
words and sentence members. We were not interested in sentences constructions. Our research is
referred to sentence members who are studied in syntax.
For research we took models of literature which stylistically analyses were made in stylistic
extern and stylistic intern.
333
gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia
United Nations Organization
mariam durgliSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
specialoba: saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi
xelmZRvaneli: titviniZe Sorena
(inglisuri enis ufrosi maswavlebeli)
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 595 69 29 23
.
1941 wlis agvistos aSS-s prezidenti franklin delano ruzvelti da
didi britaneTis premier-ministri ser uinston CerCili atlantikis okeaneSi
sabrZolo xomaldze („uelsis princi“) gamarTul Sexvedraze SeTanxmdnen
msoflio samSvidobo gegmaze. mogvianebiT 1942 wlis 1 ianvars, 26 saxelmwifos
warmomadgeneli aSS-is dedaqalaq vaSingtonSi Seikriba, sadac pirvelad
gaCnda termini „gaerTianebili erebi“, romelic ruzvelts ekuTvnis.
Semdegi Sexvedra moskovSi Sedga. am Sexvedraze aSS-s, ssrk-s, CineTisa
da
didi
britaneTis
warmomadgenlebi
SeTanxmdnen
CamoeyalibebinaT
organizacia, romelsac mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis funqciebi daekisreboda.
1945 wlis 26 ivniss san-franciskoSi 50-ma suverenulma saxelmwifom
xeli moawera gaeros wesdebas. damfuZnebeli kreba kaliforniis StatSi,
sanfranciskoSi, redvod grouSi gaimarTa. oficialurad gaero Seiqmna 24
oqtombers, wesdebis ratificireba moxda xelmomweri saxelmwifoebis mier
gaero Tanamedrove msoflios yvelaze didi da avtoritetuli
organizaciaa. gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia suverenul saxelmwifoTa
nebayoflobiTi
gaerTianeba
da
saerTaSoriso
samTavroboTaSoriso
organizaciaa. gaero Tavad ar flobs suverenitets. organizaciis nebas wevrisaxelmwifoebi
gansazRvaraven,
romlebic
gadawyvetilebas
iReben
demokratiul principebze dayrdnobiT - konsesusis an kenWisyris gziT.
TiToeuli saxelmwifo, ganurCevlad sididisa, ekonomikuri Tu samxedro
Zlierebisa, erTi xmis mflobelia. gamonaklisia uSiSroebis sabWos 5 mudmivi
wevri. esenia: aSS. didi britaneTi, safrangeTi, CineTi da ruseTis federacia.
maT msoflio usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis ganxilvisas
SeuZliaT vetos ufleba gamoiyenon.
erTa liga Secvala axalma, gaerTianebuli erebis saerTaSoriso
organizaciam. misi winamorbedis zogierTi funqciis miRebasTan erTad,
gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam moicva adamianis uflebaTa masiuri
Selaxvis da teritoriuli suverenitetis seriozuli darRvevebis problemebi
- is movlenebi, romlebmac gamoiwvia ori msoflio omi da gamoiwvia adamianTa
didi tanjva. ocdaaTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ori msoflio omis uprecedento,
damangrevelma Sedegebma politikuri azrovnebis iseTi demoralizacia
gamoiwvia, rom momavali Taobebis amgvari travmisagan dacvis mizniT
aucilebeli gaxda damajerebeli meqanizmis Camoyalibeba. am mizniT,
mizanSewonilad CaiTvala saerTaSoriso reagireba. arsebuli ganwyobiT
334
konsensusi male iyo mosalodneli. sabolood, 1945 wels san-franciskoSi
miRebuli iqna gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis wesdeba (SemdgomSi
„wesdeba“), romelic ZalaSi 1945 wlis 24 oqtombers Sevida.
Ggaero (gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia)
United Nations Organization (UNO)
gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia, gaero
(United Nations Organization, UNO; SemoklebiT – United Nations, UN):
sayovelTao
mSvidobis
uzrunvelyofisa
da
saxelmwifoTa
TanamSromlobis saerTaSoriso organizacia Seiqmna 1945 wlis 26 ivniss, roca
san-franciskos konferenciaze 50 saxelmwifom xelimoawera mis wesdebas.
wesdeba ZalaSi Sevida 1945 wlis 24 oqtombers. es dRe yovelwliurad
aRiniSneba msoflioSi, rogorc gaerTianebuli erebis dRe.
organizaciis Seqmnis istoria:
gaeros Seqmnis safuZveli gaxda hitleruli germaniisa da misi blokis
winaaRmdeg mebrZol saxelmwifoTa gaerTianeba mZlavr koaliciad. 1942 wlis
1 ianvars maT xeli moaweres “gaerTianebuli erebis deklaracias”,
romlidanac Semdgom warmosdga organizaciis saxelwodeba. gadawyvetileba
axali saerTaSoriso organizaciis Seqmnis Taobaze miiRo 3 didma
saxelmwifom – ssrk, aSS da didi britaneTi – 1943 wlis 30 oqtombers
moskovis konferenciaze, rac gamowveuli iyo faqtiT, rom “erTa ligis”
arsebuli organizacia politikuri da organizaciuuli mankierebis gamo
uZluri aRmoCnda Tavidan aecilebina kacobriobisTvis me-2 msoflio omi.
organizaciis wesdeba SemuSavebul iqna dumbarton-oqsis (1944 wlis agvisto)
da yirimis (1945 wlis Tebervali) konferenciebze. amis Semdeg gadawyda
wesdebis gansaxilvelad da misaRebad san-franciskos konferenciis mowveva.
gaeros wesdeba:
gaeros
wesdeba
umniSvnelovanesi
saerTaSoriso
xelSekrulebaa,
romelSic
asaxulia
Tanamedrove
saerTaSoriso
samarTlis
ZiriTadi
demokratiuli principebi. wesdebis Tanaxmad, gaeros mTavari miznebia: daicvas
saerTaSoriso mSvidoba; ganaviTaros saxelmwifoTa megobruli urTierToba,
dafuZnebuli
xalxaTa
Tanasworuflebianobisa
da
TviTgamorkvevis
principebze; ganaxorcielos saerTaSoriso TanamSromloba ekonomikuri,
socialuri, kulturuli da humanitaruli problemebis gadasaWrelad;
xeliSeuwyos
adamianis
ZiriTad
uflebaTa
sayovelTao
pativiscemas
yvelasaTvis, rasis, sqesis, enisa da religiis ganurCevlad.
am
miznebis
misaRwevad
gaeros
wevrma
saxelmwifoebma
unda
ixelmZRvanelon Semdegi principebiT: gaero dafuZnebulia yvela saxelmwifos
suverenul Tanasworobaze; urTierTSoris dava maT unda gadawyviton mxolod
mSvidobiani gziT, raTa safrTxe ar Seeqmnas saerTaSoriso mSvidobasa da
samarTlianobas; saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi Tavi unda Seikavon Zalismieri
muqaris an Zalis gamoyenebisagan ama Tu im saxelmwifos teritoriuli
mTlianobis an politikuri damoukideblobis winaaRmdeg; yovelnairad unda
daexmaron gaeros da Tavi Seikavon im saxelmwifoTaTvis daxmarebisagan,
335
romlis
winaaRmdeg
gaero
prevenciul
Tu
iZulebiT
RonisZiebebs
axorcielebs; gaero ver Caereva iseT saqmeSi, romelic arsebiTad
saxelmwifos Sinagan kompetencias ganekuTvneba, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca
gaero movalea iZulebis zomebi miiRos saerTaSoriso mSvidobis dasacavad an
aRsadgenad.
gaeros struqtura generaluri asamblea:
gaeros mTavari saTaTbiro organo, sadac warmodgenilia gaeros yvela
wevri saxelmwifo. TiToeul maTgans xmis micemis Tanabari ufleba aqvs (1
xma). generaluri asamblea moiwveva yovelwliurad, xolo aucileblobis
SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba mowveul iqnes specialuri an sagangebo specialuri
sesiebi.
uSiSroebis sabWo:
gaeros mudmivmoqmedi organo. gaeros wesdebis Sesabamisad uSiSroebis
sabWos aqvs dakisrebuli mTavari pasuxismgebloba saerTaSoriso mSvidobisa
da usafrTxoebis SenarCunebaze.
ekonomikuri da socialuri sabWo:
gaeros organo, romelic uflebamosilia Caataros gamokvlevebi da
Seadginos angariSebi saerTaSoriso sakiTxebze ekonomikis, socialur
urTierTobaTa, kulturis, ganaTlebis, jandacvis, adamianTa uflebebis,
ekologiis da sxva sferoebSi.
sameurveo sabWo:
gaeros organo, romlis mizania koloniebisa da damokidebuli
teritoriebis ganviTarebaze zrunva maT damoukideblobamde.
saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo:
gaeros mTavari sasamarTlo organo. Seiqmna 1945 wels. misi mizania
saxelmwifoTa Soris davebis gadawyveta maTi TanxmobiT da iZleva
konsultaciebs da daskvnebs samarTlebriv sakiTxebze.
samdivno:
gaeros
biurokratiuli
organo,
romlis
wevrebi
axorcieleben
organizaciis
yoveldRiur
saqmianobas
da
mis
proeqtebs.
samdivnos
xelmZRvanelobs gaeros mTavari administraciuli Tanamdeblbis piri –
generaluri mdivani.
gaeros sistemaSi Sedian agreTve, gaeros damxmare organoebi: msoflio
sasursaTo sabWo, gaeros bavSvTa fondi, gaeros ganviTarebis programa da
sxvebi. gaeros specializebuli dawesebulebebi: saerTaSoriso savaluto
fondi, msoflio banki, iunesko, iunido da sxvebi. sxva avtonomiuri
saerTaSoriso organizaciebi: msoflio savaWro organizacia, atomuri
energiis saerTaSoriso saagento.
organizaciis funqcionireba Stab-bina:
gaeros mTavari bina niu-iorkSia. iq aris misi mudmivmoqmedi organoebi –
uSiSroebis sabWo da samdivno. metwilad iq tardeba sxva mTavari da damxmare
organoebis
sesiebi.
gaeros
zogierTi
organoebi
muSaoben
mis
evropulofisebSi Jenevasa da venaSi. oficialuri enebi.
gaeros oficialuri enebia:
336
arabuli, espanuri, inglisuri, rusuli, franguli da Cinuri.
am enebzea Sedgenili wesdebis avTentikuri Targmanebi, SeiZleba sityviT
gamosvla gaeros organoebSi da qveyndeba oficialuri dokumentacia. gaeros
samuSao enebia inglisuri da franguli, zogierT organoebSi aseve espanuri
da rusuli.
biujeti:
gaeros
biujeti
Sedgeba
wevri
saxelmwifoebis
yovelwliuri
Senatanebisagan.
organizaciis
biujetis
25%-saSS
avsebs.
“msxvili
gadamxdelebi” arian agreTve: iaponia (10,8%), germania (8,3%),safrangeTi (6,4%),
didi britaneTi (4,9%).
gaeros wevrebi:
gaeros
wevrad
saxelmwifo
miReba
xdeba
uSiSroebis
sabWos
rekomendaciiT generaluri asambleis mier, Tu es organoebi miiCneven, rom
miRebis mTxovneli mSvidobismoyvare saxelmwifoa da namdvilad surs da
SeuZlia Seasrulos wesdebiT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebebi. uSiSroebis
sabWos rekomendaciiT generaluri asambleas SeuZlia SeaCeros im wevri
saxelmwifos
ufleba-privilegiebis
ganxorcieleba,
romlis
mimarTac
uSiSroebis sabWo prevenciul Tu iZulebiT zomebs iRebs, da gaerodan
garicxos saxelmwifo, romelic sistematurad arRvevs wesdebis principebs.
amJamad gaeros wevria 192 saxelmwifo, amas garda damkvirveblis statusiT
sargebloben vatikani da palestinisganTavisuflebis organizacia.
gaeros damfuZnebeli saxelmwifoebia avstralia, argentina, aSS, axali
zelandia, belgia, belarusi, bolivia, brazilia, gvatemala, dania, didi
britaneTi, dominikelTa respublika, egvipte, eTiopia, ekvadori, erayi,
venesuela, TurqeTi, indoeTi, irani, iugoslavia, kanada, kolumbia, kosta-rika,
kuba, libani, liberia, luqsemburgi, meqsika, niderlandi, nikaragua, norvegia,
panama, paragvai, peru, poloneTi, saberZneTi, salvadori, samxreT afrikis
respublika, saudis arabeTi, safrangeTi, siria, ssrk, ukraina, urugvai,
filipinebi, Cexoslovakia, Cile, CineTi, haiti, hondurasi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. Lucius librery.wordpres.com/2011/02/13/gaertianebuli erebi
2. Ka.wikipedia.org/wik/gaertianebuli_erebis_organizacia
United Nations Organization
Mariam Durglishvili
Resume
The author highlights the topic- UNO and covers all necessary information about the
international organization, brings the short history of its foundation and development and covers
all the problems connected with its activities. The article speaks about the detailed information of
the most popular and important international organization – UNO.
337
terorizmi
nadeJda elikaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
specialoba: saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi
titviniZe Sorena
(inglisuri enis ufrosi maswavlebeli)
Email: [email protected] Tell: 598 99 36 88
sityva terori laTinuri warmoSobisaa da niSnavs SiSs, saSinelebas.
teorizmi 21-e saukuneSi TiTqmis yvela saxelmwifos №1 problemadaa qceuli,
Tumca mas gacilebiT didixnis istoria aqvs, vidre misi samarTlebrivi
Sefaseba da kriminalizacia moxdeboda. M
mokled
mimovixilavT
terorizmis
istorias.
jer
kidev
Sua
saukuneebamde terorizmi xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis erT-erT xerxadac ki
gamoiyeneboda. terors mimarTavdnen sasaxlis gadatrialebisas, arasasurveli
xelisuflebis Camogdebisas, inkviziciis dros, gansakuTrebis mZvinvarebda
revoluciebis ganmavlobaSi. terori da terorizmi ama Tu im saxiT
yovelTvis arsebobda, magram politikuri terorizmis istorias 19-e saukunis
pirveli meoTxedidan iwyeben. 19-e saukunis terorizmis revoluciur
terorizms uwodeben, radgan politikuri miznis miRwevis erTaderT gzad
revoluciuri cvlilebebi miiCneoda, xolo terors am gzis aucilebel
atributad Tvlidnen. swored 19-e saukunis 30-40-ian wlebSi iwyeba
naciolalizmis, anarqizmis, socializmis ideebis farTo gavrceleba da
terorizmic am moZraobebis radikaluri mimarTulebebis brZolis formad
iqca.
anarqizmis
gaigiveba
ZaladobasTan
yovelgvar
safuZvels
aris
moklebuli, magram 19-e saukuneSi sakmaod gavrcelebuli warmodgeniTi
termini „anarqisti“ „teroristis“ sinonimad iTvleboda. evropisa da amerikis
TiTqmis yvela qveyana dazaralda anarqistebis qmedebebiT. gansakuTrebiT
Zlieri iyo anarqistuli moZraoba dasavleT da samxreT evropis kaTolikur
qveynebSi (safrangeTi, italia, espaneTi) da ruseTSi.
acionalisturi terorizmi gansakuTrebiT Zlieri iyo 19-e saukuneSi
italiaSi, irlandiaSi, osmaleTis imperiis dapyrobil xalxebSi (serbebi,
makedonelebi,
somxebi)
avstria-ungreTSi,
agreTve
ruseTis
imperiaSi
(polonelebi, kavkasiis xalxebi). socialisti teroristebi gansakuTrebiT
aqtiurad moqmedebdnen ruseTSi. narodnikebma mokles imperatori aleqsandre
meore, Semdeg asparezze gamovidnen social-demokratebi da eserebi. maTi
moqmedeba gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda 1905-1907 wlebis revoluciis periodSi;
20-e saukunis 20-30-iani wlebis evropaSi farTo gaqaneba hpova memarjvene
terorizmma.
Tavdapirvelad
es
iyo
italiuri
faSizmis
Tanmdevi
teroristuli qmedebebi, Semdeg ki germanuli nacisturi terorizmi, romelic
338
gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT gamoirCeoda. manamde gavrcelebuli terorizmis
saxeebisgan gansxvavebiT italieli faSistebisa da germaneli nacistebis
terorizmi saxelmwifo terorizmi iyo. kerZod, musolinisa da hitleris
xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg terori saxelmwifo pilitikis nawilad iqca
da qveynis specsamsaxurebis mier igegmeboda da xorcieldeboda. meore
msoflio omis Semdeg memarjvene, neofaSisturi terorizmi ZiriTadad
italiis, germaniis, avstriisa da safrangeTis calkeuli mcirericxovani
organizaciebis ganxorcielebul aqtebSi gamoixata, romlebic memarcxene
Zalebis an ucxoeli imigrantebis winaagmdeg iyo mimarTuli. memarcxene
terorizmi Tavisi masStatebiT da gavrcelebiT aRemateboda memarjvene
terorizms. ruseTSi bolSevikebis gamarjvebis Semdeg qveynis oficialuri
ideoligia mTel msoflioSi komunizmis gamarjvebas iTvaliswinebda. am
miznis
misaRwevad
ki
aucileblad
iTvleboda
brZola
yvela
mowinaaRmdegesTan, rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise gareTac. sabWoTa komunizmi
terori iyo, romelmac uamravi adamianis sicocxle imsxverpla. meore
msoflio omis Semdeg memarcxene terorizmi kidev ufro gafarTovda da sxva
socialisturi
qveynebis
politikis
nawilic
gaxda.
garda
amisa,
socialisturi
qveynebis
mxardaWeriTa
da
dafinansebiT
moqmedebdnen
sxvadasxva
memarcxene
organizaciebi
ganviTarebul
kapitalistur
da
ganviTarebad qveynebSi (e.w. wiTeli brigadebi). civi omis damTavrebis da
orpolusiani
saerTaSoriso
sistemis
cvlilebis
Semdeg
memarcxene
terorizmis roli da mniSvneloba daeca da Tanamedrove msoflioSi
terorizmis sxva formebi gamovida wina planze. rac Seexeba Tanamedrove
saerTaSoriso terorizms, 20-esaukunis 90-iani wlebidan igi msoflios
seriozul problemad iqca. Igi politikuri partiebis, socialuri fenebis
ideologiebis Camoyalibebas ukavSirdeba. terori niSnavs danaSauls,
romelic miznad isaxavs xelisuflebis daSinebasa da iZulebas, masze
zemoqmedebas. terorizmis mizezebad asaxeleben: neokolonializms, rasizms,
agresiis politikas, politikuri reJimis arademokratiulobas, usamarTlobas,
separatizms, religiur fanatizms da a.S. yvela zemoTCamoTvlili faqtori
ar aris axali da uaxlesi istoriis pirmSo. es mizezebi saxelmwifoebriobis
gaCenidan arseboben, uZvelesi droidan modian, Sua saukuneebSi ixvewebian,
rasac gansakuTrebiT xeli Seuwyo kaTolikurma religiam, eklesiam
inkviziciis marwuxebiT da bolos, dRevandel dRes isini srulyofil saxes
iReben.
saerTaSoriso
terorizmi
Tanamedroveobis
erT-erTi
uaRresad
seriozuli da mwvave globaluri problemaa, romlis winaaRmdeg brZola
sayovelTao amocanad iqca. teroris ganxorcieleba sxvadasxva meTodiT xdeba
da teroristebis miznebic mkveTrad gansxvavdebaerTmaneTisagan. magram yvela
SemTxvevaSi terorizmi arissakuTari miznis misaRwevad gamoyenebuli
Zaladoba, romelic xorcieldeba ukiduresi formiT: mkvleloba, afeTqeba,
gataceba, daWra, mZevalTa ayvana, da a.S. es ari smZime danaSauli, romelic
mudmiv SiSSi amyofebs rogorc mosaxleobas, ise xelisuflebas da kritikul
mdgomareobaSi agdebs mTel qveyanas.
339
terorizmi
sayovelTao
globalur
safrTxed
iqcaukanasknel
aTwleulebSi, roca man saerTaSoriso terorizmis forma miiRo da mTel
msoflios daemuqra, amitom mis winaaRmdeg brZola SeuZlebelia erTi
romelime qveynis an qveyanaTa jgufis farglebSi da mTeli kacobriobis
erTian Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. gansakuTrebul safrTxed msofliosaTvis
iqcnen islamistur-teroristuli oraganizaciebi.
yvelaze ufro mTavar teroristul dajgufebebs miekuTvnebian:
• hesbolahi, libanis radikaluri organizacia, romlis teroristuli
aqciebi mimarTulia ara amarto israelisa da aSS-s winaaRmdeg, aramed xSir
SemTxvevaSi muslimani sunitebis winaaRmdegac.
• jihad al islamia, mniSvnelovan teroristul organizaciebadaa
miCneuli da hamasi – palestinis sunituri radikaluri samxedro politikuri
organizaciebi, romlebsac saRvTo omi aqvs gamocxadebuli israelTan da mis
mxardamWerebTan.
• talibani, ukiduresad konservatiuli, radikaluri islamisturi
organizaciaa, romelic mmarTveli Zala iyo avRaneTSi da aqtiurad uWerda
mxars islamistur-fundamentalistTa teroritul dajgufebebs.
• laSqareTaibi, pakistanis islamisturi moZraoba; jamaaT alislamia,
islamisturi organizacia, romlis mizania centraluri aziis islamuri
saxelmwifos Seqmna.
• al qaida, teroristul-islamur organizaciaTa SorisgansakuTrebuli
aRniSvnis Rirsia eqstremistul-teroristuli islamuri organizacia. Misi
meTauria usama ben ladeni. swored mis mier iyo organizebuli 2001 wlis 11
seqtembris teroristuli aqtebi, ramac aiZula aSS da saerTod mTeli
civilizebuli msoflio erTiani ZaliT gamosuliyvnen saerTaSoriso
terorizmis winaaRmdeg. am saerTo RonisZiebebis Sedegi iyo avRaneTSi
talibanisa da eraySi sadam huseinis reJimebis damxoba, Tumca am movlenas
terorizmis faqtebi ar Seumcirebia.
Terorizmis winaaRmdeg oms analogi ar moepoveba. Ees aris omi, sadac
arsebobs saomari moqmedebis areali, frontis xazi, regularuli armia da
mSvidobiani
mosaxleoba.
es
aris
e.w.
asimetriuli,
globaluri
damravalganzomilebiani omi. aseT omSi samxedro moqmedebis koordinacia
SeuZlebelia. ar arsebobs samxedro marTvis erTiani centri, frontis xazi
gadadis yvelgan nebismier adgilas, safrTxe SeiZleba yvelasagan modiodes,
amitom aucilebelia yvela saeWvo piris ganadgureba. yovelive es sastik
ukureaqcias iwvevs da dapirispireba ufro sastiki da araadamianuri xdeba.
swored es aris terorizmis mTavari globaluri problema, romlis
gadaWrisaTvis ganxorcielebuli Zalisxmeva jerjerobiT warmatebulad ver
CaiTvleba.
340
terorizmi msofliosa da saqarTveloSi 2010 wels, terorizmis Sesaxeb
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo departamentis 2010 wlis angariSis
Tanaxmad, msoflios masStabiT teroristuli Tavdasxmebis raodenoba, 2009
welTan SedarebiT, 5 procentiTaa gazrdili, msxverplis raodenoba ki - 12
procentiT Semcirebuli.
angariSSi, romelic 18 agvistos gamoqveynda,
aRniSnulia, rom 2010 wlis ganmavlobaSi msoflios 72 qveyanaSi 11 500-ze meti
Tavdasxma gamxorcielda, maT Soris 4 - saqarTveloSi.
realurad
mimarT...
es
miniSnebebi
wels
gakeTda
ruseTis
specsamsaxurebis
2010 wlis 22 seqtembers
TbilisSi, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis
saelCodan 100 metrSi, moxda afeTqeba, romelsac msxverpli da ngreva ar
mohyolia; 7 oqtombers samegreloSi, sofel Waladidis sarkinigzo xidze,
aRmoaCines asafeTqebeli mowyobiloba, romelic uvnebelyofil iqna; 22
oqtombers Tbilisis sarkinigzo vagzlis maxloblad ori mowyobiloba
afeTqda, rasac msxverpli aseve ar mohyolia. dabolos, 28 oqtombers
TbilisSi,
leiboristuli Sromis partiis ofisTan afeTqebam erTi qalis
sicocxle imsxverpla. mogvianebiT, imave dRes, afeTqeba moxda muxianis
dasaxlebaSic. esaa is oTxi SemTxveva, romelic terorizmis Sesaxeb amerikis
SeerTebuli Statebis 2010 wlis angariSSi moxvda. angariSis Tanaxmad,
saqarTvelos mTavroba gasuli wlis ganmavlobaSi ganagrZobda sazRvrebis
usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebas da gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos antiteroristuli
rezoluciebis Sesrulebas. aRniSnulia isic, rom qveyana terorizmis
winaaRmdeg brZolis sakiTxebSi TanamSromlobda evrokavSiris ramdenime
qveyanasTan da amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan.
amerikis
SeerTebuli
Statebi
antiteroristuli
RonisZiebebis
dagegmvaze saqarTvelos damoukideblobis pirveli wlebidanve aqtiurad
muSaobda, aRniSnavs eqsperti erovnuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi beso
aladaSvili. igi gansakuTrebiT gamoyofs gasul wels saqarTveloSi momxdar
afeTqebebze SeerTebuli Statebis administraciisa da specsamsaxurebis
reagirebas. aqamde SeerTebul Statebs aseTi mkveTri Sefasebebi ar hqonia,
SeniSnavs beso aladaSvili: ”realurad es miniSnebebi wels gakeTda ruseTis
specsamsaxurebis mimarT da, faqtobrivad, es iyo informaciis Segnebuli
gaJonva SeerTebuli Statebis gazeTebSi, rom ruseTis specsamsaxurebi
uSualod monawileobdnen am teraqtebSi. iq dasaxelebuli iyo samxedro
dazverva. esec mniSvnelovani momentia. bunebrivia, Cven imasac veTanxmebiT,
rom sanam es afxazeTis da cxinvalis regionis teritoria da sazRvrebi ver
kontroldeba, teraqtebis saSiSroeba da safrTxe yovelTvis iarsebebs.”
saqarTvelom, rasakvirvelia, yvelanairad unda gaakeTos aqcenti imaze,
rom mas Teoriulad eqneba mxardaWera dasavleTidan...
afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTze kontrolis ararseboba, rogorc regionSi
terorizmTan brZolisa da ruseTTan sazRvris dacvis
Semaferxebeli
341
faqtori, saxelmwifo departamentis 2010 wlis angariSSi sagangebodaa
xazgasmuli. rogorc saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros analitikuri
departamentis ufrosi SoTa utiaSvili ambobs, sazRvarze damatebiTi
RonisZiebebi tardeba, Tumca damatebiTi kontingentis ganTavseba ar igegmeba:
”samwuxarod, es problema axlaxan gaCnda, gasuli wlidan, roca daiwyo
afeTqebebis seria. ase rom, Cven gavamaxvileT saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis
yuradReba am problemaze, ramdenadac mis gagrZelebas SesaZloa sakmaod mZime
Sedegi mohyves. imedia, rom es afeTqebebis seria dasruldeba da ruseTis
federacia Sewyvets am teraqtebis organizebas.”
saqarTvelom
unda
gaaZlieros
regionaluri
samsaxurebi
antiteroristuli kuTxiTo, gviTxra, Tavis mxriv, gasuli wlis Sefasebisas
terorizmisa da politikuri Zaladobis kvlevis centris xelmZRvanelma,
samxreT kavkasiis regionaluri usafrTxoebis institutis eqspertma badri
naWyebiam:
”saqarTvelom, rasakvirvelia, yvelanairad unda gaakeTos aqcenti
imaze, rom mas Teoriulad eqneba mxardaWera dasavleTidan da, pirvel rigSi,
SeerTebuli
Statebidan,
magram,
gamomdinare
Cveni
regionaluri
mdgomareobidan,
albaT,
saqarTvelom
unda
gaaZlieros
Tavisi
specsamsaxurebi, pirvel rigSi, antiteroristuli kuTxiT. marto Sinagan
saqmeTa saministro araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar aris sakmarisi amasTan
dakavSirebiT.”
msoflioSi terorizmis Sesaxeb amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis
saxelmwifo departamentis
2010 wlis angariSis saqarTvelos nawilSi
Sefasebulia aseve is konkretuli RonisZiebebi, romlebic qveyanam gasul
wels gaatara rogorc sakanonmdeblo da saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis
Sesrulebis, ise terorizmis dafinansebis monitoringisa da fulis
gaTeTrebis winaaRmdeg brZolis mimarTulebiT. rac Seexeba konkretulad
terorizmis
braldebiT
dakavebulebs,
angariSSi
aRniSnulia,
rom
dakavebulebi arian teraqtebis seriaSi eWvmitanilebi, 18 grami gamdidrebuli
uranis kontrabandisTvis ki patimroba 2 pirs Seefarda.
cnobili teroristuli aqtebi:
beslanis teroristuli aqti — qalaq beslanSi (CrdiloeT oseTi) № 1
skolis moswavleebis mZevlebad ayvana boevikTa jgufis mier 2004 wlis 1
seqtembers.
sami
dRis
ganmavlobaSi
teroristebs
skolis
SenobaSi
gamomwyvdeuli hyavdaT 1100 bavSvi, mSoblebi da maswavleblebi. skolis aReba
scada ruseTis specdaniSnulebis razmma, romlis Sedegad wamowyebuli
srolebiT 350 mZevali daiRupa. moklulTa naxevari skolis moswavleebi
iyvnen. 500-ze meti adamiani daiWra. moklul iqna 31 teroristi, 1 cocxlad
iqna ayvanili. es iyo ruseTis istoriaSi umsxvilesi teroristuli aqti.
342
11 seqtembris Tavdasxma (ingl. „September 11 attacks“, SemoklebiT „9/11“,
nine-eleven — cxra-TerTmeti) iyo al-qaidas TviTmkvlel teroristTa
koordinirebul TavdasxmaTa seria aSS-is teritoriaze 2001 wlis 11
seqtembers. am dRes 19 islamistma teroristma Seipyro oTxi komerciuli
samgzavro
TviTmfrinavi.
gamtacebleblma
gamiznulad
daajaxes
ori
TviTmfrinavi niu-iorkSi msoflio savaWro centris or caTambjens (e.w.
tyupebs), ris Sedegadac daiRupa yvela mgzavri da am SenobebSi im momentSi
myofi xalxis didi nawili. orive Senoba ori saaTis ganmavlobaSi Camoiqca
da Tan moiyola mimdebare ori Senoba da mravali sxva Zlier daaziana.
gamtaceblebma mesame TviTmfrinavi pentagonis Senobas daajaxes. meoTxe
TviTmfrinavi somerset qaunTis, pensilvania, velze Camovarda. oTxive
TviTmfrinavis yvela mgzavri daiRupa.
madridis teraqti — espaneTis saparlamento arCevnebamde sami dRiT
adre, 2004 wlis 11 marts (3/11) ganxorcielebuli teroristuli aqti. qalaqis
sagareubno matareblebSi sadgurebze atoCa, el-poso da santa-euxenia, 5
wuTis intervalSi afeTqda 13 bombi. daiRupa 191 adamiani, 1247-ma miiRo
sxeulis dazianeba. Tavdapirvelad aRniSnul teraqtze pasuxismgeblobas
akisrebdnen baskur teroristul organizacias eta-s, magram rogorc Semdeg
gairkva teraqti mowyobili iyo islamuri organizaciis al-yaidas mier.
teroristuli aqtis dro SeirCa simboluri mniSvnelobis mixedviT: afeTqeba
moxda niu-iorkis 11 seqtembris teraqtidan 911 dRis Semdeg.
gamoyenebuli literatura
Wordpress.com/saertashoriso terorizmi-g/
www.radiotavisupleba.ge/content /article/24301636
Terrorism
Nadezhda Elikashvili
Resume
The above represented issue concerns the problematic topic – terrorism. The work
brings the history of terrorism and its development throughout the centuries, lists the main
international organizations that fulfill their actions and missions as terrorist groups and brings the
greatest events carried out by different terrorist groups in the world. The article also highlights the
terrorism as the problem connected with Georgia.
343
fsiqologia da XXI saukunis mzardi problema –
internetdamokidebuleba
Mmegi mamukaSvili
i. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis saxelmwifo Uuniversiteti
specialoba: fsiqologia
titviniZe Sorena
(inglisuri enis ufrosi maswavlebeli)
Email: [email protected] Tel: 598 33 38 97
„fsiqologias xangrZlivi warsuli aqvs, magram mokle istoria“ – es
sityvebi
gamoCenil germanel fsiqologs, herman ebinhauss ekuTvnis (man
pirvelad daiwyo mexsierebis procesebis Seswavla). fsiqologiis sawyisebi
jer kidev uZveles droSi Caisaxa (pirvel fsiqologiur naSromad
aRiarebulia aristoteles „sulis Sesaxeb“), Tumca fsiqologiis, rogorc
damoukidebeli mecnierebis Camoyalibeba mxolod XIX saukunis 70–ian wlebSi
moxda, rac vilhelm vundtis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli (1879 wels
germaniis
qalaq
laipcigSi
man
pirvelma
daaarsa
fsiqologiuri
laboratoria).
fsiqologiis amocanaa mecnierulad Seiswavlos rogorc adamianis
fsiqikuri aqtivoba, mentaluri procesebi, aseve
gamovlenadi qcevac.
(fsiqologebi pirovnebas ganixilaven ara mxolod ideografiuli, aramed
nomoTeturi midgomiTac).
fsiqologia gasuli saukunidan dRemde uzarmazar winsvlas ganicdis,
magram, miuxedavad amisa, kacobriobis winaSe jer kidev rCeba gadauWreli
problemebis grZeli CamonaTvali, romelsac yovelwliurad emateba aTobiT
axali fsiqikuri Tu mentaluri daavadeba.
Cems naSromSi msurs mimovixilo XXI saukuneSi warmoSobili daavadeba,
romelic ganpirobebulia Tanamedroveobis miRwevebiT, kerZod, kompiuteris,
internetisa da socialuri qselebis zepopularobiT.
aseTi daavadebaa
internetdamokidebuleba
(msoflioSi cnobili, rogorc
IAD – (Internet
addiction disorder). fsiqologTa da fsiqiatrTa wreebSi am dromde mimdinareobs
dava, imis Sesaxeb,
Seitanon Tu ara
IAD
„fsiqikuri darRvevebis
diagnostikuri da statistikuri saxelmZRvanelos“ (DSM - Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders) mexuTe gamocemaSi.
ras warmoadgens realurad interneti adamianebisaTvis? informaciis
mopovebis praqtikul da saWiro wyaros Tu „drois mWamels“?
am kiTxvebze
yovel Cvengans gansxvavebuli pasuxi SeiZleba hqondes, imisda mixedviT Tu
ra dros vatarebT kompiuterTan da ramdenad Rirebulad aRviqvamT daxarjul
saaTebs. erT–erT
e.w.
„drois mWamelad“ internetSi yofnisas gvevlineba
socialuri qselebi.
statistik breinis
(STATISTIC BRAIN) uaxlesi monacemebis mixedviT
socialur qselSi gawevrianebulia ramdenime miliardi adamiani, maT Soris
liderobs facebook–i 1,2 miliardi momxmarebliT.
logikurad ismis kiTxva, ra aris realurad socialuri
qseli da
344
xalxis
amxela masas ratom
esaWiroeba
zustad
aseTi
formis
urTierTobebi?
socialuri qseli esaa struqtura, romelic Sedgeba
calkeuli
individebisagan, romlebsac erTmaneTTan akavSirebT megobroba, saerTo
interesebi, oficialuri an finansuri urTierTobebi, ojaxiswevroba, religia,
rwmenebi an sxva saxis urTierTdamokidebulebis formebi.
avstralieli
mecnierebis
ukanaskneli kvlevebis Tanaxmad, msxvili
socialuri saitebis zemoqmedeba adamianze da mis fsiqikaze, yovelwliurad
sul
ufro
da
ufro
izrdeba. ufro metic, axlaxans
amerikelma
mecnierebma
daadgines,
rom Tuki
ucbaT (momentalurad) socialuri
qselebi
Sewyveten
muSaobas, maTi momxmareblebis (aq saubaria mxolod
amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi mcxovreb momxmareblebze) daaxloebiT 65% ver
SeZlebs am faqtis umtkivneulod gadatanas: – maT
did
nawilSi
gamovlindeba
sxvadasxva
fsiqikuri
aSlilobebi,
depresiebi da
TviTmkvlelobis mcdelobebic ki.
Cvens droSi internetis
momxmarebelTa
62%
socialuri qselebis
aqtiuri momxmarebelia, romelTagan 36% Tavis gverdze (profilSi) Sedis
minimum
2-3-jer
dReSi. momxmareblebis
10 %, rac
aris socialuri
gverdebis yoveli meeqvse momxmarebeli,
fasdebian rogorc
“socialuri
narkomanebi”. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, maT sWirdebaT Tavisive gverdis
daTvaliereba, siaxleebis damateba, an sxva manipulaciebis Catareba, rac
iRebs permanentul xasiaTs. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sxvadasxva mizezebis
gamo socialuri qselebi xelmiuwvdomelia, aseT adamianebs ewyebaT nervuli
aSlilobebi (imis gamo rom isini ver axerxeben siaxleebis naxvas).
Sedegad, maTi organizmi
ganicdis Zlier
fsiqologiur
stress, rac
vlindeba mouTmenlobaSi, gaRiZianebasa da agresiaSi.
am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, avstralieli mkvlevarebi aRniSnaven, rom
sul raRac 5 wlis win „socialuri narkomanebis“ klasSi SeiZleba
Sesuliyo socialuri qselebis momxmarebelTa mxolod 4%. xolo axla, 20082013 wlebSi „socialuri narkomanebis“ ricxvi 2,5-jer gaizarda da Seadgina
socialuri qselebis momxmarebelTa 10%.
aseTi Sedegis mizezi aris, rogorc
socialuri
qselebis
popularizacia, aseve maTi („socialuri narkomanebis“) Sinagani ganviTareba
da adaptacia, agreTve is faqti, rom socialur
qselebSi dResdReisobiT
daregisrtirebulia Zalian bevri adamiani, rac qmnis martivi urTierTobis
erT–erT SesaniSnav wyaros.
ukanasknelma neirofsiqologiurma kvlevebma aCvena cvlilebebi im
adamianTa tvinis struqturaSi, romlebic ganicdian internetdamokidebulebas.
kerZod, dadginda, rom xdeba tvinis mniSvnelovani areebis Semcireba da
TeTri nivTierebis (rac erTgvar gamtars warmoqmnis tvinSi) Seviwroeba.
saintereso faqtia, rom es cvlilebebi Zalian hgavs im cvlilebebs rasac
ganicdis heroinze an msgavs sxva nivTierebaze damokidebuli adamianis tvinis
ujredebi.
internetis aqtiur momxmareblebs Seadgenen umetesad 12–dan 45 wlamde
asakis adamianebi. fsiqologebi gansakuTrebiT amaxvileben yuradRebas iseTi
345
kategoriis momxmareblebze, romelTa fsiqika jer kidev ar aris bolomde
Camoyalibebuli. aseT jgufSi moiazrebian mozardebi. vinaidan maTi fsiqika
arastabiluria, isini xSirad avlenen „internetdamokidebulebas“, rac
uaryofiTad moqmedebs maT progressa da msofmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze.
ganusazRvreli droiT „qselSi“ yofna mozardebs (da ara marto maT) arTmevs
cxovrebis aRqmis unars, realobisa da dRevandelobis SegrZnebas, „aq da
amJamad“ arsebobis, egzistenciis unars. amasTanave socialuri qselebi xels
uSlian maT ganviTarebasa da gazrdas, radgan is xdeba maTi cxovrebis
narkotiki. aranakleb saxifaToa mozardebis mier seqsualuri qcevisaken
mimarTuli winadadebebisa da mowodebebis kiTxva, rac uaryofiT zegavlenas
axdens mozardTa fsiqikaze.
gansxvavebuli situaciaa mozrdilTa kategoriaSi (24–25 wlidan 45
wlamde). am asakobriv jgufSi adamianebi, romlebsac ar hyavT napovni
partniori, did imedebs amyareben socialur qselebze. fiqroben, rom
iternetis saSualebiT bevrad advilia adamianis gacnoba da daojaxeba.
Tumca, sinamdvileSi Tavs iCens xolme ufro meti uaryofiTi mxare, vidre
dadebiTi, rac iwvevs sinanulis SegrZnebas, imedgacruebas, SfoTvasa da Rrma
depresias.
cnobilia, rom bolo dros did britaneTSi warmoebuli
ganqorwinebebis 20% socialur qsel Facebook–s ukavSirdeba. (am faqtis
Sesaxeb wers The Daily Mail ). yovel mexuTe meuRles ojaxis dangrevis erT–erT
mizezad misi meore naxevris socialur qselebSi zedmetad CarTuloba
mohyavs. ufro metic, ramodenime Tvis win gavrcelda Semzaravi informacia –
aSS–Si dedam sakuTari Svili mxolod imis gamo mokla, rom Cvili dedas
„feisbuqis“ fermaSi „mosavlis aRebas“ ar aclida. (socialur qselebTan
dakavSirebuli msgavsi problemebi saqarTveloSic araerTia. magaliTad, cota
xnis win qarTveli gogonebis xelCarTuli Cxubisa da daWris mizezi is gaxda,
rom mozardma virtualur nacnob biWs SefasebaSi erTi qula dauwera).
aseTive gavlenas axdens adamianis fsiqikaze video da onlain TamaSebi.
fsiqologTa nawili acxadebs, rom mwvave fsiqologiur damokidebulebas
iwvevs mxolod onlain TamaSebi, sadac moTamaSeebs aqvT saSualeba
iurTierTon sxva moTamaSeebTan, rac xSirad xdeba
mizezi imisa, rom
virtualuri urTierToba maTTvis xdeba bevrad mniSvnelovani, vidre realuri
cxovrebiseuli urTierTobebi adamianebTan (anu adamianis afiliaciis
moTxovnileba
saxecvlilad
TiTqos
kompensirdeba,
kmayofildeba
virtualurad). Tumca am azrs bevri mowinaaRmdege gamouCnda, romlebic
yuradRebas amaxvileben ara marto onlain, aramed zogadad kompiuterul
TamaSebis mZlavr gavlenaze.
udavoa, rom kompiuterma, internetma da sxva Tanamedrove miRwevebma
ukve Rrmad SemoaRwies Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi da gaidges fesvebi Cvens
fsiqikaSi. mecnierebis azriT, xalxi jer kidev ver afasebs im zegavlenis
realur sidides, rasac ukanaskneli aTwleulebis miRwevebi axdenen adamianze.
ganviTareba da winsvla rogorc mecnierul, aseve teqnologiur doneze
udavod misasalmebelia. warmoudgenelia XXI saukune kompiuterisa da
internetis gareSe. ubralod unda vecadoT maqsimalurad Semcirebul iqnas
346
gavlenis xarisxi da efeqti. virtualur urTierTobebze metad upiratesoba
uda mieniWos pirispir, cocxal urTierTobebs. Tu vacnobierebT rom vxdebiT
internetmijaWvuli (internetdamokidebuli), SevecadoT sakuTar Tavs misi
gamoyenebis SezRudvebi davuwesoT.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
Psychology as a Science – Paul D. Ackerman
2.
Boring, E.G. A history of experimental psychology, 2nd edition. New York:
Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1950, pp.134-138.
3.
Dell’Osso B, Altamura AC, Allen A, Marazziti D, Hollander E: Epidemiologic and
clinical updates on impulse control disorders: a critical review. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
2006; 256:464–475
4.
Hollander E, Stein DJ (eds): Clinical Manual of Impulse-Control Disorders.
Arlington, Va, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2006
5.
Block JJ: Pathological computer use in the USA, in 2007 International Symposium
on the Counseling and Treatment of Youth Internet Addiction. Seoul, Korea, National Youth
Commission, 2007, p 433
6.
Beard KW, Wolf EM: Modification in the proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet
addiction. Cyberpsychol Behav 2001; 4:377–383
7.
The more they play, the more they lose. People’s Daily Online, April 10, 2007
8.
Block JJ: Pathological computer game use. Psychiatric Times, March 1, 2007, p 49
9.
Block, J. (2008) Issues for DSM-V: Internet Addiction
10.
„feisbuqiT“ dangreuli ojaxebi da virtualuri sayvarlebi
daojaxebuli qalebis „frendlistebSi“, - Sorena gogolaZe, 5 dekemberi, 2012.
11.
presa.ge http://www.presa.ge/new/?m=society&AID=12343
Resume
Megi Mamukashvili
Psychology and the Greatest Problem of XXI Century Internet Addict
The above represented work concerns the most popular topic of today’s world and that is
internet and using social nets. The author brings it in the frame of psychological point of view, how the
―internet addiction disorder‖ begins to become one of the most important problems of society and how
IAD spreads day by day. The work brings the problems connected with the subject and researches that
are carried out by leading psychiatrists throughout the world.
347
depresia da misi daZlevis fsiqologiuri meTodebi
naTia jojua
soxumis saxelmwifo universiteti
ganaTlebis fakulteti
brolisa wulaia
pedagogikis doqtori, asocirebuli profesori
E-mail: [email protected], E [email protected] Tel: 555 56 23 49
xSirad mohkravT yurs, rogor SesCivis erTi adamiani meores,rom mas
depresia
tanjavs.
samwuxarod,
es
problema
marTlac
sayovelTaod
gavrcelda. dRes, Tu dasavleTis qveynebSi depresiulia mosaxleobis
15-17%,
CvenSi esmaCvenebeli sagrZnoblad maRalia.... depresiis gamo,bevri adamiani
cxovrebis normaluri ritmidan vardeba, kargavs sicocxliT tkbobis unars,
ufro metic, zogjer sicocxlis azrsac kargavs. depresia 21-e saukunis
daavadebaa, antidepresantebi ki 21-e saukunis wamlebi. amJamad sazogadoebis
mier gaweuli materialuri danaxarjebis mixedviT, depresia daavadebaTa
Soris mesame adgilzea, saerTo samedicino praqtikaSi
misi sixSire 20-30
procents aRwevs, maSin rodesac
me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi 2-3 procents
aRemateboda.
depresia an depresiuli sindromi ewodeba simptomTa farTo kompleqsis
farTo wres, romlis struqturaSic aucilebel da wamyvan (garda
maskirebuli anu farulad mimdinare depresiebisa) simptoms warmoadgens e.w
hipoTimia – guneba - ganwyobilebis paTologiuri, araadekvaturi daqveiTeba.
3,116
depresia es avadmyofuri mdgomareobaa, romelsac sakmaod didi istoria
aqvs, misi etimologia Zveli egviptis samedicino traqtatidan iwyeba,
sadacigi aRwerilia, rogorc melanqolia. depresia laTinuri sityva deprimodanwarmodgeba da daTrgunvas niSnavs. mravali sxvadasxva definiciis
miuxedavad, Cven SegviZlia depresia ganvmartoT, rogorc guneba-ganwyobilebis
cvalebadoba, romlis diapazoni meryeobs ugunebobidan mZime apaTiur
formamde. TiToeuli adamiani isedac zogadad xasiaTdeba individualurobiT
da arc es SemTxvevaa gamonaklisi. gaaCnia pirovnebas rogori stresuli
zRurbli aqvs, rogori temperamenti da ramdenad iracionaluri arsebaa.
Tumca gansazRvrulia zogadi simptomatika, romlis mixedviTac SesaZlebelia
depresiis
diagnostireba.. depresia Tavisi bunebiT Zalian veragia, radgan
misTvis sulerTia ra statusi aqvs adamians, ramdenad ganaTlebulia
da
rogor socialur safexurze dgas igi. zogadad
depresiis
gamomwvev
mizezebze
Tu
visaubrabT esenia, yoveldRiuri stresebi, moulodnli
danakargi, mZime imedgacrueba da maT
Soris
konkurentunarianobac.
Cemi
azriT
sakiTxi
Zalian
aqtualuria,radgan
348
civilizaciis
ganviTarebasTan erTad, garemo adamians yoveldRiurad uwyobs gamocdebs da
daZabul
stresul
reJimSi
amyofebs.depresiis
msubuq
formas
fsiqoTerapevtebi
sakmaod
advilad
erevian,
TumcaRa,
rogorc
wesi,garTulebis SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia fsiqiatriuliCarevac ki, radgan
saqme SesaZloa
gvqondes
uamrav fsiqikur
aSlilobasTan, rogoricaa:
aRqmis paToogia an maniakaluri depresia da sxva.zogjer adamiani saWiroebs
medikamentozur
mkurnalobasac,
antidepresantebis
saxiT.
yoveldRiur
cxovrebaSi antidepresantebs warmoadgens Rimili, fizikuri datvirTva an
Sokoladis fila, magram zogjer dgeba momenti, roca es yovelive uZluria.
swored am dros anxorcielebs intervencias fsiqoTerapevti an fsiqiatri.
Tumca iqamde upriani iqneba Tavad depresiis gamomwvev mizezebze visaubroT
da Semdeg ganvixiloT daZlevis starategiebi.
depresiis definicia da mecnieruli midgomebi:
depresia - es aris ubralod uguneboba,is qronikuli da morecidive
daavadebaa, saidanac gamosavali eqimis an fsiqologis daxmarbiT unda
veZeboT.
sxvadasxva
adamianSi
depresiis
niSnebi
sxvadasxvagvarad
gamovlindeba,
zogTan
es
umweobis
da
uimedobis
gancdaa,
zogTan
yoveldRiuri saqmianobisadmi interesis dakargva, madis da wonis cvlilebebi,
moZraobis da metyvelebis Seneleba, Cumi metyveleba, uenergioba, momatebuli
gaRizinebadoba an sruliad sakuTar TavSi Caketva, aseT dros adamianebi
eZalebian tkbileuls, alkoholsa da narkotikebsac ki. depresiisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia
somaturi
Civilebic
sxvadasxvagvari
klinikuri
gamovlinebebiT(muclis da Tavis tkivili); samwuxarod mZime depresias,
rodesac adamiani xsnas ver poulobs an misi tkivili autanelia,zogjer
suicidamdec mihyavs igi. rogorc wesi axloblebi sakmaod gvian igeben
realuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb da ufro metic,arc ki ician rogor miudgnen
maT, rac kidev ufro amZimebs suraTs. sxvadasaxva
mecnieri depresiis
amosavals sxvadasxva mizezSi xedavs, zogierTi miiCnevs rom
depresiisken
midrekileba genetikiTaa ganpirobebuli da umeteswilad depresiac imaT
satanjavT, visma winaparmac TviTmkvleloba scada an misi ojaxis wevrebi
gamoirCevian Raribi urTierTobebiT socialur garemosTan. Caketil wreSi
triali erT-erTi Zlieri determinantia, Tumca garemoc, rom udides rols
asrulebs depresiis aRmocenebis procesSi es udaoa.
- stresi, danakargi, globaluri katastrofebi, ekonomiuri krizisi,
nebismieri myari interpersonaluri kontaqtis rRveva, postravmulistresi,
fizikuri dazianeba an nakli, ukurnebeli daavadebis diagnozi, martooba da
kidev mravali mizezi SeiZleba daedos safuZvlad depresias, swored amitom
fsiqoTerapevtebi mas calmxrivad ar ganixilaven da udgebian kompleqsurad.
depresiis niRbebi:
rodesac depresiaze vsaubrobT, aucileblad unda vaxsenoT organizmSi
mimdinare cvlilebebi, am dros icvleba zogierTi neirotransmiteris
koncentracia, xdeba hormonaluri cvlilebebic, SesaZloa swored amitomaa
349
rom statistikis mixedviT qalebi da mozardebi ufro xSirad itanjebian am
daavadebiT, es kategoria SesaZloa moxvdes atipiuri depresiis kategoriaSi,
romlis
drosac
damaxasiaTebelia
guneba
ganwyobilebis
swrafi
cvalebadoba, wonis problemebi, kritikisadmi zemgrZnobeloba, umweobisa da
sakuTari uunarobis gancda, sxeulis xatis rRveva da arastabiluri, aramyari
urTierTobebi... samwuxarod, amas SesaZloa mohyves arasasurveli orsuloba,
upasuxismgeblo mSobeli da SesaZloa gamosavali
fataluric iyos, rogorc
wesi atipiuri depresia gaivlis im SemTxvevaSi Tu garemo gaxdeba stabuluri
da arastresuli, Tumca mas axasiaTebs recidivi nebismieri dabrkolebis
daZlevisas. xSiria mSobiarobis Semdgom periodebSic. didi depresia
gacilebiT ufro saSiSia da misi simptomatikac mkveTrad gamoxatulia,
SeuZlebelia igi
ver
SevamCnioT
- Caketiloba,
gaRizianebuloba,
sakuTari Tavis siZulvili da isic recesiulobiT xasiaTdeba.
arsebobs depresiis kidv erTi forma da mas disTimia ewodeba. disTimia
ufro msubuqi formaa, radgan misi simptomatika ar aris mkveTrad gamoxatuli
da didi depresiisgan gansxvavebiT gacilebiT ufro did xans gastans,
TumcaRa, saSiSia im mxriv, rom arRvevs adamianis yoveldRiuri cxovrebis
ritms. droTa ganmavlobaSi adamianisTvis sulerTi xdeba mis garSemo
mimdinare procesebi, movlenebi, maT ar SeswevT cxovrebiT tkbobis unari,
isini sxvebis TvalSi kritikuli da usicocxlo adamianebis STabeWdilebas
toveben, rac aisaxeba maTi megobrebis raodenobazec, aravis unda aseT
adamianTan didxans gaCereba.es mdgomareoba martivad inkurneba specialistis
Carevis Sedegad, Tumca aris SemTxvevebi,roca Tu mas sruliad uyuradRebod
davtovebT,am SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa didi depresiac daerTos, am movlenas
ormag depresias uwodeben. sxvaTaSoris, adamianis depresiul mdgomareobas
amindic
ganapirobebs,medikosebi
amas
vitaminebis
naklebobasTan
an
metabolizmis darRvevasTan akavSireben, fsoqologebiki
sezonur, Semodgoma- zamTris depresias uwodeben, am dros adamiani
gaRizianebulia da SfoTvac gacilebiT momatebulia, radgan SfoTva
TavisTavad umizno,uniadago SiSia, adamiansac uWirs ganmartos sakuTari
mdgomareoba.
depresiis erT-erTi yvelaze mZime formaa bipolaruli
aSliloba, rodesac xan Zalian daTrgunuli da uenergioa adamiani, xanki
uzomod aRgznebuli da gadaWarbebuli optimizmiT gamoirCeva. aseT
dros
ra Tqma unda erTmniSvnelovnad dakargulia racionaluri azrovnebis
unari, pirovnebas uWirs mizanze koncentracia, gadawyvetilebis miReba da
prioritetebis dalageba. am mdgomareobas sxvagvarad maniakalur
depresiulsac uwodeben,ase gansazRvraven mas fsiqiatrebi. maniakaluri
epizodebis
monacvleoba
monacvleobiT,an dReSi ramdenjerme.
SesaZloa
meordebodes
sezonuri
depresia mxolod sust arsebebs rodi mtrobs, mis samizned xSirad
350
Zlieri
sqesis
warmomadenlebic
xdebian.
Tu
qalebTan
depresiuli
mdgomareoba
ukavSrdeba
orsulobas,menopauzas,
martoxela
dedobas,
mamakacebTan is xSiria Suaxnis krizisis dros, finansuri warumateblobisas
an karieruli winsvlis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi. unda aRiniSnos,rom qalebi
gacilebiT xSirad saubroben TavianT mdgomareobaze da orjer ufro xSirad
akiTxaven specialists,vidre kacebi, samagierod mamakacebSi gacilebiT metia
suicidi an misi Cadenis mcdelobebi. 2,633
depresia Tineijerobis asakSi:
gansakuTrebulad
yuradsaRebia depresia
mozardebSi. depresia
Tineijerebis cxovrebis yvela sferoze axdens gavlenas. am
asakSi
is
gansakuTrebiT
seriozuli daavadebaa.
mozardebis depresias
mxolod
ojaxsa da
skolaSi rodi mohyveba problemebi - maT SeiZleba mimarTon
narkotikebs da Caidinon kriminaluri danaSauli. zogjer yalibdeba iseTi
gaukuRmarTebuli mdgomareoba, rogoric aris sakuTari Tavis siZulvili.
am dros mozardi
iCens Zaladobas sakuTari
Tavis mimarT an mimarTavs
suicids.
sabednierod, bevri ram SgiZliaT SecvaloT sasikeTod.
SeiswavleT depresiis simptomebi da Tu isini SeatyveT mozards, gamosavali
eZebeT.
mozardebis depresiis Sesaxeb sazogadoebaSi mravali
mcdari
Sexedulebaa gabatonebuli. marTalia, es uxeSi da jiuti asakia, magram
Tineijerebis umetesobas Seswevs unari, sakuTari vnebaTaRelva daabalansos
kargi megobrobis,
swavlaSi,
sportSi an sxva saqmianobaSi miRweuli
warmatebebis xarjze. zogjer isini ugonebod arian da araordinaluradac
ki iqcevian, magram aseTi ram am asakSi dasaSvebia, Tu xSiri ar aris.ra Tqma
unda, aseTi SemTxvevebi depresiis gamoxatulebas ar warmoadgens. depresia
mozardis pirovnebas Zireulad SeZravs.
am dros maT dauZleveli sevda,
uimedoba an brazi euflebaT.
rac ufro Rrmad Seiswavlis medicina depresias siyrmis asakSi, miT
ufro metad rwmundeba, rom es daavadeba ufro farTod aris gavrcelebuli
mozardebs Soris,
vidre warmogvidgenia.
axalgazrda pacientebis didi
nawili ar mimarTavs eqims da mkurnalobis gareSe rCeba. mozrdilebisgan
gansxvavebiT, romlebic TviTonve marTaven sakuTar cxovrebas, mozardebi
damokidebulni arian mSoblebze,
maswavleblebsa da momvlelebze,
romlebic unda miuxvdnen,
ra problema awuxebT maT.
amitom,
Tu
urTierToba gaqvT mozardTan, sasurvelia, kargad gaecnoT am asakisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli depresiis simptomebs da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi gamoiyenoT
es codna. mozardi didi fsiqologiuri zewolis qveS imyofeba. momwifebis
asakSi mis winaSe uamravi kiTxva wamoiWreba: vin aris is? ra adgili ukavia
mas cxovrebaSi?-da a.S. bavSvobidan zrdasrulobisa da damoukideblobisaken
gadadgmuli pirveli nabijebi xSirad warmoSobs gaugebrobas mSoblebsa da
Svilebs Soris,
rasac konfliqti mohyveba.
amdeni xasiaTobrivi da
fiqologiuri cvlilebebis fonze zogjer Znelia erTmaneTisagan ganasxvao
mozardis Secvlili,
magram normaluri ganwyobileba da depresiuli
mdgomareoba.garemoebas ufro metad arTulebs is faqti,
rom zogjer
mozardebis depresia ar gamovlindeba iseTi tipuri niSnebiT, rogoric aris
351
sevdianoba da garSemo myofebisgan gariyva;
gaRizianebadoba da agresiuloba axasiaTebs.
zogierT depresiul Tineijers
zrdasruli adamianebisgan gansxvavebiT, mozardTa depresiisTvis ufro
metad aris damaxasiaTebeli iseTi simptomebi, rogoricaa: gaRizianebadoba
da brazi.
rogorc aRvniSneT,
am asaks sevdianobaze gaRizianebadoba
axasiaTebs. depresiiT Sepyrobili Tineijerebi xSirad buzRuneben, mtrul
damokidebulebas amJRavneben ama Tu im
pirovnebis mimarT,
advilad
ecvlebaT ganwyobileba da advilad kargaven wonasworobas.
SesaZloa
brazisgan Tavic ki dakargon.
auxsneli tkivilis fenomeni:
depresiis dros mozardebi(iseve, rogorc zrdasruli mamakacebi) xSirad
uCivian Tavisa da muclis tkivils. aseT Civilebs raime obieqturi safuZveli
ar gaaCnia. gadaWarbebuli mgrZnobiaroba kritikisadmi. depresiuli
Tineijerebi xSirad itanjebian uvargisobis gancdiT da amitom gansakuTrebiT
mtkivneulad aRiqvamen kritikas, uaryofas an warumateblobas. aseTi
mgrZnobiaroba ufro metad axasiaTebT uiRblo da naklebad warmatebul
mozardebs.
adamianebisgan arCeviTad gandgoma:
Tu zrdasruli piri depresiis dros yvela adamianisadmi kargavs
interess, mozardebi ase ar iqcevian. isini agrZeleben urTierTobas zogierT
nacnob-megobarTan,
Tumca
imavdroulad
maTi
socialuri
aqtivoba
adrindelTan
SedarebiT
Sesustebulia.
isini
SesaZloa
gaxdnen
gulCaTxrobilni mSoblebTan, zogjer Sordebian Zvel megobrebs, magram
amasTanave SeiZleba eZebon axali megobrebi, Tineijerebis depresiis
erTaderTi Sedegi, melonqolia ar aris man SesaZloa gamoiwvios arajansaRi
da asocialuri Sexedulebebi da qcevebi.
namdvili
deprsiuli
mdgomareoba
mkveTrad
gansxvavdeba
e.w
melanqoliuri ganwyobilebisagan, depresiuli ganwyobileba ara mxolod cud
xasiaTze yofnaa, aramd seriozuli daavadebaa, romelsac droulad da
seriozulad esaWiroeba
mkurnaloba. bolo wlebSi mkveTrad gaizarda
depresiul adamianTa riski,am ricxvis gazrdas ukavSireben cxovrebis swraf
temps da mraval stresul situaciebs. Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis
swraf temps da mraval stresul situaciebs. Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis maRal konkuentul dones, garda sazogadoebaSi zogierTma
Rirebulebebma miiRo kultivirebuli saxe, ris gamoc adamiani mudmivad
ukmayoifiloa sakuTari sxeulis araidealuri fizikuri monacemebiT,
cxovrebis araidealuri pirobebiT da a.S. 3,117
vinaidan depresiis gamo, daqveiTebulia energia da koncentrirebis
unaric, mozardma, romelic manamde kargad swavlobda, SesaZloa gaacdinos
gakveTilebi da uari Tqvas swavlaze. zogjer depresiuli axalgazrda
Sinidan gaqcevas cdilobs, rac metad saxifaTo mdgomareobaa. zogierTi guls
352
narkotikebs ayolebs. anoreqsia da bulemiac zogjer depresiis mauwyebelia.
zogierTs interneti itacebs da amgvarad cdilobs moswydes problemebs,
magram es mxolod amZafrebs pirovnebis martosulobasa da izolacias.
depresiis
erT-erTi
metad
arasasurveli
Sedegia
TviTdazianebis,
TviTdamaxinjebis mcdeloba. zogierTma Tineijerma
SesaZloa sarisko qmedebasac mihyos xeli. biWebi, romlebic sxvadasxva
Zaladobis msxverplni arian, Semdgom TviTonve xdebian sastiki moZaladeebi.
depresiuli mozardebi xSirad fiqroben da saubroben suicidze. zogjer
TviTmkvlelobis mcdeloba yuradRebis mipyrobas isaxavs miznad. aseTi
fiqrebi da mcdelobebi yovelTvis sayuradRebo da sagangaSoa.
mozardebTan depresiis prevenciis zogierTi saSualeba
Tu eWvobT, rom mozardi depresiiT aris Sepyrobili, uyuradReboT nu
datovebT.

