Document 8601

Cardiology Chapter 5 239
Word or Phrase
hyperlipidemia
(continuedt
Word Part
and Definition
Description
hypercholesterolemia
(Hv-per-koh-LES-ter-awl-EEmee-afi)
hyper- above;more than
normal
chofesterol/o- cholestero
I
-emia conditionof the blood,
substancein the blood
hypertriglyceridemia
(HY-pertry-G
LIS-er-i
h-DEEmee-an)
hyper- above,more than
normal
trigf ycerid/o- triglyceride
-emia conditionof the
blood; substancein the blood
hypertension
(HTN)
hypertension(Hv-per-TEN-sh
un)
hyper- above;more than
normal
tens/o- pressure,tension
-ion action; condition
prehypertension
/ n r a a - l - . l V - n a r - T F N l - < hr rn \
\ F ' ! !
'
'
pre- before; in front of
hyper- above;more than
normal
tens/o- pressure,tension
-ion action; condition
Elevated
Normalbloodpressure
readings
in an adultare
bloodpressure.
lessthan 120/80mm Hg.Thosebetween120/80mm Hg and 140/90
mm Hg arecategorized
above
as prehypertension.Bloodpressures
140/90mm Hg arecategorized
as hypertension,
and the patientis said
to be hypertensive.Several
readings,
not just one,are
bloodpressure
neededto makea diagnosis.
Essential
hypertension,
the mostcommon
is one in whichthe exactcauseis not known.
typeof hypertension,
Secondary
hypertension
hasa knowncause,likekidneydisease,
Treatment:
exercise,
Lifestyle
changes(decreased
saltintake,increased
weightloss)followedby antihypertensive
drugs.
just
readings
bloodpressure
i Somepeoplehaveincreased
Thisis
'
because
they
are
nervous
from
being
in
a
doctor's
office.
hypertensive(Hv-per-TEN-siv)
known
hypertension.
This
is
not
true
hypertenas
white-coat
a
hyper- above;more than
sionbecause
assoonastheyleavethe doctor'soffice,their
normal
pressure
returnsto normal.
blood
tens/o- pressure,tension
-ive pertaining to
hypotension
hypotension(ttv-poh-TEN-shu
n)
hypo- below, deficient
tens/o- pressure,tension
-ion action; condition
Bloodpressure
lowerthan 90/60mm Hg, usuallybecause
of a lossof
is saidto be hypotensive.
bloodvolume.A patientwith hypotension
but self-correcting
Orthostatichypotensionis the sudden,temporary,
decrease
in systolic
bloodpressure
that occurswhen the patientchanges
position
f r o m a l y i n gt o a s t a n d i n g
a n de x p e r i e n c lei g
s htheadedness.
hypotensive(ttv-poh-TEN-siv) Treatment:
cause.
Correctthe underlvino
hypo- below; deficient
tens/o- pressure,
tension
-ive pertaining to
orthostatic(oR-thoh-STAT-ik)
orth/o- straight
stat/o- standingstill,staying
in one place
-ic pertaining to
Orthostaticrefersto standing
up straight.
240 ; Chapter 5 i Cardiology
peripheralartery
disease(PAD)
peripheral(peh-RlF-eh-ral)
peripher/o- outer aspects
-al pertaining to
perfusion (per-FYOO-zhun)
per- through, throughout
fuslo- pouring
-ion action; condition
Arteriosclerosis
of the arteriesof the legs.Bloodflow (perfusion)to
is
the extremities poo; and there is ischemiaof the tissues.While walkpainin the calf(intermittent
claudication).
ing,the patientexperiences
and may
feet
and
toes
remain
cool
and
cyanotic
In severePAD,the
drugs.
the
tissues
die.
Treatment:
Lipid-lowering
becomenecrotic as
5urgery:Angioplasty.
claudication
(rLaw-dih-KAY-shun)
cfaudicat/o- limping pain
-ion action; condition
necrotic (neh-KRAWI-|
k)
necrlo- death
-tic pertaining to
p"ripf,"r"f 1p.f,-nf
f -.f,-rat1
peripher/o-outeraspects
peripheral
lt includes
Anydisease
of theextremities.
of thearteries
disease.
arterydisease
aswellasRaynaud's
-al pertaining to
phlebitis
phleb/o- vern
-itis inflammation
of
thrombophlebitis
(rHnnwv-boh-fIeh-BY-tis)
thromb/o- thrombusblood
clot)
phleb/o- vern
-itis meansinflammation
of
Raynaud's
disease
Thearea
accompanied
byinfection.
Inflammation
of a vein,usually
that
andtheskinmayshowa redstreak
aroundtheveinispainful,
inflammation
canpartially
followsthe courseof thevein.A severe
is
occlude
the veinandslowtheflow of blood.Thrombophlebitis
(bloodclot).Treatment:
phlebitis
with theformationof a thrombus
drugsfor inflammation.
Analgesic
drugsfor pain,anti-inflammatory
a clot,
Thrombolytic
drugsto dissolve
Antibiotic
drugs,if needed.
Raynaud(ray-NO)
Raynaudt
disease
wasnamed
(1834by Maurice
Raynaud
physician.This
1881),
a French
isan example
of an eponym:
a person
fromwhomsomething
takesits name.
in the
ilJ;;, se *
andspasmof thearterioles
".t"."rr,r'ction
by coldor emotional
upset.They
fingersandtoes,
oftentriggered
or hoursuntilthe
become
whiteor cyanotic
andnumbfor minutes
Treatment:
Vasodilator
drugs.
attackpasses.
Canleadto necrosis.
varicose (VAR-ih-kohs)
varic/o- varix;varicosevein
-ose fullof
valves
in a veinthatletbloodflowbackward
Damaged
or incompetent
theveinbecomes
in thepreceding
section
of vein.Eventually
andcollect
of theskin
andbulgingunderthesurface
engorged
with blood,twisting
(seeFigures
injury
veinscanbe caused
by phlebitis,
5-241).Varicose
require
periods
that
with
the
legs
crossed,
or
occupations
long
of sitting
pressure
fromtheenlarging
Also,duringpregnancy,
constant
standing.
andcauses
the
uterusrestricts
theflow of bloodin the lowerextremities
varicose
veins.
to develop
legveinsto dilate.Thereisa familytendency
painandaching;
andleaden.
the legsfeelheavy
include
Symptoms
Cardiology Chapter5 241
Word Part
and Definition
Word or Phrase
Description
Treatment:
Destruction
of theveinby injecting
or
a sclerosing
solution
foamto harden
it. Laser
andocclude
or radiowaves
to destroy
thevein.
Figure 5-24 J Severe
varicose veins in the leg.
Superficial
varicose
veinsareunsightly
andeasily
injured
because
they
orotrude.
Patients
oftenhavevaricose
veinstreatedto achieve
an improved
cosmetic
appearance,
buttreatment
alsohelosdecrease
thechance
of
injuryandthrombophlebitis
(Chapter3). Varicose
Gastroenterology
veinsof the esophagusand stomachareknownasesophageal
and gastricvarices.
Varicose
veinsof the rectumareknownas hemorrhoids.
i* il-r11
r;5ct,cl5 ir ,:
Word or Phrase
cardiacenzymes
C-reactiveprotein
,CRP)
Word Part
and Definition
Desciption
enzyme (EN-zime)
Thesuffix-aseindicates
an
enzyme.
Bloodtestto measure
that are released
into the
the levelsof enzymes
bloodwhen myocardial
cellsdie.Creatinekinase(CK)is found in
s k e l e t aml u s c l e
c e l l sb, u t a s p e c i f ifco r m o f i t ( C K - M Bi)sf o u n d
e x c l u s i v ei n
l ym y o c a r d icael l l sT, h eC K - M Bl e v ebl e g i n st o r i s e2 - 6 h o u r s
creatinephosphokinase
aftera myocardial
infarction.
Alsoknownas creatinephosphokinase
(KREE-ah-teen
(CPK).Lactatedehydrogenase(LDH)is found in manydifferentcells,
rnws-foh-KY-nays)
i n c l u d i ntgh e h e a r t T
. h eL D Hl e v e bl e g i n st o r i s e1 2 h o u r sa f t e ra
myocardial
infarction.
An elevatedLDHcan supportthe CK-MBresults
lactatedehydrogenase
butcannob
t e t h e s o l eb a s i so f d i a g n o s i nagm y o c a r d i ianl f a r c t i o n .
(LAK-taytdee-HY-d
days.
roh-jen-ase) Cardiacenzymes
are measured
everyfew hoursfor several
Bloodtestto measure
in the body.
the levelof inflammation
(like
I n f l a m m a t i of rno ms i t e so t h e rt h a nt h e c a r d i o v a s c usl a
y sr t e m
i n f l a m m a t i oonf t h e g u m so r c h r o n i cu r i n a r yt r a c ti n f e c t i o n cs a
) np r o d u c ei n f l a m m a t i oonf t h e w a l l so f t h e b l o o dv e s s e lT
s .h i sc a nl e a dt o
b l o o dc l o tf o r m a t i o na n d a m y o c a r d i ianl f a r c t i o n .
242 Chapter 5 Cardiology
Word Part
Word or Phrase and Definition
Description
lipid profile
lipid(LlP-id)
lip/o- lipid (fat)
-id resembling
Bloodtestthat provides
u .orpr"t''t"nrivepictureof the levelsof
cholesterol
and triglycerides
and their lipoprotein
carriers
in the blood:
HDL,LDL,and VLDL.
troponin
troponin (troh-POH-n
in)
Bloodtestto measure
the levelof two proteinsthat are reieased
into the
bloodwhen myocardial
cellsdie.TroponinI and troponinT areonly
found in the myocardium.
Thetroponinlevelsbeginto rise4-6 hours
aftera myocardial
infarction.
More importantly,
they remainelevated
for
up to 10 days,so theycan be usedto diagnose
a myocardial
infarction
manydaysafterit occurred.
Troponinlevelsaredonein conjunction
with
C K - M Ba n d L D Hl e v e l s .
cardiac
catheterization
catheterization
: Diagnostic
procedure
performedto evaluatethe rightor left sideof the
(KATH-e
h-ter-ih-ZAY-sh
un)
i heart.Fora right heartcatheterization,
a catheteris insertedinto the
'
catheter/o- catheter
femoralor brachialveinand threadedto the rightatrrum.Thecatheter
-ization process
of making,
is usedto recordrightheartpressures.
Thena radiopaque
contrastdye
creating, or inserting
is injectedthroughthe catheterto outlinethe chambers
of the heart.A
Catheteris derivedfrom a Greek
right heartcatheterization
is usedto diagnose
congenital
heartdefects.
word meaninqto senddown.
