Agro Processing Sector: Jackfruit Including Business Feasibility Studies And Proposed Action Plan

The European Union’s INSPIRED Program for Bangladesh
Technical Assistance to Stimulate Applications
for the SME Competitiveness Grant Scheme
Agro Processing Sector: Jackfruit
Including Business Feasibility Studies
And Proposed Action Plan
January 2013
This project is financed by : The European Union
Project Beneficiary : Ministry of Industries
Government of Bangladesh
The project is implemented by : PKF
Technical Report
Agro Processing Sector
Jackfruit
Including
Business Feasibility Studies
And
Proposed Action Plans
Intended to be Used as Source Material in the
Development of Concept Notes
Bangladesh INSPIRED
Action Plans for the Technical Study
January 2013
This document is prepared solely for the use
and benefit of INSPIRED, component 2 A.
Neither the authors nor PKF accept or
assume any responsibility or duty of care to
any third party.
2
Mohammed Hassanullah, Ph D
Consultant, INSPIRED Project
3
TABLE OF CONTENT
No.
Subject
Page
1
Acronyms
5
2
Executive Summary
6
2.1 Major Findings……………………………….6
2.2 Action Plans………………………………….6
3
Background
10
3.1 Background of the Study……………………10
3.2 Scope…………………………………………11
3.3 Methodology………………………...............11
3.4 Sources of Information……………..............12
3.5 Approach…………………………….............13
4
Proposed Action Plan for Concept Notes
14
4.1 Background…………………………………..14
4.2 The Roles of BMOs/BIOs/NGOs………......14
4.3 The existing state of data and firms……….15
4.4 Issues related to EU Guidelines……………15
4.5 Other issues………………………………….15
4.6 Action plans for the Technical Study………16
5
Key Recommendations
25
Appendix A: Technical Report on the Business Feasibility of ByProducts in Jackfruit in Bangladesh
26
Appendix B: List of Meetings
65
Appendix C: References
68
Appendix D: Budget for BIO Cluster Development Action Plan
69
Appendix E: Budget for Action Plan for JPC Development
72
Appendix F: Tentative Budget for BIO Capacity Development
Action Plan
74
4
1. Acronyms
BAPA
Bangladesh Agro-processors Association
BARI
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute
BAU
Bangladesh Agricultural University
BAURES
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute Research and Extension
Service
BCSIR
Bangladesh Centre of Scientific and Industrial Research
BDS
Business Development service
BIO
Business Intermediary Organization
BMO
Business Management Organization
BSTI
Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute
CFTRI
Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
DAE
Department Agricultural Extension
ED
Executive Director
EU
European Union
FGD
Focus Group Discussion
HP
Horse Power
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
ICUC
International Centre for Unutilized Crops
INSPIRED
EU Funded Project
MD
Managing Director
MFI
Micro Finance Institution
MSME
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
NGO
Non-government Organization
PO
Peoples’ Organization
PRAN
Brand Name of a Agro-processing Company
SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SME
Small and Medium Enterprise
SWOT
Strengths, Weakness Opportunities and Threats
UK
United Kingdom
VC
Value Chain
5
2. Executive Summary
2.1 Major Findings
INSPIRED, an EU funded project has been providing technical assistance to the
Ministry of Industries of the Government of Bangladesh and the SME
Foundation to support capacity development of clusters, business intermediary
organizations, trade associations and other business organizations through
submission of high quality applications under the SME competitiveness grant
scheme of EU. The project has engaged a Consultant in order to review the scope
and potential of investment in industrialization of Jackfruit, a most underutilized crop
of Bangladesh, though recognized as a National Fruit.
The Consultant conducted desk study, FGDs, Key Informant Interviews (KII), Value
Chain Mapping, SWOT Analysis and business feasibility study leading to preparation
of this report which contains methods of study, data sources, approaches, action
plans, business feasibility report with cost benefit analysis and a set of
recommendations.