nu gegonebaT, rom depresia droebiTi movlenaa da TavisTavad
gaivlis.

pirvel rigSi, scadeT gaesaubroT mozards.

saubris dros nu gansjiT mas usaqcielobisa Tu ucnaurobis
gamo.

iyaviT TanagrZnobiT aRsavse msmeneli da ara Wkuis damrigebeli.

Tu mozardi uaryofs depresias da am Temaze saubars gaurbis, am

SemTxvevaSi
mimarTeT
eqims,
romelic
ukeT
gaerkveva
mozardismdgomareobaSi.

suicidi Tu misi mcdeloba, sakmaod aris gavrcelebuli
Tineijerebs

Soris, droTa ganmavlobaSi aseTi SemTxvevebi xSirdeba.

es Zalze damafiqrebelia TviTmkvlelobas safuZvlad udevs
sxvadasxva fsiqologiuri aSliloba. erT-erTi maTgania depresia.

aucilebelia
drouli
mediko-fsiqologiuri
mxardaWera
da
mkurnaloba.
depresiis diagnostireba da misi daZlevis gzebi
depresiis diagnostireba arc Tu ise martivi saqmea, radgan aucileblad
unda iqnas gamoricxuli iseTi faqtorebi, rogoricaa, gardatexis asaki,
Suaxnis krizisi, alkoholizmi an narkodamokidebuloba, TumcaRa, TavisTavad
TiToeuli maTgani SesaZloa gaxdes daavadebis aRmocenebis maprovocirebeli,
miT umetes Tu arsebobs genetikuri faqtori. depresia veragi daavadebaa im
mxriv, rom adamianebs yoveldRiurad imdeni gadauWreli problema gvaqvs,
gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove cxovrebis stilidan gamomdinare.... sul ufro
cota dro gvrCeba gansamuxtad, gansatvirTad. miuxedavad yvelafrisa,
absoluturad araswori iqneba yovelgvar ugunebobas dapresia vuwodoT, misi
diagnostireba
aucilebeblia
specialistis
mier
moxdes.
depresiis
diagnostireba xdeba sakvlevi, standartizirebuli specialuri testebis
meSveobiT.
353
depresiis
daZleva
da
mkurnaloba
sxvadasxva
meTodiT
aris
SesaZlebeli.
ZiriTadi
mimarTulebebia-medikamenturi
Terapia
da
fsiqoTerapia. orive meTodi efeqturia, xolo maTi kombinirebuli saxiT
gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi Sedegi umetesad dadebiTia.
Cvens naSromSi yuradRebas SevaCerebT ufro fsiqoTerapiul meTodze,
romelsac umetesad specialisti fsiqologebi iyeneben am daavadebasTan
dakavSirebiT.
fsiqoTerapia depresiis mkurnalobis aramedikamenturi alternativaa,
romelic miznad isaxavs pacientis problemebis gulaxdili ganxilviTa da
saubriT miaRwios sasurvel Sedegs. samwuxarod fsiqoTerapevtis roli da
daniSnuleba jer kidev arasakmarisd aris gaSuqebulic da gamoyenebulic
Cvens cxovrebaSi. aseTi saubrebi pacients exmareba, ukeT gaarkvios
mdgomareobis mizezebi, ufro advilad ipovos gamosavali mdgomareobidan
.fsiqoTerapias sxvadasxva meTodi aqvs. yoveli maTgani gansxvavebul
principebs
efuZneba.
kognituri
qceviTi
Terapia
erT-erTi
yvelaze
gavrcelebuli meTodia,
romelic saSualebas aZlevs pacients, aRmoaCinos
sakuTar TavSi is mcdari Sexedulebebi, rwmena Tu qcevis forma, romelsac
igi depresiul ganwyobilebamde miyavs yvelaze mTavari ki am dros
Tanadgomaa. mimovixedoT, iqneb Cvens garSemoc arian adamianebi, romlebic
saWiroeben daxmarebas, magram ver xvdebian arss, an ver bedaven gamxelas!
aseTi Sexedulebebisa da moqmedebebis jansaRi mimarTulebis Secvla, xels
uwyobs pacients, gansxvavebulad Sexedos movlenebs da problemebsac ufro
ukeT momzadebuli xvdeba. kognituri qceviTi Terapia problemebs, marTalia,
ver agvarebs, magram exmareba pacients, gansxvavebuli kuTxiT Sexedos da
ufro advilad gaumklavdes maT.
depresias adamiani damoukideblad ver gaumklavdeba, magram arsebobs
wesebi romelTa dacviT pacienti mniSvnelovan daxmarebas gauwevs sakuTar
Tavs. Tu depresia gawuxebT misdieT Cven rCevebs:
__
nu
SewyveT
antidepresiuli
preparatebis
miRebasa
da
fsiqoTerapiul seansebs, survilisamebr mkurnalobis uecari Sewyvetis
SemTxvevaSi depresiuli mdgomareoba dagibrundebaT.
__ ivarjiSeT! fizikuri aqtivoba amcirebs depresiis simptomebs.
iseirneT, irbineT, icuraveT. SearCieT iseTi aqtivoba, romelic siamovnebas
moganiWebT.
__ erideT alkoholsa da narkotikebs. maT mier mogvrili Sveba
droebiTi da macduria. sinamdvileSi ki alkoholi da narkotikebi adamians
depresiaSi ufro Rrmad iTrevs.
__
moiwesrigeT Zilis reJimi. srulfasovani Zili gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovania depresiis simptomebis ukuganviTarebisaTvis. Tu cudad
gZinavT, aucileblad acnobeT amis Taobaze eqims.
354
__ nu CaiketebiT sakuTar TavSi. nu daigrovebT gulSi uaryofiT
emociebs. mouyeviT Tqveni problemebis Sesaxeb axlo megobars. moiwvieT
megobrebi
SesaZloa
Sin
an
Tavad
estumreT
maT.
gaiCineT
axali
nacnobebi.
saamiso ganwyobileba ar gqondeT, magram ecadeT, sazogadoebisgan ar
gairiyoT. SeinarCuneT urTierTobebi Tundac mciredi Zaldatanebis fasad.
__ mieciT Tavs mciredi fufunebis ufleba: gaatareT Tavisufali dro
bunebis wiaRSi, uyureT mxiarul filmebs, diTxans inebivreT abazanaSi,
mousmineT musikas, wereT dRiuri, gamonaxeT dro sayvareli saqmianobisTvis,
romlisTvisac ver iclidiT bolo xans.
__
TiToeuli
adamianisTvis
aucilebelia
relaqsacia
miiReT
srulfasovani sakvebi. es aucilebelia energiisaTvis da janmrTelobisaTvis.
mTavari amocana, is aris, rom adamianma SeZlos efeqturad gaumklavdes
krizisul situaciebs da ar CaiZiros depresiul mdgomareobaSi, aseve man
unda gaacnobieros sakuTari problemebi da daisaxos mizani: ,,me yvelafers
davZlev”.
daimaxsovreT!
1) arasodes ar gaaidealuroT
Tqveni warsuli.
2) ecadeT, rom daZlioT eWvebi yvela adamianisa da yvelfris mimarT.
3) ecadeT, rom Tqveni fiqrebi koncentrirebuli iyos dadebiT
emociebze.
4) ecadeT, rom ar daisaxoT samomavlod ararealuri, auxdeneli miznebi.
3,117-118
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
TezelaSvili, fsiqologiuri enciklopedia, Tb. 2007 weli
gerigi, f. zimbordi, fsiqologia da cxovreba, Tb. 2008 weli
nargiziSvili m. praqtikuli fsiqologia, Tb. 2011 weli
internet stresi/Tamis blogi
Depression and Ways of Overcoming
Natia Jojua
Resume
The work talks about one of the most spread problems for nowadays – depression and methods
of overcoming it. Expressions of depression according to different ages, its harmful influence over
people are described. Phsichotherapic methods for overcoming depression collaborated by research
scientists are given. The work also gives some useful psychological advises to defeat.
355
The Earth is in Danger
Meri Koblianidze
Sukhishvili teaching university
International relations, II course
Supervisor: Jujuna Khitarishvili ; Tel:595 255 144
April 22 is Earth day. People all over the world think about our planet. They think about
air, water, planets and animals, on the Earth. We all say: “Life’s good, Life’s beautiful”. For this we
must keep our towns, cities, and country side clean.
Since ancient times Nature has served man, being the saurce of the life. For thousands of
years people lived in harmony with envinoment. But with the development of civilization man’s
interference with nature began to increase. There are a lot of large cities with thousand of smoky
indostrial enterprises (dust) all over the world today.
For this they pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land where the plunts
grow.
As a result some rere speeeies to animal, birds, fish, plants disapper, a number ot rivers,
lakes dry up. We know that the world had over nine million sq. km of forests. This is a lot of trees
and also a lot of different species of trees. We use pape and cand boand, both made from wood. We
use different kinds of wood in furniture in houses and buildings.
Every year over 100 000 sq. km of forests are cleared for different uses,
Nowadays the most serious environment problems are:
a)
pollution in the many forms (water polution, air pollution, air pollution, air
pollution, nuclear pollution)
b)
c)
Noice from cars, buses, planes.
Destruction of wild life and countrysside beauty.
d)
Shortage of natural resonces. (Metalus, diffferent kind of fuel).
e)
The groth of population.
There is no ocean of sea which isn’t used as a dump. The Pcific Ocean, ecpecially has
suffered from nuciear pollution, becouse there is tastedd nuclear weapons there. Many seas are
used from dumping industrial and nuclean waste this poisions and kills fish and sea animals.
,, Nuclear poisoned’’ fish can be eaten by people, Not only seas but nivers and lakes are
poisoned too. Thhere is not enough oxygon in the woten. In such places all the birds leave their
habitats and many plants die if people drink this poisoned water they can die too.
It happened so because nuclear power stations can go wrong and couse nuclear pollution.
More and more often people are told not to be direct sunlight. Some people’s activites do a
lot of harm to the forests. They cut down trees to build farms and roads the way people live have
changed the climate on our planet.
Water is very important, for life on the Earth. IT”S OEEANS< SEAS< RIVERS AND
LAKES> There is much water on our planet and at the. Same time there is litle woter on it. It is
becouse very little water is good for drinking.
1.
Don’t litten with paper, cans on bottles.
356
2.
Plant more trees.
3.
Feed brds in winther and help them survive in the cold.
4.
5.
Save energy. Turn off the lights, when you leave a room.
Clean, rubbish from lakes and rivers.
6.
Keep your towns, cities and countryside clean.
7.
Keep the envioroment clean.
8.
9.
Don’t put poisons into the water.
Nowadays the temperature is rising and becomes warmer. This is bad from the
Earth. So, the problem now is to probe life on the Earth, to save our planet for people.

gamoyenebuli literatura
newspaper. The contributor March 2011 pg 6.