Fora left heartcatheterization,
a catheteris insertedinto the femoralor
brachialarteryand threadedto the left atrium.Thenradiopaque
contrastdye is injectedto outlinethe coronaryarteries
and show narrowor
blockedareas.lf blockages
of the coronaryarteries
are present,an
angioplasty
may be performedat that time.
electrocardiography
(ECG,
EKG)
electrocardiography
(ee-LEK-troh-KAR-deeAWG-rah-fee)
efectr/o- electricity
cardilo- heart
-graphy processof recording
procedure
Diagnostic
that recordsthe electrical
activityof the heart
duringcontractions
and rest(seeFigure5-25I). Electrodes
(metalpieces
in adhesive
patches)
areplacedon the limbs(botharmsand one leg)to
recordthe electrical
impulses
of the heartto the EKGmachine.These
arethe threelimb leads(leadsI throughlll).Electrodes
placedon the
chestare knownas the precordial
leads(V1throughVJ. A 12-leadEKG
records12 differentleadsthat showthe electrical
activitybetween
electrocardiogram
differentcombinations
of electrodes
pictureof the
to givean electrical
(ee-Le<-troh-KAR-dee-oh-gram)
heartfrom 12 differentangles.Samples
of eachof thesel2 tracrngs
are
efectr/o- electricity
mountedon a backing.A longersampleof just the leadll tracingis
cardilo- heart
knownas a rhvthmstrip.
-gram a record or picture
(continued)
Figure5-251
Electrocardiography.
patches
Electrode
attached
to wire
leads
areplaced
onthebodyto pick
uptheelectrical
impulses
ofthe
heartfrommanydifferent
angles.
Interpretation
of anEKG
involves
determining
theheartrate,theheart
rhythm,
andidentifying
abnormalities
intheshape
pattern.
of theelectrical
Cardiology Chapter 5 243
Word or Phrase
Word Part
and Definition
Description
electrocardiography
l rnnfinnor{t
Theelectrical
imagegenerated
by the contraction
and relaxation
pattern(seeFigure5-26f). The
of the hearthasa characteristic
Pwavecorresponds
to depolarization
of the SA nodeand both
atria.TheQRScomplexcorresponds
to depolarization
of the
TheT wavecorresponds
septumand bothventricles.
to repolarizationof the ventricles.
Therepolarization
of the atriais hidden
by the QRScomplex.
Septal
Ventricular
depolarization
o
wave\
QRS
comprex
S-T
segmenr
Figure 5-25 f An EKGtracing.
Pwave,
andT
Each
heartcontraction
hasa characteristic
complex,
QRS
WAVE.
TheK in the abbreviation
EKGcomesfromthe Greekword
kardia heart\.
2rt4, Chapter5, Cardiology
I
Word Part
I
Word or Phraie ii and'Definition
electrophysiologic
study (EPS)
electrophysiologic
(ee-LE
K-troh-Frz-ee-oh-LAW-j
ik)
efectr/o- electricity
physi/o- physicalfunction
loglo- the study of
-ic pertaining to
Holtermonitor
telemetry
Description
procedure
Diagnostic
to mapthe heart'sconduction
systemin patients
with arrhythmias.
Whilean EKGis performed,
catheters
are insertedinto
the femoralveinand the subclavian
vein.X-raysare usedto guidethe
cathetersto the heart.The catheterssendout electricalimoulsesto
stimulatethe heartand try to inducean arrhythmia
to pinpointwhere
the arrhythmias
areoriginating
from in the heart.
procedure
Diagnostic
Orring;hi.f' tfre patientSheartrateand rhythm
arecontinuously
monitoredas an outpatienllor24 hours.The patient
wearselectrodes
attachedto a small,portableEKGmonitor(carriedin a
vestor placedin a pocket).The patientalso keepsa diaryof activities.
meals,and symptoms.
Thisprocedure
is usedto documentinfrequently
occurringarrhythmias
and to linkthem to activities
or symptomssuchas
chesp
t ain.
telemetry(teh-LEM-eh-tree)
tefe/o- distance
-metry the process
of
measuring
cardiacexercise
stresstest
pharmacologic
-ik)
(rnn-mah-koh-LAWJ
pharmac/o-medicine,
drug
loglo- word;thestudyof
-ic pertainingto
Diagnosticprocedureto monitora patientbheartrate and rhythmin the
hospital.
The patientwearselectrodes
that continuously
transmitthe
EKGtracingto a centralmonitoringstation,usuallyin the coronarycare
careunit,
.u!!lgr intensive
procedure
performed
Diagnostic
to evaluate
theheart's
response
to
exercise
in patientswith chestpain,palpitations,
or arrhythmias.
The
patientwalkson a motorizedtreadmill(treadmill exercisestresstest)
or ridesa stationarybicyclewhile an EKGis performed.The speedof the
treadmilland the steepness
of its incline(or the resistance
of the bicycle)
aregradually
increased
whilethe patient'sheartrate,bloodpressure,
and EKGare monitored.The procedureis stoppedif the patientcomplainsof angina,palpitations,
shortness
of breath,or tiredness,
or if the v
EKGpatternbecomesabnormal.The patient'srestingheartrateand
maximumheartratearecomparedto standards
for otherpeopleof the
sameageand sex.Any abnormalities
in the EKGpatternareanalyzed.
A pharmacologicstresstest is performedin patientswho cannotexercisevigorously.
A vasodilator
drug likeadenosine
or dipyridamole
(Persantine)
is givento causenormalcoronaryarteriesto dilate.
Occludedarteriescannotdilate,and thisstresses
the heartin a way that
is similarto exercise
and provokes
angina.
Cardiology i Chapter 5 i 245
angiography
angiography
(AN-jee-AWG-rah-fee)
angi/o- bloodvessel;
lymph
vessel
-graphy processof recording
procedure
Radiologic
in whichradiopaque
contrastdye is injectedinto a
bloodvessel
fill
it.
In
to
and outline
arteriography,it is injectedinto
(seeFigure
an arteryand showsblockage,
narrowedareas,or aneurysms
5-21).ln venography,it is injectedinto a veinand showsweakened
valvesand dilatedwalls.Thex-rayimageis knownas an angiogram,or
specifically
as an arteriogramor venogram.
arteriography
In coronaryangiography,
a catheteris insertedinto the femoral
(ar-TEE
R-ee-AWG-ra
h-fee)
arteryand threadedto the aorta.The radiopaque
contrastdye outlines
arterilo- artery
the coronaryarteries
and showsnarrowing,stenosis,
or blockage.
The
-graphy processof recording x-rayis knownas a coronaryangiogram.
In rotationalangiography,
multiplex-raysaretakenas the x-rayarm
venography(vee-NAWG-rah-fee)
movesaroundthe patient.Thistechniqueis particularly
helpfulin
venlo- vein
documenting
tortuousbloodvessels
in threedimensions.
-graphy processof recording
(DSA)combines
Digitalsubtraction
angiography
two x-rayimages.
Thefirstis takenwithout radiopaque
The
contrastdye.
secondimageis
angiogram(AN-jee-oh-gram) takenafterradiopaque
contrastdye hasbeeninjectedto outlinethe
angi/o- bloodvessel;
lymph
bloodvessel.
A computerthen compares
the imagesand digitally
yesse/
"subtracts"or removes
the soft tissues,
bones,and muscles,
leavingjust
-gram a recordor picture
the imaqeof the arteries,
arteriogram
(ar-TEER-ee-oh-gram)
arlerilo- artery
-gram a recordor picture
venogram(VEE-noh-gram)
venlo- vein
-gram a recordor picture
aortography
aortography
(ea-or-TAWG-rah-fee)
aortlo- aorta
-graphy process
of
recording
aortogram(aa-OR-toh-gram)
aortlo- aorta
-gram a recordor picture
procedure
Radiologic
in whichan radiopaque
contrast
dyeisusedto
outlinetheaortato lookfor stenosis
or an aorticaneurysm.
Thex-rav
imageisknownasan aortogram,
246 Chapter 5 Cardiology
i word P;i
Word or Phrase
myocardial
perfusionscan
and Definition
Description
perfusion(per-FYOO-zhun)
per- through
fuslo- pouring
-ion action; condition
Nuclearmedicineorocedure
that combinesa cardiacexercise
stresstest
with intravenous
injections
of a radioactive
tracer.In a thallium stress
test, thallium-201
is usedasthe radioactive
traceror thallium-20'1
and
technetium-99m
can be used.Technetium-99m
isjoinedto a synthetic
molecule(sestamibi).
Thecombination
of technetium-99m
with
sestamibi
is knownas Cardiolite,
so thistest is alsoknownas a
Cardiolite
stresstest.The radioactive
tracerscollectin thosepartsof the
myocardium
that havethe bestperfusion(bloodflow).A gamma
camerarecordsgammaraysemittedby the radioactive
tracersand
createsa two-dimensional
imageof the heart.Areasof decreased
uptake("coldspots")on the imageindicatepoorperfusion
from a
blockedcoronaryartery.Thearterymustbe about70% blockedbefore
anyabnormality
is evidenton the image.Areasof no uptakeindicate
deadtissuefrom a previousmyocardial
infarction.
thallium (THAL-ee-um)
multiple-gated
acquisition
(MUGA) scan
Nuclearmedicineprocedure
that usesthe radioactive
tracertechnetium99m. Firstpyrophosphate
is injectedintravenously
to preparethe
patient'sred bloodcellsto bindwith technetium-99m.
Thentechnetium99m is injected.
A gammacamerarecordsgammaraysemittedby a
radioactive
tracerthat is boundto red bloodcells.Thecamerais coordinated(gated)with the patientsEKGso that imagesof the heartchambersaretakenat varioustimesduringthe cardiaccycle.A MUGAscan
alsocalculates
the ejectionfraction(how muchbloodthe ventriclecan
Theejectionfractionis the mostaccurate
e1ectwith one contraction).
indicatorof overallheartfunction.Thisorocedure
is alsoknownas a
radionuclideveniriculography(RNV)or gated blood pool
ventriculography
scan,
(ven-TRIK-yoo-LAWG-rah-fee)
ventricul/o- ventricle
-graphy processof recording
single-photon
emission
computed
tomography
(SPECT)
scan
tomography
(toh-MAWG-rah-fee)
tom/o- a cut, slice,or layer
-graphy processof recording
A photonis anothernamefor
a gammaray.
radionuclide
(RAY-dee-oh-NOO-klide)
radi/o- radius(forearmbone);
x-rays, radiation
nucfe/o- nucleus(of an atom)
-ide chemicallymodified
A radionuclide
is a substance
whosenucleushasbeen
c h e m i c a lm
l yo d i f i e dt o m a k ei t
radioactive.
D u r i n ga m y o c a r d i p
ae
l r f u s i osnc a no r a M U G As c a nt,h e g a m m a
positionabovethe patientS
camerais normallykept in a stationary
chest.However,
if the gammacamerais movedin a circlearoundthe
patient,then this becomes
a SPECT
scan.Thecomputercreatesmany
) dc o m p i l etsh e m i n t oa
i n d i v i d u ai m
l ageo
s r " s l i c e s("t o m o g r a p hay n
three-dimensional
imageof the heart.
Cardiolocrv Chapter 5 247
woiJ p"rt
Word or Phrase a n d D e f i n i t i o n
echocardiography
echocardiography
(EK-oh-KAR-dee-AWG-ra
h-fee)
ech/o- echo (soundwave)
cardilo- heart
-graphy processof recording
Description
procedure
Radiologic
that usesa transducer
to produceultrahighfrequency
soundwaves(ultrasound)
that are bouncedoff the heartto
createan image.Two-dimensionalechocardiography(2-Decho)
createsa real-timepictureof the heartand its chambers
and valvesas it
contracts
Theimageis knownas an echocardiogram(see
and relaxes.