The consultant adopted two approaches to develop action plans for promoting
industrialization of jackfruit such as 1) cluster development, and 2) enterprise
development approaches simultaneously to make rapid progress in this neglected
product sub-sector. Based on this approaches the consultant prepared three action
plans viz. 1) Action Plan for CLUSTER Development, 2) Action Plan for
establishment of a JACKFRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL under a BIO and 3) Action
Plan for Capacity development of the BIO implementing the action plans.
2.2 Action Plan
Action Plan for CLUSTER Development constitutes such actions as
1. Organize clusters of Jackfruit Processing MICRO enterprises in Jackfruit
Commercial Hubs of the country
2. Identify, display, link and assist entrepreneurs to establish common
infrastructure and machinery facilities for Jackfruit Processing
3. Organize and impart training to potential technicians of the clusters for
Jackfruit processing
4. Assist entrepreneurs identify market, and remain competitive through Value
Chain Development
5. Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions for
financing Jackfruit processing
6. Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in regions of
cluster of Jackfruit processing
6
Action Plan for establishment of JACKFRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL under a BIO
constitutes such actions as:
1. Organize and formalize the Council for promoting growth of Jackfruit industries
2. Sourcing technologies and linking potential entrepreneurs
3. Capacity development of managers and entrepreneurs for Jackfruit processing
4. Assist entrepreneurs identify market, both domestic and export and remain
competitive through Value Chain Development
5. Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions for
financing Jackfruit processing
6. Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in regions
cluster of Jackfruit SMEs located
Action Plan for Capacity development of a BIO constitutes such actions as:
1. Establish network of enterprises and clusters
2. Establish electronic communication system
3. Establish information clearing house
4. Establishing a monitoring and quality control system
The Consultant narrated the intensive roles to be performed by BMOs/BIOs/NGOs in
order to realize the potentials of Jackfruit as the cultivation of jackfruit is dispersed all
over the country but has high intensity in some districts and raised the issue of
making provision of supporting a clusters with machinery and equipment as
demonstration promoting private sector investment and relaxation of some of the
conditionality of grant scheme as jackfruit is new sector of investment.
The Consultant conducted a business feasibility study of processing jackfruits and
presented the report as in Appendix A. He conducted VCA and SWOT Analysis to
identify strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of this sector as well as
market mechanism, its problems and constraints in order to prescribe a set of
actions. The business feasibility report constitutes justification and benefits of
processing jackfruits including nutritive value of jackfruits and briefly narrated the
production process of the following potential products:
 Pickle/Chutney
 Canned jackfruit
 Fruit leather
 Jam
 Candy/Toffee/biscuit
 Beverage
 Powder
 Dried Jackfruit Flacks
 Pulp
 Chips
The business feasibility report includes a business plan of jackfruit processing to
produce and market a number of products such as canned jackfruit, jackfruit jam,
jackfruit nectar, jackfruit pickle jackfruit chips of 100 MT capacity a year at a cost of
2.70 million Taka with a net profit Tk. 0.646 million a year. It will process about 500
MT of jackfruit in a year.
7
It seems that if one-third of total production of jackfruit (1, 352, 000 MT) is brought
under industrial processing there are potential of establishing about 900 small
jackfruit processing industries in the country creating opportunity of 9000 permanent
full time employment and many new wage earners in the process of production,
procurement, transportation, processing and marketing of the products.
In order to exploit the potential the key activities are to prepare business plans,
access machinery, arrange human and financial resources, establish a system of
identifying suitable trees and supervised procurement, adopt quality and safety
requirements, set management and financial control systems, identify and promote
markets of both home and aboard.
Based on those studies the Consultant put forwarded the following key
recommendations:
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Jackfruit processing is a potential new venture in Bangladesh. Experimental
efforts are noticed at individual and group levels through NGOs as in Rajbari
by Practical Action and by Idilpur Pineapple Cultivators and Mouchas
Unnayan Samity in Modhupur as well as at enterprise level through own
initiatives as by PRAN and Rajshahi Mango Products Ltd. The consultant
recommends organizing micro enterprises as CLUSTER with common
production and marketing facilities
The consultant recommends providing technical assistance to all enterprises
operating as CLUSTER as well as individual enterprises that have plans to
invest.