Paul Kelly.
Top scone-stud. book pg 74.

Stuart Redman – English in use pg 178.

English Vereshchagina p.v pg 121 pg 149.
D
dedamiwa safrTxeSia
Mmeri qoblianiZe
reziume
Cven unda gamovnaxoT swori gza da davamyaroT balansi miwas, adamiansa
da cxovelebs Soris. Cven unda gadavarCinoT gareuli cxovelebi, Cven unda
vizrunoT bunebaze. Cven unda davzogoT wyali imitom, rom is Zalian
mniSvnelovania dedamiwaze sicocxlisaTvis.…
zigmund froidi – fsiqikis
struqtura
elikaSvili nadeJda
suxiSvilis
saswavlo universiteti
saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis
I kursi
xelmZRvaneli: izolda buxuleiSvili tel: 555 56 23 49
avstrieli
fuZemdebeli. igi
nevropaTolgi,
fsiqiatri,
aris
fsiqologiis, rogorc adamianis
xedvis da pirovnebis
siRrmis
pirveli
fsiqologi,
fsiqoanaliz
axali
Teoriis - fsiqoanalizis fuZemdebeli. aseve
misi wvlili fsiqologiaSi imiTacaa niSandoblivi, rom man Camoayaliba
357
da
ganaviTara
romelSic
fsiqodinamika, rogorc axali fsiqologiuri
Tvalsazrisi,
centraluria aracnobieri.
froidi
flobda
mkurnalobis
sakmaod
eleqtroTerapia, hipnozi. hipnozi ar iyo
es iyo sarkmeli.
romliTac froidi
viwro
mxolod
repertuars
mkurnalobis
masaJi,
meTodi –
swvdeboda fsis saidumloebiT
mocul
sferoebs. sigara da antikvariati - es misi gatacebebi iyo. arqeologia misi
hobi iyo da SesaZlebelia mecnierebis
idealic ki. igi eZebda ,,sulis
siRrmeSi damaluli yvelaze did saganZurs”. fsiqoanalitikosi – sulis
arqeologia. igi ayalibebs pirovnebis struqturas: ,,idi”, ,,ego”, ”super-ego”.
misi
azriT,
SeuZlebelia
konfliqtebi, Tu
froidi
aixsnas
pirovnebis
davuSvebT imas,
damangreveli
nevrotuli
rom pirovneba _ es erTi mTlianobaa.
yofs mas Semadgenel nawilebad. TiToeuli maTgani sakuTar
TamaSobs
da
sakuTar
interess
instiqtebisa da gatacebebis
romelic ZiriTadad
gonebiT
emsaxureba
,,idi”-es
aris
rols
vnebis,
samflobelo. ,,super-ego” moralis instanciaa,
aRmocendeba mamis avtoritetTan Sejaxebis Sedegad.
dajildovebulni ego Suamavlis rols asrulebs survilebs da
realobas
Sinagan
da garegan
samyaros, ,,idisa” da ,,super-egos” Soris.
amitom ,,ego” yovelTvis erTdroulad or skamze zis”. man unda
gauZlos
Seuracxofebs da daicvas Tavisi ,,matareblis” konfliqtebisgan – daicvas
nevrozebis fasad. froidma mTlianad
rodesac
1896
wels
bavSvobis
seqsualur
veneli
gancdebze.
ganicada es faqti sakuTar
fsiqiatrebis winaSe kiTxulobda naSroms
gabrazebul
Tvlis wers: ,,Cemma naSromma im virebisgan
Sefaseba. da es
mas Semdeg,
Tavze,
rac
mdgomareobaSi
miiRo
maT uCvenes
myofi.
mecnieruli
igi
zRapris
gadawyveta problemis,
romelzec aTasobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi fiqrobdnen adamianebi!” gaafTrebuli
froidi mourideblad
gamoxatavs Tavis damoukideblobas: ,,jandabamdec
gza
hqoniaT!”
zigmund
froidi
fsiqomodinamikis
swavleba fsiqikis Sesaxeb – arkvevs, Tu
qcevis
motivaciaSi.
froidamdeli
normaluri, fsiqikurad
fuZemdebelia.
fsiqodinamikia
-
ra monawileobas iRebs fsiqika
fsiqologiis
kvlevis
obieqti
iyo
da fizikurad janmrTeli adamiani, xolo mizani –
cnobierebis fenomenis eqsperimentuli Seswavla. frodis mier
mowodebuli
fsiqoanalizi iSva, rogorc nevrozebisa da isteriis
mkurnalobis
fsiqikis
Seqmna: topografiuli
asaxsnelad froidma ori
didi modeli
358
meTodi.
modeli
da
struqtululi
kombinaciiT. Tanamedrove
a)
anu
pirovnebis
fsiqodinamikuri
modeli
Teoria orive
sami
elementis
models iyenebs.
topografiuli modeli: cnobieri, qvecnobieri da aracnobieri.
aracnobieri
ZiriTadi
sfero
froidis
yvelaze
proncipia–adamianis
procesebiT.
cnobieri
SevimecnebT,
rogorc
qcevis
moicavs
gare
mniSvnelovani aRmoCnenaa, xolo
axsna
yvela
im
samyarodan,
aracnobieri
fiqrs
ise
da grZnobas, rasac
qvecnobieridan
realobis subieqturi gancdaa. qvecnobieri aerTinebs
arsebuli
yvela
Cvens
ideas, grZnobs, mogonebas, rodesac
fokusireba xdeba. qvecnobieris ZiriTadi
fsiqikuri
(obieqturi
mexsierebaSi
masze
yuradRebis
finqciaa wesrigSi
moiyvanos
individis fsiqika, da icavs cnobieri aracnobiuri fiqrebisgan. aracnobieri
sfero
garegan
zemoqmedebas
ar
emorCileba.
adamianebi
erTmaneTisagan
gansxvavdebian ara mxolod saarsebo pirobebiT, aramd aracnobieri sferoTic,
sadac
arsebobs siyvaruli da usazRvro
cnobili
meorad
da
qvecnobieri
procesebs, vinaidan
pirveladi
procesi
egoizmi.
sferoebis
xasiaTdeba
aris
muSaoba froidma
realuri
araorganizebuli
samyaros
gonebrivi
CvenTvis ucxoa, vinaidan igi moqmedebs pirveladad
miukuTvna
Cvens
gancdebiT.
aqtivoba,
aracnobierSi.
g) pirovnebis struqturuli modeli, froidma ,,individis
aparati 3-ad
individis
impulseb. idSi
gaerTianebulia
impulsebi. idis
impulsebi
ZiriTadi
tkivilisa da mZvinvarebis, SimSilisagan da
STamomavlobis
da instiqtebi
isntiqti
gagrZelebis
ewoda
biologiur stimulebsa da primitiul
wyurvilis gancdebi. seqsualuri ltolva,
ori
fsiqikuri
dahyo: ID (idi-,,igi”), EGO (ego-me), Super Ego (,,ze-me”) ,,idi”
yvelaze Zireul, bazisur
rac
gamohyo:
instiqti,
TviTSenaxvisa da Tavdacvis,
aracnobieria.
erosi
–
froidma
TviTgadarCenisa
Tanatoci swrafva
idSi
da
sikvdilisaken,
ganadgurebisaken.
ego pirovnebis
TvisebaTa
is
nawilia, romelic
erTveba
yvela im unarSi, rasac igi iyenebs, raTa moxdes idis Zlieri
harmonireba.
umetesad
,,ego”
cdilobs
cnobieria
da
daTrgunos
viTardeba
institutebi.
mozardis
urTierTobisas. janmrTeli
mowifuli
ufro
gare
samyaros Soris.
super –egos
misi
egos
moqnili sxvadasxva
stresebis mimarT. amrigad, ,,ego”aris
cnobieri sfero,
aqvs
359
kritikuli
survilebis
funqciebi
garemosTan,
mSobelTan da armzrdelTan
individi aris
adamianis
ZiriTadad
matarebeli
cxovrebiseuli
Semavali
idsa da
da damsjeli fuqciebi,
rolebi
danaSaulis
axlosaa idTan da
grZnobasa da
cnobierebis qenjnas iwveven. superego
ewinaaRmdegeba ,,mes”, rasac SesaZloa Sinagani konfliqti
mohyves da ramac SeiZleba pirovneba realuridan irealur da iluziur
samyaroSi gadaiyvanos. aRniSnuli movlenis magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT m.
javaxiSvilis erT-erT naSromebis sidonias tragikuli personaJis cxovrebis
istoria.
m. javaxiSvilis -,,TeTri kurdReli” Rrma fsiqologiuri nawarmoebia,
romelic mTavaris
personali axalgazrda qali – sidoniaa.
meuRle, romelTanac
usiyvarulod cxovrobs
da ori
mas hyavs
Svili, juanSeri da
kato.
erT
zafxuls
sidonia
dasasveneblad
bakurianSi imyofeboda
SvilebTan da sayvarelTan erTad, rodesac sidonia
wavida, saxlSi dabrunebuls
Zalian mZime
juanSeri momakvdavi
viTarebaSi aRmoCnda mis erTaderT
gadarCena warmoadgenda – raTa sindisi
rodesc
bavSvi
masTan
eqimTan
dauxvda. igi
cxadia
fiqrs im omentSi
Svilis
sufTa hqonda.
moiyvanes.
uTxres,
rom
gadarCeboda,
dagvianebuli ar iyo, magram samwuxarod bavSvi gadarCena ver
momentidan sidonias fsiqikaSi kardinaluri
rom Svilis sikvdilSi damnaSave
usworebda realobas radgan
Tu
moaxerxes.
im
cvlilebebis moxda. man icoda
iyo, magram amas
Cemi
Sesaxvedrad
ver aRiarebda Tvals ver
azriT, igi amisTvi
susti aRmoCnda da
davis gamarTlebas ararealur samyaroSi gadnacvlebiT
cdilobda.
mis
fantaziis nayofad, romelsac
Svilad aRiqvamda, gaxda juanSeris sayvareli
saTamaSo,
mis
TeTri
dabrunebas
kurdReli.
cdilobs prfesori fsiqiatri
profesionalizmiT
da
udidesi
moTminebiT
epizods fsiqiatriisa da pacientis

da
realur
romelic Tavis
akeTebda
futkrebiviT
moviyvanT
ramdenime
urTiertobidan.
dafrTxobas, romlebic
buzebiviT
laparakiTRa
exvevian da
hkbenen.
marTla Seasrula dedis
Tqma
cxovrebaSi
saqmes maRali
,, Zilis magivrad isev laparakobs, radgan mxolod
hlamobs SiSisa da landebis
ra
daxmarebas
unda,
Seasrula!
vali
sidoniam?
Tavidan
bolomde
Seasrula!
an
meti
raSeeZlo? araferi, meti araferi! amitom...”