F i q u r e5 - 2 7 1 ) .
echocardiogram
(EK-oh-KAR-dee-oh-gra
m)
ech/o- echo (soundwave)
cardilo- heart
-gram a recordor picture
Figure 5-27 a An echocardiogram.
Thisphotowastakenasa two-dimensional
produced
echocardiography
real-time,
movingimages
of the hearton thedisplayscreen.
An echocardiogram
usessoundwavesto createimaoes.
transesophageal
(TRANS-ee-SAWr-ahl
EE-al)
trans- acrost through
esophag/o- esophagus
-eal pertaining to
ultrasonography
(ur-trah-soh-NAWG-rah-fee)
ultra- beyond; higher
son/o- sound
-graphy processof recording
duplex (DOO-pleks)
Doppler (DAWP-ler)
A transesophagealechocardiogram(TEE)maybe orderedwhen a
r o d u c eas p o o rq u a l i t yi m a g eF
s t a n d a redc h o c a r d i o g r apm
. o ra T E Et,h e
p a t i e nst w a l l o was n e n d o s c o ptiuc b et h a t c o n t a i nas t i n ys o u n d - e m i t t i n g
t r a n s d u c eTrh. i si s p o s i t i o n eidn t h e e s o p h a g udsi r e c t l b
y e h i n dt h e h e a r t .
Color flow duplex ultrasonographycombines
a two-dimensional
u l t r a s o u nidm a g ew i t h a n o t h e irm a g eg e n e r a t ebdy D o p p l eur l t r a sonography
that color-codes
imagesaccording
to theirvelocityand
d i r e c t i o nT.h ei m a g es h o w st u r b u l e n caen dv a r i a t i oinn v e l o c i t by y d i f f e r e n t d e g r e eosf b r i g h t n e sTs h
. i st e s ti st h e " g o l ds t a n d a r df"o r e v a l u a t i n g
tortuousvaricose
veins.
Doppler ultrasonographyimagesthe flow of bloodin the arteries.
The reflected
soundwavesvarydependingon how fastthe bloodis
t r a v e l i n ign a n a r t e r yo r v e i n .T h ei m a g ec a na l s os h o wb l o c k a g eosr
clotsin the vessel.
Dopplertechnologyis alsousedin automaticblood
pressure
machines,
in hand-helddevices
that givethe heartrateif
placedon the skinoveran artery,and in fetal monitorsthat,when
placedon the mother'sabdomen,givethe heartrateof the fetus.
248 Chapter 5 Cardiology
lVtredical
andSursical
Procedures
Word Part
Word or Phrase and Definition
Description
auscultation
auscultation(nws-kul-TAY-sh
un) Medicalprocedurethat usesa stethoscopeto listento the heartsounds
auscult/olistening
and detectmurmursand otherabnormalsounds.
-ation a process;being or
having
stethoscope(STETH-oh-skohp)
steth/o- chest
-scope instrumentused to
examlne
cardioversion
cardioversion
(KAR-dee-oh-VER-zh
un)
cardilo- heart
vers/o- to turn; to travel
-ion action; condition
(ventricular
Medicalprocedure
to treata life-threatening
arrhythmia
fibrillation)
and restorethe heartto normalsinusrhythm.A
(seeFigure5-28I).
defibrillator is the deviceusedfor the procedure
Two large,handheldpaddlesareplacedon eithersideof the patient's
generates
chestwhilethe defibrillator
an electrical
shockto overridethe
arrhythmia
or to stimulatea nonbeatingheartaftera cardiacarrest.
(AICD)is a small
defibrillator (dee-FlB-rih-lay-ter) An automaticimplantable
cardioverter/defibrillator
de- reversalof; without
devicethat is implantedin a patientwho is at highriskfor developing
a
fibrif f/o- musclefiber,nerve
seriousarrhythmia.
TheAICDis implantedunderthe skinof the chest.lt
fiber
hasleads(wires)that go to the heart,senseits rhythm,and deliveran
-ator person or thing that
(AED)is a
electrical
shock,if needed.An automaticexternaldefibrillator
portablecomputerized
does or produces
devrcerepr on emergency
response
vehicles
and in publicplaceslikeairports.lt analyzes
the patientsheartrhythm
and delivers
an electrical
shockto stimulatea heartin cardiacarrest.An
persons.
AEDis designed
to be usedby nonmedical
Figure 5-28 f Cardioversion.
paddles
Ihisphysician
isaboutto applydefibrillator
to
thepatient's
chest
to convert
a life-threatening
anhythmia.
Emergency
departmentl
operating
rooml
andintensive
careunitsareallequipped
with
defibrillators
thatcanbebrought
to thepatient's
bedside.
Cardiology Chapter5 249
W;o P;ft
Word or Phrase and Definition
radiofrequency
catheterablation
Description
ablation (ah-BLAY-shun)
ablat/o- take away; destroy
-ion action; condition
Medicalprocedure
to destroyectopicareasin the heartthat areemitting
electrical
impulses
and producingarrhythmias.
A catheteris insertedinto
the heart.Electromagnetic
energyproducedby a generatorproduces
enoughheatat the siteto killthe cellscausingthe arrhythmia.
Radiofrequencycatheter occlusion usesheatto collapseand seal
veins.
largevaricose
occlusion(oh-KLOO-zhun)
occfus/o- closeagainst
-ion action,'condition
sclerotherapy
sclerotherapy
(SKLER-oh-THAIR-ah-pee)
scfer/o- hard; sclera(whiteof
the eye)
-therapy treatment
vital signs
Medicalprocedure
in whicha sclerosing
drug (liquidor foam)is injected
i n t oa v a r i c o svee i n .T h ed r u gc a u s eisr r i t a t i oann d i n f l a m m a t i ot h
nat
laterhardensas fibrosisthat occludes
the vein.
Medicalprocedure
duringa physical
examination
to measure
the
(TPR)
pulse,and respirations
temperature,
aswell as the bloodpressure.
The heartrateis measured
by countingthe pulse.The pulsecan be
felt in several
differentpartsof the body(seeFigure5-29I). Pulse
pointsincludethe carotidpulsein the neck,apicalpulseon the
anteriorchest,axillarypulsein the armpit,brachialpulseat the inner
elbow,radialpulseat the wrist,femoralpulsein the inguinalarea
(groin),poplitealpulseat the backof the knee,the posterior
tibialpulse
a t t h e b a c ko f t h e l o w e rl e g ,a n dt h e d o r s a l ipse d i sp u l s eo n t h e d o r s u m
of the foot. The radial pulse in the wristis the mostcommonlyused
site.In an emergency,
the carotidpulsecan be felt (seeFigure5-30I),
particularly
if the patientis in shockand littlebloodis flowingto the
(continued
Carotidoulse
Axillarypulse
Apicalpulse
Brachialpulse
Femoralpulse
Radialpulse
Poplitealpulse
Posteriortibial pulse
Dorsalispedis pulse
Figure 5-29 f Pulse points.
pointiswhere
A pulse
a pulse
canbefeltonthesurface
ofthebodywhentheheartcontracts
andsends
blood
points
through
Pulse
arefeltto determine
the
theartery.
heartrate.
250 Chapter 5 Cardiology
Word Part
Word or Phrase and Definition
Description
vital signs
(continued)
Figure 5-30 f The carotid pulse.
Thepulseof thecarotidarterycanbeeasilyfelt in the
neck.Emergency
medical
technicians
usethissiteto
quicklyassess
a patient's
heartbeat.
extremities.
Theapical pulse (at the apexof the heart)can be heard
with a stethoscooe
and is alsousedto evaluate
the heartsounds.The
presence
vascular
disease
can be determined
by comparof peripheral
ing the strengthof the pulsein the rightlegto the samepulseon the
left.
is measured
with a sphygmomanometerand a
sphygmomanometer
Thebloodpressure
(SrtG-moh-mah-NAWM-eh-ter)stethoscope.
Thesphygmomanometer
consists
of a thin, inflatable
cuff
sphygm/o- pulse
that wrapsaroundthe arm (or leg),a handbulbthat is pumpedto
manlo- thin
increase
in the cuff, a regulating
valvethat is openedto
the pressure
-meter instrumentusedto
gaugethat is
release
from the cuff,and a calibrated
the pressure
(see
measure
cuffscome
usedto readthe pressure Figure5-311). Bloodpressure
Add wordsto makea correct
in several
verythin to verylargearms.
differentsizesto accommodate
Thereareevenbloodpressure
and completedefinitionof
cuffsfor newbornand prematureinfants.
phyg
pressure
momanom eter: in strument
Thecorrectsizeblood
s
cuff mustbe usedor the bloodpressure
pressure
is placedat
used to measure[the
readingwill be eithertoo highor too low.Thestethoscope
pulse
in the
of thel
the innerelbowoverthe brachialoulse.As oressure
increases
[by using a] thin
When
is decreased.
cuff, it cutsoff the flow of blood.Thecuff pressure
Iinflatablecuff].
the cuff pressure
is lowerthanthe pressure
in the artery,the blood
spurtsthroughand creates
the firstsound.Thisis the systolicpressure,
(continued)
Calibrated
pressure
gauge
Inflatablecuff
Brachialartery
Stethoscooe
Regulating
valve
Hand bulb
Figure 5-31 I Measuring
the blood pressure.
A sphygmomanometer
anda
the
stethoscooe
areusedto measure
bloodpressure.
Cardiology Chapter5 251
Word Part
Word or Phrase and Definition
rital signs
(continued)
Description
the top numberin a bloodpressure
reading.Whencuff pressure
reaches
the restingpressure
in the artery,this is the diastolicpressure.A blood
pressure
measurement
pressure
is recorded
as two numbers.the systolic
overthe diastolicpressure.
Bloodpressure
is measured
in millimeters
of
mercury(mm Hg).
aneurysmectomy
aneurysmectomy
(aru-yoo-riz-M
EK-toh-mee)
aneurysm/o- aneurysm
(dilatation)
-ectomy surgicalexcision
procedure
Surgical
to removean aneurysm
and repairthe defectin the
arterywall.lf a dissecting
aneurysm
rnvolves
a largesegmentof artery,a
flexible,tubularsynthetic
araft is usedto replacethat segment.
cardiopulmonary
bypass
cardiopulmonary
(KAR-dee-oh-PU
L-moh-na
ir-ee)
cardilo- heart
pulmon/o- /ung
-ary pertaining to
Technique
usedduringopen-heart
surgeryin whichthe patient'sbloodis
r e r o u t e tdh r o u g ha c a n n u l ai n t h e f e m o r avl e i nt o a h e a r t - l u nm
g achine.
There,the bloodis oxygenated,
carbondioxideand wasteproductsare
removed,and the bloodis pumpedbackinto the bodyviaa cannulain
the femoralartery.Cardiopulmonary
bypasstakesoverthe functionsof
the heartand lungsduringthe surgery.
carotid
endarterectomy
endarterectomy
(END-a
rter-EK-toh-mee)
endo- innermost,within
arterlo- artery
-ectomy surgicalexcision
procedure
Surgical
to removeplaquefrom an occludedcarotidartery.