Grant winning clusters and enterprises should have linkage for credit support
through Bangladesh Banks or any other MFI for investment and operational
funds
By-product processing should be integral part of any jackfruits investment
project to avoid environmental hazards and make cattle feed, bio fuel, etc
which will make the main products cheaper.
Training of consultants and entrepreneurs will surely improve their skills in
preparing applications. Flexibility in evaluating the application of Lot 1(a) is
important for jackfruit processing.
Major Findings
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Jackfruit product subsector is at subsistence level. Fruits are grown all over
the country primarily for family consumption. Abundant production of quality
jackfruits is intensified in certain districts of Bangladesh such as Dhaka,
Gazipur, Tangail, Khagrachari, Rangamati, Mymensingh, Moulvibazar,
Narsingdi, Dinajpur and Rangpur.
Traditional value chain system operates all over the country to transport the
surplus production to cities and towns for consumption of fresh fruits.
Production potential of jackfruit is very high. It can be increased 3 to 5 times
more as compared to present level of production if commercial plantations,
small or large, are established and management practices are improved.
Jackfruits processing thus provides greatest opportunity of investment for
increasing employment and income
8
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There are efforts of processing jackfruits at individual, group, and institutional
levels e.g. some individual and groups, involved in processing other fruits,
have been trying to process jackfruits
Two enterprises such as PRAN and Rajshahi Mango Product Ltd. tried to
process jackfruits and market processed products at enterprise level,
These efforts did not become commercialized and were rather unsuccessful
because there was no serious efforts to overcome the problems of accessing
technologies, organizing production and procurement, improving quality,
scaling up production and promoting sales
BCSIR has developed some products and patented but recipes are available
to entrepreneurs on payment of royalty. BARI has developed some products
and recipes are available through MOU without any payment.
There is no cluster in jackfruit processing. Experimental initiatives can be
organized either as cluster of MSMEs or as individual enterprise.
Entrepreneurs of both types aspire to get technical support for rapid
industrialization of jackfruits
Customers are not accustomed to consume jackfruit processed products as it
is not available in the market. Some reported that jackfruit chips are highly
tasty which they enjoyed in Thailand. A great deal of market promotion will
be required to create domestic market.
Bangladesh can also focus on export market if companies can meet quality
and safety compliance requirements
To realize the processing potentials awareness creation among producers,
entrepreneurs and professionals is very important. They also need technical
support to begin with. Initial success will stimulate business community to
invest.
Action plans were suggested to create JACKFRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL
(JPC) to create awareness for investment and provide technical assistance
to entrepreneurs as well as to increase capacity of BIOs
Clusters require support to develop common processing facilities to produce
quality products. Jackfruit producers can also participate on production
sharing basis for community sales and for household food security
BIOs should have strong advocacy for variety development, rapid
propagation of desired verities, supporting capacity development and market
promotion. The institutional framework of JPC with logistical facilities of mass
communication can play these roles
Clusters and individuals both require financing of their enterprises through
MFI and banks for investment and working capital
There will be huge by-products particularly skins and non-edible parts of
jackfruits. Unless by-products are processed as cattle feed or bio-fuels as
integral part of the industry it will create serious problems of disposal and will
create environmental hazards. By-products can be converted as excellent
cattle feed and bio-fuel
The BIOs should also establish quality standard, system of certification and
enforcement among its members (both clusters and individual enterprises) to
establish customer confidence on their products.
9
3. Background
3.1 Background of the Study
PKF (UK) LLP is leading an international consortium of WYG (UK), Harewelle (UK)
and SEBA Limited (Bangladesh) to implement EU funded project named as
INSPIRED, which is responsible for providing technical assistance to the Ministry of
Industries of the Government of Bangladesh and the SME Foundation. The
project aimed at supporting clusters, sector business associations and other
business organizations to submit high quality applications under the SME
competitiveness grant scheme. The project also provides support for capacity
building to business intermediary organizations in lobbying, advocacy, networking,
public-private sector dialogue and the provision of business development services
(BDS) to their members. The project commenced in February 2012 and will be
completed in February 2014.