,,qali
-
sidoni, Seni
gaxevda, gainaba. doraSvili ki mkacrad miabijebs
gziT:
biZina salaxan
yofila!
360
Tavis
-
vai me! – ambobda sidonia.
-
yvelgan Tavi
-
gamitexa! Semarcxvina!
-
salaxana! aramzada! – utkepnis
-
salaxana, aramzada! – braziT imeorebs sidoniac.
-
sazizRari! saZageli!
-
uuh, sazizRari, saZageli!!
-
juanic biZinam mohkla!
-
biZinam mohkla, biZinam!
-
amitom TaviTon biZinac
mogvWra! Segvarcxvina! saxeli gavitexa!
doraSvili.
sikvdilis
Rirsia! – gamoaqvs
ganaCeni
doraSvils.
-
Rirsia, Rirsi! – arar
-
maS mokvdes!! – CasZaxis eqimi.
-
mokvdes! mokvdes!! amosZaxis sidoniac”.
mizani
indobs
garkveulwilad
sidoniac.
miRweulia,
juanSeris sikvdilSi ara mxolod is, aramed
am faqtis
gacnobierebam
udidesi
biZgi
sidoniam
,,sxvacaa
misca mis
daijera,
rom
damnaSave”, swored
realur
cxovrebaSi
dabrunebas.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1.
2.
3.
4.
mircxulava, r., xelovnebis fsiqologia., Tb., 2010
CitaSvili m., zigmund froidi
javaxiSvili m., ,,TeTri kurdReli”
www. google.ge (wikipedia)
Zigmund Froid - psychic structure
Elikashvili nadejda
Rezume
The article is about the structure of the psyche Zigmund Frodo (Yiddish, ego, super-ego), the
author analyzed with respect to the sun. Server work, the white rabbit, "the main character's departure
as a serious mental condition, which was caused by the death of his son. The article aghtsrilia episodes
gipnozis through on how to return the world to the surreal world of irialur departure as a psychiatrist.
…
361
goris literatoruli cxovreba XIV-XX
(natalia aziani da niko diasamiZe)
saukuneTa mijnaze
n. elikaSvili, n. berkacaSvili, m. durgliSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universitetis saerTaSoriso
urTierTobebis specialobis pirveli kursis studentebi
nino bibilaSvili
suxiSvilis universitetis sruli profesori.
goris literaturulma cxovrebam araerTi mwerlisa Tu sazogado
moRvawis saxeli warmoaCina. XIX-XX saukuneTa mijnaze goris istoriul
warsulSi ikveTebian iseTi pirovnebebi, romlebmac TavianTi moRvaweobiT
sagrZnobi kvali datoves ara marto Cveni qalaqis, aramed im periodis
qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis istoriaSi. kvlevisas davinteresdiT
goris literaturuli warsuliT da aRmoCnda CvenTvis naklebad cnobili
pirovnebebi gaxldaT goreli dramaturgi natalia aziani da sazogado
moRvawe niko diasamiZe.
gori xSirad maspinZlobda mwerlebs, imarTeboda literaturuli
saRamoebi. gansakuTrebiT xSirad stumrobda gors didi mgosani akaki
wereTeli. mas waukiTxavs sajaro leqcia `vefxistyaosanze~, romelsac didi
rezonansi mohyolia. es iyo sajaro leqciebis pirveli cda CvenSi.
erT-erTi stumrobisas igi Sexvedria levan razikaSvils, mas leqsic ki
uZRvna. samefo quCaze yofila xaratovebis saxli da swored iq imarTeboda
xolme finjan Caize literaturuli saRamoebi. kvlevis dros wavawydi
CvenTvis bolomde Seuswavlel da miviwyebul niWier dramaturgs natalia
azians da agreTve akakis maspinZlebs diasamiZeebs. am pirovnebebiT
dainteresda goreli qalbatoni, profesori nino bibilaSvili. mec misi
naambobidan damebada survili gamokvlevas gavyolodi da Cemi xedviT
gameSuqebina mkiTxvelisTvis sainterso informacia.
natalia azianis (samwerlo fsevdonimi) namdvili gvari dondarovaa. misi
biografia
gorTanaa
dakavSirebuli.
daibada
gorSi
1878
wels,
gaqarTvelebuli somxis SeZlebul ojaSi. fsevdonimis arCevaSi `iveriis”
TanamSromlebi damexmarneno, radgan me gamoucdeli viyavio _ igonebs igi.
mSobliur qalaqSi mas saxeli daudevari xasiaTiT, enakvimatobiTa da iumoris
gansakuTrebuli grZnobiT hqonda ganTqmuli. werda patar-patara iumorulsatirikul scenebs, leqsebs gorel `meSCan-obivatelebze~, vaWar-CarCebze da
maT meWore colebze, moqeife Tavad-aznaurebze; bevjer karikaturebsac
urTavda aman ki sazogadoebis nawili gaaRiziana, mas `lanZRvis mwerali~
Searqves, magram yvelaze saintereso aRmoCnda misi dRiurebi, romelic
WeSmaritad gardasul dReTa literaturuli mateanea.
362
pirveli piesa `inJineri da doxturi~ imdenad irbliani aRmoCnda, rom am
nawarmoebma ara marto qarTul scenaze ipova Tavisi adgili, aramed gazeT
`iveriis~ furcelzec, rac imas niSnavs, rom avtorma TviT didi ilias
yuradReba daimsaxura. gazeT `iveriis~ recenziiT waxalisebulma dawera
meore komedia `fuli da xarisxi~, romelsac didi gamarjveba xvda wilad.
amas mohyva mTeli rigi feletinebi da leqsebi.
`dailoca Cveni gori~ _ ase ityodnen xolme Tbilisidan dabrunebuli
gorelebi, ase aqvs naTqvami dramaturg qalbatonsac. raoden gasakviric ar
unda iyos mec, roca vbrundebi mSobliur qalaqSi, ase vambob. Tbili qalaqia
gori, patara da lamazi. mivubrundeT azianis mogonebebs qalaqze _ `mxolod
gorSi Tu igemeb piris pativsa, mama ucxondebaT qalaqelebsa! CvenisTana
Casuqebul qarva-dedlebs da indaurebs mogarTmeven, me Sen giTxra! an
amisTana RviZliviT pursa. cocxal-cocxal cimor Wanarze xom aRar vityvi!
_Sen atenuri da xidisTauri Rvino da atami Tqvi! _ bans iZleva mosaubre,
meore goreli.
sainteresod ikiTxeba mogonebebSi `uwindeli gori” _ werili ZmasTan,
yaCaRebis CamoxrCobis ambavi gorSi; akaki wereTlis xsovnas; mogonebebi
qarTvel mwerlebze; ori SemTxveva soso juRaSvilTan da sxva.
gansakuTrebuli
emociuri
grZnobiT
aRwers
akakisTan
Sexvedras.
SesaniSnavi sazogado moRvawis anastasia TumaniSvil-wereTelis ojaxSi
SeigrZno da gaiTavisa XIX saukunis qarTuli mwerlobis Tavkacebis ilias da
akakis fiqrebs, gulis tkivils da kidev ufro Rrmad Caaxeda yofis
problemaSi. rogorc misi mogonebebidan Cans, yvelaze didi sixaruli misTvis
akakisTan Sexvedrebs moutania. `qalo, Sen sanaxavaT gorSi movdiodio~ _
Cveuli iumoriT miumarTavs akakis n.azianisaTvis, razedac aRelvebula igi
da gurwfelad upasuxnia: `Tqven SeiZleba damciniT, batono akaki, magram me ki
marTlac, Tqven sanaxavaT TbilisSi giaxeliT-meTqi~.
akakis misTvis leqsebis krebuli miucia da rodesac gadaSala ydaze
akakis xeliT wawerili leqsi waukiTxavs:
“mweral qalsa aziansa,
niWiers da azriansa,
Tanac didaT braziansa!
Tu ar argebs, arc ras awyens
ar moutans mas ziansa!”
`sazriani~ da `niWieri~ Zalian gaxarebia, `braziani~
sixaruliT
igi
dafrinavda.
aseTi
ki
saintereso
ar
eWaSnika,
masalebi
magram
Semonaxula
literaturis muzeumSi; rom Zalian uyvarda qalaqi gori, mimzidvelad wers
Zmas: `davinaxe Tu ara goris cixe, Tvalebze cremli momadga~. ise amitokda
guli, iseTi zRva grZnobebi da tkbili mogonebebi ameSala, TiTqo pirvel
siyvaruls, axalgazrdobas gataceba-ocnebas Sevxvdi am siberis dros...
natalia aziani realisti mweralia. igi XIX saukunis qarTuli mwerlobis
realisturi skolis mimdevaria, `cremliani sicili~,
363
romelsac ilia Cveni
sazogadoebis gankurnebis upirveles saSualebad miiCnevda, mis nawarmoebebSi
Zalumad ismis.
pirveli Teatraluri warmodgenebi, literaturuli Sekrebebi; diskusiawarmodgenebi
sxvadasxva
problematur
sakiTxebze
xSirad
ojaxebSi
imarTeboda. erT-erTi aseTi kera iyo niko diasamiZis saxli, sofeli brilsa
da TbilisSi. mama-Svili
niko da grigol diasamiZeebi
imdroindeli gorisa
da Tbilisis gaxmaurebuli movlenebis centrSi idgnen. maTi sagvareulo
samcxe-saTabagoSi werilobiT wyaroebSi 1443 wlidan ixsenieboda. osmalTa
mier dapyrobis Semdeg diasamiZeebis erTma nawilma qarTls Seafara Tavi.
daviT diasamiZe nikos mama, goris Tavadaznaurobis winamZRoli, marSali
yofila. niko diasamiZe upirvelesad cnobili publicisti, sazogado moRvawe
da gamomcemeli iyo. niko TvalsaCino figura iyo ara marto gorSi, aramed
TbilisSic. SeZlebuli memamule arafers zogavda sazogado saqmisaTvis. am
periodSi gorSi xorci esxmeba Teatraluri warmodgenebis gamarTvas. Seiqmna
scenismoyvareTa komiteti, romelSic Sevidnen n. lomouri, s. qvliviZe, p.
burjanaZe da s. mgalobliSvili. niko diasamiZe erT-erTi pirvelia, romelic
marTavda saRamoebs da scenis moyvareebs dauTmo Tavisi saxli.
poeti
akademikosi
ioseb
griSaSvili
wers:
`niko
diasamiZis
binaze,
sololakSi imarTeboda literaturuli orSabaTobebi~, sadac Tavs iyridnen
Cveni sazogado moRvaweni.
zafxulobiT
miemgzavreboda
niko
da
Cveulebriv
Tavis
`literaturuli
sagvareulo
orSabaTobebic~
iq
sof.
brilSi
ewyoboda.
brili
istoriuli sofelia qarTlSi. brilis wyaroebma aRafrTovana Tavis droze
giorgi leoniZe, romelmac mSvenieri striqonebi uZRvna 1955 wels:
`brili, brili
datborili
uSreteli vercxlis wyaro,
wminda, rogorc
xalxis guli,
sadRac qarTlSi
mocincxalobs”...
swored aq brilSi gadawyda yovelkvireuli gazeT `kvalis~ daarseba.
gamomcemlad dasaxelda giorgi wereTeli, redaqtorad al. WiWinaze.
niko diasamiZe `ficxi~ xasiaTis kaci iyo, magram mas namdvili megobroba
SeeZlo.
lomouri,
is
axloblobda
cnobil
moRvaweebTan,
rogorebic
sof.
mgalobliSvili,
mixeil
yifiani,
gansakuTrebuli
damokidebuleba
hqonda
siyvaruliT
wereTelTan.
364
aleq.
arian:
WiWinaZe.
garemocul
niko
Tumca
akaki
didi interesi gamoiwvia da Sesabamisi rezonansi mohyva 1882 wels akakis
mier
gorSi
pirveli
wakiTxul
cda
iyo
leqcias
Cvens
`vefxistyaosanze~.
qveyanaSi.
saRamo
es
sajaro
dauviwyari
leqciebis
aRmoCnda
goris
sazogadoebisaTvis.
gansakuTrebuli
STabeWdileba
mouxdenia
rus
mxatvar
golovnianze,
romelmac Seqmna SoTas portreti, magram rogorc gazeTi `iveria~ werda
suraTi ar gvinaxavs, magram bevri qeba gvsmenia gorelebisagano. 1880 wels
gazeT `driubaSi~ da `iveriaSi~ sistematiurad ibeWdeboda niko diasamiZis
werilebi, rogoricaa: ruisis bankis gaxsna; dava mamulebis gamo; arCevnebi
gorSi 25 agvisto, 1881 weli; skolebis daarsebisa da saxsrebis gamonaxvis
Sesaxeb; uTanxmoebani vano maCabelTan; didliaxveli; akakis madlobis werili
niko diasamiZes `Tamar cbieris~ dabeWvdis gamo.
1897 wlis 17 agvistos ki `iveriaSi~ qveyndeba cnoba Tavad nikoloz
diasamiZis sofel brilSi mkvlelobis Sesaxeb. 13 agvistos, saRamos 9 saaTze,
mohkles gzaSi Casafrebulma Tavis sof. brilSi Tavadi nikoloz DdaviTaZis
Ze diasamiZe.
`iveria~ 1897 w. 15 agvisto
niko diasamiZis dasaflaveba 1897 wlis
19 agvisto `iveria~
ratom
mokles
ase
avazakurad
eris
aseTi
uangaro
msaxuri.
misi
danaSauli iyo mamuliSviloba, samSoblo qveynis siyvaruli da masze zrunva.
guram
SaraZe
Tavisi
fundamenturi
naSromis
`qarTveli
emigrantuli
literaturis istoriis~ mexuTe tomSi mkiTxvels acnobs niko diasamiZis vaJs
_ grigol diasamiZes
saxelmwifos
(1870-1960ww) romelsac
damoukideblobis
xelyofis
bolSevikebis
gamo
wilad
mier qarTuli
xvda
ucxoeTSi
samudamod dasaxleba. sacxovreblad berlinSi gaCerda, sadac redaqtirobda
Jurnal `morgen-lands~, agreTve saTaveSi udgas qarTul saTvistomos. 1952
wels samudamo sacxovreblad niu-iorks irCevs. aqve gardaicvala 1960 wels 90
wlis asakSi.
grigol diasamiZe gaxldaT revoluciamdeli qarTuli presis brwyinvale
warmomadgeneli, gazeT `Temis~ redaqtori, akakis uaxloesi umcrosi megobari.
1912 wels akakis raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobis dawyebis win quTaisis baRSi
gadaRebulia foto, romelzedac akakisTan erTad am mogzaurobis erT-erTi
iniciatori grigol diasamiZecaa aRbeWdili.
grigol diasamiZe profesiiT iuristi yofila. mas odesis universiteti
daumTavrebia 1892 wels, magram ojaxis mier Canergilma siyvarulma Tavisi
gaitana da Jurnalist-literatorisa da pedagogikis gza airCia, 1899-1904
wlebSi grigol diasamiZe muSaobda goris mazraSi Tavmjdomared. 1901-1910
wlebSi mas ekava deputatis adgili. mas gauxsnia skolebi sof. WrebagiSi
365
saqaSeTSi, sofelalSi. 1915 wels TbilisSi daafuZna Semnaxveli salaro da
mevenaxeobis amxanagoba `aleqsandrouli~. rac Seexeba gazeT `Tems~ dRemde
rCeba qarTuli presis istoriis mniSvnelovan organod.
grigol
diasamiZis
farTo
erudiciaze
da
msoflmxedvelobaze,
mis
patriotizmze metyvelebs misi mogognebebi goris sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze.
am mSvenier mogonebas ase amTavrebs grigol diasamiZe: `yovlad ubadruki
Seiqmneba Cveni qveyana, Tu CvenSi ar gamefda patiosani sazogadoebrivi azri.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. n. bibilaSvili _ natalia aziani. 2002 weli.
2. xelnaweri daculia g. leoniZis sax. qarTuli literaturis muzeumSi
natalia azianis arqivSi, #2502-x.
3. g. leoniZis sax. qarT. lit-is muzeumi. n. azianis fondi. 2490-x
gv. 17-18.
4. es leqsi dabeWdilia gaz. `TemSi~ #206, 8 Teberv. 1915 w.
5. n. bibilaSvili _ niko diasamiZe. 2012 w.
6. g. SaraZe _ ucxoeTis cis qveS. Tb. 1993 w.
7. e. mamisTvaliSvili _ goris istoria t. II. 1999 w.
8. s. mgalobliSvili _ mogonebebi, Tb. 1938 w.
The literary life of the XIV-XX centuries
Elikashvili, Berkacashvili, durglishvili
Resume
This theme represents literatury-cultural life of our native town Gori at the of XIXth-XXth
centuries.
It is Madame Natalia Azian’s remembrancewho was a playwrigther and citizenship of Gori. She
mentions there about Niko Diasamidze, who was public figure, publicist and publisher. He was the
initator a lot of good work.
366
seqcia #5
zusti da
sabunebismetyvelo
mecnierebani
___________________________________________
seqciis Tavmjdomareebi:
laSa ninoSvili
neli goginaSvili
367
miokardiumis infarqti
ATamar CilindriSvili
farmaciis specialoba, II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: laSa ninoSvili
E-mail: [email protected] Tel: 598-14-03-52
gulis kunTs sisxliT koronaruli arteriebi amaragebs. rodesac
koronarul arteriebSi Trombi Cndeba da sisxlis mimoqceva wydeba, pacients
ewyeba Zlieri tkivili gulis areSi. am mdgomareobas ucxour literaturaSi
popularuli eniT gulis Setevas uwodeben, misi Sesatyvisi samedicino
termini ki miokardiumis infarqti gaxlavT. "mio" kunTs niSnavs, "kardio" guls, xolo "infarqti" aris qsovilis kvdoma Jangbadis naklebobis gamo.
iseve, rogorc nebismier sxvas, gulis kunTsac gamudmebiT sWirdeba
Jangbadi. misi deficitis dros gulis kunTis ujredebi ziandeba, rac
tkivilisa da zewolis SegrZnebas iwvevs. Tu gulis mkvebav koronarul
sisxlZarRvebSi sisxlis mimoqceva ar aRdga, gulis kunTis ujredebi
iRupebian da gulis kunTSi nawiburi warmoiqmneba, romelic ara kunTovani,
aramed SemaerTebelqsovilovani agebulebisaa. gulis kunTisTvis Jangbadis
miwodebis mkveTri ukmarisoba SesaZloa gulis regularuli ritmis
darRvevis anu ariTmiis mizezadac iqces. ar aris gamoricxuli, zogierTi
ariTmia sabedisweroc aRmoCndes.
cvlilebebi koronarul arteriebSi. gulis Seteva maSin aRmocendeba,
roca ixSoba erTi an meti iseTi arteria, romelic guls JangbadiT mdidari
sisxliT kvebavs. am arteriebs koronaruli anu gvirgvinovani arteriebi
ewodeba. isini marTlac gvirgvinis msgavsad exveva guls. koronaruli
arteriebi SeiZleba Seviwrovdes qolesterinis dagrovebisa da amis Sedegad
egreT wodebuli aTerosklerozuli folaqis formirebis gamo.
aTerosklerozis
gamo
gulis
Setevas
koronarSi
warmoqmnili
aTerosklerozuli folaqis gaskdoma da am areSi Trombis formireba iwvevs.
Tu Trombi didia, koronarul arteriaSi sisxlis mimoqceva wydeba. ufro
iSviaTad gulis Setevis mizezi koronaruli arteriebis spazmia, rac gulis
kunTisTvis sisxlis miwodebas mkveTrad amcirebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom kokaini
SesaZloa sicocxlisaTvis saSiSi spazmis mizezad iqcdes.
ra xdeba miokardiumis infarqtis dros. miokardiumis infarqti aris im
procesis
saboloo
stadia,
romelic,
Cveulebriv,
ramdenime
saaTis
ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobs. yovel wuTs gulis kunTis sul ufro meti nawili
ganicdis sisxlis deficits, ris gamoc ziandeba da kvdeba. Tu gulis
sisxliT momarageba droulad aRdga, dazianeba SesaZloa minimaluri iyos an
saerTod aviciloT Tavidan.
wlebis winaT miokardiumis infarqti xSirad sruldeboda sikvdiliT.
dRes, mkurnalobis gaumjobesebuli meTodebisa da gulis Setevis simptomTa
mniSvnelobis ganmartebis wyalobiT, pacientTa umravlesoba gulis Setevis
Semdeg sicocxles inarCunebs. cxovrebis wess - kvebis xasiaTs, fizikuri
varjiSis intensivobas, stresul faqtorebs - didi mniSvneloba aqvs gulis
Setevis Semdeg pacientis gamojanmrTelebisTvis.
368
simptomebi:
•
moWeris, zewolis an SeboWvis SegrZneba da tkivili mkerdis Zvlis
ukan, rac ramdenime wuTs grZeldeba;
•
tkivili, romelic gulmkerdidan vrceldeba beWebis, mxrebis,
zurgis, zog SemTxvevaSi - qveda ybisa da kbilebisken;
•
gulSi tkivilis epizodebis gaxSireba;
•
gaxangrZlivebuli tkivili muclis zeda nawilSi;
•
qoSini;
•
oflianoba;
•
sikvdilis SiSi;
•
gulis wasvlis SegrZneba;
•
gulisreva da Rebineba.
specialistebi aRniSnaven, rom qalebSi gulis Seteva SesaZloa
gansxvavebuli simptomebiT warimarTos. zemoT CamoTvlili niSnebis garda,
mosalodnelia:
•
muclis tkivili an gulZmarva;
•
civi ofli;
•
Tavbruxveva;
•
uCveulo da erTi SexedviT umizezo sisuste.
es simptomebi sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva xarisxiT aris
gamoxatuli. gulis SetevaTa umravlesoba arc iseTi dramatulia, rogorc
kinofilmebSi aCveneben.
zogierTs simptomebi saerTod ar aqvs. ulis Seteva SeiZleba
aRmocendes muSaobisas Tu garTobisas, mosvenebisas Tu fizikuri aqtivobisas.
zogjer moulodneld iwyeba, magram umetesad win uZRvis simptomebi,
romlebic mas saaTobiT, dReobiT, kviraobiTac ki uswrebs. Setevis yvelaze
adreuli winamorbedi simptomi SeiZleba iyos ganmeorebiTi tkivili
gulmkerdSi, romelic fizikuri daZabvisas aRmocendeba, xolo mosvenebisas
mcirdeba. rodis unda mivmarToT samedicino dawesebulebas
gulis Setevis dros bevri kargavs Zvirfas dros, radgan ver
acnobierebs simptomebis mniSvnelobas an ar mimarTavs eqims, raTa Tavidan
aicilos "fuWi" viziti. sinamdvileSi umniSvnelovanesi faqtori, romelic
zrdis gadarCenis Sanss, aris samedicino dawesebulebaSi droulad misvla.
dadgenilia, rom gulis Setevis dros gardacvlilTa daaxloebiT naxevari
Setevis dawyebidan pirvel saaTSi kvdeba. nu datovebT gulis Setevis
simptomebs uyuradRebod, miT ufro, Tu maTi xangrZlivoba 5 wuTs aRemateba.
dauyovnebliv
gamoiZaxeT
saswrafo daxmareba an mimarTeT
uaxloes
kardiologiur klinikas.
sadiagnozo gamokvlevebi. regularuli gamokvleva aucilebelia, raTa
eqimma daadginos riskfaqtorebi, romlebic SeiZleba gulis Setevis mizezad
iqces, magram Cvens sinamdvileSi eqims maSin mimarTaven, roca gulis Seteva
ukve dawyebulia. am dros, garda pacientis gasinjvisa, tardeba gamokvlevaTa
mTeli wyeba, romlebic gvexmareba davadginoT, ra aris pacientis Civilebis
WeSmariti mizezi. es kvlevebia:
•
eleqtrokardiografia;
369
•
sisxlSi zogierTi fermentis aqtivobis Seswavla;
•
eqokardioskopia - misi meSveobiT adgenen, gulis romeli area
dazianebuli da rogor ikumSeba is;
•
angiografia - aCvenebs koronaruli arteriebis Seviwroebas an
blokirebas. kvlevisas specialur kaTeters qvemo kiduris arteriidan
gulisken
amoZraveben
da
gvirgvinovan
sisxlZarRvebSi
sakontrasto
nivTiereba SehyavT, ris Sedegadac arteriebi rentgenis aparatze Cndeba.
garda amisa, damatebiT SesaZlebelia arteriebis blokirebis mkurnaloba specialuri baloniT koronaris blokirebuli aris gafarToeba (balonuri
dilatacia) an arteriaSi specialuri stentis Cadgma, romelic arterias
gafarToebul mdgomareobas unarCunebs da garkveulwilad icavs xelaxali
Seviwroebisgan. garTulebebi miokardiumis infarqtis dros aRmocenebuli
garTulebebi gulis kunTSi aRmocenebul cvlilebebs ukavSirdeba. mas
SeiZleba mohyves:
ariTmia anu gulis ritmis darRveva, zogjer - fataluric;
gulis ukmarisoba - SesaZloa, gulis kunTis dazianeba imdenad
mniSvnelovani iyos, rom gulma veRar Seasrulos Tavisi umTavresi funqcia veRar gadaqaCos sisxli mTel sxeulSi. amis gamo viTardeba qoSini, sisuste,
qvemo kidurebis SeSupeba. gulis ukmarisoba SesaZloa Setevis moxsnisTanave
ukuganviTardes, magram ar aris gamoricxuli qronikuli ukmarisobis
aRmocenebac, romelic gulis kunTis Zlieri dazianebis Sedegia.
gulis gaxeTqva - infarqtis Sedegad dasustebuli gulis kunTi
SeiZleba gaskdes. es mdgomareoba swrafad sruldeba sikvdiliT.
sarqvlebis dazianeba - infarqtis gamo sarqvlebis dazianebam SesaZloa
sicocxlisTvis saSiSi garTulebebi gamoiwvios.
mkurnaloba
pacientma, romelsac gulis Seteva aqvs, dro ar unda dakargos.
gaxsovdeT: yoveli wami zrdis dazianebuli da mkvdari ujredebis
raodenobas. saswrafo daxmarebis mosvlamde miiReT nitroglicerini, erideT
zedmet moZraobebs. gulis Setevis samkurnalod iyeneben:
aspirins - es preparati SeiZleba gadaudebeli samedicino daxmarebis
medpersonalma SemogTavazoT. is amcirebs sisxlSi Trombocitebis agregacias
da gvexmareba, rom Seviwroebul koronarSi sisxlis mimoqceva ar Sewydes.
Trombolizur saSualebebs - isini Slis sisxlZarRvSi arsebul Trombs.
Trombolizuri preparatebis adreuli gamoyeneba zrdis gulis kunTis
dazianebis xarisxis Semcirebisa da pacientis gadarCenis Sanss.
Sededebis sawinaaRmdego sxva saSualebebs. isini garkveulwilad hgavs
aspirins
da
axali
Trombebis
formirebisgan
gvicavs.
am
jgufis
warmomadgenelia klopidogreli (plaviqsi) da IIb/IIIa receptorebis sxva
blokerebi.
sisxlis gamaTxierebel sxva saSualebebs. SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnes
heparini, romelic zrdis sisxlis Txevadobas da amcirebs axali Trombebis
warmoqmnis albaTobas. heparini nemsiT SehyavT intravenurad an kanqveS. is,
wesisamebr, miokardiumis infarqtis pirvel dReebSi gamoiyeneba.
tkivilgamayuCebel saSualebebs - roca tkivili Zlieria, mas morfiniT
370
ayuCeben.
nitroglicerins - es preparati, romelic stenokardiis samkurnalod
gamoiyeneba, droebiT afarToebs arteriul sisxlZarRvebs da aumjobesebs
sisxlis dinebas gulidan da gulisaken.
beta-blokerebs. es preparatebi aadvilebs gulis muSaobas, vinaidan
amcirebs gulis SekumSvaTa sixSires, aqveiTebs arteriul wnevas. betablokerebs SeuZlia gulis kunTis dazianebis Semcireba da ganmeorebiTi
Setevebis profilaqtika.
qolesterinis damaqveiTebel preparatebs. isini amcirebs sisxlSi
arasasurveli, e. w. cudi qolesterinis
Semcvelobas. reabilitacia Tu
gadaudebeli daxmarebis mizani miokardiumis infarqtis dros gulis kunTis
Semdgomi dazianebis Tavidan acilebaa, mkurnalobis mizania gulis aRdgena
da Setevis ganmeorebis profilaqtika. swored am mizans emsaxureba
reabilitacia, romelic medikamentur mkurnalobas, cxovrebis wesis Secvlas
da emociur sferoze zemoqmedebas gulisxmobs. rasodes aris gviani im
RonisZiebebis dawyeba, romelTa daxmarebiTac SesaZlebelia gulis Setevis
Tavidan acileba. profilaqtika aucilebelia maSinac, roca pacients Seteva
erTxel
ukve
hqonda.
am
TvalsazrisiT
medikamenturi
mkurnaloba
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania.
miokardiumis infarqtis Semdeg gajansaRebisa da ganmeorebiTi Setevis
Tavidan asacileblad:
•
SewyviteT Tambaqos weva.
•
ikontroleT sisxlSi qolesterolis done.
•
Tu diabeti gaqvT, regularulad ikontroleT sisxlSi glukozis
Semcveloba.
•
regularulad
gamocxaddiT
eqimTan
profilaqtikuri
gasinjvisTvis.
•
ikontroleT sisxlis arteriuli wneva.
•
ivarjiSeT regularulad.
•
SeinarCuneT sxeulis normaluri wona.
•
daicaviT jansaRi kvebis principi.
•
erideT stress.
•
uari TqviT alkoholian sasmelebze.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. irine kvaWaZis redaqciiT ,,adamianis fiziologia”, Tbilisis
saxelmwifo samedicino universitetis gamomcemloba 2008 w.
2. vaxtan yifiani ,,organoebis da sistemebis paTofiziologia”, Tbilisi
2000 w.
Myocardial Infarct
Tamar Chilindrishvili
Resume
Myocardial infarct is the hardest disease that has fatal complications. Each year hundreds of
thousands of people die with this disease. The work describes process, reasons, and treatment of the
pathology.
371
podagra (nekrisis qari)
ani janezaSvili
faramacia II kursi
E-mail: [email protected]
tel: 598 77 99 96
xelmZRvaneli: laSa ninoSvili
organizmis
zogadi
daavadebaa,
romelic
viTardeba
genetikuri
ganwyobiTa da
alimenturi faqtorebiT ganpirobebuli purinuli cvlis
darRvevis gamo. purinuli cvlis moSlas Tan axlavs organizmSi SardmJava
naerTebis sagrZnobi mateba da sxvadasxva qsovilSi Calageba.
daavadebisTvis
damaxasiaTebelia
hiperurikemia
(sisxlis
SratSi
SardmJavas
koncentraciis
mateba),
SardmJava
marilebis
(kristaluri
uratebis) SemaerTebel qsovilSi - sinoviur garsSi, myesSi, xrtilSi, Zvlis
saxsrovan nawilSi, Tvalis skleraSi, Tirkmelebis intersticiul SreSi,
sisxlZarRvebSi - Calageba, rac mimdinareobs upiratesad saxsrebis
reaqtiuli anTebiT (podagruli arTriti da mravlobiTi kvanZis - tofusebis
ganviTareba), aseve - Sinagani organoebis, gansakuTrebiT ki Tirkmelebisa da
sisxlZarRvovani sistemis dazianebiT.
evropasa da aSS-Si gavrcelebul daavadebaTa Soris podagris wilad
0,01-0,3% modis, sxva revmatul daavadebebs Soris ki misi xvedriTi wili 2-5%ia. umTavresad (daaxloebiT 98%) gvxvdeba 30-40 wlis mamakacebSi. qalebSi
podagra iSviaTia da SeiZleba ganviTardes mxolod klimaqsur periodSi.
gamomwvevi
faqtorebi
genetikuri
ganwyoba.
Tu
adamians
aqvs
Tandayolili enzimopaTia - sxvadasxva
enzimis (fermentis) cvlis
genetikurad ganpirobebuli
darRveva, amas mohyveba purinebis sinTezis
mkveTri gaZliereba. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom podagris dros ferxdeba
TirkmelebiT SardmJavas gamoyofa, rac, Tavis mxriv, iwvevs hiperurikemias sisxlSi misi saerTo raodenobis momatebas.
alimenturi
faqtori.
igulisxmeba
purinebis,
cximebisa
da
naxSirwylebis Semcveli sakvebisa da alkoholis Warbi moxmareba. aranakleb
mniSvnelovania maRalkaloriuli dietisa da mcire fizikuri aqtivobis
Tanxvedra. hiperurikemiasTan erTad avadmyofebs arcTu iSviaTad aReniSnebaT
lipiduri (cximovani) cvlis darRveva, kerZod, hiperqolesterinemia, da
umniSvnelo hiperglikemia (sisxlSi Saqris donis momateba).
podagra SeiZleba iyos pirveladi, anu purinuli cvlis pirveladi
darRveviT ganpirobebuli, da simptomuri anu meoreuli. es ukanaskneli Tan
axlavs romelime ZiriTad daavadebas, iseTs, rogoric aris, magaliTad,
eriTremia,
leikozi,
anemiis
zogierTi forma,
mielomuri daavadeba,
nefropaTia, sarkoma da kibo, aseve - sxvadasxva nivTierebiT intoqsikacias,
kerZod, tyviiT mowamvlas, samkurnalo nivTierebebiT mowamvlas, sxivur
Terapias.
mwvave podagruli arTriti podagris ganviTarebaSi ganasxvaveben sam
periods: premorbiduls, intermisiuls anu monacvleobiTs da qronikuls.
premorbidul periods axasiaTebs sisxlSi SardmJavas donis usimptomo
372
momateba, romelic SeiZleba TveobiT, zogjer ki wlobiTac gagrZeldes. aris
SemTxvevebi, roca hiperurikemia periodulad qreba.
mwvave podagruli arTriti aRiniSneba daavadebis meore, intermisiul
anu monacvleobiT periodSi, romelsac axasiaTebs saxsrebSi mwvave
lokaluri anTebiTi procesis monacvleoba usimptomo periodTan da myari
hiperurikemia.
mwvave podagruli arTriti umetesad uviTardebaT Suaxnis mamakacebs
erTbaSad, TiTqmis umizezod, Tumca cnobilia Setevis ganviTarebis
riskfaqtorebi. maTgan aRsaniSnavia:
•
gansazRvruli tipis (purinebiT mdidari) sakvebi da alkoholuri
sasmelebi; 
•
travma; 
•
fizikuri gadaRla; 
•
nervul-emociuri datvirTva; 
•
gacieba; 
•
qirurgiuli Careva; 
•
cxovrebis wesis Secvla (aqtiuri cxovrebidan pasiurze gadasvla
an piriqiT); 
•
zogierTi infeqciuri daavadeba; 
•
alergiuli reaqcia; 
•
zogierTi preparatiT (kofeini, Teobromini, diuretini, eufilini,
vitaminebi, Sardmdenebi, sulfanilamidebi, RviZlis eqstraqtebi da a.S.)
mkurnaloba, xangrZlivi steroiduli Terapia an steroidebis uecari
Sewyveta. 
xSirad ramdenime faqtori erTmaneTs erwymis.
mwvave podagruli arTritis klinikuri suraTi, gansakuTrebiT - misi
pirveli Seteva, imdenad damaxasiaTebelia daavadebisTvis, rom podagris erTerT sadiagnozo kriteriumadac kia miCneuli.
podagris pirveli signali umetesad terfis pirveli (didi) TiTis
winaterf-falangis saxsris arTritia, iSviaTad - terfis sxva TiTebis, koWwvivis, muxlis, kidev ufro iSviaTad - sxiv-majis, idayvis, xelis mtevnis,
menj-barZayis da sxva saxsrebis arTriti. wesisamebr, saqme gvaqvs erTi
saxsris anTebasTan, Tumca arc poliarTritia gamoricxuli.
podagrul arTrits lokalizaciis mxriv garkveuli kanonzomiereba
axasiaTebs: zeda kidurebis saxsrebze xSirad qveda kidurebisa ziandeba,
msxvil saxsrebze xSirad - wvrili.
podagruli arTritis Seteva Seteva viTardeba uecrad, umetesad - RamiT.
avadmyofs aRviZebs terfis didi TiTis Zlieri tkivili. saxsari swrafad
(ramdenime saaTSi) sivdeba, kani hiperemiulia, daWimuli da mbzinavi. xSirad
gafarToebuli venebic ki moCans. Sesivebuli qsovilebi mkvrivia, adgilobrivi
temperatura - momatebuli, saxsarSi yovelgvari moZraoba - mkveTrad
mtkivneuli (aseTi Zlieri tkivili arc erTma arTrologiurma daavadebam ar
icis). Cveulebriv, krizi grZeldeba ramdenime saaTidan 10-12 dRemde da
TandaTanobiT (erT-or kviraSi) cxreba. amis paralelurad qreba SeSupeba da
saxsris funqcia savsebiT aRdgeba. avadmyofs Tavi gamojanmrTelebuli hgonia.
373
zog SemTxvevaSi anTebiTi procesi iTrevs periartikulur qsovils myesebsa da maT CanTebs. zogierTi mecnieris azriT, anTebiTi procesi limfis
gziT vrceldeba. periartikuluri qsovilis amgvari dazianeba klinikurad
Zlier hgavs flegmonas (faSari qsovilis Cirqovan anTebas). podagris amgvari
fsevdoflegmonuri formebi xSirad qceula mcdari qirurgiuli Carevis
mizezad.
iSviaTad tkivili sustia, saxsrebis Sesiveba da maTi funqciis darRveva
- mcired gamoxatuli. aseT formas asTeniurs uwodeben.
mwvave krizis dros avadmyofs SeiZleba hqondes subfebriluri
temperatura, magram Tu msxvili saxsrebia dazianebuli, maSin temperatura
maRalia.
rogorc aRiniSna, podagruli krizis dasrulebis Semdeg avadmyofi Tavs
savsebiT janmrTelad grZnobs, magram ramdenime xnis Semdeg Seteva meordeba.
misi sixSire da intensivoba TiToeuli avadmyofisTvis individualuria.
zogierTs saxsrovani krizi umeordeba weliwadSi erTxel an orjer, tkivili
ar aris Zlieri da Sromisunarianobas didi xniT ar aqveiTebs, zogi ki Zlier
da xSir Setevebs adreul invalidobamde mihyavs. Tu pirveli ramdenime Seteva
upiratesad azianebs terfis pirveli TiTis winaterf-falangTaSua saxsars,
momdevno Setevebi ukve sxva saxsrebis dazianebasac iwvevs. Tu daavadebis
dasawyisSi ZiriTadad erTi saxsris anTebasTan gvaqvs saqme, Semdgom podagris
mwvave Seteva erTdroulad ori an meti saxsris dazianebiT mimdinareobs.
Setevebs Soris avadmyofebis umravlesoba arafers uCivis.
tofusebi daavadebis ganviTarebis mesame, qronikul periods tofusebis
warmoqmna
axasiaTebs.
SeiZleba
Camoyalibdes
qronikuli
podagruli
poliarTriti an orive paTologia erTad.
tofusi sxvadasxva zomisaa, magaliTad, gvxvdeba rogorc muxudos
marcvlisodena, aseve vaSlisodena warmonaqmnebi. kanqveSa, zedapirulad
mdebare tofusi TeTria, mkvrivi. umetesad warmoiqmneba yuris niJaraze,
skleraze an idayvis areSi, SedarebiT iSviaTad - xelis, terfis TiTebze da
nebismier sxva adgilas.
tofusi xSirad rbildeba, TavisTavad ixsneba da iqidan gadmoedineba
kbilis pastis magvari TeTri masa. mikroskopiuli gamokvlevisas masSi
aRmoaCenen SardmJava natriumis kristalebs. Wriloba Zalian iSviaTad
inficirdeba, rac unda aixsnas SardmJava marilebis baqtericiduli efeqtiT
(am efeqts ganapirobebs mJava reaqcia).
qronikuli forma pirveli saxsrovani krizidan 3-5 wlis Semdeg podagra
qronikul formaSi gadaizrdeba. asea umetesad, magram ar aris gamoricxuli,
es periodi 10-15 wlamdec gagrZeldes. Setevebs Soris periodi TandaTan
mcirdeba. procesi TandaTanobiT iTrevs axal saxsrebs. SeumCnevlad
warmoiqmneba podagrisTvis damaxasiaTebeli kvanZebi. droTa ganmavlobaSi
imatebs
saxsrebis
myari
dazianebani,
yalibdeba
tipuri
qronikuli
poliarTritis suraTi - saxsrebis defiguracia da deformacia Zvlebis
wanazardebis xarjze, TiTebis qveamovardnilobebi, kontraqturebi, saxsrebis
uxeSi xraSuni, moZraobis SezRudva. avadmyofs uWirs moZraoba, uqveiTdeba an
sruliad ekargeba Sromis unari. Cveulebriv, qronikuli poliarTritis
374
saboloo Sedegi meoreuli madeformirebeli poliosteoarTrozia.
podagruli Tirkmeli podagris visceruli gamovlinebebidan yvelaze
metad aris gavrcelebuli SardkenWovani daavadeba, romelic podagriT
daavadebulTa 14-38%-s aReniSneba.
podagruli Tirkmeli gulisxmobs intersticiul nefrits TirkmelebSi
kenWis arsebobis gareSe da podagrul glomerulonefrits.
podagruli Tirkmlis yvelaze specifikuri niSania uratebis Calageba
Tirkmelebis tvinovan, iSviaTad - qerqovan SreSi. uratebis Calageba
Tavdapirvelad kerovani xasiaTisaa, mere da mere am keris irgvliv mdebare
Tirkmlis qsovilebSi viTardeba anTebiTi reaqciebi. ziandeba Tirkmlis
sisxlZarRvebi.
jer
fibrozi
viTardeba,
mogvianebiT
SesaZloa
nefroangiosklerozic ganviTardes. ufro iSviaTad wina planze gorglovani
aparatis dazianeba wamoiwevs.
mimdinareoba
da
simptomebi
podagruli
Tirkmeli
klinikurad
gamovlindeba:
•
proteinuriiT (SardSi cilis arsebobiT); 
•
cilindruriiT (SardSi cilindrebis arsebobiT); 
•
arteriuli hipertoniiT (wnevis matebiT); 
•
calkeul SemTxvevebSi viTardeba Tirkmlis ukmarisoba. 
sxva organoebis podagruli anTeba mwvave podagruli anTeba, garda
saxsrebisa, sxva organoebSic SeiZleba ganviTardes. aRwerilia podagruli
warmoSobis mioziti, kanis dazianeba WinWris ciebis saxiT, faringiti,
tonziliti,
laringiti,
glositi,
flebiti,
gastriti,
mwvave
iriti,
iridocikliti da sxva.
podagriT daavadebulTa naxevarze meti simsuqnes uCivis. xSiria
podagris Serwyma Saqrian diabetTan. cnobilia agreTve, rom podagra xels
uwyobs aTerosklerozisa da hipertoniis adreul ganviTarebas, oRond
podagris dros sisxlZarRvebSi Cndeba ara aTerosklerozuli folaqebi,
aramed
uratuli
kvanZebi
da
viTardeba
e.w.
urikosklerozuli
kardiosklerozi. klinikurad es ukanaskneli iseve mimdinareobs, rogorc
aTerosklerozuli kardiosklerozi da xSirad adreul asakSive iwvevs
insults an infarqts.
gamoyenebuli literatura
http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge/enciklopedia.html?task=term&id=8092
http://janmrtelobainfo.ge/?page_id=5444

vaxtang yifiani – zogadi patologia “Tbilisi 2008”