Usedto treatcarotidstenosis
due to atherosclerosis.
_ )ronaryartery
bypassgraft
(cABG)
anastomosis
(ah-NAS-toh-MoH-sis)
anastom/o- unite two
tubular structures
-osis condition; abnormal
condition;process
procedure
Surgical
to bypass
an occludedcoronaryarteryand restore
bloodflow to the myocardium.
A bloodvessel(eitherthe saphenous
veinfrom the leg or the internalmammaryarteryfrom the chest)ls used
as the bypassgraft.lf the saphenous
veinis used,it mustbe placedin a
positionso that itsvalveswill not obstructthe flow of blood.
reversed
Thesuturingof one bloodvessel
to anotheris knownas an
anastomosis.Oxygenated
bloodflowsthroughthe graft,pastthe
blockage,
and backinto the coronaryartery.Theabbreviation
CABGis
p r o n o u n c e"dc a b b a g e . "
transplantation
(rnnru
s-plan-TAY-sh
un)
transplant/o- move
somethingto another place
-ation a process;
being or
having
procedure
Surgical
to removea severely
damagedheartfrom a patient
with end-stage
heartfailureand inserta new heartfrom a donor (a
patientwho hasrecentlydied).The patientis matchedby bloodtype
and tissuetypeto the donor.Hearttransplantpatientsmusttake
immunosuppressant
drugsfor the restof theirlivesto keeptheirbodies
from rejecting
the foreigntissueof their new heart.Somepatients
receive
an artificialheartmadeof plastic,metal,and othersynthetic
materials.
Whileawaitinga donorheart,the patientmayhavea leftventricular
assistdevice(LVAD)
temporarily
implanted.
Thisbattery-or pneumaticpoweredpump is placedin the abdomenand connected
viatubesto
the left ventricleand the aorta.In somepatients,it becomes
a perman e n ts o l u t i o n .
heart
transplantation
donor (DOH-nor)
Donor is derivedfrom a Latin
word meaningone who gives.
252 Chapter 5 Cardiology
Word Part
Word or Phrase and Definition
pacemaker
insertion
Description
procedure
in whichan automateddeviceis implantedto control
Surgical
the heartrateand rhythm(seeFigure5-321). Pacemakers
usetwo or
on the heartto coordinate
threewires(or leads)positioned
the heartim
b e a tw i t h a n e l e c t r i c a
l pulse.
Figure 5-32 I A pacemaker.
pacemaker
ThisMedtronic
is placedundertheskinof
theanteriorchest,anditswiresarepositioned
on the
heart.
percutaneous
transluminal
coronary
angioplasty (PTCA)
percutaneous
(PER-kyoo-TAYnee-us)
per- through
cutane/o- skrn
-ous pertaining to
procedure
Surgical
to reconstruct
an arterythat is narrowedbecause
of
atheriosclerosis.
A catheteris insertedinto the femoralarteryand
In a balloon angioplasty,a balloon
threadedto the siteof the stenosis.
plaque
withinthe catheteris inflated,compressing
the atheromatous
a n dw i d e n i n gt h e l u m e no f t h e a r t e r yT. h ec a t h e t ear n d b a l l o o na r et h e n
removed(seeFigure5-33t).
t r a n s l u m i n a(l t r a n s - L O O - m i h - n a l )
Artery
trans- acrosl through
fumin/o- lumen (opening)
-al pertaining to
Atheromatous
angioplasty(AN-jee-oh-nlAS-tee)
angi/o- blood vessel;lymph
vesse/
-pfasty processof reshaping
by surgery
praque
Balloon
inserted
via cathet
W
Figure 5-33I Balloon
angioplasty.
Theinflated
balloon
comoresses
plaque
atheromatous
inthearteryopening
thelumen,
andreestablishing
bloodflow.
Cardiologyi Chapter5, 253
,t{grd Pa*
and Definition
Word or Phrase
-percutaneous
transluminal
coronary
angioplasty(PTCA)
(continued)
Description
Alternatively,
an intravascular
stainless
steelmeshstent can be inserted
on the catheter(seeFigure5-34I). Thecatheteris removed,but the
expandedstent remainsin the arterv.
Sheath removed from stent
Figure 5-34I A stent.
A stentisexpanded
inside
theartery
to compress
theatheromatous
plaque
andincrease
theblood
flow lt provides
continuing
support
to keepthe
lumen
of theartery
open.
pericardiocentesis
(PAIR-i
h-KAR-dee-oh-sen-TE
E-sis)
peri- around
cardilo- heart
-centesis procedureto
puncture
lericardiocentesis
valvoplasty
procedure
Surgical
thatuses, .."01. ,o Orn.,rr"thepericardium
and
withdrawinflammatory
fluidaccumulated
in thepericardial
sac.Usedto
treatpericarditis
andcardiac
tamponade.
valvoplasty (VAL-voh-plas-tee) Surgical
procedure
to reconstruct
a heartvalveto correctstenosis
or
valvlo- valve
prolapse.
A valvulotomeis usedto cutthe valve.Thisprocedure
isalso
-pfasty processof reshaping
knownasa valvuloplasty.
by surgery
valvulotome
(VAL-vyoo-loh-tohm)
valvullo- valve
-tome instrument used to cut;
an area with distinct edap<
i
I
,!"...
valvuloplasty
(val-vyoo-loh-PLAS-tee)
valvul/o- yalye
-pfasty processof reshaping
by surgery
254, Chapter5 Cardiology
t
Word or Phrase and Definition
valve replacement i
i
:
i
prosthetic(praws-THET-ik)
prosthet/o- artificialpart
-ic pertaining to
Prosthesis
is a Greekword
meaningan additionto; a
putfing on.
Description
j Surgical
procedure
heart
to replacea severely
damagedor prolapsed
heartvalves
i valve.Thereare severaltypesof prosthetic (replacement)
valvecomesfrom an animal,it is
i that can be used.lf the replacement
xenograft.
known
as
a
;
!,
i
i
i
i
xenograft (ZEN-oh-graft)
xen/o- foreign
-graft trssuefor implant
or transplant
i
1
1
DrugCategories
Severaldifferent categoriesof drugs are usedto treat the symptoms,signs,and drseasesof the cardiovascularsystem.The
most commondrugsin eachcategoryare listed.
Category
Word Partand Definition
Description
Example
ACE (angiotensinconverting
enzyme)inhibitor
drugs
Capoten,Prinivil,
Vasotec,
angiotensin(AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin)
Treatcongestive
heartfailureand hyperrateafter Zestril
angi/o- blood vessel;
tension.Alsoincrease
the survival
lymphatic vessel
myocardial
infarction.
ACEinhibitordrugs
producevasodilation
tens/o- pressure,tension
and decrease
the blood
-in a substance
pressure
by blockingan enzymethat convertsangiotensin
I to angiotensin
ll (a vasoconstrictor).
antiarrhythmic
drugs
antiarrhythmic
(AN-tee-aa-RITH-mik)
anti- agarnst
a- away from, without
rrhythm/o- rhythm
-ic pertaining
to
Treatarrhythmias.
antibiotic drugs
antibiotic (ANree-by-Awf-i
k)
(AN-tih-by-Awf-ik)
anti- against
bilo- life; living organisms;
living tissue
-tic pertaining to
Antibioticdrugs
Treatbacterial
endocarditis.
are not effectiveaoainstviralinfections.
antihypertensive
drugs
antihypertensive
(AN-tee-HY-per-TE
N-siv)
anti- agarnst
hyper- above;more than
normal
Treathypertension.
aspirin
i
;
tens/o- pressure,
tension
-ive pertainingto
i
!
:
atropine(onlyfor
(only
Xylocaine
bradycardia).
for ventricular
arrhythmia).
and
Seebetablockers
calciumchannelblockers.
!
Prevents
heartattacks.Prevents
blood clots i Bayeraspirin,St.Joseph
i'
from
from formingby keepingplatelets
i asprrn
t
I
stickingtogether.
Cardiology Chapter5 255
€ategory
Word Partand Definition
Description
Example
eta-blocker
drugs
Treatanginapectorisand hypertension.
Beta Corgard,
Inderal,
Lopressor
blockersdecrease
the heartrateand dilate
the arteriesby blockingbetareceptors
in
cellsin the heartand arteries.
c a l c i u mc h a n n e l
blockerdrugs
Treatanginapectoris,
heart
A d a l a tC
. a l a nP
congestive
. rocardia
f a i l u r ea, n d h y p e r t e n s i oCna. l c i u m
channel
blockersblockthe movementof calciumions
into myocardial
cellsand smoothmusclecells
of the arterywalls,causingthe heartrate
and bloodpressure
to decrease.
d i g i t a l i sd r u g s
digitalis(DU-i
h-TAL-is)
Treatcongestive
heartfailure.Digitalis
decreases
the heartrateand strenothens
the
heartscontraction.
d i g o x i n( L a n o x i n )
Digitalisdrugsarederivedfrom Digitalis(foxgloveplant).lts
projections
flowerswerethoughtto resemble
fingerlike
or digits.
Figure 5-35I The Starry Night
"TheStarry
Vincent
vanGogh's
Night"(1889)
isbelieved
by
inthe
somephysicians
to showevidence
of digitalis
toxicity
painter
waytheDutch
depicted
theyellow-green
halos
around
frommania
thestars.Van
Gogh(1853-1890)
suffered
and
epilepsy
andmayhavebeengivendigitalis
forlackof a more
specific
drugtherapy
available
at thattime.Digitalis
caneasily
reach
toxiclevels
intheblood.
Symptoms
of toxicity
include
nausea
andvomiting,
decreased
heartrate,andsometimes
visual
halos.
VanGoghmaysimply
havepainted
whathe
actually
sawbecause
of digitalis
toxicity.