The overall objective of the project is to reduce poverty in Bangladesh by supporting
the development of SMEs. Its purpose is to enhance competitiveness and
sustainable pro-poor growth of SMEs in Bangladesh. Support will be provided to
clusters using value chain analysis, firm-level visits and technical assistance to
BMOs in order to increase competitiveness in such sectors as agro
processing, natural fibers, leather, plastics, light engineering, electronics, furniture
and textiles. In the area of agro-processing businesses community of Bangladesh
desires to understand the scope and potential of processing Jackfruits which is
abundantly produced and in most cases becomes wastefully consumed as it is highly
seasonal and the system of processing and preservation has yet to be established
for all year round consumption. The Government of Bangladesh and specifically
the Ministry of Industries has identified a number of "boosters" sectors of the
economy which represent higher growth rates and can therefore, make a
significant contribution to the economy in terms of value addition, employment,
technology, innovation, exports and import substitution. Jackfruit is identified as one
of these sectors. In the Bangladeshi case, a solid business case can be made for
manufacturing a number of processed jackfruit products.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is recognized as the National Fruit of
Bangladesh. Jackfruit is grown in all districts. The highest volume of production takes
place in Dhaka, Gazipur, Tangail, Khagrachari, Rangamati, Mymensingh,
Moulvibazar, Narsingdi, Dinajpur and Rangpur. Presently, Bangladesh cultivates
jackfruits in 79 thousands hectares of land producing about 1,352,,000 tons fruits in a
year. Yield per hectare is 17 MT. A small quantity of about 60 MT fresh jackfruit and
some seeds are exported to UK. The country has a large supply of fresh jackfruits but
little has been done for industrial use and use of its by-products. It is estimated that
about one-third of the production can be used for processing without affecting
consumption of fresh fruits. However, it is reported that research organization such
as BARI post harvest and technology division, BAURES of BAU, BCSIR, etc are
conducting some sorts of research and trying to develop some products or even
patented some products or by-products by BCSIR. Hortex Foundation and DAE are
also promoting fruit production, processing and marketing.
10
3.2 Scope of Work
India and Thailand have progressed quite far to develop and manufacture as well as
export quite a few delicious products of jackfruits. In Bangladesh, over the past
decade some firms have tried to enter into this field of processing of jackfruit but did
not succeed. Cash flow is one problem. But technical and marketing issues
remained unknown and the project would like to investigate these matters further. In
this background this assessment is to explore the scope and potential of industrial
use of jackfruit and institutional mechanism to support the institutions and SMEs
exploiting the potential.
As far as knowledge goes there is only one small company making jackfruit jams for
the domestic market. But very little is known or reported. Therefore, the study has a
very wide scope to investigate for identification of jackfruit products and their
production process available in the country. To conduct a plausible study scope of
investigation is quite extensive to come to rational decisions for investments and
interventions. It includes;
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Conducting Value Chain and SWOT analysis of Jackfruits
Identifying potential products and by-products of Jackfruits and their
production process
Identifying the institutional mechanism to support SMEs for processing of
Jackfruits
Preparing a business plan for several potential products of Jackfruits as guide
to entrepreneurs
Prepare action plan to support BIOs to assist their members to invest in
jackfruit processing
3.3 Methodology
The overall methodology of the study constitutes desk study, FGDs, Key Informant
Interviews (KII), Value Chain Mapping and SWOT Analysis. The Consultant collected
reports and literatures on jackfruits and study them in order to collect information on
various issues and processes as well as problems and constraints of the sector.