Mmarina SaqaraSvili-zogadi patologia “Tbilisi”2011

Nnugzar tatiSvili, irakli tatiSvili – Sinagan sneulTa
diagnostika “ saqarTvelos macne” Tbilisi 2003.
Podagra
Ani Janezashvili
Resume
In the work there are described disease causing factors, its pathological and stable
condition. Also, it is described disease symptoms and fight methods with it.
375
avitaminozi
Ggvanca kareliZe
Ffarmaciis specialoba, II kursi
xelmZRvaneli:laSa ninoSvili
E-mail: [email protected] Tel:557-11-87-27
avitaminozi
aris
organizmSi
vitaminebisa
da
mikroelementebis
raodenobis sagrZnoblad Semcireba,romelic viTardeb, rodesac adamiani
sistematurad ikvebeba vitaminebiT Raribi sakvebiT. am davadebis dros iwyeba
Tmis cvena, kanis simSrale, bavSvebSi zrdis SeCereba, nervuli sistemis
darRveva, gamofitva, sxvadasxva jirkvlebis disfunqcia, infeqciebTan
winaaRmdegobis ar arseboba, raqiti,suravandi,pelagra da sxva.
eqimebi
vitaminebis
naklebobis
ganviTarebas
ramdenime
mizezs
ukavSireben.ZiriTadi mizezi ki arabalansirebuli kveba da erTferovani
sakvebia. avitaminozis gamomwvevi kidev erTi xSiri mizezi adamianis saWmlis
momnelebeli
traqtis
funqciis
darRvevaa.
aRniSnuli
daavadebebis
mkurnalobas ki garTulebuli avitaminozi uSlis xels.
avitaminozi
gansakuTrebiT
SemCnevadia
zamTris
miwurulsa
da
gazafxulis dasawyisSi, swored am dros organizmi dasustebulia da
imyofeba mTeli rigi virusuli daavadebebis, infeqciebisa da motexilobebis
ganviTarebis saSiSroebis winaSe.vitaminebis Semcirebas iwvevs produqtebis
arasworad Senaxva da damuSaveba.
ganasxvaveben hipovitaminozis ori formas: egzogenur anu alimentarul
da endogenur hipovitaminozs.
alimentaruli anu egzogenuri hipovitaminozi viTardeba sakvebTan
erTad vitaminebis Semcirebuli raodenobiT miRebisas. maSin, rodesac bavSvs
xangrZlivad aZleven erTferovan sakvebs, magaliTad, mxolod Zroxis rZes. am
SemTxvevaSi viTardeba C vitaminis,B jgufis vitaminebis,PP da D vitaminebis
deficiti; an rodesac Cvilis kvebis racionSi gvian CaerTveba damatebiTi
sakvebi bostneulis, wvenebis saxiT. vitaminebis deficitis mizezi SesaZloa
iyos sakvebis arasworad momzadeba, misi arasakmarisi an Warbi miReba.
magaliTad, rodesac Warbi raodenobiT iReben naxSirwylebs rafinirebuli,
maRalkaloriuli produqtis saxiT;rodesac organizmi itvirTeba SaqriT,
TeTri puriT an sakonditro nawarmiT. hipovitaminozi SesaZloa ganviTardes
sxvadasxva
medikamentis gamoyenebisas, rogoricaa: sulfanilamidebi,barbituratebis
jgufi da sxv.
hipovitaminozebis meore forma, endogenuri, SesaZloa ganviTardes ori
mizezis gamo - vitaminebis nawilobrivi daSliT saWmlis momnelebel traqtSi
an organizmSi misi Sewovis darRveviT. endogenuri hipovitaminozis mizezi
SesaZloa iyos kuWis daavadebebi, xelSemwyob faqtorad iTvleba dabali
mJavianoba. vitaminebis deficitis xelSemwyob faqtorebSi ganixileba aseve
naRvlis buStis paTologiebi,rodesac arasakmarisi raodenobiT miewodeba
naRveli an xdeba sanaRvle gzebis atrezia (xSirad axalSobilobis asakSi
viTardeba), an SedarebiT gvian periodSi naRvel-kenWovani daavadebis,
376
qronikuli hepatitebisa da cirozebis dros. gazafxulze hipovitaminozis
gamovlena ufro xSiria, radgan bunebrivi gziT miRebuli saSualebebi - xili
da bostneuli aRar Seicavs vitaminebis did marags. zamTarSi am vitaminebis
erTi nawilis daSla xdeba. Sesabamisad, organizmi veRar maragdeba
vitaminebis sasurveli raodenobiT. gavlenas axdens is virusuli infeqciebi,
romlis gadatanac uxdeba adamians Semodgomidan gazafxulamde. esec
imunodeficitis ganmapirobebeli garemoebaa, rac avitaminoziT vlindeba.
sxvadasxva vitaminis deficitis dros klinikuri gamovlena sxvadasxvagvaria.
A vitaminis, anu retinolis deficitis dros klinikurad pacienti
avlens sinaTlis SiSs, viTardeba Ramis sibrmave(qaTmis sibrmave), kanis
sifermkrTale,
midrekileba
kanze
Cirqgrovisa
da
ferimWamelebisken,
aRiniSneba frCxilebis advilad mtvrevadoba da icvleba Sardis Seferiloba.
gazafxulze organizmi yvelaze xSirad D da C vitaminebis deficits
ganicdis:
C vitamini infeqciuri daavadebebis gavrcelebas uSlis xels. am
vitaminis naklebobis dros organizmSi xdeba imunobiologiuri reqciebis
Semcireba.
C vitaminis naklebobis damaxasiaTebeli klinikuri niSnebia: imunuri
sistemis sisuste, kanis simSrale da sifermkrTale, kanis dazianebis
Senelebuli aRdgena, Tmis cvena, saerTo sisuste, advilad daRla, kunTebis
tonusis Semcireba, revmatoiduri tkivilebi kidurebSi da sisuste kudusunis
areSi. sisxlZarRvebis sisustis gamo RrZilebidan sisxlisdena,tuCis
kuTxeebis damskdroba da kanze sisxlCaqcevebi.igi iwvevs daavadebas,romelic
suravandis saxeliT aris cnobili.
D jgufis vitaminebi ganekuTvneba biologiurad aqtiur nivTierebaTa
jgufs, romelic Seucvleli nawilia kvebis racionSi:D vitaminis nakleboba
iwvevs ujredis zrdis problemas. es vitamini aregulirebs kalciumisa da
fosforis aTvisebas. kbilebisTvis D vitamini aucilebelia.misi naklebobisas
adamiani kargavs Zvlovan da kunTovan masas, sustdeba imuniteti, uaresdeba
Tavis tvinis mdgomareoba. viTardeba daavadeba raqiti.arasasurveli movlenis
Tavidan acilebisTvis, eqimebis rCevaa, rom adamianebma gazafxulis damdegs
rac SeiZleba meti dro gaataron sufTa haerze, gansakuTrebiT mzian
dReebSi.Zalze sainteresoa bavSvTa asakSi D vitaminis deficiti,romlis
mizezi SesaZloa iyos mzis sxivebis da sufTa haerze yofnis nakleboba.
vitaminis deficits aseve SesaZloa iwvevdes ekologiuri,fsiqosocialuri
faqtorebi. magaliTad, rodesac ojaxSi yuradReba ar eqceva fizikuri
aRzrdis elementebs - masaJs, fizkulturas; rodesac Zvlovani struqtura
naklebad maragdeba sisxliT.
B jgufis vitaminebis naklebobis dros SesaZloa adamians CaexliCos
xma, dasustdes misi kunTovani aparati, aReniSnebodes gulis sazRvrebis
gafarToeba, rasac Tan sdevs taqikardia, qoSini da gul-sisxlZarRvTa
sistemis ukmarisoba (SegubebiTi tipis).
qronikuli daRlilobis SegrZneba, cudi mada, uxasiaToba -mianiaSnebs
imaze, rom SesaZloa bavSvi vitamini B1-is deficits ganicdis.misi nakleboba
iwvevs beri-beris daavadebas.naxeTqebi piris kuTxeebSi, wylulebi enaze,
Tvalis gaZlierebuli mgrZnobeloba sinaTlis mimarT - es is simptomebia,
377
romlebic vitamin B2-is deficitze metyvelebs.
B5
vitaminis
naklebobas
axasiaTebs
gaRizianebadoba,
daRliloba,aRiniSneba
TiTebSi
wvis
SegrZneba,
zogjer
krunCxvebic,
dasaSvebia Tirkmelzeda jirkvlis ukmarisobac.
B6
vitaminis
deficitis
dros
SesaZloa
ganviTardes
stomatiti,wylulovani gastriti, seboreuli dermatiti, SesaZloa aRiniSnos
CamorCena
fizikur
ganviTarebaSi,
aseve
fsiqikuri
ganviTarebis
Seferxeba,madis daqveiTeba, musvenroba,gaRizianeba da epilefsiis msgavsi
gulyrebi.
rac Seexeba B12 vitaminis deficits, am SemTxvevaSi gvxvdeba Tmis
cvena,diarea, atrofiuli gastritis movlenebi.
PP vitaminis, anu nikotinis mJavas deficitis dros organizmSi,xSirad
viTardeba pelagra. avadmyofs damatebiT SesaZloa awuxebdes tuCebis
simSrale, stomatiti da sxv.
E vitaminis, anu tokoferolis nakleboba SesaZloa ganviTardes rkinis
Semcveli preparatebis Warbi gamoyenebis, damwvrobis dros.klinika am
vitaminis deficitisas SesaZloa gamoxatuli iyos nevrologiuri aSlilobiT,
rasac mosdevs siarulis maneris Secvla,Tvalis mamoZravebeli kunTis parezi
da sxv.
mecnierebi sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis 13 vitamins asaxeleben da maT or
nawilad yofen - wyalSi xsnadi da cximSi xsnadi vitaminebi. wyalSi xsnadi
vitaminebis jgufs miakuTvneben C da B jgufis vitaminebs: B1(Tiamini),
B2(riboflavini), B5 (panTetenis mJava), B6 (piridoqsini), B12(cianokabalamini),
vitamini PP (niacini), foliumis mJava da vitamini H(biotini). cximSi xsnadi
vitaminebis jgufSi Sedian:
vitamini A retinoli, E tokoferoli, D
kalciferoli da vitamini K.magram, sad
unda veZeboT organizmisTvis ase aucilebeli vitaminebi?gavrcelebuli
azriT vitaminebi ZiriTadad xilsa da bostneulSia.magram unikaluri
vitaminebi (askorbinis mJava, foliumis mJava, vitamini K da A vitaminis
winamorbedi karotini)
mcenareul sakvebSi arc ise bevria. cximSi xsnadi
vitaminebi da maTi monaTesave B jgufis vitaminebi,ZiriTadad cxoveluri
warmoSobis produqtebSi, mcenareul zeTsa da sasargeblo marcvleulSi
unda veZeboT. Tanamedrove adamianma mniSvnelovnad Seamcira energiis xarjvis
maCvenebeli. rogorc amis
Tanmdevi, mniSvnelovnad Semcirda misi kvebis racionic, pirvel rigSi
raodenobrivad. amitom, Zalian rTulia adamianma vitaminebis saWiro
raodenoba sakvebTan erTad srulad miiRos.
vitaminebi namdvilad gvWirdeba, magram romeli da ra raodenobiT?mas
Semdeg, rac XX saukuneSi sinTeTikuri vitaminebis Seqmna daiwyes,avitaminozis
problema TiTqos moixsna, magram gamokvlevebma cxadyo,rom xelovnurad
Seqmnili vitaminebi adamianis organizmze negatiurad moqmedeben.
gamodis,
rom Tu naturaluri vitaminebi adamianis organizms daavadebebisgan icaven,
xelovnuri vitaminebi SesaZloa maTi gamomwvevi mizezic ki gaxdes. organizmi
xelovnur vitaminebs bolomde ver iTvisebs maSinac ki, Tu romelime maTganis
Rrma deficits ganicdis.
378
sinTeTikuri vitaminebis kompleqsSi SesaZloa ramdenime erTmaneTTan
SeuTavsebeli vitaminic iyos warmodgenili. zogs am problemis gadaWris erTerT saSualebad bad-ebi(biologiurad aqtiuri danamatebi), naturaluri an
naturalurTan identuri biologiurad aqtiuri nivTierebebi miaCnia. magram,
isinic vitaminebis kompleqsis msgavsad, mxolod nawilobriv akmayofileben
organizmSi vitaminebis deficitiT gamowveul SimSils. mravalwlianma
dakvirvebebma cxadyo,rom gamajansaRebeli produqtebis sameulSi yvelaze
dabal safexurze farmacevtuli komponentebi dgas, meore adgilze bad-ebia,
xolo
upiratesoba futkris produqcias eniWeba. mefutkreobis produqcia
advilad
umklavdeba
imas,
rac
sxva
saSualebebisTvis
faqtobrivad
dauZlevelia.
cnobilia,
rom
Taflis
SemadgenlobaSi
Sedis
vitaminebi:
Tiamini,riboflavini,
piridoqsini,
panTotenis
mJava,
nikotinis
mJava,
biotini,foliumis mJava da askorbinis mJava. yvavilis mtveri (igive futkris
fexgunda) unikaluri vitaminuri kompleqsia, romelic Seicavs yvela cnobil
vitamins, agreTve yvela sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis mikroelementebs.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.marina SaqaraSvili ,,zogadi paTologia”,Tbilisi 2011w.
2.http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%90%E1%83%95%E1%83%98%E1%83%A2%E1%83%9
0%E1%83%9B%E1%83%98%E1%83%9C%E1%83%9D%E1%83%96%E1%83%98
3. http://tentorium.ge/?page=archive&id=83
3. http://sknews.ge/index.php?newsid=116#.UYoRtKKKLVx
4. http://www.dentalcafe.ge/modules/news/print_news.php?id=102
Avitaminosis
Gvantsa Karelidze
Resume
Essay discusses the importance of vitamins in the human body. Well as the impact of each
change in the number of children and adults, and provides several examples. Discussed as well as how
to avoid A vitamin and how to fight the disease, which means that the disease is no longer implements
energies and vice versa, to go toward recovery.
379
amebiazis Taviseburebani
ani nonikaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
farmaciis specialobis II kursi
xelmZRvaneli- medicinis doqtori
laSa ninoSvili
amebiazi nawlavTa daavadebaa, romelsc amebaTa ojaxis erTujrediani
paraziti iwvevs. Mmas axasiaTebs msxvili nawlavis wylulovani dazianeba,
sxvadasxva organoSi abscesis ganviTareba da xangrZlivi mimdinareoba.
amebiazis
gamomwvevia
histolitikuri
ameba,
romelic
SeiZleba
arsebobdes sami formiT; didi vegetatiuri (qsovilovani), Mmcire vegetatiuri
(sanaTurovani) da incistirebuli (cistebis saxiT).Aamebis qsovilovani forma
Cndeba daavadebulis qsovilebSi da ganavalSi da gaaCnia Zlierad
gamoxatuli invaziuri Tvisebebi.
paTogenezi.
Aadamianis organizmSi ameba xვdeba cistebis saxiT. moxvdebian ra saWmlis
momnelebel traqtSi,
isini gardaiqmnebian sanaTurovan formebad.
Aam
ukanasknels gaaCnia აqtiuri moZraobis unari da gamoyofs proteolizur
fermentebs, romlebic msxvili nawlavis kedlis qsovilTა galRobasa da liziss
iwveven wylulebis warmoqmniT. Mmsxvili nawlavis kedlis lorwovanSi da
lorwqveSa SreSi moxvedris Semdeg, sanaTurovani forma, mniSvnelovnad
izrdeba da gardaiqmneba qsovilovan formad.
epidemiologia
dasnebovneba
xdeba
histolitikuri amebis
cistebis
zrdasruli
formebis, piris Rrus gavliT, kuW-nawlavis traqtSi moxvedris Sedegad
.adamianis dasnebovneba xdeba amebiaziT daavadebulebisa da cistebis
mtareblebis ganavliT dabinZurebuli sasmeli wylisa da sakvebi produqtebis
gamoyenebis Semdeg (amebiaziT daavadebulebis fekaliebiT ganayofierebuli
bostnidan axladmowyvetili, gaurecxavi bostneulis da kenkris sakvebad
gamoyeneba). daavadeba gavrcelebulia Tbili da cxeli klimatis pirobebSi;
amebiazi gvxvdebakavkasiaSi, Sua aziis zogierT raionSi. inkubaciuri periodi
grZeldeba 20-30 dRe. gamoyofen nawlavur, aranawlavur da kanis amebiazebs.
ZiriTad klinikur formas warmoadgens nawlavuri amebiazi.
klinikuri suraTi
ameburi kolitis ZiriTadi simptomebia: madis daqveiTeba,
Seberva da yuryuri, Sekrulobebisa da aSlilobebis monacvleoba.
muclis
temperatura daavadebis gamwvavebisas izrdeba zomierad da xanmokle
periodiT. ameburi dizenteriisTvis damaxasiaTebelia sakmao intensivobis,
380
SeteviTi an movliTi xasiaTis tkivilebi muclis areSi, saerTo sisuste,
SeuZlod yofna, kuWis moqmedebis sixSire dReSi 10-mdea. temperature
momatebulia 38 gradusamde, da SenarCunebulia 3-5 dRis ganmavlobaSi. ena
dafarulia nadebiT, muceli zomierad Seberilia, aRiniSneba yuryuri;
zogierT SemTxvevaSi RviZli zomieradaa gadidebuli. iseve rogorc
ameburi colitis dros, ameburi dizenteriisTvis damaxasiaTebelia cudi
mada, Sromisunarianobis daqveiTeba, uZiloba, anemia, avadmyofis wonaSi
dakleba.
nawlavuri amebiazi uxSiresad mimdinareobs RviZlis dazianebiT. ameburi
hepatitis an RviZlis abcesis saxiT. ameburi hepatitisTvis damaxasiaTebelia
intoqsikacia, sxvadasxva intensivobis siyviTle, rig SemTxvevebSi – cxeleba,
RviZlis zomebis momateba. RviZlis ameburi abcesisTvis tipiuria heqtiuri
cxeleba, tkivilebi marjvena neknqveSa midamoSi, mtkivneuli da gadidebuli
RviZli, arc Tu iSviaTad – siyviTle. cnobilia agreTve Tavis tvinis,
elenTis da sxva organoebis ameburi abcesebi. kanis amebiazi Cveulebriv Tan
sdevs amebiazis nawlavur formas.
amebiazis garTulebebi.
nawlavuri
sisxldenebi,
perikoliti,
msxvili
nawlavis
perforacia, nawlavuri gauvaloba, filtvebis abcesebi da sxva.
kedlis
diagnozi
daavadebis gamocnoba xdeba epidemiologiuri monacemebis, anamnezis,
klinikuri suraTis da avadmyofis ganavlis parazitologiuri kvlevis
safuZvelze. maTSi histolikuri amebis qsovilovani formebis
naxva
adasturebs am daavdadebis diagnozs da metyvelebs paTologiuri procesis
aqtiur mimdinareobaze.
profilaqtika
im adgilebSi, sadac xSirad gvxvdeb aamebiazi, aucilebelia sasmeli
wylis marTlebulad momarageba, misaxleobisTvis piradi higienis zomebis
gacnoba, sasmelad mxolod anaduRari wylis gamoyeneba, tualetis higienurad
Senaxva da dezinficireba, sakvebi produqtebis dacva. cistebi didi xnis
ganmavlobaSi inarCuneben sicocxlisunarianobas sxvadasxva wyalsatevSi.
cistebis matareblis daSveba ar SeiZleba wylis momaragebis sitemaSi,
sakvebis gamomuSavebis sawarmoebSi, sazogadoebrivi kvebis obieqtebSi
samuSaod, agreTve bavSvebis momvlelebad.
infeqciis mTavar wyaroa cistebis gamomyofi (matarebeli) adamiani.
mwvave period cicistebi ar gamoiyofa, amitom avadmyofi saSiSi ar aris.
saSiSroeba Tan sdevsgamojanmrTelebis dasawyiss.
ar aris gamoricxuli aamebiazis Serwyma sxva daavadebebTan: amebiazis
kombinacias axasiaTebs uecari dasawyisi, temperaturis mateba, intoqsikaciis
381
niSnebi.
mkurnaloba
amebiazis
samkurnalo mravali efeqturi saSualeba daavadebis
klinikuri formisa da stadiis Sesatyvisad SeirCeva. Tu daavadeba droulad
gamovlinda, maSin misi mkurnaloba waarmatebiT dasruldeba. zogjer
garTulebis SemTxvevaSi saWiro xdeba qirurgiuli Careva.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
“qarTuli samedicino enciklopedia”- amebiazi
2.
http://mkurnali.ambebi.ge/component/encyclopedia/?task=term&id=422
3.
http://infeqciuri.blogspot.com/2013/01/blog-post_4.html
Peculiarities of Amebiasis
Ani Nonikashvili
Resume
Amebiasis is socially important disease that can be spreader widely. The work describes
epidemiological, Pathogenesis and clinical peculiarities of this disease.
aTerosklerozi
nino samadalaSvili
farmaciis specialoba, II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: laSa ninoSvili
E-mail: [email protected] Tel:598-94-12-92
aTerosklerozi qronikuli daavadebaa, romlis drosac arteriis
kedlebi sqeldeba da eSveba, sanaTuri viwrovdeba da sisxlis mimoqceva
Zneldeba.
daavadeba Suaxnis da asakovan adamianebs emarTebaT, Tumca ar aris
gamoricxuli, aTerosklerozuli cvlilebebi bavSvebsac (axalSobilebsac ki)
aRmoaCndeT.
gansakuTrebiT
sariskoa
asakis
(35
wlis
zemoT)
da
stresis
Tanxvedra.didi mniSvneloba aqvs memkvidreobiT faqtors. aTerosklerozis
ganviTarebas xels uwyobs zogierTi daavadebac, maT Soris - Saqriani
diabeti, simsuqne, podagra, naRvelkenWovani daavadeba. daavadebis kidev erTi
riskfaqtoria - magram ara uSualo mizezi - cxoveluri cximis Warbi miReba.
aTerosklerozis
ganviTarebaSi
did
rols
asrulebs
fizikuri
aqtivobis
simcire,
fsiqoemociuri
gadaZabva,
nervuli
sistemis
travma,cxovrebis daZabuli ritmi, xmauri, specifikuri samuSao garemo da
382
sxva.
daavadebis ganviTareba
janmrTeli adamianis sisxli Tavisuflad miedineba arteriebSi,aRwevs
sxeulis yvela ubans da mas JangbadiT da sakvebi nivTierebebiT amaragebs.
sisxlSi arsebuli Warbi qolesterini sisxlZarRvebis SigniTa zedapirze
ileqeba da warmoqmnis aTerosklerozul folaqebs,romlebic umTavresad
cximisa da kalciumisgan Sedgeba. droTa ganmavlobaSi aTerosklerozuli
folaqis zedapirze ileqeba Trombocitebi (sisxlis SededebaSi monawile
sisxlis elementebi) da
cilebi. Cndeba Trombi.
Trombi,
garda
imisa,
rom
ufro
metad
aviwroebs
arteriis
sanaTurs,imiTac aris saSiSi, rom SeiZleba moswydes nawili, romelic
sisxlis nakadis meSveobiT manamde gadaadgildeba sisxlZarRvSi, vidre sadme
ar
gaiWedeba.
daxSuli
sisxlZarRvi
sisxlis
mimoqcevas
mkveTrad
arRvevs.romelime organos (an mis nawils) sisxli aRar miewodeba da is
kvdeba.
gulis mkvebavi sisxlZarRvis dazianebisas miokardiumis infarqti
viTardeba, xolo Tu aTerosklerozma Tavis tvinis mkvebavi arteria daaziana,
mosalodnelia insulti.
daavadeba wlobiT mimdinareobs, nel-nela progresirebs da ufro da
ufro met sisxlZarRvs azianebs.
roca sisxlZarRvis sanaTuri 2-jer Seviwrovdeba, adamiani ama Tu im
qsovilis an organos sisxliT momaragebis ukmarisobis pirvel niSnebs
SeigrZnobs.
simptomebi da mimdinareoba
aTerosklerozis gamovlineba mis lokalizaciazea damokidebuli.
aortis aTerosklerozi vlindeba TandaTanobiT mzardi arteriuli
hipertenziis saxiT. uares SemTxvevebSi SeiZleba ganviTardes aortis
aSrevebadi anevrizma - aortis kedeli metismetad Txeldeba, Signidan ki
Trombi awveba, amitom mosalodnelia aortis gaxeTqva.
aortis rkalis aTerosklerozi iwvevs Tavis tvinis sisxlZarRvovan
ukmarisobas, rac Tavbruxvevas, gulis wasvlas ganapirobebs. mosalodnelia
insultic.
gulis koronaruli arteriebis aTerosklerozi gulis iSemiuri
daavadebis mizezad iqceva.
jorjlis arteriis (nawlavebis mkvebavi arteriis) aTerosklerozma
SeiZleba gamoiwvios:arteriis totebis Trombozi, rac, Tavis mxriv, nawlavis
kedlisa da jorjlis nekrozs ganapirobebs;
muclis kolikis (Wvalis) msgavsi Seteva, romelic Wamis Semdeg iCens
Tavs, arcTu iSviaTad Tan sdevs Rebineba da muclis Seberva.
Tirkmlis arteriis aTerosklerozis dros TirkmelebSi sisxlis
mimoqceva irRveva, rac myar, mkurnalobisadmi daumorCilebel arteriul
hipertenzias iwvevs. misi Sedegi nefrosklerozi da Tirkmelebis qronikuli
ukmarisobaa.
sasqeso asos sisxlZarRvTa aTerosklerozuli dazianeba,romelic
383
Tambaqos wevis, Saqriani diabetisa da hipertenziis fonze viTardeba, ereqciis
darRvevis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezia.
qveda kidurTa arteriebis aTerosklerozs avlens wvivebis qronikuli
tkivili, romelic siarulisas aRmocendeba da dasvenebisas qreba. siarulis
dros fexis kunTebis tkivili adamians SeCerebas aiZulebs. amas xangamoSvebiT
koWlobas uwodeben.
diagnostireba
avadmyofis
Civilebis
safuZvelze
eqimi
gamokvlevis
gegmas
adgens.pirvel yovlisa, aucilebelia sisxlis bioqimiuri analizi da
qolesterinis donis gansazRvra. Semdeg, saWiroebisamebr, tardeba gamokvleva.
magaliTad, Tavis tvinis sisxlZarRvTa aTerosklerozi SesaZloa karga xans
usimptomod
mimdinareobdes,
magram
kvlevis
Tanamedrove
meTodi
ultrabgeriTi doplerografia mis adreul
etapze gamovlenis SesaZleblobas iZleva. sisxlZarRvTa mdgomareobis
Sesaswavlad mimarTaven koronarografias, romlis meSveobiTac zustad
ganisazRvreba aTerosklerozuli folaqis adgilmdebareoba.
mkurnaloba
aTerosklerozs
da
mis
Sedegebs
qirurgiuli
meTodiT
mkurnaloben,romlis
mizania
Seviwroebuli
sisxlZarRvebis
balonuri
gafarToeba,aTerosklerozuli folaqis mocileba, sisxlZarRvis dazianebuli
nawilis stentireba, sisxlis nakadisTvis axali gzis Seqmna da a.S.
profilaqtika janmrTelobis SenarCuneba am radikaluri Carevis
gareSec SeiZleba.magaliTad, Tu fexebis tkivili igrZeniT, siaruls ki ar
unda moukloT, aramed moumatoT. tkivilis aRmocenebisas SeisveneT, Semdeg
ki,
roca
tkivili
gagivliT,
odnav
ufro
nel
tempSi
ganagrZeT
siaruli.siaruli kolateraluri sisxlZarRvebis amuSavebas uwyobs xels da
mdgomareoba SesamCnevad umjobesdeba.
didi mniSvneloba aqvs cxovrebis jansaR wess: jansaR kvebas, sigaretis
mitovebas, eqimTan droul vizitsa da profilaqtikur gamokvlevas.arsebobs
preparatebic, romlebic sisxlSi qolesterinis Semcvelobas amcirebs.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
vaxtang yifiani ,,organoebis da sistemebis paTofiziologia”
Tbilisi 2005w.
2.
http://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%90%E1%83%97%E1%83%94%E1%83%A0
%E1%83%9D%E1%83%A1%E1%83%99%E1%83%9A%E1%83%94%E1%83%A0%E1%83%9D%
E1%83%96%E1%83%98
Atherosclerosis
Nino Samadalashvili
Resume
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease. Lack of physical activity plays a big role in its
development, psycho-emotional surge, nervous system trauma, and tense rhythm of life, environment,
and other special work. Manifestation of atherosclerosis depends on its localization.
384
kibo
ana TeTrauli
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
farmacia II kursi
xelmZRvaneli: laSa ninoSvili
tel: 599 22 62 21
ra aris kibo? kibos daavadebaTa farTo jgufs uwodeben, romlebic
atipuri ujredebis gaukontrolebuli zrdiTa da gamravlebiT xasiaTdeba.
organizmis zrdasTan erTad ujredebis raodenoba izrdeba da es procesi
mkacrad kontrolirdeba. zogierTi ujredi, masSi warmoqmnili cvlilebebis
gamo aRar eqvemdebareba aseT kontrols da usasrulod mravldeba.
avTvisebiani simsivne
avTvisebiani simsivne (kibo) – am saxis simsivnes
SeuZlia SeiWras, daazianos da daarRvios axlomdebare qsovilebi da
gavrceldes sxeulis sxva organoebz keTilTvisebiani simsivne
– aseTi
simsivne iSviaTad Tu warmoadgens sicocxlisaTvis saSiS daavadebas da igi
ar vrceldeba sxeulis danarCen nawilebze. keTilTvisebiani simsivnis
qirurgiuli mocileba SesaZlebelia da Cveulebriv misi xelaxla warmoSobis
riski dabalia.
daxasiaTeba simsivne, iseve rogorc normaluri qsovili ujredebisagan
Sedgeba, magram normaluri ujredebisagan gansxvavebiT simsivnur ujredebs
daqveiTebuli an sruliad dakarguli aqvT momwifebis, diferenciaciis unari
da axasiaTebT ganusazRvreli gamravleba, ris Sedegadac warmoqmnili
simsivnuri qsovili azianebs
da arRvevs
irgvlivmdebare
normalur
qsovilebsa da organoebs; simsivneebs Seiswavlis mecniereba onkologia.
imisda mixedviT Tu romeli qsovilisagan
viTardeba simsivne, ganarCeven
mwife anu keTilTvisebian simsivnes, romelic SenebiT waagavs dedur qsovils
(homeoplazia), da umwifar anu avTvisebian simsivnes risi Seneba mkveTrad
gansxvavdeba deduri qsovilisagan (anaplazia).
diferenciacia
keTilTvisebian da avTvisebian simsivneebs Soris arsebuli gansxvaveba
isaa, rom avTvisebiani simsivnisTvis damaxasiaTebelia swrafi zrda,
simsivnuri ujredebis SeWra irgvlivmyof saR qsovilebSi (infiltraciuli
zrda), simsivnuri ujredebis sisxlisa da limfis gziT gadatana daSorebul
organoebSi da iq meoreuli simsivnuri kvanZebis — metastazebis gaCena,
simsivnis amokveTisas imave adgilas ganmeorebiTi simsivnis ganviTareba
simsivnis aRmocenebamde didi xniT adre qsovilebSi xdeba ujredTa jer
difuzuri, xolo Semdeg kerovani gamravleba. es cvlilebebi cnobilia
rogorc simsivniswinare anu kiboswinare mdgomareoba. ukve ganviTarebuli
simsivne droTa ganmavlobaSi iZens axal Tvisebebs (simsivnis progresia), rac
safuZvlad udevs simsivnuri procesis dayofas stadiebad.
simptomebi kibos simptomatika damokidebulia simsivnuri warmonaqmnis
adgilmdebareobaze, misi zrdis xarisxsa da metastazebis arsebobaze.
385
metastazi (berZn. μτάασις; gadanacvleba, gadasvla) — meoreuli
paTologiuri warmonaqmni, romelicviTardeba
organoSi an
qsovilSi
pirveladi keridan maavadebeli faqtoris (simsivnuri ujredi, infeqciuri
agenti da sxv.) gadanacvlebis Sedegad.warmoadgens sinsivnuri qsovilis
implants, romelic vrceldeba simsivnis ZiriTadi keridan sxva organoebSi.
keTilTvisebiani simsivneebi metastazirebas ar ganicdian. avTvisebiani
simsivneebis dros adgilobrivi invazia ganapirobebs sisxlmilebSi, limfur
milebSi, RruebSi simsivnuri ujredebis penetracias da gavrcelebas.
metastazireba Cveulebriv xdeba sisxlis nakadiT
da limfiT. kibos
ujredebi
umetesad
limfogenuri
gziT
vrceleba,
sarkomisa
ki
hemategenurad. metastazi SeiZleba ganviTardes agreTve simsivnuri ujredebis
CanergviT mezobel saR qsovilSi. metastazirebis procesi samfaziania:
simsivnuri ujredis SeRweva sisxlZarRvebSi an limfur sadinarebSi, misi
gadatana sisxlis an limfis nakadiT uaxloes an Soreul organoSi;
metastazuri simsivnis ganviTareba axal keraSi.metastazi simsivnuri procesis
avTvisebianobis maCvenebelia da gansazRvravs daavadebis mimdinareobas.
simsivneTa umravlesobis metastazebi uaxloes regionalur limfur kvanZebSi
viTardeba, Tumca avTvisebiani simsivnis metastazebs axasiaTebs arCeviTi
lokalizacia: mag., Zvlis simsivne umetesad iZleva metastazebs filtvebSi,
sarZeve, farisebri da winamdebare jirkvlebis kibo - ZvlebSi, filtvis kibo RviZlsa da Tavis tvinSi da sxv.Tavisi agebulebiT metastazi pirveladi
simsivnis agebulebas imeorebs. zogjer metastazuri kvanZis histologiuri
struqturis mixedviT SeiZleba SeumCneveli simsivnis pirveladi keris
aRmoCena.
RviZlis makropreparati,mravalricxvovani metastaziT. Tavisa
da
zurgis tvinis simsivneebi – tvinis simsivneebi (Tavisa da zurgis tvinis)
gansakuTrebiT xSirad viTardeba 50-55 da 5-10 wlis asakSi. 15 wlis zemoT,
Tavis tvinis avTvisebiani simsivneebis 70%-s Seadgenen glioblastoma da
avTvisebiani astrocitoma; SedarebiT iSviaTad diagnostirdeba ependimoma,
glioma, oligodendroglioma, meduloblastoma. bavSvebSi Tavis tvinis
simsivneebi sixSiriT meore adgils ikaveben avTvisebian simsivneTa Soris
(leikozebis Semdeg). 60% Seadgenen meduloblastoma, astrocitoma da
ependimoma, iSviaTad gvxvdeba sxva simsivneebi.
hemangioblastoma – Tavis an zurgis tvinis simsivne, romelic viTardeba
tvinis garsebis an TviT tvinis sisxlisZarRvebisgan.aseTi simsivnis
ganviTarebas
xSirad
Tan
axlavs
feoqromocitomebis
warmoqmna
da
siringomielia.
tuCis kibo – tuCis kibo daaxloebiT 90%-Si lokalizebulia qveda
tuCis centralur nawilSi; SemTxvevaTa 90%-Si warmoadgens garqovanebul
brtyelujredovan kibos. winaswarganmwyobi faqtorebia: tuCis lorwovani
garsis qronikuli travmatizacia, sigaretis weva. tuCis kiboswinare
daavadebebia: qeiliti, hiperkeratozi, meWeWisebri predkibo, keratoakanToma,
kanis rqa.
piri Rrus lorwovani garsis kibo - am jgufSi Sedis avTvisebiani
386
simsivneebi, romlebic viTardebian enaze, loyebis lorwovan garsSi, piris
Rrus fskerze, zeda da qveda ybebis alveolur kideebze, magar da rbil
sasaze, sasis wina rkalebze. avTvisebiani simsivnis yvelaze xSiri
histologiuri
variantia
btyelujredovani
garqovanebuli
kibo.
am
lokalizaciis simsivneebi xSiria mamakacebSi. simsivniswina procesebia:
bouemis daavadeba, leikoplakia, papilomatozi, wiTeli mgluras Sedegebi.
cxvir-xaxis simsivneebi – cxvir-xaxis simsivneebis ZiriTad histologiur
variants warmoadgens brtyelujredovani kibo. gvxvdeba aradiferencirebuli
kibo (30%), limfosarkoma da limfoepiTelioma. simptomebi damokidebulia
mezobeli organoebis invaziis xasisxze. cxvir-xaxis kibo vrceldeba xaxis
kedelze qveviT, moicavs rbil sasas, amasTan gaZnelebulia ylapva, aRiniSneba
xmis CaxleCa, xvela.
saylapavis kibo – saylapavis kibo (esophageal carcinoma) Cveulebriv
diagnostirdeba 55 wlis asakSi da zeviT, mamakacebSi 3-jer xSiria vidre
qalebSi.
ZiriTadi
histologiuri
formaa
brtyel-ujredovani
kibo.
avTvisebian simsivnes win uZRvis qronikuli ezofagitebi, peptikuri wylulebi,
qimiuri da Termuli damwvrobebi.
xorxis kibo - xorxis kibo Seadgens daaxloebiT 2%-s yvela
avTvisebiani simsivneebisa. mamakacebSi igi 8-9-jer ufro xSirad gvxvdeba,
vidre qalebSi. lokalizebuli simsivneebi aRiniSneba avadmyofTa 60%-Si;
SemTxvevaTa 30%-Si vlindeba regionaluri metastazebi, da 10%-Si – Soreuli
metastazebi. ZiriTadi histologiuri formaa – brtyelujredovani kibo.
yvelaze ufro xSirad ziandeba xorxis naoWzeda nawili (70%), Semdeg naoWisa
(28%) da naoWqveda nawili (2%).
farisebri jirkvlis kibo – farisebri jirkvlis kibo Seadgens
simsivneebis 1%-s. qalebSi igi 2-jer ufro xSiria, vidre mamakacebSi.
daavadebis
dawyebis
saSualo
asakia
43-44
weli.
histologiurad
gansakuTrebiT xSiria papilaruli kibo (60-70%); folikuluri Seadgens
SemTxvevaTa 30%-s; iSviaTad vlindeba anaplasturi da meduluri kibo.
papilaruli da folikuluri kibos dros ZiriTadi simptomebia: solitaruli
kvanZisarseboba farisebri jirkvlis sisqeSi.
farisebraxlo jirkvlis simsivneebi – gvxvdeba sakmaod iSviaTad.
Cveulebriv warmoadgens keTilTvisebian adenomas, zogjer karcinomas.
xasiaTdeba neli ganviTarebiT; metastazirdeba regionalur limfur kvanZebSi,
filtvebSi, RviZlSi. vrclad..
kanis kibo – kanis kibo (skin cancer) warmoadgens kibos erT-erT
yvelaze xSir formas. SedarebiT xSirad gvxvdeba 50 wels gadacilebul
pirebSi; Cveulebriv sxeulis Ria nawilebze. gamoyofen bazalurujredovan da
brtyelujredovan kibos. iSviaTad diagnostirdeba kanis danamatebis kibo
(cximis, saofle jirkvlebis, Tmis folikulebis). kibos ganviTarebas xels
uwyobs zedmeti insolacia, sxivuri dazianeba. kiboswinare daavadebebad
iTvleba
hiperkeratozebi,
bo-venis
daavadeba,
radiaciuli
dermatiti,
pigmenturi qseroderma, albinizmi, qronikuli wylulebi da nawiburebi da
sxv.
387
melanoma (melanoma) – viTardeba melanocitebidan. gansakuTrebiT
xSirad lokalizdeba kanSi (90%), iSviaTad koniunqtivaSi, Tvalis qorioidul
garsSi, cxviris, piris Rrus, saSos, swori nawlavis lorwovan garsSi. kanis
melanoma
vlindeba
xSirad
30-50
wlis
asakSi.
riskis
faqtorebia:
ultraiisferi radiaciis mniSvnelovani dozebi, nevusebis travmebi, ojaxuri
winaswarganwyoba melanomebisadmi, pigmenturi qseroderma, diubreis melanozi.
SemTxvevaTa 50-70%-Si kanis melanoma viTardeba pigmenturi nevusidan.
filtvis kibo – kibos erT-erTi yvelaze xSiri lokalizaciaa
mamakacebsa da qalebSi, 40 wlis asakis zemoT. filtvis kiboTi daavadebis
riski gansakuTrebiT maRalia mwevelebSi. magaliTad, dReSi ori da meti
kolofi sigaretis mowevisas filtvis kibos sixSire izrdeba 15-25-jer; riskis
sxva faqtorebia: muSaoba asbestTan, dasxiveba da sxv.
kuWis kibo - daavadebis klinikuri simptomebi araspefikuria: gulisreva,
Rebineba, boyini, disfagia, saerTo sisuste, wonaSi dakleba, anemia da sxv.
gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa aRniSnuli simptomebis gaCena adre janmrTel
pirebSi. diagnozis dadgenaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba gastroskopiasa
da kuWis rentgenologiur gamokvlevas.
sarZeve jirkvlis kibo (breast cancer) – riskis faqtorebia: menopauza
50 wlis zeviT, mSobiarobis ararseboba an pirveli mSobiaroba gviandel
asakSi (daavadeba 3-jer xSiria); ojaxuri anamnezi, sadac fiqsirdeba sarZeve
jirkvlis kibo dedasTan da dasTan (2-jer xSiria) an orivesTan erTad (6-jer
xSiria); fibrozul-cistozuri mastopaTia.
RviZlis kibo - RviZlis kibo avTvisebiani simsivneebis daaxloebiT 11,5%-s Seadgens. gansakuTrebiT xSirad viTardeba hepatoceluluri kibo (90%),
iSviaTad – qolangiocelularuli (10%). RviZlSi kibo SesaZlebelia
ganviTardes RviZlis cirozis fonze an mis gareSe.
RviZlis
avTvisebiani
simsivne
RviZlSi
lokalizebuli
axalwarmonaqmnia,
romelic
viTardeba
RviZlis
ujredebisa
da
misi
struqturebisgan an warmoadgens RviZlSi gavrcelebul sxva simsivneTa
metastazs. monacemebis Tanaxmad, msoflioSi yovelwliurad 250 aTas
adamianze mets RviZlis kibos diagnozi udasturdeba. daavadeba gacilebiT
xSiria im qveynebSi, sadac maRalia qronikuli virusuli hepatitebiT
moavadeTa ricxvi. RviZlis kiboTi gacilebiT xSirad avadoben mamakacebi.
daavadeba nebismier asakSi SeiZleba ganviTardes, Tumca yvelaze xSirad is 40
wels gadacilebulebs Soris gvxvdeba pankreasis kibo – kuWqveSa jirkvlis
kibo sixSiris mixedviT erT-erT pirvel adgilzea avTvisebian simsivneebs
Soris. daavadebis riski ukve 30 wlis asakidanaa da piks aRwevs 70 wlis
Semdeg. ganasxvaveben kuWqveSa jirkvlis Tavis, sxeulisa da kudis kibos.
ZiriTadad viTardeba sadinris kibo (adenokarcinoma). jirkvlis Tavis
nawilSi simsivne lokalizdeba SemTxvevaTa 75%-Si. naRvlis saerTo sadinarze
zewola iwvevs meqanikur siyviTles. vrclad..
sanaRvle gzebisa da Tormetgojas didi dvrilis kibo – naRvlis
buStis kibo (gallbladder carcinoma) ZiriTadad gvxvdeba 50 wels
gadacilebul pirebSi, umetesad qalebSi. morfologiuri agebulebiT
388
warmoadgens
sxvadasxva
diferencirebis
adenokarcinomas,
zrdis
infiltraciuli tipiT; iSviaTad – brtyelujredovani kibos. vrclad..
Sardis buStis kibo – sxvadasxva lokalizaciis kibos saerTo
raodenobis daaxloebiT 3%-s Seadgens. daavadebis riski maRalia im
adamianebSi, romlebsac muSaoba uxdebaT aromatul aminebTan, aseve
qronikuli cistitiT daavadebulebSi. gansakuTrebiT xSirad gvxvdeba
gardamavalujredovani kibo, SedarebiT iSviaTad – brtyel-ujredovani kibo
da adenokarcinoma.
Tirkmelzeda jirkvlis simsivneebi – ganasxvaveben Tirkmelzeda
jirkvlis keTilTvisebian da avTvisebian simsivneebs, romlebic viTardebian
jirkvlis qerqovani da tvinovani Sreebidan. Tirkmelzeda jirkvlis qerqSi
lokalizdeba adenomebi, romlebic xasiaTdebian glukokortikoidebis an
aldosteronis Warbi sekreciiT, xolo tvinovan SreSi – feoqromocitoma,