Cardiology Chapter 5 257
Abbreviations
:
AUAA
abdominalaorticaneurysm
MVP
mitralvalveprolapse
ACE
angiotensin-converting
enzyme(inhibitor)
NSR
n o r m asl i n u sr h y t h m
ACS
acutecoronarysyndrome
P
purse
AED
automaticexternaldefibrillator
PAC
A fib
a t r i afl i b r i l l a t i o n
PAD
premature
atrialcontractron
peripheral
arterydisease
aorticinsufficiency
PDA
patentductusartenosus
automaticimplantable
cardioverter-def
ibrillator
PMI
p o i n to f m a x i m u mi m p u l s e
AMI
acutemyocardial
infarction
PTCA
p e r c u t a n e otur sa n s l u m i ncaol r o n a rayn g i o p l a s t y
AS
aoftrcStenosrs
PVC
premature
ventricu
lar contraction
ASCVD
cardiovascular
arteriosclerotic
disease
PVD
peripheral
vascular
disease
ASD
atrialseptaldefect
RA
r i g h ta t r i u m
ASHD
arteriosclerotic
heartd isease
RBBB
rightbundlebranchblock
AV
lar
atrioventricu
RFA
radiofrequency
catheterablation
BP
hlnnd
RNV
r a d i o n u c l i dv e n t r i c u l o g r a p h y
BPM,
bpm
hoetq nor minrta
CABG
,Al
AICD
nro<<r rra
RV
rightventricle
sl
first heartsound
coronaryarterybypassgraft
s2
secondheartsound
CAD
coronaryarterydisease
s3
third heartsound
cath
(cardiac)
catheterization
54
fourth heartsound
coronarycareunrt
SA
sinoatrial
CHF
heartfailure
congestive
SBE
subacutebacterial
endocarditis
CK-MB
creatinekinase-Mband
SPECT
s i n g l ep h o t o ne m i s s i ocno m p u t e r i z et odm o g r a p h y
CPK.MB
creatinephosphokinase-M
band
SVT
tachyca
rdia
supraventricular
CPR
cardiopul
monaryresuscitation
TEE
echocardiogram
transesophageal
CRP
C -raeelirro
TPR
pulse,and respiratron
temperature,
CV
lar
cardiovascu
v fib
f irb r i l l a t i o n
ventricula
verylow-density
lipoprotein
. ccu
nr^+ain
DSA
digitalsubtraction
angiography
VLDL
ECG
electrocardiography
VSD
ventricular
septaldefect
echo
^ -LAr ^ ^"At ^^-^*
q
r9lor ur99ror
V tach
lartachycard
ia
ventricu
EKG
electrocardiography
HDL
h i g h - d e n s iltiyp o p r o t e i n
HTN
JVD
hypertension
jugularvenousdistention
LA
left atrium
LBBB
left bundlebranchblock
LDH
lacticdehydrogenase
LDL
low-density
Iipoprotein
LV
left ventricle
LVAD
left ventricular
assistdevice
||
LVH
left ventricular
hypertrophy
MI
myocardial
infarction
nm Hg
-MR
MUGA
millimeters
of mercury
mitralregurgitation
(scan)
multiple-gated
acquisition
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviatrons
arecommonlyusedin alltypesof
however,thevcan mean
medicaldocumentation;
differentthingsto differentpeopleandtheirmeaning
Alwaysverifythe meaningof an
canbe misinterpreted.
abbreviation.
RA standsfor right atrium, but it can alsostandfor
rheumatoidarthritis or room air.
5/ standsfor firstheartsound,but it can alsostandfor
first sacralvertebra.
CPR(cardiopulmonary
Do not confusethe abbreviation
(C-reactive
protein).
with
CRP
resuscrta
tion)
I
258 Chapter 5 Cardioiogy
Meet Laurie, a cardiac stress test technologist in a
hospital.
all
during
terminology
"Cardiology
I usemedical
department.
isa veryimportant
Wanting
to know
wasbornwitha heartdefect.
of myjob.Mydaughter
aspects
here,
to takea class
to her,I started
aboutwhatwashappening
moreinformation
program.
Themostrewarding
there,
andthenjustwoundupina certificate
a class
thetestandat theendof thetest
through
partof myjobisif I cangeta patient
forme."'
thatsomucheasier
made
theysay,'You
Cardiacstresstest technologistsarealliedhealthprofessionals
testsin a
stress
who oerformECGs,Holtermonitortests,and cardiac
office.
hospitalsettingor a cardiologistl
in the medicalspewho practice
Cardiologistsarephysicians
of
with diseases
and treatpatients
Theydiagnose
cialtyof cardiology.
performsurgery,
Whencardiologists
system.
the heartand circulatory
or cardiosurgeons,
cardiothoracic
theyareknownas heartsurgeons,
trainingand
cantakeadditional
Physicians
vascular
surgeons.
cardiology.
of pediatric
becomeboardcertifiedin the subspecialty
aretreatedmedically
tumorsof the heartor bloodvessels
Cancerous
or cardiovascular
by a cardiothoracic
or surgically
by an oncologist
sur9eon.
technologist (tek-NAWL-oh-Jrst)
techn/o- technicalskill
fog/o- the studyof
-ist one who specializesin
ist)
cardiologist(KAR-dee-AWL-oh-j
cardilo- heart
loglo- the studyof
-ist one who specializesin
forms
forms?Combining
wordshavetwo differentcombining
Didyou noticethat somecardiovascular
today.
language
part
of
medical
a
remain
languages
from both Greekand Latin
EnglishWord
Greek
Latin
Exampleof MedicalWord
bloodvessel
angi/o-
vas/ovascul/o-
lator
vasodi
angiogram,vasoconstriction,
angiography,
vasculature
vascular.
heart
cardi/o- cor
cor puImonale
monary,cardiothoracic,
cardiopul
cardiac,cardiology,
vetn
phleb/o- venio-
venogram
phlebitis,
venous,venography,
thrombophlebitis,
Cardiology : Chapter 5'259
-Review all the materialin this chapterby completing the review exercresin this section.lJsethe Answer Keyat the end of the book
to checkyour answers.
Anatomy
andPhysiology
MatchingExercise
Match each numbered word or phraseto its description.
mediastinum
_
Anothernamefor themitralvalve
pericardium
_
Network
of bloodvessels
related
organ
to a particular
myocardium
_
Dividing
wallbetween
theatriaandventricles
ventricle
_
Double-layered
membrane
around
the heart
valve
tricuspid
_
Bottomchamber
of the heart
septum
_
Areabetween
the lungsthatcontains
theheart
aorticvalve
_
Valvebetweenthe rightatriumandrightventricle
vasculature
_
Heartmuscle
bicuspid
valve
-
Valvethat bloodflowsthroughasit leaves
the leftventricle
chordae
tendineae -
Ropelike
strands
thatstrengthen
thetricuspid
andmitralvalves
-' iue or False
lndicatewhethereachstatement
is trueor falseby writingT or F on the line.
1. _
Theaortaisthe largest
veinin thebody.
8. _
Allarteries
carrybloodawayfromtheheart.
2. -Thesympatheticnervoussystemreleasesepinephrine,
9. -Thesubclavianarterycarriesbloodtotheleg.
whichincreases
the heartrateandbloodpressure'
aspect
bloodto the laterar
10. Theperonear
arterycarries
Thebloodflowsfromthe inferior
3. _
venacavato the
of the lowerleg.
rightatriumto therightventricle
to thepulmonary
colorbecause
11. _
Thebloodin veinsisa darkred-purple
veinandto the lungs
highlevels
of carbon
dioxide.
it iscarrying
periodis the time duringwhichthe
4. _
The refractory
Thesystemic
circulation
carries
bloodto thewhole
12. _
ventriclescontract.
of the lungs.
bodywith the exception
5. -
Littleveinsare knownas capillaries.
6. -
The interventricular
septumis within the ventricle.
7. _
Theendocardium
is a serousmembrane
that lieson
the surfaceof the heart.
13. _
14. _
Intracellular
fluidsarewithinthecell.
isthe opposite
of vasoconstriction.
Vasodilation
CircleExercise
Circlethe correctword from the choicesgiven.
1. Thegreatvessels
include
thesuperior
andinferior
venacavae
andthe(aorta,artery,mediastinum).
'
2.
(arteries,capillaries,
valves,veins).
Thevascular
structures
of the bodyincludeall of the followingEXCEPT
3.
Listening
heartsounds
with a stethoscope
is knownas(auscultation,
diastole,repolarization).
to a patient's
Thisisa uniquestructure
foundonlyin thefetalheart:(apex,foramenovale,vasculature).
4.
--/ 5. Thisveinbringsbloodfromthe headto thesuperior
venacava:fiugular,portal,saphenous).
6. The(AVnode,Purkinjefiber,SA node)isthe pacemaker
of the heart.
250 Chapter5, Cardiology
Medical
Language
WordParts
NameThat Word Part
ldentify each of the word parts given hereby writing in the correct tetter(E C, or 5) on the line besideit. Thenwrite the definition of
the word part on the blank line. The first one has beendone for vou.
Prefix = P
Combining Form = C
Word Part
1.
-al
a.
Suffix = S
Definition
perLaininaNo
Word Part Definition
35.
cholesterol/o-
o-
36.
circulaVo-
3.
ablaVo-
5t.
claudicaVo-
A
+-
- d^L-
38. clav/o-
5.
anastom/o-
39. coarcvo-
6.
aneurysm/o-
40. compens/o-
7,
angilo-
4 1 . conducVo-
8.
anti-
4t.
congesVo-
9.
aorVo-
43.
constricVo-
10.
apic/o-
44.
contracVo-
1 1.
-ar
12.
arteri/o-
46.
cusp/o-
13.
arteriol/o-
47.
cutane/o-
14.
arter/o-
48.
oe-
49.
diastol/odilaVo-
15. -ary
coron/o-
16.
-ated
50.
17.
ather/o-
5 1 . distenVo-
18.
atheromaVo-
52.
dys-
19. -ation
53.
-eal
20.
54.
ech/o-
2 1.
atri/o-ature
55.
-ectomy
22.
ausculVo-
56.
ectop/o-
23.
axill/o-
57.
electr/o-
24.
ot-
58.
-emia
25.
Dt/o-
59.
emiss/o-
26.
brachi/o-
60.
endo-
27.
brady-
ot.
-enI
28.
capill/o-
62.
ani-
29.
card/i-
63.
esophag/o-
30.
cardi/o-
64.
exlra-
31.
caroVo-
65.
femor/o-
32.
cav/o-
66.
fibrill/o-
33.
cellul/o-
67.
fractlo-
34.
-centesis
68.
fus/o-
Cardiology, Chapter 5 261
Word Part
Word Part Definition
69.
gemin/o-
110. -ory
/u.
-gram
111 .
71.
-graphy
112. -osis
72.
hyper-
113 .
73.
hypo-
74.
-ia
114. palpiVo115. -pathy
t 5.
-tan
116. paVo-
76.
-ic
117. per-
77.
-id
11 8 .
78.
-ide
11 9 . peripher/o-
79.
ili/o-
120. perone/o-
80.
-in
1 2 1 . pharmado-
81.
-ine
122. phleb/o-
82.
infarcVo-
83.
inter-
123. physi/o124. -plasty
84.
65.
intra-ton
126.
86.
isch/o-
1 2 7 . porVo-
87.
-itis
128.
pre-
-ity
I zY.
prostheVo-
-ive
13 0 . pulmon/o-
90.
-ization
. radi/o131
91.
jugul/o-
| 52.
92.
lipid/o-
13 3 . regurgitaVo-
93.
lip/o-
134. ren/o-
94.
log/o-
'l
35.
rheumaVo-
95.
-logy
136.
rotaVo-
96.
lumin/o-
137.
rrhythm/o-
97.
ly/o-
138. saphen/o-
98.
man/o-
139.
scler/o-
99.
-megaly
140.
-scope
-
88.
-- 89.
-ose
-ous
pefl-
125, polar/opoplite/o-
re-
100. -meter
141. sepVo-
101. -metry
142. sin/o-
102.
mitr/o-
143.
son/o-
103.
my/o-
144. sphygm/o-
1O4. necr/o-
145.
staVo-
105.
nephr/o-
146.
sten/o-
106. nucle/o^
'' 07. -ole
147.
steth/o-
-208.