FGDs were conducted to review the concepts and opinions of different stakeholder
groups. Important and experienced professionals were interviewed with predesigned check list to sieve out their experiences. Value chain and SWOT analysis
were conducted for more in-depth review. However, in this respect the consultant
performed the following specific tasks:
1. Visited research institutes such as Fruit Research Wing and Post Harvest and
Technology Division of BARI, and BCSIR to identify products and processes
developed by those institutions.
2. Visited 3 jackfruit production hubs such as Rajbari, Madhupur of Tangail,
Gazipur, investigated institutions (Chambers, trade associations, NGOs)
involved in or have potential to be involved in jackfruit processing to identify
potential entrepreneurs and institutions, conducted FGD in Madhupur with
11
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
stakeholders and made a SWOT analysis for jackfruit sector. Due to shortage of
time other hubs like Narsingdi, Khagrachari and Rangpur could not be visited.
Visited Food Crop Wing of DAE, Integrated Fruit Development Project and
Hortex Foundation in order to assess their associations with Jackfruits and
collect production and export statistics. Interviewed the key professionals about
scope and potential of processing jackfruit
Visited a few private sector enterprises that are reported to process jackfruit or
have potential to process jackfruit like PRAN, Rajshahi Mango Product Ltd, etc.
to identify products, problems and prospect of Jackfruit industry
Identified a number of jackfruit products through those visits and web search
and narrated their production processes
Conducted a SWOT analysis on jackfruit in Madhupur to generate factual
information of a hub to identify strength, weakness, opportunity and threats
associated with industrialization of jackfruit.
Prepared a business feasibility report for several products considered to have
the highest potential focusing on the following:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
The product, its physical characteristics and what it will it be used for
Machinery and technology required.
The production process.
Skills required,
The potential size of the market both domestically and internationally.
Marketing and sales strategy.
Investment required.
Revenue, financial projections including cost benefit analysis, income
projections for the first year, break-even analysis.
Environmental and government regulations affecting these products.
3.4 Sources of Information
As the sector is entirely in informal sector domestic information on jackfruit is highly
scarce. The Consultant collected:
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Production statistics from the Department of Agricultural Extension, Food
Crop Wing. Trade related information is not available in any sources.
Through FGD the consultant generated some information from one of the
high intensive jackfruit growing area, the Madhupur Upazila which shows that
there are 160,000 producers, 10,000 small traders, about 200 aggregators
and 5000 retailers operating in different markets of the upazila.
Producers consume about 10% of their produces and sell 90% to the
neighborhoods consumer (20%), 70% small traders and about 10% to local
retailers.
It is reported that fruits of 50% trees are sold in advance at early maturity at
50% less prices that the normal market prices at harvest.
Price spread is very high. A 100 Tk. jackfruit at farmers level is sold by local
retailers at 150 Tk. and by a retailer at Dhaka retail market at 250 Tk. due to
waste, high transportation cost and extortion on the way to Dhaka.
12
Besides those information sources consultant heavily relied on web search for
international scenario, searching concepts and progress in other countries and
technology sources.
3.5 Approach
As jackfruit is still at subsistence level and there are feeble attempt to process at
cottage level the Consultant adopted two approaches to develop action plans for
promoting industrialization of jackfruit such as a) cluster development and b)
enterprise development approaches simultaneously to make rapid progress in this
neglected product sub-sector. Bangladesh has both cluster and independent agroprocessing enterprises. The independent enterprises of all over the country formed
an association named as Bangladesh Agro-processors Association (BAPA) primarily
as pressure group to change policies and incentive structure for growth and
development of agro-processing sector. It does not include all stakeholders of value
chains of agro-processing. It has neither mandate nor it is oriented /equipped to
provide services to its members. As a BIO it can promote investment in Jackfruit to
develop more independent enterprises in this sector. However, there are some
NGO/POs which endeavoured to agro-processing initiatives through individuals as
well as geographically proximate groups and small NGOs who have been trying to
process jackfruits at cottage level but could not succeed due to manually operated
technologies, small production, poor quality and lack market promotion. They have
potential to emerge as clusters as defined by EU Guideline1. Therefore, consultant
attempted to prepare action plans for both cluster and enterprise development and
for capacity development for BIOs of both initiatives.