romelic axdens adrenalinisa da noradrenalinis producirebas. avTvisebiani
simsivneebi (kortikosteroma, feoqromoblastoma, neiroblastoma), iseve
rogorc adenomebi, SeiZleba iyvnen sekretirebadi da arasekretirebadi.
saSvilosnos sxeulis kibos ZiriTadi simptomia saSodan sisxldenis
darRveva (menopauzis, an menstruaciebs Soris periodSi). tkivili menjSi da
suniani gamonadeni – niSania daavadebis gviani stadiisa. diagnostikis
ZiriTadi meTodia saSvilosnos yelis arxisa da saSvilosnos Rrus gamofxeka
da Semdgomi histologiuri kvleva. diagnostikis citologiuri meTodi
naklebad saimedoa, iseve, rogorc histerografia da histeroskopuli
gamokvlevebi. adenokarcinoma warmoadgens ZiriTad morfologiur variants
(70%-mde); gvxvdeba agreTve adenokanTomebi da jirkvlovan-brtyelujredovani
kibo.
sakvercxis kibo – gansakuTrebiT xSiria sakvercxis serozuli,
mucinuri da endometrioiduli avTvisebiani simsivneebi. serozuli kibo
viTardeba Cveulebriv cilioepiTeluri kistomisagan; xasiaTdeba serozuli
siTxis dagrovebiT malignizirebuli cisturi warmonaqmnebis SigniT.
kafsulis
zrdisa
da
metastazirebis
Sedegad
viTardeba
asciti.
winamdebare jirkvlis kibo – winamdebare jirkvlis kibo sixSiris
mixedviT erT-erT pirvel adgilzea mamakacebSi. gansakuTrebiT xSirad
diagnostirdeba 60 wlis zeviT. warmoadgens sxvadasxva diferencirebis
adenokarcinomas. simsivne axdens mucinSemcveli sialis mJavas sekrecias da
Seicavs mJave fosfatazasa da glukuronidazas. diferencialuri diagnozi
tardeba winamdebare jirkvlis adenomasTan. adenomas gaaCnia mkveTri
konturebi, umniSvnelo simkvrive, gamoirCeva neli zrdiT. vrclad..
msxvili nawlavis kibo – ukanasknel wlebSi aRiniSneba kolinjisa da
swori nawlavis kiboTi daavadebis mniSvnelovani zrda. adenomebi, difuzuri
polipozi da araspecifikuri wylulovani koliti zrdian kibos ganviTarebis
risks da ganixilebian rogorc kiboswina daavadebebi. magaliTad, difuzuri
poplipozis dros malignizacia aRiniSneba TiTqmis 100%-Si. kolinjis kibos
lokalizacia SesaZloa iyos sxvadasxva – aswvrivi, ganivi, daswvrivi da
sigmoiduri nawlavis. swori nawlavis kibo lokalizdeba analur, qveda, Sua,
zeda ampulur da reqtosigmoidul nawilebSi. simsivne izrdeba upiratesad
389
egzofiturad (nawlavis sanaTurSi) an endofiturad (nawlavis kedlis
sisqeSi). wvrili nawlavis avTvisebiani simsivneebi – wvrili nawlavis
avTvisebiani simsivneebi sakmaod iSviaTia. karcinoidi gansakuTrebiT xSirad
lokalizdeba TeZos nawlavis terminalur nawilSi, aqvs mcire zomebi,
viTardeba nela. serotoninis sekreciis ararsebobisas klinikuri simptomebi
naklebadaa gamoxatuli (diarea, wonaSi dakleba). simsivnis gadidebisas
TandaTanobiT vlindeba tkivili mucelSi da nawlavTa nawilobrivi
gauvalobis simptomebi. simptomebis gamovlinebidan diagnozis dadgenamde
SesaZloa gavides ramdenime weli.
Zvlis avTvisebiani simsivneebi – ganasxvaveben Zvlovani qsovilidan
ganviTarebul (osteogenuri sarkoma, parostaluri sarkoma, qondrosarkoma,
avTvisebiani giganturujredovani simsivne) da araZvlovani warmoSobis (iungis
sarkoma, fibrosarkoma, qondroma, angiosarkoma, adamantioma) simsivneebs.
vrclad..
mecnierebma kibos ujredebis genetikuri kodi gaSifres genetikosTa
mtkicebiT, maT SeZles ori yvelaze gavrcelebuli onkologiuri daavadebis –
kanisa da filtvebis kibos ujredebis kodis srulad gaSifrva. fondis
”Wellcome Trust” warmomadgenlis TqmiT, am aRmoCenam SesaZloa revolucia
moaxdinos kibos daavadebebis profilaqtikasa da mkurnalobaSi. igi
SesaZlebels gaxdis, sisxlis analizis Sedegebis mixedviT ara mxolod
gansazRvros adreul stadiaSi simsivnis arseboba, aramed xels Seuwyobs
axali, ufro efeqturi medikamentebis SemuSavebas.garda amisa, maTive TqmiT,
SesaZlebeli gaxdeba aseve sisxlis analizis meTodikis SemuSaveba, romelic
xels Seuwyobs janmrTel adamianebSi kibosadmi genetikuri midrekilebis
gamovlenas.
simsivnis 5 SesaZlo niSani:
1
tkivilis SegrZneba
2 wonis swrafi dakargva
3 mudmivi moTenTiloba
4 maRali temperatura
5 Tmebisa da kanis mdgomareobis cvlileba.
simsivne cxovelebSi cxovelebSi simsivne farTodaa gavrcelebuli.
daavadebis sixSire cxovelis asakis matebasTan erTad izrdeba. avaddeba
yvela saxeobis cxoveli, gansakuTrebiT ZaRli da qaTami. diagnozs adgenen
daavadebuli cxovelis klinikuri niSnebiTa da gamokvlevis Sedegad.
mkuranloba metwilad qirurgiulia, iyeneb agreTve saTanado preparatebsa da
hormonul saSualebebs.
simsivne mcenareebSi mcenareebSi simsivne SeiZleba gamoiwvios sokoebma,
baqteriebma, virusebma, mwerebma, nematodebma agreTve dabali temperaturis
moqmedebam. umravlesad avaddeba fesvi, Zirxvenebi, gorglebi, Reroebi,
SedarebiT iSviaTad foTlebi. brZolis RonisZiebebi mimarTulia simsivnis
gamomwvevi mizezis salikvidaciod.
390
rabdomiosarkoma bavSvebSi – warmoadgens bavSvebSi rbili qsovilebis
sarkomis yvelaze xSir formas. ganasxvaveben 3 histologiur variants:
embrionuli, alveoluri da polimorfuli. xSiria 2-dan 6 wlamde asakis
bavSvebSi lokalizaciis Semdegi TanamimdevrobiT: Tavi da kiseri, winamdebare
jirkvali, Sardis buSti da saSo. Wabukobis asakSi amgvari avTvisebiani
simsivneebi viTardeba kidurebze, saTesleebSi da paratestikulur qsovilSi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
•
vaxtang yifiani-zogadi patologia " Tbilisi 2008"
•
marina SaqaraSvili-zogadi patologia "Tbilisi 2011"
•
http://janmrtelobainfo.ge/?page_id=5444
•
http://janmrtelobainfo.ge/?page_id=5444
Cancer
Ana Tetrauli
Resume
In the work there are described malignant and non-malignant growths, their descriptions,
differentiation and symptoms. And also considered organism changes during growths in general.
antihipertenziuli saSualebebi
qeTevan kvinikaZe
suxiSvili saswavlo universiteti,
farmacia, III kursi
xelmZRvaneli: prof. givi yuraSvili
E-mail: [email protected]
arteriuli hipertenzia aris daavadeba, romlis drosac adgili aqvs
sisxlis wnevis momatebas ramdenime aTeuliT wnevis normaluri maCveneblidan.
wneva mTel msoflioSi 1 miliardamde adamians aReniSneba. avadmyofobiT
gamowveuli globaluri xarjis 4.5% am daavadebaze modis. daavadeba iSviaTad
iwyeba 30 welze axalgazrda da 60 welze ufrosi asakis pirebSi. arteriuli
hipertenzia sawyis etapze, xangrZlivi drois manZilze, SesaZloa Civilebisa
da yovelgvari gamovlinebebis gareSe mimdinareobdes. daavadebis pirvelma
niSnebma
SesaZloa
Tavi
iCinos
garTulebebis
ganviTarebis
Semdeg.
hipertenzias raime specifiuri Civili ar axasiaTebs. igi xSirad wnevis
SemTxveviTi gasinjvisas vlindeba. arteriuli hipertenziisTvis zogjer
damaxasiaTebelia wnevis uecari, mkveTri momateba xanmokle vadiT –
hipertonuli krizi, romlis drosac saWiro xdeba saswrafo Careva.
arteriuli wneva unda daqveiTdes TandaTanobiT, vinaidan wnevis swrafma
dawevam SesaZloa gamoiwvios Tavis tvinis, gulisa da Tirkmlebis
sisxlmomaragebis darRveva. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom dabali wnevis mqone
391
pirebs krizi emarTebaT 130–140 mmvwysv–ze. amdenad, didi mniSvneloba aqvs,
ramdenia adamianis wnevis sawyisi maCvenebeli.
ganasxvaveben hipertonuli daavadebis ramodenime formas. erT -erTia
hiperadrenerguli forma, romelic xSirad vlindeba daavadebis sawyis
periodSi,
magram
SesaZlebelia
SenarCunebuli
iyos
misi
mTeli
mimdinareobisas (avadmyofTa daaxloebiT 15%). misTvis tipiuria iseTi niSnebi,
rogoricaa sinusuri taqikardia, aramyari arteriuli wneva, sistoluri
hipertenziis siWarbiT, oflianoba, Tvalebis sibzinvare, saxis gawiTleba,
Tavis areSi pulsis SegrZneba, gulis friali, Sinagani daZabuloba, SfoTva.
hipertonuli davadebis hiperhidrataciuli forma SeiZleba gamovlindes
iseTi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebiT, rogoricaa periorbitaluri SeSupeba da
saxis SeSupeba dilaobiT, xelis TiTebis SeSupeba, maTi gabuJeba da
paresTeziebi,
diurezis
cvlilebebi
gardamavali
oliguriiT,
wyalmarilovani hipertenzuli krizebi, natriumis da wylis SedarebiTi swrafi
Sekaveba simpaTolizuri saSualebebiT mkurnalobis dros (rezerpini,
dopegiti, klofelini da sxv.).
hipertonuli daavadebis avTvisebiani forma, warmoadgens swrafad
moprogresire daavadebas arteriuli wnevis momatebiT Zalian maRal
cifrebamde,
rac
iwvevs
encefalopaTiebis
ganviTarebas,
mxedvelobis
darRvevas, filtvebis SeSupebasa da Tirkmelebis mwvave ukmarisobas. amJamad
avTvisebianad mimdinare hipertonuli daavadeba sakmaod iSviaTia, gacilebiT
xSiria
meoradi
arteriuli
hipertenziis
avTvisebiani
finali
(renovaskularuli, pielonefrozuli da sxv.).
aucilebelia ganvasxvavoT
pirveli, meore da mesame stadia:
pirveli (msubuqi) stadia xasiaTdeba arteriuli wnevis SedarebiT
mciredi momatebiT: 160-177 (180) mm vwy sv sistoluri, 95-104 (105) mm vwy sv diastoluri wnevis farglebSi. arteriuli wnevis done aramyaria.
meore stadia (saSualo) wina stadiisagan gansxvavdeba arteriuli wnevis
SedarebiT meti da myari momatebiT, romelic avadmyofis mSvid mdgomareobaSi
180-200 mm vwy sv sistoluri da 105-114 mm vwy sv diastoluri wnevis
farglebSia. avadmyofebi uCivian Tavis tkivils, Tavbrusxvevas, tkivils
gulis areSi, xSirad stenokardiuli xasiaTis. am stadiisaTvis tipiuria
hipertonuli krizebi.
vlindeba samizne-organoebis dazianebis niSnebi
mesame stadia (mZime) xasiaTdeba sisxlZarRvovani krizebis SedarebiT
xSiri warmoqmniT, rasac gansazRvravs arteriuli wnevis mniSvnelovani da
stabiluri mateba da SedarebiT msxvili sisxlZarRvebis arteriosklerozisa
da aTerosklerozis progresireba. klinikuri suraTi ganisazRvreba gulis
(stenokardia, miokardis infarqti, sisxlis mimoqcevis ukmarisoba, ariTmia),
tvinis (iSemiuri da hemoragiuli infarqtebi,encefalopaTia), Tvalis fskeris
(angioretinopaTia), Tirkmelebis dazianebiT.
392
mkurnaloba
SesaZleoa
farmakologiuri meTodebiT:
ganxorcieldes
arafarmakologiuri
da
arafarmakologiur mkurnalobas miekuTvneba: a)wonaSi dakleba, dietaSi
cximebisa da naxSirwylebi Semcirebis xarjze; b)sufris marilis gamoyenebis
SezRudva; g) kurortuli mkurnaloba, fizoTerapiisa da samkurnalo
fizkulturismeTodebi;
d)
fsiqoTerapiuli
zemoqmedeba.
farmakologiuri
meTodebi
efeqturia
daavadebis
pirvel
stadiaSi.
farmakologiuri mkurnaloba emyareba e. w. safexurovan princips, romelic
iTvaliswinebs wamlebis daniSvnas garkveuli TanamimdevrobiT.
arsebobs hipotenziuri preparatebis Semdegi klasipikacia: ZiriTadi da
araZiriTadi.
ZiriTadi
hipotenziuri
preparatebi:
1.Bbeta-adrenoreceptorebis
seleqciuri
mablokirebeli
hipotenziuri
preparatebi.
2.renin-angiontenzin-aldosteronis
sistemaze
moqmedi
hipotenziuri
preparatebi. 3.‟‟Ca”-is neli arxebis mablokirebeli periferiuli miotropuli
hipotenziuri preparatebi. 4.Sardmdeni-salurezuli moqmedebis preparatebi
anaprilini warmoadgens araseleqtiur beta-adrenoblokators. igi
amcirebs
simpaTikuri
impulsaciis
zemoqmedebas
gulis
betaadrenoreptorebze, aqveiTebs guliscemis sixSires da misi SekumSvis Zalas,
ris gamoc mcirdeba miokardiumis moTxovna Jangbadze da klebulobs
arteriuli wneva.
amave
dros,
sisxlZarRvebis
saerTo periferiuli
winaaRmdegoba
zomierad
matulobs.
anaprilins
gaaCnia
antiariTmuli
moqmedeba, xolo did dozebSi igi iwvevs sedaciur efeqts. amasTan erTad, igi
iwvevs Tireostatuli saSualebebis moqmedebis potencirebas. anaprilini
swrafad
Seiwoveba
peroraluri
miRebisas
da
SedarebiT
swrafad
eliminirdeba organizmidan. gverdiTi movlenebi:
bradikardia, arteriuli
hipotonia, taqikardia, atrioventrikuluri blokada, gulis ukmarisobis
gaZliereba. es simptomebi xSirad aRiniSneba avadmyofebSi gulis moqmedebis
darRveviT. SesaZlebelia sisuste da sicivis SegrZneba kidurebSi. gulisreva,
Rebineba, diarea, yabzoba.
Aatenololi–hipotenziuri, antianginaluri, antiariTmiuli saSualeba.
upiratesad moqmedebs gulis beta-adrenoreceptorebze, amcirebs simpaTikuri
inervaciis
mastimulirebel
zemoqmedebas
gulze,
sinusuri
kvanZis
avtomatizms, gulis SekumSvaTa sixSires, anelebs atrioventrikulur
gamtareblobas, amcirebs miokardiumis agznebadobas, kumSvadobas, gulis
moTxovnilebas Jangbadze. uaryofiTi qronotropuli efeqti vlindeba
miRebidan 1 saaTis Semdeg da maqsimums aRwevs 2 - 4 saaTSi, xolo
antihepertenziuli
moqmedeba
grZeldeba
24
saaTis
ganmavlobaSi.
araseleqtiur beta-adrenoblokatorebTan SedarebiT atenolols naklebad
aqvs gamoxatuli zegavlena bronqebisa da periferiuli arteriebis gluv
kunTebze:
umniSvnelod
amcirebs
filtvebis
sasicocxlo
funqcias,
praqtikulad ar asustebs izoproterenolis bronqodilataciur moqmedebas.
393
sistemuri gamoyenebisas ,,atenololi neo‟‟ iwvevs arteriuli wnevis
TandaTanobiT
daqveiTebas.
stabiluri
hipotenziuri
efeqti
miiRweva
mkurnalobis meore kviris bolos.
atenololi kuW-nawlavis traqtidan Seiwoveba swrafad, magram
arasrulad - 50-60%. sisxlis plazmaSi maqsimaluri koncentracia miiRweva
preparatis peroralurad miRebidan 2-4 saaTis Semdeg. dauSvebelia dozirebis
TviTneburi Secvla da mkurnalobis Sewyveta. preparatis miRebis swrafad
Sewyvetam SeiZleba gamoiwvios gulis iSemia stenokardiis an arteriuli
hipertenziis gamwvavebiT an SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos miokardis infarqtis
ganviTarebas. amitom, preparatis moxsna unda moxdes etapobrivad mkurnali
eqimis kontrolis qveS.sawyisi dozaa 25-50mg dRe-RameSi. aucileblobis
SemTxvevaSi erTi kviris Semdeg dozas zrdian 50amg-iT. dozis Semdgomi
momateba ar aris rekomendirebuli, radgan Terapiuli efeqti aRar izrdeba,
mxolod matulobs gverdiTi efeqtebis ganviTarebis riski. Terapiuli
efeqtis gasaZliereblad rekomendirebulia sxva hipotenziuri saSualebebis
damateba. ,,atenololi neo”-s maqsimaluri sadReRamiso dozaa 200mg.
preparatis moxsnis dros saWiroa yovel 3-4 dReSi doza 3/4-iT Semcirdes..
arteriuli hipertenzia: mkurnaloba iwyeba 25-50mg-iT 1-jer dReSi. stabiluri
hipotenziuri efeqtis misaRebad saWiroa 1-2 kvira. efeqtis gasaZliereblad
doza SeiZleba gaizardos 100mg-mde dReSi. dozis Semdgomi momateba ar aris
rekomendirebuli, radgan Terapiuli efeqti aRar izrdeba. preparati
sifrTxiliT
iniSneba
pacientebSi
Semdegi
daavadebebiT:
gulis qronikuli ukmarisoba, sunTqvis organoebis qronikuli obstruqciuli
daavadebebi, Saqriani diabeti (gansakuTrebiT, labiluri formisas), reinos
daavadeba,
periferiuli
arteriebis
maoblitirebeli
daavadeba,
feoqromocitoma, Tireotoqsikozi, pacientebSi Tirkmlis gamomyofi funqciis
gamoxatuli darRvevebiT,
xandazmuli asakis pacientebSi. ar aris
rekomendirebuli verapamilisa da atenololis erTdrouli gamoyeneba,
gansakuTrebiT pacientebSi darRveuli gamtareblobiT.
SardmdenebTan,
antihipertenziul saSualebebTan, nitratebTan erTdrouli gamoyenebisas
Zlierdeba ,,atenololi neo”-s antihipertenziuli moqmedeba. varapamilTan,
dilTiazemTan erTdrouli daniSvnisas Zlierdeba ,,atenololi neo”-s
kardiodepresiuli moqmedeba. sagule glikozidebTan erTdrouli daniSvnisas
Zlierdeba bradikardiis ganviTarebis, atrioventrikuluri gamtareblobis
darRvevis riski. arasteroiduli anTebis sawinaaRmdego saSualebebi da
gansakuTrebiT indometacini amcirebs ,,atenololi neo”-s antihipertenziul
moqmedebas. gamoxatuli bradikardiis dros – atropinis Seyvana, mZime
arteriuli hipotenziis dros – dobutaminis an dopaminis Seyvana.
Mmetoprololi
β1–adrenoreceptorebis
kardioseleqciuri
blokatoria,
romelsac
ar
aqvs
simpatomimeturi
aqtivoba
da
membranomastabilizebeli moqmedeba. preparats hipotenziuri, antianginaluri
da antiariTmiuli moqmedeba axasiaTebs. igi amcirebs sinusuri kvanZis
avtomatizms, miokardiumis agznebadobasa da kumSvadobas, anelebs A-V
gamtarobas. misi moqmedebiT mcirdeba gulis SekumSvaTa sixSire, gulis
394
wuTmoculoba da Jangbadze miokardiumis moTxovnileba. preparati Trgunavs
reninis aqtivobas plazmaSi. fizikuri da fsiqoemociuri datvirTvisas igi
amcirebs kateqolaminebis mastimulirebel zemoqmedebas gulze.
metoprololis farmakokinetika: metoprololi swrafad da mTlianad
(95%) Seiwoveba kuW-nawlavis traqtidan. pirveli miRebis dros preparatis
bioSeRwevadobaa 50%, ganmeorebiTi miRebisas igi 70%-mde izrdeba. sakvebis
miReba bioSeRwevadobas 20_40%-iT zrdis. metoprololis maqsimaluri
koncentracia sisxlis plazmaSi 1–1.5 sT-Si miiRweva. preparatis daaxloebiT
20% ukavSirdeba plazmis cilebs. farmakokinetika gansakuTrebul klinikur
SemTxvevebSi: orTostatikuri hipotenzia, bradikardia, arteriuli hipotenzia,
gulis friali; iSviaTad _ miokardiumis kumSvadobis daqveiTeba, gulis
qronikuli
ukmarisobis
simptomebis
droebiTi
gaZliereba,
ariTmiebi,
periferiuli sisxlis mimoqcevis darRvevis gaZliereba (sicivis SegrZneba
qveda kidurebSi, reinos sindromi), miokardiumis gamtarobis darRvevebi;
kardialgia. sasunTqi sistemis mxriv: qoSini datvirTvisas, bronqospazmi
(maRali doziT daniSvnisas an bronqospazmis midrekilebis mqone pacientebSi).
Warbi dozireba metoprololiT:
gamoxatuli sinusuri bradikardia,
Tavbruxveva, gulisreva, Rebineba, cianozi, arteriuli hipotenzia, ariTmia,
parkuWovani
eqstrasistolia,
bronqospazmi,
kardialgia,
sinkope,
kardiogenuri Soki, cnobierebis dakargva, koma, gulis gaCereba.
dilTiazemi Sedis e. w. kalciumis antagonistebis samkurnalo jgufSi.
is
amcirebs
kalciumis
ionebis
miwodebas
gulis
ujredebSi
da
sisxlZarRvebSi da amgvarad iwvevs sisxlZarRvebis gafarTovebas, gulTan
sisxlis midinebis zrdas da JangbadiT momaragebis gaumjobesebas, amcirebs
gulis moqmedebis sixSires da amcirebs arterialur wnevas. preparats iReben
peroralurad, uSualod Wamis win. Cveulebrivi sadReRamiso doza Seadegns 30
mg, dReSi oTxjer Wamis win. sam an oTx miRebaze dayofil dRiur dozas
zrdian TandaTan 2-3 dRis intervaliT optimaluri efeqtis miRwevamde.
efeqturi doza individualuria TiToeuli avadmyofisaTvis, magram saSualod
efeqturi doza Seadgens 180 – 240 mg/dReSi, gayofili sam an oTx miRebaze.
maqsimaluri sadReRamiso doza Seadgens 360 mg/dReSi.
gverdiTi
reaqciebi umeteswilad dakavSirebulia dozasTan da
mkurnalobis xangrZlivobasTan. diltiazemi kargad gadaitaneba umetesi
pacientebis mier da sxva kalciumis antagonistebTan SedarebiT iwvevs sustad
gamovlenil gverdiT efeqtebs. SeSupeba
Tavis tkivili, gulis reva ,
winagul-parkuWovani blokada , Tavbrusxveva), gamonayari , sisuste, qavili. I
xarisxis winagul-parkuWovani blokada, II da III xarisxis winagul-parkuWovani
blokada,
pulsis
Seneleba,
SegubebiTi
gulis
ukmarisoba,
eleqtrokardiogramis cvlileba, SewiTleba, arteriuli wnevis daqveiTeba,
guliscema, parkuWovani eqstrasistolia (pulsis ariTmia). gulis reva,
Sekruloba, kuWis aSla, pirSi simSrale, gemos Secvla, wyurvili, Rebineba,
sxeulis masis momateba.
preparati miekuTvneba vazomotoruli centrebis tonusis damaqveiTebel
395
antihipertenzul saSualebas. igi axdens gamoxatul hipotenziur moqmedebas,
romelic
ganpirobebulia
sisxlZarRvebis
saerTo
periferiuli
winaaRmdegobis, gulis SekuSvis sixSiris SemcirebiT da misi sistoluri
moculobis daqveiTebiT. preparatis moqmedebis meqanizmi realizdeba Tavis
tvinis Semakavebeli struqturis postsinafsuri alfa2-adrenoreceptorebis
stimulaciiT, simpaTikuri
nervuli sistemis mediatoris gamoyofis
SemcirebiT
da
gulze
da
sisxlZarRvebze
eferentuli
simpaTikuri
impulsaciis moqmedebis daqveiTebiT. preparatis venaSi swrafi ineqciis dros
SesaZlebelia arteriuli wnevis xanmokle momateba, romelic ganpirobebulia
sisxlZarRvebis postsinafsuri alfa1-adrenoreceptorebis stimulaciiT. igi
aseve avlens gamoxatul sedatiur moqmedebas.
daskvna:
dReisaTvis
arteriuli
hipertenzia
sakmaod
gavrcelebuli
da
problematuri daavadebaa. arteriuli hipertenziis mkurnaloba xangrZlivi
procesia, dauSvebelia daniSnuli mkurnalobis Sewyveta, an Secvla eqimTan
SeTanxmebis gareSe. xandaxan arteriuli wnevis matebas kompensatoruli
xasiaTi aqvs da igi organizms sxva problemebis dasaZlevad sWirdeba.
Ppacientma unda misdios jansaRi cxovrebis wess, gamoiyenos mxolod da
mxolod eqimis mier daniSnuli medikamentebi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. g.Turmanauli–samedicino
Tbilisi 2006w.
farmakologia,
gamomcemloba
,,cis
nami”,
2. g.Turmanauli- klinikuri farmacia, gamomcemloba ,,cis nami”, Tbilisi
2009w.
3. samedicino bazisuri farmakologia, gamomcemloba ,,cis nami”, Tbilisi
2008w.
4. d.a. xarkeviCi- farmakologia, gamomcemoba ,,mTawmindeli”, Tbilisi
2008w.
5. www.medcine.ge;
6. www.medgeo.net.
Antihypertensive Preparations
Ketevan Kvinikadze
Resume
The work discusses activity of contemporary Antihypertensive Preparations in the treating
schemes.
396
saZile saSualebebi
Tamar mWedliSvili
specialoba_farmacia, kursi _ III.
xelmZRvaneli: prof. givi yuraSvili
E-mail – [email protected], Tel.:02360053
saZile saSualebebi
_ gamoiyeneba CaZinebis gaadvilebis da Zilis
saTanado xangrZlivobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. magram
mniSvnelovania
aramarto Zili, aramed misi xarisxic. Zili ramodenime fazisagan Sedgeba, maT
Soris aris Tvalis swrafi moZraobebis faza, rodesac Cven gvZinavs, magram
tvini aqtiurad muSaobs. saZile saSualebebis umravlesoba Trgunavs swored
am
fazas,
romelic
aucilebelia
harmoniuli
ZilisaTvis.
gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom viTardeba saZileebisadmi miCveva da garkveuli
drois Semdeg TviTon wamali xdeba avadmyofobis mizezi - daZineba wamlis
gareSe SeuZlebeli xdeba, wamali ki sul ufro naklebad moqmedebs. Zilis
fazuri struqturis mixedviT, saZile saSualebebis umetesobiT gamowveuli
Zili arsebiTad gansxvavdeba bunebrivi Zilisgan. Zilis gamoxatuli
cvlilebebi da swrafi Zilis fazis gaxangrZliveba axasiaTebT barbituris
mJavas warmoebulebs da gluteTimids. aRniSnuli fazis zomier cvlilebebs
iwveven benzodiazepinis warmoebulebi. saZile saSualebebis moxsnis dros
aRiniSneba e.w. ukugdebis
fenomeni, romlis drosac, garkveuli periodis
manZilze,
swrafi
Zilis
fazis
xangrZlivoba
aRemateba
Cveulebriv
maCveneblebs, agreTve, am dros, vlindeba koSmaruli xasiaTis sizmrebi da
adgili aqvs xSir gamoRviZebebs.
saZile
struqturis
gamoyofen:
saSualebebis
klasifikacia,
xorcieldeba
maTi
qimiuri
mixedviT. aqedan gamomdinare, saZile saSualebebs Soris
1) barbituratebs e.i. barbituris mJavas warmoebulebs _ barbamili,
barbital-natriumi, fenobarbitali, etaminal-natriumi da sx.;
2) benzodiazepinis warmoebulebs _ nitrazepami, lorazepami, diazepami,
fenazepami da sx.;
3) piperidinis warmoebulebs _ gluteTimidi;
4) alifaturi rigis naerTebs _ bromizovali, qloralhidrati dasxv.
ukanasknel wlebSi mniSvnelovnad Seicvala damikidebuleba sxvadasxva
saZile saSualebebisadmi. barbituratebma, romlebic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi
iTvlebodnen am jgufis ZiriTad preparatebad, dakarges TavianTi wamyvani
mniSvneloba. nomenklaturidan amoRebulia barbamili da ciklobarbitali,
barbitalis abebi, barbital-natriumi da etaminal–natriumi. alifatur
warmoebulTa rigidan
amoRebulia karbomali.
farTod
gamoiyeneba
benzodiazepinis rigis preparatebi – nitrazepami da sxva struqturiTa da
moqmedebiT monaTesave trankvilizatorebi, aseve sxva qimiuri jgufebis
preparatebi.sadReisod
arsebul
benzodiazepinebis
jgufis
saZile
397
saSualebebs (nitrazepami da sxv.) barbituratebTan SedarebiT gaaCniaT
garkveuli upiratesoba. isini ukeT gadaitaneba, Tumca Zilis xasiaTiT da
gverdiTi efeqtebiT isini srulad ver pasuxoben ,,fiziologiur” moTxovnebs.
barbituratebis mier gamowveuli Zili mimdinareobiT gansxvavdeba
bunebrivisagan. isini aioleben CaZinebas, magram cvlian Zilis struqturas –
swrafi (paradoqsuli, desinqronizirebuli) da neli (orTodoqsaluri,
sinqronizirebuli) Zilis fazebis Sefardebas. arcTu iSviaTad aRiniSneba
sizmrebis siuxve, koSmarebi, wyvetili Zili. Zilis Semdeg SesaZlebelia
gaxangrZlivebuli Zilianoba, moZraobis koordinaciis darRvevbi, nistagmi da
sxva arasasurveli reaqciebi. didma dozebma SesaZlebelia gamoiwvios
sunTqvis daTrgunva, sisxlZarRvovani kolafsi, sxeulis temperaturis daweva,
diurezis Semcireba da sxv. zogierT avadmyofze barbituratebi axdenen
,,paradoqsalur” reaqciebs – damSvidebisa da Zilis nacvlad iwveven agznebas.
SesaZlebelia ganviTardes moxsnis efeqtic – preparatis miRebis Sewyvetisas
sruli uZiloba. barbituratebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi uaryofiTi gamovlinebaa
maTi
ganmeorebiTi
gamoyenebis
Semdeg
fizikuri
da
fsiqologiuri
damokidebulebis
ganviTareba,
rac
garkveulwilad
amsgavsebs
maT
narkotikuli moqmedebis nivTierebebTan. barbituratebi, dozidan gamomdinare,
iwveven Zilis fazuri struqturis arsebiT cvlilebebs.
amcireben Zilis
dadgomis dros, gamoRviZebebis da moZraobebis raodenobas Zilis periodSi.
aRiniSneba Zilis mesame da meoTxe stadiebis mniSvnelovani Semokleba.
izrdeba swrafi Zilis fazis latenturi perodi. swrafi Zilis saerTo
xangrZlivoba da misi ciklebis raodenoba mcirdeba. sunTqvis darRveuli
funqciis mqone pirebSi, mag. filtvebis emfizemis an bronquli asTmis dros,
barbituratebma SeiZleba daaqveiTon sunTqvis wuTmoculoba da, Sesabamisad,
sisxlis JangbadiT gajereba. agreTve, saZile dozebSi, SesaZlebelia
daaqveiTon areteriuli wneva, Seamciron gulis gandevnis fraqcia gulisken
venuri ukudinebis SezRudvis xarjze, rac, ganpirobebulia venebSi sisxlis
deponirebiT. toqsikur dozebSi Trgunaven miokardiumis funqciebs, axSoben
sisxlZarRvebis simpaTikur inervacias, amcireben periferiul winaaRmdegobas.
benzodiazepinuri receptorebis agonistebis umetesobas, maT Soris
diazepams, fenazepams, oqsazepams da sx., gaaCniaT ama Tu im xarisxiT
gamoxatuli saZile Tvisebebi da maTi gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia saZile
saSualebebis saxiTac. Tumca, am mizniT ufro xSirad iyeneben nitrazepams. is
amcirebs
Zilis
pirveli
stadiis
xangrZlivobas.
benzodiazepinebi
axangrZliveben Zilis meore stadias da amcireben mesame da meoTxe stadiis
xangrZlivobas. maTi umetesoba axangrZlivebs swrafi Zilis fazis latentur
periods. swrafi Zilis fazaSi klebulobs Tvalebis moZraobebis sixSire.
aRniSnuli preparatebis zegavleniT mcirdeba swrafi Zilis saerTo
xangrZlivoba.
benzodiazepinebis saZile
efeqti, iseve
rogorc maTi
anqsiolizuri
moqmedeba,
ganpirobebulia
benzodiazepinis
specifikur
receptorebTan - pre- da postsinafsuri damuxruWebis “gazm”-ergiuli
meqanizmebis gaZlierebiT Tavis tvinSi. benzodiazepinebis zegavleniT icvleba
rigi mediatorebis Semcveloba Tavis tvinSi.
magaliTad, isini aqveiTeben
398
noradrenalinis brunvas Tavis tvinSi. maTi gavlena dofaminis brunvaze
araerTgvarovania: zog struqturebSi isini mas aZliereben, zogSi ki
aqveiTeben.
benzodiazepinebis
xangrZlivad
gamoyenebisas
SesaZlebelia
ganviTardes miCveva da Camoyalibdes medikamenturi damokidebuleba. maT,
barbituratebisgan gansxvavebiT,
gaaCniaT rigi upiratesobani: isini ufro
nakleb gavlenas axdenen Zilis fizikur struqturaze, gaaCniaT Terapiuli
moqmedebis
farTo speqtri, naklebad cvlian RviZlis mikrosomuli
fermentebis aqtivobas da iSviaTad urTierTqmedeben sxva samkurnalo
saSualebebTan.
ufro iSviaTad iwveven medikamenturi damokidebulebis
ganviTarebas.
piperidinis
warmoebulebidan
gluteTimidi,
farmakologiuri
TvisebebiT, barbituratebis msgavsia, magram CamorCeba maT aqtiurobaSi. is
advilad Seiwoveba kuW-nawlavis traqtidan. preparatis daaxloebiT 50%
ukavSirdeba plazmis cilebs. Seyvanili dozis daaxloebiT 2% Seucvleli
saxiT gamoiyofa SardTan erTad. preparatis udidesi nawili metabolizdeba
RviZlSi.
amasTan,
glutaTimidi
astimulirebs
RviZlis
mikrosomuli
fermentebis sistemas. barbituratebis msgavsad, gluteTimidic iwvevs Zilis
fazuri struqturis arsebiT cvlilebebs. alifaturi rigis warmoebul bromizovals gaaCnia arc Tu ise Zlierad gamoxatuli saZile moqmedeba.
organizmSi metabolizmis Sedegad,
gamoiyofa bromis ionebi. aqedan
gamomdinare, bromizovalis xangrZlivi droiT gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi
SeiZleba adgili hqondes “bromizms”. gamoxatuli saZile moqmedeba gaaCnia
qloralhidrats.
barbituratebisgan
gansxvavebiT,
qloralhidrati
mniSvnelovan gavlenas ar axdens swrafi Zilis fazaze. Tumca aRniSnuli
preparatis gamoxatuli adgilobrivi gamaRizianebeli Tvisebebi zRudavs mis
gamoyenebas.
,,idealuri” saZile saSualeba unda akmayofilebdes: 1. aRadginos
normaluri (fiziologiuri) Zili; 2. iyos efeqturi da usafrTxo sxvadasxva
jgufis avadmyofTaTvis; 3. moaxdinos swrafi efeqti; 4. uzrunvelyos Zilis
optimaluri moqmedeba; 5. ar gamoiwvios sunTqvis daTrgunva, mexsierebis
darRveva da sxva gverdiTi movlenebi; 6. ar gamoiwvios SeCveva, fizikuri da
fsiqologiuri
damokidebuleba.
ramdenadac
arsebuli
preparatebi
am
moTxovnebs srulyofilad ver pasuxoben, mimdinareobs axali saZile
saSualebebisa Zieba. garkveulwilad grZeldeba gamoyeneba ,,Zveli” saZile
preparatebis, maT Soris barbituratebis. benzodiazepinebis arasakmarisi
efeqturobis SemTxvevebSi, zogierT avadmyofs uniSnaven barbituratebs.
Tanamedrove saZile saSualebebs miekuTvneba - melaqseni, romelsac ar
gaaCnia daRlilobisa da “texvis” SegrZnebebi. sizmrebi ufro naTelia da
emociurad gawonasworebuli. is warmoadgens epifizis hormonis sinTezur
analogs, awesrigebs cirkadul riTmebs, aregulirebs Zilisa da sifxizlis
ciklebs, lokomotoruli aqtivobis da sxeulis temperaturis sadReRamiso
cvlilebebs. xels uwyobs Ramis Zilis mowesrigebas (aCqarebs CaZinebas,
aujobesebs Zilis xarisxs, amcirebs Ramis gamoRviZebebis raodenobas,
399
aumjobesebs guneba-ganwyobas diliT gaRviZebis Semdeg, gamoRviZebisas ar
iwvevs uxalisobas). SigniT miRebisas swrafad Seiwoveba, advilad aRwevs
histohematur barierSi, hematoencefaluri barieris CaTvliT. SesaZlebelia
alergiuli
reaqciebis
ganviTareba
preparatis
komponentebis
mimarT.
gamoyenebis pirvel kviras SeSupeba, Tavis tkivili, Rebineba, gulisreva,
diarea. mkurnalobis periodSi saWiroa Tavis arideba satransporto
saSualebebis marTvisa da potenciurad saSiSi saqmiT dakavebas, romlebic
moioTxoven yuradRebis momatebul koncentracias da swraf fsiqomotorul
reaqciebs. qalebi, romlebic gegmaven orsulobas, informirebuli unda iyvnen
preparatSi sustad gamoxatuli kontraceptuli moqmedebis arsebobis Sesaxeb.
saWiroa mkveTri sinaTlis pirdapiri zemoqmedebisgan Tavis arideba.
somnoli-aversi (zopikloni) - warmoadgens arabenzodiazepinur saZile
saSualebas. igi miekuTvneba fsiqotropuli saSualebebis axal jgufs ciklopirolonebs. zopikloni iwvevs swraf CaZinebas da amcirebs Ramis
gamoRviZebaTa sixSires. amave dros ar mcirdeba swrafi Zilis faza da ar
icvleba Zilis struqtura. zopiklonis miRebis Semdeg ar viTardeba
postsomniuri darRvevebi: moTenTiloba da Zilianoba meore diliT. CaZineba
xdeba preparatis miRebidan 30 wT-is ganmavlobaSi. Zili grZeldeba 6-8 sT.
bioSeRwevadoba
Seadgens
80%-s.
plazmaSi
preparatis
maqsimaluri
koncentracia
aRiniSneba
daaxloebiT
1.5
sT-is
Semdeg.
zopiklonis
daaxloebiT 45% ukavSirdeba plazmis cilebs. naxevargamoyofis periodi
Seadgens 3.5-6 sT-s. mkurnaloba unda iyos xanmokle da misi xangrZlivoba ar
unda aRematebodes 4 kviras. preparati miiReba peroralurad, Zilis win.
“moxsnis” sindromis Tavidan asacileblad mkurnalobis Sewyveta umjobesia
moxdes preparatis dozis TandaTanobiTi SemcirebiT. arcTu iSviaTia Tavbru,
daRliloba, Zilianoba, Tavis tkivili; ufro xSirad asakovan pacientebSi cnobierebis dabindva, anterograduli amnezia, eiforia, koSmaruli sizmrebi,
agznebadoba, SfoTva, nevrozuli mdgomareoba.
adante
(zaleploni)
aris
pirazolo-pirimidinuri
tipis
saZile
saSualeba,
romelic
Tavisi
qimiuri
struqturiT
gansxvavdeba
benzodiazepinebisgan da sxva saZile saSualebebisgan. Ggamoiyeneba Zilis
mZime darRvevebis dros, rac vlindeba daZinebis gaZnelebiT. mkurnaloba unda
iyos SeZlebisdagvarad xanmokle, araumetes 2 kvirisa. yvelaze
xSirad
gamovlenili gverdiTi efeqtebia: Tavis tkivili, sisustis SegrZneba,
Zilianoba, Tavbrusxveva. preparatis miRebam, maT Soris Terapiul dozebSi,
SeiZleba gamoiwvios fizikuri damokidebulebis da moxsnis sindromis
simptomebis ganviTareba. preparatis borotad gamoyenebisas SesaZlebelia
fsiqikuri damokidebulebis gaCenac.
amerikeli
mkvlevarebis
gancxadebiT,
adamianebi,
romlebic
regularulad iyeneben saZile saSualebebs, oTxjer zrdian naadrevi
sikvdilis risks. specialistebi 30 Tvis ganmavlobaSi akvirdebodnen
daaxloebiT 10 000 moxalises. yvela es adamiani Rebulobda saZile
saSualebas, magram sxvadasxva raodenobiT. mecnierebma aRmoaCines, rom
400
monawileebs, romlebic wlis ganmavlobaSi 18-132 saZile saSualebas
Rebulobdnen, naadrevi sikvdilis albaToba 4,6-jer izrdeboda. maT, vinc ara
umetes 18
Rebulobda, aReniSnebodaT sikvdilis sakmarisad maRali riski.
garda amisa, eqspertebma SeZles daedginaT, rom aseTi preparatebis didi
raodenobiT
miReba
35%-iT
zrdis
adamianSi
avTvisebiani
simsivnis
ganviTarebis albaTobas.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. g. Turmanauli – samedicino farmakologia. gamomcemloba ,,cis nami”,
Tbilisi, 2006w.
2. g. Turmanauli - klinikuri farmacia. gamomcemloba ,,cis nami”,
Tbilisi, 2009w.
3. g. Turmanauli - samedicino bazisuri farmakologia. gamomcemloba
,,cis nami”, Tbilisi, 2008w.
4. d. a. xarkeviCi - farmakologia, gamomcemoba ,,mTawmindeli”, Tbilisi
2008w.
5. lali dadeSiZe _ kerZo farmakologia da klinikuri farmacia;
6. www.vikipedia.ge
7. www.medicine.ge
8. www.medgeo.net
Resume
Tamar Mchedlishvili
Sleeping Facilities
The work discusses activity of contemporary sleeping facilities on the different phases of sleep.
A
arteriuli hipertenziis samkurnalo preparatebi
nino melqoSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti
E- mail: [email protected] T- 551-222-398
jandacvis fakulteti (specialoba- farmacia) IV kursi
xelmZRvaneli: givi yuraSvili
arteriuli
hipertenzia
warmoadgens
gulis,
Tavis
tvinis
da
Tirkmelebis sisxlZarRvovani daavadebebis ganviTarebis umTavres faqtors.
arteriuli hipertenziis risk-faqtorebia: 1) nikotinomania, 2)Warbi wona,
3) hipodinamia, 4) alkoholis Warbi raodenobit moxmareba, 5)sufris marilis
Warbi raodenobiT mireba, 6) memkvidreobiTi faqtori, 7) mamrobiTi sqesi, 8)
menopauza
qalebSi.
msoflioSi
gulsisxlZarrvTa
401
daavadebi
sikvdilis
wamyvani mizezia. yovelwliurad am daavadebit 17.3 milioni adamiani iRupeba.
gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebebiT gardacvlilTa 80% registrirebulia dabal
da
sasualo
Semosavlebis
qveyanaSi.
gaTvlebit
dadgenilia,
rom
2030
wlisTvis gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebebiT gardacvlilTa ricxvi 23.6 milion
adamians miaRwevs.gulis daavadebebisa da insultis ZiriTadi risk-faqtorebia:
maRali arteriuli wneva, sisxlSi qolesterinisa da glukozis maRali done,
Warbi wona, Tambaqos moxmareba, xilisa da bostneulis arasakmarisi miReba da
dabali fizikuri aqtivoba.
arteriul hipertenziad iTvleba sistoluri wneva 140 mm.vwy.sv. da meti
an diastoluri wneva 90 mm.vwy.sv. da meti. ganixilaven arteriuli wnevis 3