-oma
109. orth/o-
148. sub149. supra150.
system/o-
Definition
262 Chapter 5 : Cardiology
Word Part Definition
151.
systol/o-
Word Part Definition
152. tachy-
167. triglycerid/o168. -trophy
153.
tele/o-
169. -ule
154.
tens/o-
170.
uln/o-
155.
tetr/a-
171.
ultra-
156. theli/o-
172. -um
157. -therapy
173. valv/o-
158. tibi/o-
174.
159.
thorac/o-
175. varic/o-
i 60.
thromb/o-
176.
valvul/o-
vascul/o-
161. -tic
177. vaVo-
162. -tome
178.
163. tom/o-
179. ven/o-
164. trans-
180. ventricul/o-
165. transplanUo-
181. verVo-
vegetaVo-
166. tri-
Word-BuildingExercise
Use the combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes given here to build medical words that match the definitions given. Write the word
that you build on the blank line. Someword partsmay be usedmore than once. The first one has beendone for you.
i
i
;
'
,
,
-al (pertaining
to)
aorUo-(aorta)
-ar (pertaining
to)
-ary(pertaining
to)
(atrium)
atri/o-
-ature(systemcomposedof)
cardi/o-(heart)
-ic (pertaining
to)
inter-(between)
my/o-(muscle)
-ous(pertainingto)
peri-(around)
pulmon/o-(lung)
sin/o-(hollowcavity;channel)
(the bodyasa whole)
system/o-
1.
Pertaining
to a vein (Youthinkven/o-+ -ous).Youwrite venou6
2.
Pertaining
to aroundthe heart
3.
Systemcomposedof blood vessels
4.
Heartmuscle
5.
Pertaining
to theheartandthe lungs
6.
The nodethat originates
the heartbeat
Pertaining
to the bodyas a whole
8.
Smallvein
9.
Pertaininoto the aorta
1 0 . Pertaininq
to betweenthe ventricles
- u l e( s m a l l t h i n g )
-um (a structure)
vascul/o-(bloodvessel)
ven/o-(vein)
ventricul/o- (ventricle)
Cardiology' Chapter5 263
Symptomq
Sighs,
andDiseases
MatchingExercise
Match each numbered word or phraseto its description
1.
arrhythmia
Normalcontraction
followedby a premature
contraction
2.
cardiacarrest
Fattydeposit
?
ovtr:<V<tnla
Dysrrhythmia
4.
bigeminy
Any kind of premature
contraction
5
r:rdinmon:lrr
Chestsensation
duringpremature
contraction
6.
thrombus
C e l ld e a t h
7.
palpitation
Asystole
8.
coarctation
Bloodclot
9.
necrosis
Enlarged
heart
10. atheroma
Abnormalnarrowing
1 1 . t e t r a l o goy f F a l l o t
Congenital
heartdefect
CircleExercise
Circlethe correct word from the choicesgiven.
1.
(Asystole,Bradycardia,Fibrillation)is an abnormally
slow heartrate.
2.
Narrowingof an arteryis knownas (arteriosclerosis,
endocarditis,stenosis).
3.
A weakness
in the wall of an arteryis knownas a/an(aneurysm,varicosevein, ecchymosis).
4.
(Patentforamen ovale, Heart block,Aneurysm)is a congenital
heartdefect.
Trueor False
lndicatewhether each statementis true or falsebv writinq T or F on the line.
1. _
Anginapectorisis chestpainthat meansthe myocard i a lc e l l sh a v ed i e d .
6. _
To checkfor arteriosclerosis
in the arteries
of the legs,
you wouldfeelthe pulsein the radialartery.
2. _
Prolapse
of a valveis when the cuspshangdown and
do not closecompletely.
7. _
Auscultation
is usinga stethoscope
to listento the
heartsounds.
3. _
Raynaud's
disease
is severevasocontriction
of the
extremities
tnggeredby coldor emotionalstress.
8. _
S 1a n d S , a r ea b n o r m ahl e a r ts o u n d s .
9. _
4. _
Hyperlipidemia
can meaneitherhypercholesterolemia
or hypertriglyceridemia.
ln patientswith right-sided
congestive
heartfailure,
the neckmayshowsignsof pittingedema.
10. _
5. _
Regurgitation
is an infectionof the heartcausedbV
bacteria.
A sphygmomanometer
measures
the bloodpressure
i n m i l l i m e t eo
r sf m e r c u r (ym m H g ) .
264 Chapter 5 Cardiology
Laboratory,
Radiology,
Surgery,
andDrugs
LaboratoryTestExercise
Reviewthis form for ordering laboratorytests(seeFigure5-37).
checkmarkin the box next to it.
c a r d i oC R P
c a r d i oC R Pw / l i p i d p r o f i l e
cholesterol
Find each of the following testsrelated to cardiologyand put a
PANELS AND PROFILES
?687
inirl
Panol
15F
102s6F
:lectrolvtePanel
lepatic FunctionPanel
10165F
10231A
10306F
lasic Metabolic Panel
182Aaa
ObstetricPanel
Chem-ScreenPanel(Basic)
[/otahnlin
Panol
leoatitis Panel. Acute
187
5547
7971A
Chem-Screen Panel (Basic with HDL)
C h e m - S c r e e nP a n e l ( B a s i c w i t h H D t T I B C I
TESTS
)o/
387r
3563444R
15214R
30502E
7773E
19685Fl
30494R
2 6 0 13 E
15586R
30237W
242338
'19208W
30163E
22764R
20008w
54 /261
'1839W
4304
28399W
30262E
2U2E9W
'156F
30940E
17417W
28423E
19687W
265F
5 18 7 0 R
1012F
23242E
28852E
14lA
2 11 0 5 R
10321A
8 0 18 5
TESTS
Bilirubin(Direct)
HBSAq
HB Core Antibodv
C a r d i oC R P
GGT
Protein.Total
CBC Hemoqram
hCG. Qualilative.Serum
ANA
CardioCRP with LioidProfile
26F
PT with INB
Lead, Blood
qnltooov Screen
232Aaa
424
UA, Dipstick
l r o n ,T I B C
Cholesterol
UricAcid
RubellaAntibodv
rhosphate
20867W
| JE
7824
1556F
20933E
3084111E
53348W
71E
2 111 6 0 0 E
29868W
9704F
19752E
30536Rrr
lipidpanel
triglycerides
digoxin
H D Lc h o l e s t e r o l
Jt
tozE
CBC with Diff
HDL Cholesterol
PTT
34F
JA. Diostick and Microscopic
lreatinine
Iestosterone.Total
lreatinineClearance
Silirubin(Total)
203968
45443E
2A571E
66902E
20750E
7187W
Hematocrit
PSA,Total
WBC count
Chloride
f3, Total
4259r
rrotein Eleclroohoresis
Diqoxin
Glucose.2-HourPostorandial
T3, Uptake
PlateletCount
Dilantin(phenytoin)
Triolycerides
45484R
67868R
112680E
Maonesium
\A27W
Glucose,Fastino
T4, Free
Potassium
AST
,1,99i2F
249E4H
24512E
17426R
Hemoglobin
HIV-l Antibodv
H e m o q l o b iA
n1 c
Alk Phosohatase
tron
Sodrum
ALT
tilcRoBtoLoGY
i007w
2692E
26497
\124
ISH
Ferritin
Jalcrum
Jccult Bood, stool
)zolE
i304R
;02868
aAV AnI|OOOV, tOIal
1643E
Groun A Beta Streo Culture- Throal
Grorrn B Beta Slren Cullrrre Genil
ChlemvdiA
Fn.loceruix/l
ll
Culture.Blood
Sulture.Genitals
3 u l t u r eH
. SV
irrltrrre Sr
3ulture.Throat
S u l t u r eU
. rine
3onococcus.Endocervix./U
rethra
3ram Stain
STOOL PATHOGENS
flood Grouoand Bh TvDe
rroqesterone
10045F
lrltrrre
T4, Total
JarbonDroxrde
4475F
10 0 18 T
lulture. CamDVlobacter
C u l t u r e .S a l m o n e l l a
iPR
86 t 40A
10997
C)va and Parasites
63180
VeniDUncture
Jrea Nitrogen
{lbumin
'rolacln
,.\-a-'\-/
Figure 5-37 I
\,/ r+
,z\-
Slool
^^li T
Cardiology, Chapter 5 265
Word-Bui lding Exercise
'Ise
the combining forms, prefixes,and suffixes hereto build medicalwords that match the definitionsgiven. Write the word that you
(aneurysm)
aneurysm/o-
-gram(a recordor picture)
-therapy(treatment)
angi/o- (blood vessel;lymphaticvessel) -graphy (processof recording) -tome (instrumentusedto cut)
-tomy (processof cutting or making an incision)
phleb/o-(vein)
cardi/o- (heart)
-ectomy(surgicalexcision)
scler/o-(hard;white of the eye) ultra- (beyond;higher)
electr/o- (electricity)
son/o-(sound)
valvul/o- (valve)
1.
Therapyusedto hardena varicosevein (Youthink sclerlo-+ -therapy)You write eclerobhera?y
2.
Radiology
testthat outlinesthe bloodvesselby usingcontrastmaterial
3.
A written recordof the electricalactivitvof the heart
4.
Testthatusesultrahigh-frequency
soundwavesto outlinetheheart
5.
Surgery
to remove
ananeurysm
6.
Instrument
usedto cut diseased
valves
Trueor False
lndicatewhether each statementis true or falseby writing T or F on the line.
1. -
Antiarrhythmic
drugsare usedto treathypertension.
4. _
A stentis insertedduringa MUGAscan.
2. -
Thrombolytic
drugsbreakapartbloodclots.
5. _
3. -
An artificial
valveis alsoknownas a prosthesir.
(hardenSclerotherapy
is usedto treatarteriosclerosis
ing of the arteries)
255 : Chapter5 Cardiology
Abbreviations
MatchingExercise
Match each abbreviation to its descriDtion.
1.
LVAD
_
"Goodcholesterol,"
a high-density
lipoprotein
2.
AAA
_
Highbloodpressure
3.
SBE
_
Bacterial
infectioninsidethe heart
4.
CRP
_
The heartrate set by the SA node
5.
mm Hg
_
Testto detectinflammationin the heart
6.
HTN
_
A holein the septumbetweenthe ventricles
7.
NSR
_
Can be dissecting-type
of aneurysm
8.
TPR
_
Vitalsigns
9.
TEE
_
Measurement
of bloodpressure
10.
VSD
_
Hearttestthat goesinto the esophagus
11.
HDL
_
May be usedinsteadof hearttransplantation
AppliedSkills
PluralNounand AdjectiveSpelling
Fillin the blankswith thecorrectword form.Be sureto checkyourspelling.Thefirstone hasbeendonefor you.
SingularNoun
Plural Noun
Adjective
endoNhelial
SingularNoun
7. valve
1.
endothelium
2.
pericardium
8.
aorta
3.
atrium
9.
vein
4.
ventricle
10.
heart
5.
septum
11.
artery
6.
myocardium
Plural Noun
Adjective
Cardiology Chapter 5 267
Analysisof a MedicalReport
-his exercisecontainsa hospitalAdmissionHistory
and PhysicalExaminationreport. Readthe report and answer the questions.Use the
, nswer Key at the end of the book to checkyour answers.