kategoria:
1.normuli,
2.prehipertenzia,
3.hipertenzia.
antihipertenziuli
mkurnalobis daniSvnis kriteriumad ganixileba wnevis matebis xarisxi da
mowodebulia yvela hipertenziuli piris mkurnaloba. unda aRiniSnos, rom
prehipertenzia ar aris daavadebis kategoria. is moicavs im individebs,
romlebic arian arteriuli hipertenziis ganviTarebis maRali riskis qveS da
Sesabamisad saWiroebs cxovrebis wesis Secvlas. metic, Tu prehipertenziis
mqone pirs aqvs diabeti an Tirkmlis qronikuli daavadebebi da cxovrebis
wesis warmatebuli Secvla ver uzrunvelyofs wnevis 130/80 mm.vwy.sv-ze qvenoT
daqveiTebas, unda Cautardes medikamenturi mkurnaloba. arsebobs garkveuli
kavSiri simsuqnesa da arteriuli wnevis momatebas Soris.
[5]
gulis
iSemiuri
daavadeba
gamovlinda
devnilTa
droebiTi
Casaxlebis adgilis mixedviT: TbilisSi 19.2%, quTaisSi 21.7%, baTumSi 25%,
foTSi
28%,
zugdidSi
32.1%,
abaSaSi
30.2%.
gulis
iSemiuri
daavadebis
sixSiris mxriv devnili mosaxleoba, gansakuTrebiT mamakacebi 50-60 wlis
asakSi, TvalsaCinod sWarbobdnen adgilobriv mosaxleobas (Sesabamisad 30,5%
da 21%). gulis iSemuiri daavadebis fardobiTi riski mamakacebSi afxazeTidan
devnili mosaxleobis, rogorc gulis iSemiuri daavadebiT, aseve arteriuli
hipertenziiT
avadoba
1.4-jer
mosaxleobis
saSualo
maCvenebels,
mosaxleobis
nervul-stresuli,
ekonomikuri
mZime
kontingentSi
ar
mdgomareobiT.
iyo
gamoxatuli
aRemateba
rac
gamokvleuli
SeiZleba
fsiqoemociuri
aRsanisnavia
lipiduri
adgilobrivi
aixsnas
faqtoriT,
isic,
cvlis
devnili
socialur-
rom
saerTo
aRniSnul
maCveneblis
mniSvnelovani darRvevebi, Warbi kvebis Tu wonis risk-faqrori. afxazeTidan
devnili
mosaxleobis
lipiduri
cvlis
Seswavla
gamoavlina
mxolod
mcireodeni gadaxrebi normasTan SedarebiT, mamakacta 4.4% da qalta 11.2%-Si.
devnilta soris lipiduri cvlis sedarebiT ukeTesi maCveneblebi adgilobriv
mosaxleobasTan
SedarebiT
Seizleba
deficitiT, mzime ekonomikuri pirobebiT.
402
aixsnas
wlebis
manZilze
kvebis
[4] n.burkaZe, n.sadraZe, l.sxirtlaZe, b.biZinasvili da sxva. mecnier
muSakTa azriT: Tavis tkivili, xmauri yurebSi, Tavbrusxveva, saerTo sisuste,
gulis friali. aRniSnuli simptomebi SeiZleba segvxvdes igive sixSiriT
normoTenziul populaciaSic. ufro metic, bevri simptomi, romelic Tan
axlavs hipertenzias Tavis warmosobit aris fsiqogenuri. Tavis tkivilic ki,
romelic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ganixileba rogorc hipertenziis yvelaze
xSiri simptomi, sust korelaciaSi arteriuli wnevis sididesTan. simptomuri
hipertenziis mizezebia: fsiqikuri travma, emociuri gadaZabva, Warbi gonebrivi
datvirTva, nervul-fsiqikuri gadaRla, SeiZleba ganviTardes Tavis tkivili
kontuziisa da iSemiis an klimaqsuri nevrozis dros.
arteriuli
jgufispreparatebi,
daavadebis
hipertenziis
es
simZimeze,
samkurnalod
ganpirobebulia
aseve
preparatebis
Semdegi
gardamqmneli
fermentis
Tanmxlebi
Ziritadi
gamoiyeneba
pacientis
individualurobaze
daavadebis
jgufebi:
inhibitorebi,
arsebobaze.
diuretikebi,
alfa-
sxvadasxva
da
beta-
da
gamoiyeneba
angiotenzinis
blokatorebi,
kalciumis arxebis antagonistebi da sxva.
1.
jgufi
diuretikebi:
maryuJze momqmedi
Sardmdenebi
medikamenti
dozireba
mg/gdReSi
dRiuri jeradoba
furosemidi
20-80
2
laziqsi
20-80
1-2
125-250
1-2
5-10
1-2
50-100
1-2
Ddozireba
mg/gdReSi
dRiuri jeradoba
atenololi
25-100
1
nonbloni
2,5-10
1-2
terazozini
1-20
1-2
saloveri
0,4
1
hipoTiazidi
kaliumSemnaxveli
Sardmdenebi
2.
jgufi
amiloridi
triamtereni
alfa- da beta- blokatorebi:
medikamenti
beta- blokatori
alfa -blokatori
403
3.
jgufi
angiotenzinis gardamqmneli fermentis inhibitorebi:
medikamenti
Ddozireba
dRiuri jeradoba
mg/gdReSi
agf-inhibitori
angiotenzin
receptorebis
bkokatoriბი
4.
kaptoprili
25-100
1
enalaprili
5-40
1-2
kvadrica
10-40
1-2
kanvesartani
8-32
1
ibresartani
150-300
1
aljeroni
2,5-5-10
½1-2
kalciumis arxebis antagonistebi:
jgufi
medikamenti
K kalciumis arxebis
blokatorebi
(aradihidropiridinis
jgufis)
dozir
mg/g dR
dR. jer.
180-420
1
80-320
2
verapamili (xanmokle
moqmedebis)
120-480
1-2
verapamili (xangrZlivi
moqmedebis)
120-360
1
nikardipini
2,5-10
2
nifedipini (xangrZlivi
moqmedebis
60-120
2
dilTiazemi (xangrZlivi
moqmedebis)
lacipili
kalciumis arxebis
blokatorebi
(dihidropiridinis
jgufis)
5.
kombinirebuli preparatebi:
medikamenti
dozir
mg/g dR
dRiuri
jeradoba
ekvatori
5-10
1
kvadripini
5-5
1-2
amloprili
5-5
1-2
amradipini
4-\10/8-10
1
prestansi
5-10
1
10/12,5
1-2
jgufi
kombinirebuli moqmedebis
saSualebebi agfinhibitoris gardamqmneli
da kal.arxebis
blokatorebis
preparatebi)
agf-inhibitoris
gardamqmneli da
diurezuli saSualebebis
kvadrica-mite
404
Semcveli
agf-II receptorebis
antagonistebi diurezuli
saSualebebis
kvadrica-forte
20/25
1-2
amra
2/0,625
1-2
ko-mirati
80-12,5
1-2
ko-valtani
80-12,5
1-2
[1] hipertenziul pacientTa umravlesobas esaWiroveba ori an meti
antihipertenziuli medikamenti samizne arteriuli wnevis misaRwevad. rodesac erTi
preparatis adeqvaturi dozis miRebis Sedegad var xerxdeba wnevis kontroli, maSin
saWiroa sxva jgufis medikamentis damateba. Tu arteriuli wneva samiznes aRemateba
20/10 mm/vwy.sv.-iT maSin sasurvelia mkurnalobis gagrZeleba erTdroulad ori
preparatiT, romliTac miiRweva arteriuli wnevis ukeTesi kontroli. garkveul
SemTxvevebSi saWiroa sifrTxilis gamoCena xamdazmul da diabetiT daavadebul
pacientebSi, romelTac aReniSnebaT autonomiuri disfunqcia SesaZlo orTosTatiuri
hipotenziis ganviTarebis gamo. mkurnalobis Rirebulebas mkveTrad amcirebs
generiuli medikamentebis an maTi kombinaciebis gamoyeneba.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1.
www.medportal.ge. arteriuli hipertenzia arCil Sengelia, lali
daTeSiZes statiis mixedviT 26 ivnisi 2009.
2.
klinikuri praqtikis erovnuli rekomendacia (gaidlaini). 2007 wlis 27
agvisto.
3.
suraTebi amoRebulia www.medgeo.net. 03/02/2013
4.
n.burkaZe, n.sadraZe, l.sxirtlaZe, b.biZinaSvili da sxva gulsisxlZarRvTa sistemis daavadebaTa risk-faqtorTa dinamika saqarTveloSi.
prevenciuli kardiologiis problemebi. s/p konferenciis masalebi, Tbilisi 2001, 8
dekemberi. gv. 11-12
5.
gulis iSemiuri daavadebis gamomwvev risk-faqtorTa gavrcelebis
sixSire saqarTvelos zogiert organizebul populaciaSi. g.CafiZe, s. kapanaZe,
n.saluqvaZe da sxva. gulis iSemiuri daavadebis diagnostikis da mkurnalobis
Tanamedrove aspeqtebi, Tbilisi, 1999. gv. 50-52.
Resume
Nino Melkoshvili
Arterial hypertension and medicines
Arterial hypertension is a major factor in the development of heart disease, brain and kidneys of
both sexes, Hypertension is systolic blood pressure 140 mm.vtsq.sv. Or more or diastolic blood
pressure 90 mm.vtsq.sv. And more. A problem throughout the world and 17.3 million people die of
this disease every year.
405
qinolizidinis nawarmi alkaloidebis
Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli
gociriZe ia
farmacia, III kursi
[email protected] tel.: 598 50 99 55
xelmZRvaneli: aleqsandre sxirtlaZe
[email protected] tel.: 599 77 51 46
Termofsis balaxi _ Herba Thermopsidis
lancetisebri Termofsisi – Thermopsis lanceolata R. Br.,
oj. Pparkosanni _ Fabaceae
mravalwlovani balaxia
mcocavi fesuriT, romlidanac amodian
miwiszeda Reroebi. mcenare gamoirCeva kargad ganviTarebuli Zlieri
fesurebisa da damatebiTi fesvebis sistemiT, amitom axasiaTebs kargi
regeneraciis unari. fesvis sigrZe 2 metramdea. lancetisebri Termofsisi
izrdeba cimbirSi, baikalze, Sua azaiSi. kargad xarobs mdinareebis, fiWvis
tyeebisa da gzis pirebze. axasiaTebs kargi regeneraciis unari, mocelvis
Semdeg advilad amoiyris axal totebs.
balaxs amzadeben butonizaciisa da yvavilobis dasawyisSi. iReben
rogorc moyvavile, ise vegetaciur ylortebs. Wrian namgliT an makratliT
niadagidan 3-5 sm daSorebiT. aSroben 50-60 C. gemos ar usinjaven - Sxamiania.
mcenaris
balaxi
mdidaria
alkaloidebiT.
wamyvan
alkalodad
Termofsini iTvleba. nivTierebaTa monacemTa bazaSi Termofsisze gawerilia
Semdegi nivTierebebi da nivTierebaTa jgufebi: anagirini,
argentini,
askorbinismJava,
eTerzeTebi,
Termofsidini,
Termofsini,
lorwoebi,
lupanini, meTilkarbonis mJavebi, meTilcitizini, mTrTilavi nivTierebebi,
paqikarpini,
saponinebi, flavonoidebi, citizini (0,16–2%), homoTermofsini.
alkaloidebi moipoveba foTlebSi, yvavilebSi, nayofebSi. am ukanasknels
amzadeben alkaloidebis misaReb, ZiriTad citizinis wyarod.
Termofsini
citizini
Termofsis balaxi oficinaluri amosaxvelebeli saSualebaa. qronikuli
bronqitisa da zemo sasunTqi gzebis anTebisas. didi doza iwvevs
pirRebinebas. iyeneben gamonacemis, nayenis, mSrali eqstraqtisa da tabletebis
saxiT.
Seyvanisas
iwvevs
sunTqvis centris
refleqsur gaRizianebas,
arteriuli
wnevis
momatebas.
gansakuTrebiT
efeqturia
axalSobilTa
asfiqsiisas. citizini Sedis Tambaqos mowevis gadaCvevis mizniT xmarebul
preparat ,,tabeqsis“ da ,,lobesilis“ SemadgenlobaSi. Termofsisi Sxamiania,
amitom misi gamoyenebisas didi sifrTxilea saWiro; aucilebelia eqimis
meTvalyureoba da dozis dacva. Termofsisi ukunaCvenebia kuWisa da
Tormetgojas wylulovani daavadebis dros [1,2,9].
soforas balaxi – Herba Sophorae
406
sqelnayofa sofora – Sophora pachicarpa R. Br.,
oj. parkosanTa – Fabaceae.
am gvarSi 45 saxeoba Sedis. ZiriTadad patara xeebi an buCqebia, magram
gvxvdeba balaxebic. sxvadasxva saxeobebi bunebrivad xaroben evropaSi, aziaSi,
avstraliaSi, wynari okeanis kunZulebze, da amerikaSi. saqarTveloSi mravali
saxeobaa dekoratiuli mizniT Semotanili da Semoyolili. sakmaod Sxamiani
mcenarea da yvavilobs ivlis-ivnisSi. udabnoebisa da naxevarudabnoebis
mcenarea. bunebrivad gvxvdeba Sua aziis udabnoebSi. qmnis did nazardebs.
saqarTveloSi ar gvxvdeba. gasul saukuneSi cdilobdnen moeSenebinaT
azerbaijanSi.
balaxs
amzadeben
mTeli
zafxulis
ganmavlobaSi
mcenaris
butonizaciisa da yvavilobis periodSi an vegetaciis periodSi.
balaxi, foTlebi, yvavilebi Seicavs 2,6-4% alkaloidebs. fesvebSi
alkaloidebis raodenoba orjer naklebia. mTavari alkaloidia paqikarpini,
is ufero, sqeli zeTisebri siTxea, polarizaciis sibrtyes abrunebs marjvniv,
haerze swrafad muqdeba da ifiseba. nivTierebaTa monacemTa bazaSi
sqelnayofa soforaze gawerilia Semdegi nivTierebebi da nivTierebaTa
jgufebi:
alkaloidebi,
genisteini,
goebelini,
kempferoli,
matrini
(sofokarpidini).
organuli
mJavebi
4-13%,
paqikarpini,
sofobenzamini,
sofokarpini, soforamini, flavonoidebi, qvercetini.
paqikarpini
sofokarpini
amzadeben paqikarpinis
hidroqlorids.
gamoiyeneba gangliolitis,
miopaTiis, periferiuli sisxlZarRvebis spazmis dros. xmaroben mSobiarobis
dros
sisxlis dakargvis Sesamcireblad. inseqticiduri saSualebaa. aseve
aumjobesebs kunTebis funqcias. inaxaven B siiT[1,3,4,9].
yviTeli dumfaras fesvura – Rhizoma Nupharis
yviTeli dumfara – Nuphar luteum
oj. dumfarasebrTa – Nymphaceae
dumfara mravalwylovani wylis mcenarea. fesvgamdgari mcenarea,
msxvili horizontaluri fesuriT. yvavilobs ivlis–agvistoSi. Sxamiani
mcenarea. izrdeba damdgar da nela moZrav wylebSi evropaSi, kavkasiaSi, Sua
aziaSi, cimbirSi. gvxvdeba mdinareebis dagubebul adgilebSi, tbebSi,
guburebSi, WaobSi. saqarTveloSi ZiriTadad Savi zRvis sanapirozea
gavrcelebuli.
yviTeli dumfaras fesvuris ZiriTad alkaloidad nufleini iTvleba.
Seicavs
sxva
alkaloidebsac:
nufarins,
nufaridins,
nufamins,
dezoqsinufaridins,
nufarolutins,
qiobinufaridins,
qionuflutinis
sulfoqsids da sxv.
407
nufleini
fesuridan amzadeben alkaloidebis jamur preparat lutenurins,
romelic gamoiyeneba Sard-sasqeso organoebis mwvave da qronikuli
triqonomadebis, agreTve rogorc kontraceptuli saSualeba. fesura aris
zdrenkos miqsturis erT-erTi komponenti. homeopaTiaSi iyeneben impotenciisa
da saSvilosnos awevis dros, popularulia mravali qveynis xalxur
medicinaSi, urCeven antaciduri gastritis, aseve spazmolitur, hipotenziur
da anTebis sawinaaRmdego saSualebad. aqvs spermatociduri aqtivoba,
gamoiyeneba rogorc Casaxvis sawinaaRmdego saSualeba. fesvebsa da fesuras
aqvs anTebis sawinaaRmdego, damarbilebeli, tkivilgamayuCebeli, Semkvreli,
Sardmdeni da rZis momgvreli moqmedeba [1,5,6,9].
sekurinegas ylorti – Cormus Securinegae
naxevradbuCqisebri sekurinega – Securinega suffruticosa
oj. rZianasebrTa – Euphorbiaceae
buCqovani an naxevradbuCqovani mcenarea.
sekurigena sam mertamde
simaRlis
izrdeba.
sekurinega
xarobs
mSral,
qvian
ferdobebze.
gavrcelebulia
ruseTSi,
mongoleTSi,
CineTSi,
koreaSi,
iaponiaSi.
plantaciebi arsebobs CrdiloeT kavkasiasa da moldovaSi.
oficinaluri nedleulia sekurinegas yloti – Cormus Securinegae.
ylortebs aWrian ivnisidan–seqtembramde. aSroben haerze an fardulebSi.
inaxeba B-siiT, vargisia 4 weli.
mcenaris yvela nawili Seicavs alkaloidebs: foTlebSi maTi raodenoba
— 0,38%—0,8%, ylortebSi–0,19%–mde. yvelaze ukeT Seswavlilia sekurinini.
igi striqininis farmakologiur analogad iTvleba.
sekurinini
misagan amzadeben sekurininis nitratis saineqcio xsnars, romelic
gamoiyeneba rogorc nervuli sistemis aRmgznebi saSualeba. gansakuTrebiT
aZlierebs zurgis tvinis refleqsur aRgznebas. xmaroben nevrasTeniis,
damblis, poliomielitis Semdgom periodSi. aqvs striqninis msgavsi moqmedeba;
inaxeba AAsiiT [1,7,8,9].
408
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. erisTavi l. farmakognozia (samkurnalo mcenareebi), Tbilisi, 2005w.
675 gv.
2. Zhang L, Fan J, Meng Q, Niu Y, Niu W. Caragana fabr. promotes revegetation and soil
rehabilitation in saline-alkali wasteland. Int J Phytoremediation. 2013, 15(1), 38-50.
3. Yifeng M, Bin W, Weiqiao Z, Yongming Q, Bing L, Xiaojie L. Neuroprotective effect of
sophocarpine against transient focal cerebral ischemia via down-regulation of the acid-sensing ion
channel 1 in rats. Brain Res. 2011, 1382, 245-51.
4. Fakhimi A, Iranshahi M, Emami SA, Amin-Ar-Ramimeh E, Zarrini G, Shahverdi AR.
Sophoraflavanone G from sophora pachycarpa enhanced the antibacterial activity of gentamycin
against Staphylococcus aureus. Z Naturforsch C. 2006, 61(9-10), 769-72.
5. Salin ML, Bridges SM. Isolation and Characterization of an Iron-Containing Superoxide
Dismutase From Water Lily, Nuphar luteum. Plant Physiol. 198, ;69(1), 161-5.
6. Gomez JM, Jimenez A, Olmos E, Sevilla F. Location and effects of long-term NaCl stress on
superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes of pea (Pisum sativum cv. Puget)
chloroplasts. J Exp Bot. 2004, 55(394), 119-30.
7. Raj D, Luczkiewicz M. Securinega suffruticosa. Fitoterapia. 2008, 79(6), 419-27.
8. Ohsaki A, Kobayashi Y, Yoneda K, Kishida A, Ishiyama H. Securinega alkaloids from the
wood of Securinega suffruticosa var. amamiensis. J Nat Prod. 2007, 70(12), 2003-5.
9. www.google.com
Plants and raw materials of quinolizidine alkaloids
Ia gotsiridze
Resume
Quinolizidine type alkaloides mainly are found in the family Fabaceae, Nymphaceae and
Euphorbiaceae. In presented work are discussed distributions, raw material specifics, chemical content
and medical usage of the plants Thermopsis lanceolata, Sophora pachycarpa, Nuphar luteum and
Securinega suffruticosa. Quinolizidine alkaloides exhibits expectorate, antispasm, insecticidal,
antiprotosoal, contraceptive and other activities.
Tioglikozidebi, maTi Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli
loTiSvili lia
farmacia, III kursi
[email protected] tel.: 598 96 17 01
xelmZRvaneli: aleqsandre sxirtlaZe
[email protected] tel.: 599 77 51 46
Tioglikozidebi
L
TioSaqrebis
cikluri
formebis
nawarmebia,
romlebsac merkapto-(SH)
jgufSi wyalbadis atomi Canacvlebuli aqvT
alkilTo an arilTio jgufiT. rogorc yvela glikozidi, Tioglikozidebic
ganicdian hidrolizur daSlas. Sesabamisi fermentis kompleqsebiT iSlebian
safexurobrivad. mJave hidrolizis mimarT mdgradia, xolo tuteebi maT
Slian TioSaqrebad da aglikonad.
Tioglikozidebi gansakuTrebiT bevria bostneul kulturaSi, mdogvSi,
TalgamSi, bolokSi, pirSuSxaSi, niorSi, prasSi, gvxvdeba kombostoSi da
dedoflis enaSi. Tioglikozidebi an gogirdSemcveli Tavisufali eTerovani
409
zeTebi xasiaTdebian mSuSxavi gemoTi. iwveven kanisa da lorwovani garsis
Zlier gaRizianebas, mcire doza aZlierebs madas, Zlier baqteriociduli
saSualebebia.
medicinaSi
iyeneben
am
Tvisebebis
gamo,
rogorc
adgilobriv
gamaRizianebelsa da tkivilgadamtans pnevmoniis, iSiazis dros [1].
sareptis mdogvis Tesli - Semen Sinapis Junceae
sareptis mdogvi- Brassica juncea,
oj. jvarosanni- Brassicaceae
40-50 sm. simaRlis erTwlovani balaxia, Rero SiSveli, datotvili,
foTlebi morigeobiTi, qveda foTlebi SesamCnevi yunwiT.
sareptis mdogvi farTodaa kultivirebuli samx. ukrainaSi, yirgizeTSi,
kavkasiaSi. gansakuTrebiT mdinare volgis midamoebSi.
izrdeba gzis pirebSi da sacxovrebel saxlebTan axlos. CvenSi gvxvdeba
Savi zRvis sanapiroze aWaraSi, afxazeTSi. samedicino praqtikaSi dasaSvebia
meore saxeobac Brassica nigra.
mdogvis Wotebi erTdroulad ar mwifdeba simwifeSi advilad skdeba da
Tesli cviva. amitom mosavals iReben, rodesac Rero iwyebs gaxmobas. mcenares
Wrian, kraven konebad da nayofebs acdian damwifebas. Semdeg Teslebs
gamocexvaven da ganiavebiT gaasuTaveben minarevebisgan
moqmedi nivTierebaa sinigrini. alilizoTiocianati anu mdogvis
eTerovani zeTi Ria-yviTeli siTxea, mas iReben fermentaciiT, mdogvis
wyalTan gadadeniT.
sinigrini
amzadeben mdogvis safenebs, iReben 12 sm
zomis qaRaldis naWers
romelsac usvamen kauCukis webos, ayrian cximwarTmeul mdogvis fxvnils, misi
samkurnalo efeqti ganpirobebulia refleqsuri reaqciebiT, romelic iwvevs
kanis nervuli daboloebebis gaRizianebas. safenebis zedmeti xniT gaCereba
gamoiwvevs damwvrobas [1,2,3,8].
nivris nedli bolqvi - Bulbus Allii Sativi recens
niori - Allium sativum. oj. xaxvisebrni- Alliaceae
mravalwlovani balaxia, rTuli bolqvebiT. velurad mozardi niori
araa cnobili. aSeneben yvelgan, rogorc bostneuls.
nedli bolqvebis damzadeba xdeba zafxulis ganmavlobaSi, amoTxris
Semdeg mas Txel fenebad gaSlian da aSroben. bolqvebi kvercxisebri
formisaa. bolqvi Sedgeba 6-8 patara bolqvakisagan.
axasiaTebs mkveTri mSuSxavi gemo, misi aqroladi nivTiereba nivris
damaxasiaTebeli sunisaa, aRizianebs lorwovan garss.
niori Seicavs Tioglikozidebsa da gogirdSemcvel eTerovan zeTs. es
ukanaskneli Sedgeba dialildisulfidisagan (60%), dialiltrisulfidisagan
410
(20%) alilpropilsulfidisagan da sxva sulfidebisagan. nivris bolqvSi
agreTve dadgenilia B da C vitaminebi, mikroelementebi.
aliini
alicini
niors axasiaTebs antimikrobuli, antiseptikuri, antivirusuli aqtivoba.
nedli bolqvidan amzadeben nayens, romelsac uniSnaven kuW-nawlavis
daavadebebis (meteorizmis, atoniis) aTerosklerozis, hipertoniis dros. igi
xels uSlis Tavisufali radikalebis gaCenas. awesrigebs imunur sistemas.
aris antiTrombuli, antiblasturi, hipoglikemiuri, hipolipiduri saSualeba.
niori popularuli iyo jer kidev 2 aTasi wlis win. egviptelebma papirusze
Caweres nivris gamoyenebis 22 wesi. homeopaTiaSi nedl bolqvebs xmaroben
mravali paTologiis dros [1,4,5,8].
xaxvis nedli bolqvi - Bulbus Allii cepae recens,
xaxvi- Allium cepa, oj. xaxvisebrni- Alliaceae
mravalwlovani balaxia, Rero 20-80 sm simaRlis, ufoTlo, SuaSi
gamoberili. foTlebi milisebr Rruiani, yvaviledi burTiviT mrgvalia.
bolqvebi didia, sqeli wvniani qerqlebiT.
veluri Taviani xaxvi cnobili araa, xaxvis saxeobebis samSobloa
CineTi, Sua da wina azia. aSeneben rogorc sanelebel bostneuls. cnobilia
Taviani xaxvis mravali jiSi.
bolqvebs amzadeben mTeli zafxulis ganmavlobaSi, Slian erT fenad da
aniaveben.
bolqvebi da foTlebi Seicavs S glikozidebs. aliins, cikloaliins,
meTilaliins, propilaliins.
cikloaliini
aliini
amzadeben preparat alilCeps,
romelsac
uniSnaven kuW-nawlavis
atoniisas, xolo nayens - rogorc antiseptikur, antitrombul, antilipidur,
hipoglikemiur saSualebas. axasiaTebs matonizebeli moqmedeba. mwvane xaxvi
suravandis sawinaaRmdegoa [1,6,7,8].
gamoyenebuli literatura:
1. erisTavi l. farmakognozia (samkurnalo mcenareebi), Tbilisi, 2005w.
675 gv.
2. Ren YX, Zhu XL, Fan DD, Ma P, Liang LH. Inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria
for the improvement of lead accumulation by Brassica juncea. Environ Technol. 2013, 34(1-4), 4639.
411
3. Dubie J, Stancik A, Morra M, Nindo C. Antioxidant Extraction from Mustard (Brassica
juncea) Seed Meal Using High-Intensity Ultrasound. J Food Sci. 2013, 78(4), 542-8.
4. Al-Qattan KK, Thomson M, Ali M, Mansour MH. Garlic (Allium sativum) attenuate
glomerular glycation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: A possible role of insulin.
Pathophysiology. 2013 Apr 23. (in press)
5. Karuppiah P, Rajaram S. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber
officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012,
2(8), 597-601.
6. Bakhshaeshi M, Khaki A, Fathiazad F, Khaki AA, Ghadamkheir E. Anti-oxidative role of
quercetin derived from Allium cepa on aldehyde oxidase (OX-LDL) and hepatocytes apoptosis in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012, 2(7), 528-31
7. Golovchenko VV, Khramova DS, Ovodova RG, Shashkov AS, Ovodov YS. Structure of
pectic polysaccharides isolated from onion Allium cepa L. using a simulated gastric medium and their
effect on intestinal absorption. Food Chem. 2012, 134(4), 1813-22.
8. www.google.com
Plants and raw materials of thioglycosides
Lia Lotishvili
Resume
Thioglycosides are widely distributed in agricultural plants belonging to the family
Brassicaceae and Alliaceae such as are Brassica juncea, Allium cepa and Allium sativum. In work are
presented their distributions, chemical content and use in medicines. Thioglycosides are use as skin
and mucous irritations, antiseptic, hypoglycemic, analgesic and others.
izoqinolis nawarmi alkaloidebis
Semcveli mcenareebi da nedleuli
patapovi lana
farmacia, III kursi
[email protected] tel.: 598 16 83 72
xelmZRvaneli: aleqsandre sxirtlaZe
[email protected] tel.: 599 77 51 46
yviTeli yayaCura – Glaucium flavum Grantz,
oj. yayaCosebrni – Papaveraceae
ori an mravalwliani balaxovani mcenarea – lurji an rux–mwvane
SeferilobiT. yviTeli yayaCura izrdeba zRvis sanapiroze, qvian da kldovan
adgilebze. gvxvdeba tamanis naxevarkunZulidan md. Woroxis SesarTavamde.
SedarebiT bevria bulgareTis Crdilo–aRmosavleT nawilsa da dunais
dablobze.
oficinaluri nedleulia yviTeli yayaCuras balaxi – Herba Glaucii flavi.
balaxs amzadeben vegetaciis pirvel da meore wels, samjer: Reros amosvlis,
butonizaciisa da yvavilobis periodSi. aSroben haerze, swrafad, kargi
ventiliaciis pirobebSi. Tburi Sroba sasurvelia 50-60C.
nedleuli 4%-mde alkaloidebs Seicavs: alkaloidi, allokriptopini,
izoboldini, izokoridini, korunini, magnoflorini, peleritrini, protopini,
412
helirubini da sxva. mTavar alkaloidad iTvleba glaucini da sangvinarini.
glaucinze modis 1-2%. nedleulis fassac Ziritadad glaucinis Semcveloba
gansazRvravs.
glaucini
sangvinarini
yviTeli yayaCuras miwiszeda nawilidan moipoveben alkaloid glaucins.
am alkaloids aqvs aporfinuli struqtura da axasiaTebs kargad gamoxatuli
xvelebis sawinaaRmdego efeqti.
gamokvlevebiT dadasturda isic,
rom, kodeinisgan gansxvavebiT,
glaucini ar iwvevs yabzobas (abstipacias). es am alkaloidis mniSvnelovan
Rirsebad iTvleba. am Tvisebis gamo, glaucini Seitanes samedicino
praqtikaSi.
amgvarad,
dadgenilia,
rom
glaucini
flobs
xanmokle
hipotenziuri da spazmolituri moqmedebis unars. glaucinis upiratesoba
isaa,
rom
misi
xangrZlivi
miReba
ar
iwvevs
am
alkaloidisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli xvelebis sawinaaRmdego moqmedebasTan Seguebas; ar iwvevs
aranair narkotikis msgavs damokidebulebas.
glaucinis Terapiuli aqtivoba klinikuradac aris dasabuTebuli.
misgan damzadebulma glauventma ukve daimkvidra Tavisi adgili, rogorc
xvelebis sawinaaRmdego preparatma.
glaucini
Sedis
kombinirebuli
preparatis
„bronqolitinis“
SemadgenlobaSic. inaxeba B-siiT [1,2,3,8,9,10].
qristesisxla - Chelidonium majus L.
oj. yayaCosebrni - Papaveraceae
30-100 sm simaRlis mravalwlovani balaxia, yvavilobs IV-IX.
qristesisxla izrdeba ruderalur adgilebze. zRvis donidan tyis zeda
sartylamde,
upiratesad
tyeebSi,
buCqnarebSi,
baRebSi,
mindvrebze,
danagvianebul adgilebSi, saqarTveloSi TiTqmis yvelgan.
nedleuls Wrian yvavilobisas makratliT an namgliT ise, rom ar Seyves
Reros qveda gauxeSebuli nawili. balaxis damzadeba warmoebs mxolod mSral
amindSi. aSroben dauyovnebliv 50-60C temperaturaze saSrob karadebSi an
sxvenze. Srobisas aucilebelia nedleulis drodadro Sereva. qristesisxlas
balaxi neli Srobisas Savdeba da lpeba. mSral balaxs aqvs Taviseburi suni,
gemos gasinjva dauSvebelia!
qristesisxlas balaxi mdidaria izoqinolinis nawarmi sxvadasxva
jgufebis alkaloidebiT. maTi raodenoba balaxSi 5%-mdea. ZiriTadi
alkaloidebia:
helidonini,
heleritrini,
protopini,
sangvinarini,
alokriptopini, koptizoni, berberini, helirubini, stilopini, dihidrosangvinarini, dihidroheleritrini da sxv. alkaloidebi ZiriTadad helidonis
mJavas marilebis an Tavisufali saxiTaa mcenareSi. biologiurad aqtiuri
413
sxva qimiuri jgufebidan Seicavs: vitaminebidan C, karotinoidebs. organuli
mJavebidan - limonis, qarvis, vaSlis; saponinebs, mTrimlav nivTierebebs,
flavonoidebs, eTerovan zeTs, umaRles alifatur spirtebs.
helidonini
protopini
qristesisxlas balaxi aris anTebis sawinaaRmdego garegani saSualeba.
xmaroben kanis tuberkulozis, wiTeli mgluras sawinaaRmdegod meWeWebis
mosacileblad. rekomendirebulia xorxis papilomebis, swori nawlavis
polipebis dros. mcire dozebiT iReben Sinagan-RviZlis da naRvlis buStis
daavadebebisas.
popularulia
homeopaTiaSi.
eqsperimetSi
Seswavlilia
alkalo-idis moqmedeba. helidonini morfinis msgavsad adunebs centralur
nervul
sistemas;
hemohelidonini
adgilobrivi
Zlieri
anesTeziuri
saSualebaa; sangvinarini narkozuli moqmedebisaa, protopini amcirebs
vegetaciuri nervuli sistemis reaqtiulobas, aZlierebs saSvilosnos
kunTebis tonuss. aRniSnulis gamo perspeqtiulia qristesisxlas ufro Rrmad
Seswavla [1,4,5,8,9,10].
xaSxaSi, damaZinebeli yayaCo - Papaver somniferum L.
oj. yayaCosebrni - Papaveraceae.
xaSxaSi erTwlovani 1-1,5 m. simaRlis balaxia. yvavilobs VI-VII, nayofi
mwifdeba VIII. xaSxaSi velurad ar gvxvdeba. samrewvelo plantaciebia mcire
aziis qveynebSi, iranSi, avRaneTSi, siriaSi, CineTSi, iaponiaSi. rZe-wvens,
romelsac amifions uwodeben, amzadeben nayofis teqnikuri simwifis stadiaSi.
amisaTvis dRis meore naxevarSi kolofbze akeTeben horizontalur an irib
zedapirul naserebs ise, rom gadakveTon mxolod rZis savali milebi, magram
wveni nayofis SigniT ar Caiqces. gaSrobis Semdeg mas nayofebidan mofxeken
xis patara specialuri niCbebiT. amfionis Segroveba erTi da igive
kolofidan SesaZlebelia samjer.
mTeli mcenare garda Teslebisa, Seicavs alkeloidebs specialur rZis
savalebSi. alkaloideb metia umwifari nayofebis rZe-wvenSi - amfionSi,
romelic organuli da araorganuli nivTierebebis narevs warmoadgens.
amionSi dadgenilia 26-ze meti alkaloid, romlebic ramdenime jgufad yofen,
mTavaria morfinis jgufi: morfini 12-16%, kodeini 1-3%, Tebaini 0,4-1%;
benzoqinolinis jgufi: papaverini 0,5-1,5%. xaSxaSis Teslebi mdidaria
cximovani zeTiT, romelSic mTavaria linolis da oleinis mJavebis
gliceridebi.
414
morfini
kodeini
papaverini
morfinis hidroqloridi tramvuli da sxva xasiaTis Zlieri tkivilebis
gasayuCebeli
saSualebaa,
gansakuTrebiT
operaciebisas.
amave
dros
narkotikuli da saZile Tvisebebisaa kodeinis fosfati amcirebs xvelebis
centris agznebadobas da iwvevs mis daTrgunvas. papaverinis hidroqloridi
spazmolizuri saSualebaa da gamoiyeneba hipertoniis, stenokardiis, saSarde
gzebis Seviwrovebisas. ixmareba agreTve alkaloidebis jamuri da galenuri
preparatebi - amfionis mSrali eqstraqti, martivi nayeni. morfini da amfioni
inaxeba A siiT, xolo danarCenebi B siiT [1,6-10].
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. erisTavi l. farmakognozia (samkurnalo mcenareebi), Tbilisi, 2005w.
675 gv.
2. Cabo J, Cabo MM, Cabo MP, Cruz T, Ruiz C. Glaucium flavum Crantz. IV. Antimicrobial
activity. Microbios. 1988, 56(228-229), 177-80.
3. Petitto V, Serafini M, Gallo FR, Multari G, Nicoletti M. Alkaloids from Glaucium flavum
from Sardinia. Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jul;24(11):1033-5.
4. El-Readi MZ, Eid S, Ashour ML, Tahrani A, Wink M. Modulation of multidrug resistance in
cancer cells by chelidonine and Chelidonium majus alkaloids. Phytomedicine. 2013, 20(3-4), 282-94.
5. Paul A, Bishayee K, Ghosh S, Mukherjee A, Sikdar S, Chakraborty D, Boujedaini N, KhudaBukhsh AR. Chelidonine isolated from ethanolic extract of Chelidonium majus promotes apoptosis
in HeLa cells through p38-p53 and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.
2012, 10(9), 1025-38.
6. Winzer T, Gazda V, He Z, Kaminski F, Kern M, Larson TR, Li Y, Meade F, Teodor R,
Vaistij FE, Walker C, Bowser TA, Graham IA . A Papaver somniferum 10-gene cluster for synthesis
of the anticancer alkaloid noscapine. Science. 2012, 336(6089), 1704-8.
7. Achour S, Rhalem N, Windy M, Khattabi A, Mokhtari R, Soulaymani A, Soulaymani R.
Respiratory depression induced by a decoction of Papaver somniferum L in two infants. Presse Med.
2011, 40(10), 971-2.
8. www.google.com
9. www.medgeo.net
415
Plants and Raw Materials of Isoquinoline Alkaloides
Lana Patapovi
Resume
Isoquinoline group alkaloides mainly are observed in the family Papaveraceae. In presented
work are discussed distributions, raw material specifics, chemical content and medical use of the plants
Glaucium flavum, Chelidonium majus and Papaver somniferum. Isoquinoline alkaloides shows
anticough, antispasm, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and other activities.
sezonuri da H1N1 virusebis afeTqeba msoflioSi
salome xaCiZe, elene lolua, naTia kobliaSvili
suxiSvilis saswavlo universiteti, ekologiis I kursi
xelmZRvaneli: anna dedabriSvili. medicinis doqtori.
E-mail: [email protected] T.557224114
jer kidev 412 wels Cv. w-mde hipokratem aRwera gripismagvari daavadeba.
gripis pirveli dokumentirebuli pandemia, romelmac Seiwira uamravi
sicocxle, moxda 1580 wels.
avadsaxsenebeli “espanuri gripi”, romelic gamoiwvia H1N1 virusma, 19181920 wlebSi mohyva 40 mln. adamianis sikvdili. anu “ispankam” daaziana
msoflios maSindeli mosaxleobis 20-40%. adamiani, romelic sruliad
janmrTeli iyo diliT, avad xdeboda SuadReze da saRamos kvdeboda. isini ki,
vinc gadaurCa sikvdils pirvel dReebSi, iRupebodnen gripis garTulebebiT.
“ispankas” Taviseburebas warmoadgenda is faqti, rom igi emarTeboda
ZiriTadad axalgazrdebs.
gripi - aris mwvave maRalkontagiozuri daavadeba, romelsac axasiaTebs
gamoxatuli toqsikozi, zeda sasunTqi gzebis da filtvebis dazianeba.
rogorc wesi, gripi iwyeba mwvaved.misi ZiriTadi tipebia A,A1,A2 da B.
A gripis virusi iwvevs saSualod da mZimed mimdinare daavadebas. igi
azianebs adamians da zogierT cxovels (cxeni, Rori, frinveli). swored igi
agebs pasuxs pandemiebze da mZime epidemiebze.
gripis virusi ar iwvevs pandemiebs. ZiriTadad igi gvevlineba lokaluri
afeTqebebis da epidemiebis mizezad. misi afeTqebebi SeiZleba Tanxvdebodes A
gripis afeTqebas an win uswrebdes mas. gripis B virusi cirkulirebs mxolod
adamianis populaciaSi (uxSiresad daavadebas iwvevs bavSvebSi).
gripis c virusi ar aris sakmaod Seswavlili. cnobilia, rom igi Seicavs
nukleinis mJavis 7 fragments da erT zedapirul antigens. ainficirebs
mxolod adamians. daavadebis simptomebi saerTod ar vlindeba an msubuq
416
xasiaTs atarebs.
infeqciis wyaro yovelTvis aris daavadebuli adamiani,gansakuTrebiT
gadamdebia daavadebis 1-2 dRes.daavadebis gadacema xdeba haerwveTovani
gziT(xvelebis,ceminebis,laparakis
dros).
gansakuTrebiT
infeqciis
gavrcelebis saSiSroeba iqmneba saerTo sayofacxovrebo sagnebis moxmarebis
dros, sazogadoebriv transportSi da a.S.gripis virusi iWreba cxvir-xaxis da
zeda sasunTqi gzebis lorwovan garsSi,Semdeg gadadis sisxlSi da xdeba
organizmis dainficireba.
daavadebis gadatanis Sedegad SeZenili imuniteti
mdgradia,amitom daavadeba SeiZleba ganmeordes imave wels.
arasakmarisad
gripis saSualo formis dros temperatura
vlindeba daavadebis klasikuri simptomebi:
38,5-39,5°С
aRwevs
da
daavadebis saSualo simZimiT mimdinareoba:
•
intoqsikacia – Warbi oflianoba,
kunTebisa da saxsrebis tkivili, Tavis tkivili.
sisuste,
sinaTlis
SiSi,
•
kataraluri simptomebi – rbili sasis da xaxis ukana kedlis
hiperemia, koniuqtivis hiperemia
•
respiratoruli simptomebi – xorxis da traqeis dazianebis
niSnebi, mSrali xvela, fonaciis darRveva, tkivili gulmkerdSi, riniti,
cxviris Rrusa da xaxis lorwovani garsis simSrale, cianozuroba da
hiperemia.
garTulebuli mimdinareoba:
•
filtvebis segmenturi dazianebis sindromi – filtv-gulis
dinamiurad mzardi ukmarisoba, erT-erT filtvSi tipiuri segmenturi
daCrdilviT; keTilsaimedo gamosavlis dros klinikur-rentgenologiuri
cvlilebebi qreba ukvalod 2-3 dRis ganmavlobaSi (pnevmoniisgan gansxvavebiT).
hipertoqsiuri formis dros SesaZloa ganviTardes filtvebis SeSupeba,
romelsac Tan axlavs hemoragiuli pnevmonia
gripis mZime formis dros
•
sxeulis temperatura aRwevs 40-40,5°С. saSualo simZimis gripis
gamovlinebebTan damatebiT Cndeba encefalopaTiis niSnebi (fsiqozuri
mdgomareoba,
krunCxva,
halucinaciebi),
sisxlZarRvovani
darRvevebi
(cxviridan sisxldena, wertilovani sisxlCaqcevebi rbil sasaze) da Rebineba.
hipertoqsiuri formis dros
417
•
Zalian maRalia letaluri gamosavlis albaToba, gansakuTrebiT
riskis jgufis pacientebSi. am formis dros, garda zemoT CamoTvlilisa
aRiniSneba:
o
hiperTermiuli sindromi;
o
meningizmi (meningealuri niSnebi Tavis tvinis garsebis anTebiTi
cvlilebebis gareSe)
o
encefalopaTia
hemodinamiur
darRvevebTan
erTad
(neirotoqsikozi), warmoadgens bavSvebSi gripis mZime formis dros,
letaluri gamosavlis yvelaze xSir mizezs, rogorc wesi, gripis
diagnostireba xdeba klinikuri gamovlinebebis mixedviT. aseve, aucilebelad
gasaTvaliswinebelia wlis sezoni da sazogadoebaSi gripis “afeTqebis”
arseboba.
infeqciis
adreul
etapze
da
gaurTulebel
SemTxvevaSi
gamokvlevebiT SesaZloa ar gamovlindes raime cvlileba. msubuqi formis
dros simptomebi SeiZleba sxva gaciebiTi infeqciebis msgavsi iyos. swored
amiT aixsneba, rom mraval paTologiur mdgomareobas SecdomiT gripad
ixsenieben. Tumca, arsebobs mTeli rigi mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi, romlebic
klinicistebs diferencialur diagnostikaSi exmareba:


daavadebis pirvel dRes leikocitozi neitrofiloziT
mogvianebiT leikopenia SedarebiTi limfocitoziT.
laboratoriuli sadiagnostiko meTodebidan
aRsaniSnavia:
•
eqspres diagnostikuri testebi yelidan nacxis gamoyobiT;
•
imunofermentuli analizis eqspres meTodi;
•
serologiuri meTodebi retrospeqtiuli diagnostikisTvis;
•
komplementis SekavSirebis reaqcia (CF). avlens gansxvavebas Santigenebs Soris da saSualebas iZleva gavigoT, virusis romelma tipma
gamoiwvia infeqcia (А Tu В).
•
hemaglutinaciis
Seferxebis
reaqcia
–
saSualebas
iZleva
ganvsazRvroT
sxvaoba
V-antigenebs
(zedapiruli
cilebi)
Soris
da
Sesabamisad, virusis qvetipi.
•
antigenis pirdapiri gansazRvra
virusis antigenis swrafi aRmoCenisaTvis.
–
specialuri
testi
gripis
profilaqtikis
ZiriTad
zomebs
miekuTvneba
vaqcinacia,
pasiuri
imunizacia antigripozuli imunoglobuliniT, vaqcianaciis Catareba unda
moxdes epidemiis dawyebamde 2 kviriT – 1 TviT adre, vinaidan gripisagan
imunuri dacva yalibdeba acridan 2 kviris ganmavlobaSi. rekomendirebulia
418
vaqcinaciis yovelwliuri Catareba, radganac Stamebi yovelwliurad icvleba.
amas garda, acris Sedegad SeZenili imuniteti 6 Tve grZeldeba. vaqcinaciis
efeqturoba
Seadgens
30-80%-s.
savaraudo
Stamebis
dadgena
vaqcinis
dasamzadeblad xdeba yoveli wlis TebervalSi, vinaidan vaqcinis damzadebas
6 Tve esaWiroeba. vaqcinaciis alternativas warmoadgens antigripozuli
imunoglobulinis ineqcia. Tu vaqcinaciis dros SeyavT gripis virusis
nawilakebi,
romlis
mimarTac
TviTon unda gamoimuSavos
imuniteti,
imunoglobulinTan erTad organizmSi xvdebian mza antisxeulebi. vinaidan
isini iSlebian ineqciidan 3 kviris ganmavlobaSi, maT Seyvanas epidemiis
dawyebamde azri ar aqvs da misi efeqti ver eyofa mTeli epidemiis periods.
amrigad, antigripozuli imunoglobulini kargia, rogorc profilaqtikis
eqspres-saSualeba.
aseve mniSvnelovania antivirusuli preparatebis roli aRniSnuli
daavadebebis samkurnalod, romlis idealuri portreti Semdegnairad
gamoiyureba:
gamoyenebis simartive;
•
swrafi da gamoxatuli efeqti;
•
garTulebebis Semcireba;
•
sikvdilianobis Semcireba;
•
moqmedebis farTo speqtri – efeqturoba yvela Stamis mimarT;
•
kargi amtanoba da usafrTxoeba.
aseTi tabletirebuli preparatebia – tamiflu
da releza ,,Roris
gripis virusi" H1N1 iSifreba rogorc hemaglutinini (H) tipi 1 neiraminidaza
(N) tipi1. H agebs pasuxs SeRwevadobazeN aqtivobaze. erTi meoris gareSe ver
moqmedebs.
mokvlevebiT dadginda ,rom es axali virusi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba
CrdiloeT amerikaSi RorebSi Cveulebriv mocirkulave virusisagan. - axali
virusis 2 geni aris im gripis virusidan,romelic cirlulirebs RorebSi
evropasa da aziaSi xolo danarCeni ki frinvelebsa da adamianebSi
mocirkulire gripis virusis genebia. - mecnierebi am viruss ,,oTxmagi
reasortaciis,, viruss uwodeben (Sedgeba 4 saxeobis virusis genisagan da ara
marto Roris genisagan).
cxovelebisa
da
adamianebis
gripis
virusebs
gaaCniaT
saerTo
evoluciuri wyaro. es frinvelis gripis virusia. frinveli iTvleba gripis
virusebis gadamtanad. rodesac gripiT inficirebuli frinveli daeSveba
wyalsatevebze, virusi mis fekaliebTan erTad xvdeba wyalSi da Semdeg is
Sinaur frinvelebSi vrceldeba. maTgan virusi gadaecema Rorebs da aq ukve
419
Cndeba saSiSroeba adamianisTvis. Roris organizmi cnobilia, rogorc
Sualeduri garemo, sadac SeiZleba moxdes ori virusis genebis - adamianis
gripis
virusisa
da
frinvelis
gripis
virusis
urTierTSeWra
da
urTierTgadanawileb-reasortaciis procesi. am yvelafris Sedegad Cndeba
axali qvetipi,mutanturi antigeni saSiSia im TvalsazrisiT, rom adamians mis
mimarT imuniteti ar gaaCnia. amitom Cndeba saSiSroeba, rom rogorc xanZari,
ise SeiZleba moedos es mutanturi gripi mTel msoflios da mosaxleoba
masobrivad dainficirdes.
axali Stami A (H1N1) yvelaze ufro kontagiozuri anu gadamdebi
aRmoCnda aqamde aRweril SemTxvevebs Soris. igi vrceldeba adamianidan
adamianze sezonuri gripis virusis msgavsad haer-wveTovani gziT: xvelebiT,
ceminebiT, dainficirebuli saganTan Senaxebi xelis pirTan an cxvirTan
kontaqtiT. xvelebisa da ceminebis dros virusis Semcveli wveTebi haerSi
vrceldeba da amgvarad SesaZlebelia moxdes sxva adamianis inficireba an
sxvadasxva sagnebisa da zedapirebis virusiT dabinZureba. garda amisa, sagnebi
inficirebulad SeiZleba CavTvaloT, Tu igi kotaqtSi iyo dasnebovnebulis
TvalTan, cxvirTan an pirTan. H1N1 virusiT gamowveuli sikvdilianobis
saerTo maCvenebeli msoflioSi 0,004 procentia maSin, roca Cveulebrivi
sezonuri gripis maCvenebeli gacilebiT maRalia da 7-8 procents aRwevs. H1N1
virusis mimarT jandacvis msoflio organizaciis gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
ganpirobebulia misi virulentobis maRali xarisxiT da axali mutaciis
warmoqmnis saSiSroebiT.
A(H1N1) ar vrceldeba sakvebiT, maT Soris, Roris xorciT an sxva
produqtiT momzadebuli sakvebidan, romelic Termulad aris damuSavebuli
(Semwvari an moxarSuli). virusi kvdeba 75-100 °C
temperaturaze.rogorc
kvlevebiT dadaginda adamianis daavadebis unars zedapirze moxvedrili
A(H1N1) gripis virusi narCunebs 2-8 saaTia ganmavlobaSi.
inficirebuli adamianidan A(H1N1) virusis infeqcia sxva adamianze
SeiZleba gavrceldes daavadebis simptomebis gamovlenamde wina dRes. es
niSnavs, rom adamianma SeiZleba arc ki icodes, rom daavadebulia da
infeqciis gamavrcelebeli iyos. infeqciis gadamdebia adamiani simptomebis
gamovlenidan 7 da meti dRis ganmavlobaSi. bavSvebi gadamdebi arian fro
xangrZlivi periodis manZilze.
Roris gripiT dainficirebis maRal risk-jgufebs warmoadgnen:
1.
orsuli qalebi. ufro meti saSiSroebaa dainficirebis, vidre
araorsulebSi.
2.
mcirewlovani bavSvebi 2 wlis asakis qvemoT.
3.
asTmianebi.
420
4.
adamianebi filtvis qronikuli daavadebebiT.
5.
adamianebi kardiovaskularuli daavadebebiT(mag:hipertonikebi)
6.
gvidzlis daavadebebi.
7.
adamianebi sisxlis qronikuli paTologiebis dros.
8.
nevrologiuri avadmyofobebi.
9.
diabetikebi (endokrinuli daavadebebi).
10.
imunodeficituri mdgomareobebi. (SidsiT inficirebulebi).
11.
sxva qronikuli daavadebebis foni.
12.
moxucebi – 65 wlis asakis zemoT
A(H1N1) gripis simptomebi adamianSi iseTivea, rogorc Cveulebrivi
adamianis gripis infeqciisa. daavadebis niSnebia: Tavis tkivili, sxeulSi
mtvrevis SegrZneba, kankali, sisvele cxvirSi, yelis tkivili, xvela, cxeleba,
organizmis dasusteba. zogierT pacientebSi vlindeba diarea da Rebineba.
daavadebis progresirebisa da mdgomareobis damZimebis SemTxvevaSi, yalibdeba
pnevmonia, sunTqvis ukmarisoba da sikvdili.senonuri gripis msgavsad, Roris
gripis virusul infeqciam SeiZleba gaauaresos manamde arsebuli qronikuli
daavadebis mimdinareoba.
•
antivirusuli Terapia: Roris gripis virusi A (H1N1) mgrZnobiarea
neiraminidaza
inhibitorebisadmi
(zanamiviri,
oseltamiviri).
mTavari
antivirusuli samkurnalo preparatebia: neiraminidazas zogadi inhibitorebi
tamiflu (oseltamiviri) da relenza (zanamaviri). antivirusuli Terapia
rekomendirebulia mxolod maRali riskis pacientebSi: orsulebi (relenza),
bavSvebi, 65 welze meti asakis adamianebi, qronikuli paTologiebiT
daavadebulebi, dadasturebuli H1N1 infeqciis mqone adamianebTan kontaqtSi
myofebi da sxva [1]
•
simptomuri Terapia.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1)
p.imnaZe,
x.forCxiZe,
o.fircxalaiSvili
mikrobilologia".
2)
g. gogiCiZe - "samedicino mikrobiologia"
3)
www.mediasphera.ru
421
-
"samedicino
Flu and H1N1 Viruses in the World
Salome Khachidze, Elene Lolua, Natia Kobliashvili
Resume
Flu – is hard disease. It is characterized with expressed toxic, damage lungs and breathing
organs. As the rule, flu starts hard. Its basic types are: A, A1, A2 and B.
The indicator of seasonal flu rate is rather higher and reaches 7-8 per cent. The World Health
Organization expresses great attention towards H1N1 virus in order not to establish new mutation.
«Изменение климата и человек»
Р. Бестаева, Г. Джалагония
Тбилисский Гуманитарный Университет
Студенты факультета здоровья
М. Мчедлидзе ассоц. Профессорб доктор биологии
Чтобы понять современное состояние климата необходимо учитывать ее изменчивость в
прежние века и изучать влияние всех геофизических явлений на биосферу, в том числе и на
организм человека.
Человеческий организм – сложная и высокосовершенная саморегулирующаяся система,
которая стремится к равновесию с окружающей средой, включающей в себя факторы
космического порядка. Всякое нарушение данного равновесия, связанное с изменением
внешних условий, вызывает соответствующую перестройку в деятельности человека.
В настоящее время человечество стоит на пороге экологического кризиса, т. е. такого
состояния среды обитания, которое вследствие произошедших в ней изменений оказывается
непригодным для жизни людей. Ожидаемый кризис по своему происхождению является
антропогенным, так как к нему ведут изменения в биосфере Земли, связанные с воздействием
на нее человека.
Атмосфера служит источником кислородного дыхания, вместилищем газообразных
продуктов обмена веществ, оказывает влияние на теплообмен и другие функции живых
организмов. Основное значение для жизнедеятельности организма имеют кислород и азот,
содержание которых в атмосферном воздухе соответственно равно 21 и 78%.
К настоящему времени накопилось много научных данных о том, что загрязненность
атмосферы, особенно в крупных городах, достигла опасных для здоровья людей размеров.
Известно немало случаев заболеваний и даже смерти жителей городов индустриальных центров
в результате выбросов токсичных веществ промышленными предприятиями и транспортом при
определенных метеорологических условиях.
Особенно губительно действует на человека загрязнение атмосферы в тех случаях, когда
метеорологические условия способствуют застою воздуха над городом. Содержащиеся в
422
атмосфере вредные вещества воздействуют на человеческий организм при контакте с
поверхностью кожи или слизистыми оболочками. Наряду с органами дыхания загрязнители
поражают органы зрения и обоняния, а, воздействуя на слизистую оболочку гортани, могут
вызывать спазмы голосовых связок. Вдыхаемые твердые и жидкие частицы размерами 0,6 – 1,0
мкм достигают альвеол и абсорбируются в крови, некоторые накапливаются в лимфатических
узлах.
Загрязненный воздух раздражает большей частью дыхательные пути, вызывая бронхит,
эмфизему, астму. К раздражителям, вызывающим эти болезни, относятся сернистый (SO2) и
серный (SO3) ангидриды, окислы азота, хлороводород (HCl), сероводород (H2S), фосфор и его
соединения.
Признаки и последствия действий загрязнителей воздуха на организм человека
проявляются большей частью в ухудшении общего состояния здоровья: появляются головные
боли, тошнота, чувство слабости, снижается или теряется трудоспособность. Отдельные
загрязняющие вещества вызывают специфические симптомы отравления. Например,
хроническое отравление фосфором сопровождается болями в желудочно-кишечном тракте и
пожелтением кожного покрова. Эти симптомы сопряжены с потерей аппетита и замедлением
обмена веществ. В дальнейшем отравление фосфором приводит к деформации костей, которые
становятся все более хрупкими. Снижается сопротивляемость организма в целом.
Находящиеся в атмосфере и выпадающие вредные вещества поражают и животных. Они
накапливаются в тканях животных и могут стать источником отравлений, если мясо этих
животных используется в качестве пищевых продуктов.
Взглянув на современную техносферу можно прийти в отчаяние. Всего лишь за
последние 100 лет люди создали чудовищно огромные стада механических «лошадей» и
«птиц», обладающих колоссальными мощью и скоростью, но людям и природе Земли от этого
не благо, а беда. Средства массовой пропаганды запугивают телетолпу внешними
материальными природными катастрофами. А в действительности происходит грандиозная и
трагическая внутренняя техногенная катастрофа современной цивилизации. Деградирует
духовный мир человека. И этот распад пострашнее и реальнее ядерной войны.
Кризис современной буржуазной цивилизации определяется тем, что она ориентируется
на поощрение пороков, низменных чувств и устремлений, максимальное потребление
материальных ценностей. Это преодолеть можно, но только трудно представить, что все
произойдет само собой и на людей снизойдет озарение. Слишком прочна механическая
структура техносферы, превращающей человека в свого раба, у которого не должно быть
духовной свободы. Если во Вселенной господствует мертвая материя, если биосфера не
обладает свойствами жизни и разума, то существование не только личности, но и всего рода
человеческого не имеет ровно никакого смысла. Тогда мы, и все живые организмы – продукты
случайных комбинаций атомов, а гармония природы – иллюзия, ибо является последствием
большого взрыва чего-то, лопнувшего как мыльный пуз