ADMISSIONHISTORYAND PHYSICALEXAMINATION
PATIENT
NAME:
COVINGTON,
Victoria
HOSPITAL
NUMBER:
62-700245
DATEOF ADMISSION: January21,20xx
HISTORYOF PRESENTILLNESS
The patientis a 76-year-oldwhite femalewho was transferredemergentlyfrom home via ambulanceto this
emergencydepartment.
Apparently,
the patienthad just finishedeatingbreakfastwhen her familynoticedthat
she was standingin the middleof the hallwaywith her walker,seeminglydazed.She was assistedto her bed,
but rest did not improveher mentalstatus.The familystatedthat she continuedto be confused,incoherent,
and unableto answersimplequestions.
At that point,the familycalled911.
PAST MEDICAL HISTORY
The past medicalhistorywas obtainedfrom the patient'sdaughter-in-law.
The patienthas a historyof CHF,
which has been slowlyworseningover about the past 8 years.She also has a historyof hypertension.
The
patienthas been diagnosedwith type 2 diabetesmellitus.
The daughter-in-law
remembersthat the patient's
last fastingblood sugar in the doctor'soffice last month was over 250. She is usuallynoncompliantwith her
diet,eatingfoodsthat are high in fat and calories.The patientdoes not take a pill or insulinfor her diabetes.In
the past week, the patienthas had no appetite,has eaten little,but reportedlygained2 poundsanyway.The
daughter-in-lawdoes not know the names of all of the patient'smedications,exceptfor Lasix.The patient
smokes 1 pack of cigarettesper day and has done so for the past 40+ years.The patienthas no known
allergies.
PHYSICALEXAMINATION
The patientis an obesefemale,lyingin bed.She is stuporous,openingher eyesto commandsbut she is
unableto answerquestions.Heart:Regularrateand rhythm.The PMI is displacedto the left.The neckveins
are slightlydistended.The breathsounds revealrales in both bases bilaterally.
The abdomenis soft with
hypoactivebowelsounds.Physicalexaminationof the lower extremitiesshows pittingedema in both feet with
2+ pretibialedemain the legs.
COURSEIN THE EMERGENCYDEPARTMENT
The patientwas placedon a cardiac monitorand given a stat dose of intravenousLasix.Labs were sent for
CBC withWBC differential,
electrolytes,
CK-MB,troponin,and glucose.An arterialbloodgas was drawn.
Portablechest x-ray in the emergencydepartmentshowedcardiomegalywith an LVHconfiguration.
There was
significantpulmonaryvascularcongestion.
Whileawaitingthe resultsof the bloodchemistries,
the patientsuddenlywent into cardiacarrest.CPR was initiated.She respondedto aggressivedrug intervention
and defibrillation,and we were able to establisha normalsinus rhythm.The patientwas then transferredto the intensive
care unit in criticalcondition.intubated.and on the ventilator.
AE/rrlD f4tl;r^i, t'l.D.
AlfredP.Molina,M.D.
APM:mtt
D'.01121|xx
T:01l21lxx
268 : Chapter5 : Cardiology
WORDANALYSIS
QUESTIONS
1.
for hvpertension?
What is the medicalabbreviation
2.
you would say,"The patient
lf you wantedto usethe adjectiveform of hypertension,
The patienthas hypertension.
it)
3.
4.
"
What do theseabbreviations
standfor?
a.
CHF
b.
CK-MB
c.
CPR
d.
LVH
e.
PMI
Dividedefibrillationinto its threeword partsand defineeachword part.
Word Part
5.
Dividevascularinto its two word partsand defineeachword part.
Word Part
6.
Definition
inlo its two word partsand defineeachword part.
Dividecardiomegaly
Word Part
7.
Definition
Definition
Dictionary
Skills
this
in orderto understand
These
medical
wordswerenotcovered
in thischapter,
butyouneedto knowtheirmeanings
or English
dictionary
amdwritetheirdefinitions.
medical
report.Lookup thesewordsin a medical
Word
incoherent
sruporous
emergently
Definition
-
Cardiology Chapter 5 269
FACTFINDINGQUESTIONS
'
1.
what is the rangeof beatsper minutefor normalsinusrhythmin an adult?
2.
Name3 cardiacriskfactorsthat this patienthas.
a.
b.
c.
3.
Defibrillation
was usedto treatwhat condition?(Circleone)
cardiomegaly
4'
hypertension
cardiacarrest
diabetes mellitus
The PMIwas displaced
to the left What diagnostic
testwas donein the emergency
roomthat confirmedthisfindingfrom the
physical
(Circleone)
examination?
troponin
portabre chest x-ray
blood grucose
intubation
cRtTtcALTHtNKtNG
QUESTTONS
1'
Thepittingedemaand the pretibialedemain the patient's
extremities
reflected
congestion
and backupof blooddue to failure
of whichsideof the heart?
2.
The pulmonary
vascular
congestion
seenon chestx-rayreflected
failureof whichsideof the heart?
3'
Lasix
isa diuretic
drugthatremoves
fluidfromthebodybyexcreting
it in theurine.Forwhichof thepatient,s
medical
conditionswasthisdrugprescribed?
(Circle
one)
congestiveheartfailure
lackof appetite
obesity
4.
lf thepatientatelittlefoodin thepastweek,whydidshegaintwo pounds?
270 Chapter 5 Cardiology
Pronunciation
Checklist
Readeach word and itspronunciation. Practicepronouncingeach word. Verifyyour pronunciationby listeningto the
PronunciationListon the CD-ROM.Checkthe box next to the word after vou have mastereditspronunciation.
(ns-eh-til-KOH-leen)
tr acetylcholine
tr axiIlaryartery(nr-zih-LAIR-ee
AR-ter-ee) E
(ah-NAS-toh-MOH-sis) tr bicuspidvalve(by-KUS-pid
tr anastomosis
VALV)
tr aneurysm(AN-yoo-rizm)
tr b i g e m i n ar hl y t h m( b y - J E M - i h - n a l E
tr aneurysmal(nru-yoo-RlZ-mal)
RITH-um)
tr aneurysmectomy
E bigeminy(byJEM-ih-nee)
(nn-yoo-riz-M
EK-toh-mee)
E brachialartery(BRAY-kee-al
AR-ter-ee) E
tr angina(AN-jih-nah)(anJY-nah)
(BRAD-ee-KAR-ee-ah) E
E bradycardia
tr anginal(AN-jih-nal)(an-JY-nal)
(snno-ee-KAR-dik)
E bradycardic
tr a n g i n ap e c t o r i s
E bruit(BROO-ee)
E
(AN-jih-nah
PEK-toh-ris)
tr angiogram(AN-jee-oh-gram)
tr angiography(AN-jee-AWG-rah-fee)
tr angioplasty(AN-jee-oh-eLRs-tee)
tr angiotensin (AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin)
tr antiarrhythmicdrug
(AN-tee-aa-RITH-mik
DRUHG)
E antibioticdrug (nru-tee-by-AWf-ik
(AN-tih-by-A\Aff-ik)
DRUHG)
fl antihypertensive
drug
(AN-tee-HY-per-TEN-siv
DRUHG)
E aorta(aa-oR-tah)
E aorticvalve(aa-OR-tikVALV)
E aortogram(aa-OR-toh-gram)
D aortography(nn-or-TAWG-rah-fee)
I apex(AA-peks)
E a p i c a(l A P - i h - k a l )
(aa-RITH-mee-ah)
fl arrhythmia
E arterial(ar-TEER-ee-al)
(ar-TEER-ee-oh-gram)
E arteriogram
E arteriography
-rah-fee)
(ar-TE
ER-ee-AWG
-lar)
arteriolar (ar-rrr R-ee-OH
(a
arteriole r-TEER-ee-ohl)
arteriosclerosis
(ar-tErR-ee-oh-skleh-ROH-sis)
arteriosclerotic
(ar-tEEn-ee-oh-sklehRAW+ik)
artery(AR-ter-ee)
(aa-SlS-toh-lee)
asystole
atheroma(ATH-eh-ROH-mah)
(ATH-eh-ROH-ma
D atheromatous
h-tus)
atherosclerosis
(ntH-eh-roh-skleh-ROH-sis)
atria(AA-tree-ah)
atrial(AA-tree-al)
D atrioventricu
lar
(nn-tree-oh-ven-TRl
K-yoo-la
r)
atrium(AA-tree-um)
auscultation(AWS-ku
l-TAY-sh
un)
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
E b u n d l eo f H i s( B U N - dol f H t 5 5 )
(KAP-ih-lair-ee)
E capillary
E cardiac(KAR-dee-ak)
(KAR-dee-ak
E cardiaccatheterization
rnrH-eh-ter-ih-ZAY-sh
un)
(KAR-dee-ak
fl cardiacenzymes
EN-zimez)
E cardiologist(KAR-dee-AWL-oh-jist)
(KAR-dee-AWL-oh-jee)
E cardiology
E cardiomegaly
(KAR-dee-oh-MEG-a
h-lee)
D cardiomyopathy
(rnn-dee-oh-my-AWP-ah-thee)
E cardiopulmonary
(KAR-dee-oh-PU
L-moh-nair-ee)
E cardiopulmonary
resuscitation
(KAR-dee-oh-PU
L-moh-nai
r-ee
ree-SU5-ih-TAY-sh
un)
E cardiothoracic
(KAR-dee-oh-thoh-RAS-ik)
fl cardiovascular
system
(KAR-dee-oh-VA5-kyoo-lar
SIS-tem)
E cardioversion
(KAR-dee-oh-VER-zh
un)
E carotidartery(kah-ROT-id
AR-ter-ee)
E cavity(KAV-ih-tee)
E chordaetendineae
(KOHR-dee
TEN-dih-nee-ee)
(Sen-kyoo-LAY-shun)
E circulation
(SER-kyoo-lah-toH-ree)
E circulatory
(KLAW-dih-KAY-shun)
E claudication
(roH-ark-TAY-shun)
E coarctation
E compensated
heartfailure
(KAWM-pen-sAy-ted
HARTFAyL-yer)
E conduction(con-DUK-shun)
E congestive(con-JES-tiv)
(con-TRAK-shun)
E contraction
fl cor pulmonale(KORpul-moh-NAl-ee)
E coronaryartery(KOR-oh-nair-ee
AR-ter-ee)
fl
E
E
E
fl
E
E
E
E
I
E
fJ
E
fl
E
E
E
fl
E
E
E
E
E
I
E
E
E
E
creatinephosphokinase
(KREE-ah{een
FAWS-foh-KY-nays)
decompensated
heartfailure
(dee-KAWM-pen-sAY-ted
HART
FAYL-yer)
(dee-FtB-rih-lay-ter)
defibrillator
depolarization
(dee-eoHL-ar-ih-ZAY-sh
un)
diastole(dy-AStoh-lee)
diastolic(DY-ah-STAWL-ik)
digitalis(DU-ih-TAL-is)
(dy-SEK-ting
dissecting
aneurysm
AN-yoo-rizm)
distention(dis-TEN-snunt
(DAWP-ler
Oopplerultrasonography
uL-trah-soh-NAWG-rah-fee)
pedis(dohr-SAH-lis
dorsalis
PEE-dis)
ductusarteriosus
(DUK-tusar-TEER-ee-OH-sus)
(DOO-pleks
duplexultrasonography
UL-trah-soh-NAWG-rah-fee)
(dis-RITH-mee-ah)
dysrrhythmia
echocardiogram
(EK-oh-KAR-dee-oh-gram)
echocardiography
(rr-oh-rRn-dee-AWG-rah-fee)
ectopic(ek-TOP-ik)
e d e m a( e h - D E E - m a h )
electrocardiogram
(ee-LEK-troh-KAR-dee-oh-gram)
electrocardiographic
technician
(ee-LEK-troh-Knn-dee-oh-G
RAF-ik
tek-NISH-un)
electrocardiography
- rah-fee)
(ee-Le
r-troh-ran-dee-AWG
electrophysiologic
(ee-LE
K-troh-Ftz-ee-oh-LAW-j
ik)
endarterectomy
(END-ar-ter-EK-toh-mee)
(eru-doh-KAR-dee-al)
endocardial
(EN-doh-kar-DY-tis)
endocarditis
(eru-doh-KAR-dee-um)
endocardium
(EN-doh-THEE-lee-al)
endothelial
(EN-doh-THEE-lee-um)
endothelium
(EP-ih-KAR-dee-al)
epicardial
(EP-ih-KAR-dee-um)
epicardium
(Ep-ih-NEF-rin)
epinephrine
(EKs-trah-SEL-yoo-lar)
extracellular
(EKS-trah-5lS-toh-lee)
extrasystole
Cardiology Chapter5 ,271
tr
I
'J
tr
tr
tr
femoralartery(FEM-oh-ral
AR-ter-ee)
f ibrillation(ns-rih-LAY-sh
un)
foramenovale
(foh-RAY-men
oh-VAH-lee)
heartdonor(HARTDOH-nor)
(HART
hearttransplantation
rnnrus-plan-TAY-shun)
hypercholesterolemia
(Hv-per-koh-Lr5-ter-awl-EE-mee-a
h)
U
E
E
E
E
E
E
fl
E
(neh-KROH-sis)
necrosis
E
(neh-KRA\AIf-i
necrotic
k)
nitratedrug(NY-trayt
DRUHG)
E
(NY-trayts)
nitrates
node(NOHD)
(oh-KLOO-zhun)
occlusion
orthostatic
hypotension
(oR-rhoh-sTAT-ik
Hy-poh-TEN-shun)
palpitation
(pAl-pih-TAY-sh
un)
paroxysmal
tachycardia
(pArR-awk-5tZ-mal
TAK-ih-KAR-dee-ah)
patent(PAY-tent)
percutaneous
transluminal
angioplasty
(PER-kyoo-TAY-nee-us
trans-LOO-mih-nal
AN-jee-oh-ens-tee)
perfusion
(per-FYOO-shun)
pericardial
sac(parn-ih-KAR-dee-al
sAK)
pericardiocentesis
E
(pArR-i
h-KAR-dee-oh-sen-TEE-sis)
U hyperlipidemia
(uv-per-t-t
R-ih-DEE-mee-a
h)
E
(Hv-per-TEN-shun) E
E hypertension
(Hv-per-TEN-siv)
E hypertensive
fl hypertriglyceridemia
(HY-per-try-G
LtS-er-i
h-DEE-mee-a
h)
(uv-per-TRoH-fik)
E hypertrophic
E
(hy-PER-troh-fee)
E hypertrophy
fl
(uv-poh-TEN-shun)
fl hypotension
(Hv-poh-TEN-siv)
fl hypotensive
fl
(tD-ee-oh-PATH-ik)
E idiopathic
fl iliacartery(tL-ee-ak
AR-ter-ee)
pericarditis
(pAtR-ee-kar-DY-tis)
(in-FARK-shun)
E infarction
pericardium
(pAtR-ih-KAR-dee-um)
fl interatrial
septum(tN-ter-AA-tree-al
peripheral
(peh-RlF-eh-ral)
5EP-tum)
peronealartery(PAIR-oh-NEE-al
E interventricular
seotum
AR-ter-ee)
(tn-ter-ven-TR|K-yoo-lar
SEp-tum)
phlebitis(fleh-BY-tis)
rl intima(tN-tih-mah)
plaque(PLAHK)
(ttrt-trah-AA-tree-al)
poplitealartery(pop-LlT-ee-al
, .l intra-atrial
(rrrt-trah-SEL-yoo-lar)
U intracellular
(pop-lih-TE
AR-ter-ee)
E-al)
E intraventricular
E portalvein(POR-tal
VAYN)
(tN-tra
h-ven-TRl
K-yoo-lar)
fl prehypertension
E ion(EYE-on)
(pree-Hv-per-TEN-sh
un)
(is-KEE-mee-ah)
E ischemia
E prostheticvalve(praws-THET-ik
E jugularvein(JUG-yoo-lar
VAyN)
VALV)
fl lactatedehydrogenase
E pulmonaryartery(pUL-moh-nair-ee
(LAK{aytdee-HY-droh-jeh-nays)
AR-ter-ee)
E tipio(Lrp-io)
U pulmonary
valve(PUL-moh-nair-ee
(Ltp-oh-pROH-teen)
fl lipoprotein
VALV)
E lumen(LOO-men)
I pulmonary
vein(PUl-moh-nair-ee
(vrr-dee-as-Ty-nal)
I mediastinal
VAYN)
(vEE-dee-as-W-num) E pulse(PUHLS)
E mediastinum
(MY-tral
E mitralvalve
VALV)
E eurkinjefiber(per-KlN-jee
FY-ber)
(My-tral
E mitralregurgitation
E radialartery(RAY-dee-al
AR-ter-ee)
ree-G
ER-jih-TAY-sh
un)
E radiofrequency
catheterablation
E murmur(MER-mer)
(RAY-dee-oh-FRE
E-kwen-see
(My-oh-KAR-dee-al)
E myocardial
KATH-eh-terah-BLAY-shun)
E myocardial
infarction
E radionuclide
ventriculography
(My-oh-KAR-dee-al
(RAY-dee-oh-NOO-kl
in-FARK-shun)
ioe
perfusion
E myocardial
scan
ven-TRt
K-yoo-LAWG-ra
h-fee
(MY-oh-KAR-dee-al
(ray-NOZ
Raynaud's
disease
dih-ZEEZ)
per-FYOO-zhun
SK,AN)
refractory(ree-FRAK-tor-ee)
(vy-oh-KAR-dee-um)
E myocardium
renalartery(REE-nal
AR-ter-ee)
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
tr
repolarization
(ree-PO
H-lar-ih-ZAY-sh
un)
(roo-MAT-ik
rheumatic
heartdisease
HARTdih-ZEEZ)
tr saphenousvein(sah-FEE-nus
VAYN)
tr sclerotherapy
(sKLAtR-oh-THAIR-ah-pee)
tr septal(SEP-tal)
tr septum(SEP-tum)
tr sinoatrialnode(sv-noh-AA-tree-al
NOHD)
tr sinusrhythm(SY-nusRITH-um)
tr spnygmomanometer
(SFrG-moh-mah-NAWM-eh-ter)
tr stenosis(steh-NOH-sis)
tr stethoscope(STETH-oh-skohp)
tr subacute(sub-ah-KYOOT)
tr subclavianartery(sub-KLAY-vee-an
E
E
E
I
E
E
E
I
E
E
E
E
fl
E
E
E
E
E
I
E
E
E
AR-ter-ee)
supraventricular
tachycardia
(soo-prah-ven-TRl
K-yoo-lar
TAK-ih-KAR-dee-ah)
(sis-TEM-ik)
systemic
systole(Sl5-toh-lee)
systolic(sis-TAWL-ik)
(TAK-|h-KAR-dee-ah)
tachycardia
(TAK-|h-KAR-dik)
tachycardic
tamponade(tam-poh-NAYD)
telemetry(teh-LEM-eh-tree)
tetralogyof Fallot
(tet-RAL-oh-jee
of feh-LOW)
thalliumstresstest(THAL-ee-um
STRES
TEST)
thoraciccavity(thoh-RAS-ik
KAV-ih-tee)
thrombolytic
drug
(THRAWM-boh-LtT-ik
DRUHG)
thrombophlebitis
(ru nawv- boh-f Ieh- By-tis)
tibial arteryfitB-ee-alAR-ter-ee)
tomography(toh-MAWG-rah-fee)
transesophageal
echocardiogram
(TRANS-ee-SAWF-ah'
EE-al
EK-oh-KAR-dee-oh-gram)
tricuspidvalve(try-KUS-pid
VALV)
trigeminalrhythm(trytEM-ih-nal
RITH-um)
trigeminy(tryJEM-ih-nee)
troponin(troh-POH-nin)
ulnarartery(UL-narAR-ter-ee)
ultrasonography
-rah-fee)
(uL-trah-soh-NAWG
valve(VALV)
272 Chapter 5 Cardiology
E
E
E
fJ
f,
E
E
I
(VALVPROH-laps)
valveprolapse
E
(VAl-voh-plas-tee)
valvoplasty
(VAL-vyoo-lar)
valvular
f,
(vAL-vyoo-loh-PLAS-tee)
valvuloplasty
E
(VAL-vyoo-loh-tohm) fl
valvulotome
varicose
vein(VAR-ih-kohs
VAYN)
fl
(VAS-kyoo-lar)
vascular
tr
(VAS-kyoo-lah-chur) E
vasculature
vasoconstriction
E
(vAY-soh-con-5TRlK-shun)
E
(vnv-soh-dy-LAY-shun)E
vasodilation
(vt-eh-TAY-shun)
vegetation
E
vein(VAYN)
venacava(VEE-nah
KAY-vah)
E
(VEE-noh-gram)
venogram
tr
(vee-NAWG-rah-fee)
venography
(VEE-nus)
venous
(VENtrih-kl)
ventricle
(ven-TR|K-yoo-lar)
ventricular
ventriculography
(ven-TRtK-yoo-LAWG-rah-fee)
(VEN-yool)
venule
(ZEN-oh-graft)
xenograft
Cardiology, Chapter5 273
Experience
Multimedia
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Checkoff the box as you completeeach learningactivity.
E
CO-nOU Learning Activity 5.1: ANATOMY WORD PARTS
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Useflashcards
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word parts.Makeyour
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or printout prepared
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Alsoseethe
game Time:20 minutes
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E
Cp-ROwILearning Activity 5.2: MEDICINElN ACTTON
Listento normaland abnormalheartsounds.Time:5 minutes.
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CO-nOU Learning Activity 5.3: DISEASEAND OTHER
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Usememoryaidsto helpyou memorize
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Time:5 minutes.
E CO-nOU Learning Activity 5.5: MEDIAL LANGIIAGE
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1HALLENGE
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E
CO-nOU Learning Activity 5.7: MEDTCALANGUAGE
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T i m e :1 5 m i n u t e s .
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