1 A cluster is a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated
institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities. Because of the
shared proximity – both in terms of geography and of activities - cluster constituents enjoy the
economic benefits of several types of positive location-specific externalities. These externalities
include access to specialized human resources and suppliers, knowledge spill-over, pressure for
higher performance in head-to-head competition and learning from the close interaction with
specialized customers and suppliers.
13
4. Proposed Action Plans for Concept Notes
4.1 Background
The consultant reviewed the jackfruit sector in a very short period of time and
identified the scope and potentials of industrialization of jackfruit. It is in the
subsistence level but some initiatives of jackfruit processing at least at the primary
stage of experimentation have been identified. In order to exploit the potential the
consultant prepared three action plans, one business feasibility report with a
business plan of jackfruit processing as a guide for the BIO to apply for grants as
called by EU funded INSPIRED project. The action plans are briefly discussed in this
section of the report.
4.2 The Roles of BMOs/BIOs/NGOs in this particular Sector
BMOs/BIOs/NGOs have to perform intensive role to realize the potentials of Jackfruit
as the cultivation of jackfruit is dispersed all over the country but has high intensity in
some districts. They need to perform the following key roles:
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Creating awareness among producers, entrepreneurs, and consumers about
potential of industrialization of jackfruits; its opportunity to increase cultivation,
improvement of cultivars in terms of taste , quality and availability year round,
production of diversified processed products and use of its by-products, skin
and seeds through use of mass media and policy advocacy at all
administrative levels.
It can play a significant role in identification of production and processing
technologies and link sources with potential entrepreneurs for investment.
It can create or assemble expertise to provide guidance and counselling for
investment, management.
It can organize and impart capacity development programs such as training,
workshop, dialogues and discussions for the producers, traders, processors
and consumers.
It can set and enforce quality standards of both fresh and processed products
through establishing quality testing facilities as well as inculcating ethical
standards among its members in order to uphold the name and fame of the
industry.
It can peruse the government to adopt industry friendly policy for allocating
fund for research and extension, incentive to producers and processors, tax
and subsidies.
It can act as information clearing house by obtaining and updating information
of production, supply, domestic and international demand and price structure.
14
4.3 The existing state of data and firms on the ground
Data scarcity is an important problem in jackfruit sub-sector due to absence of appropriate
institutional arrangement and neglect. Demand for data is also absent from the
entrepreneurs and professionals. EU call for proposal has inspired both BIO and
entrepreneurs seeking more and more information. In this context the Consultant made one
of the activities of a BIO to act as information clearing house of collection, preservation and
dissemination of information relating to production, supply, demand and price of fresh and
processed products of home and abroad.
4.4 Issues related to EU Guidelines
Under Bangladesh condition small (replacement value Tk.15.00 million) and medium
(replacement value Tk.100.00 million) enterprises if established by an entrepreneur
he/she will tend to operate independently as an independent business having value
chain linkages of its own stakeholders. Twenty or fifty such enterprises will not
operate as a CLUSTER having common production facilities or BDS services. Such
independent operations are very much common in various sectors of industry. Only
MICRO enterprises are highly likely to operate as a CLUSTER if there are common
facilities of production, storage and marketing. To establish such CLUSTER as the
EU desire there is a need of common machinery of production. But cost of
machinery has not been included in illegible cost. At least there should be provision
of procuring equipment to demonstrate vacuum fryers in one or two clusters of micro
enterprises. In this case micro processor or the raw material suppliers may
participate on the basis of product sharing which will ensure food security of small
producers and processors alike. Successful demonstration may inspire other clusters
or enterprises to invest in equipment and machinery. Failure of small initiatives was
due to manual operation resulting little and poor quality production which could not
catch consumer trust and confidence. The consultant therefore proposes of providing
machinery for cluster development of both 1(a) and 1(b) lots.
.
4.5 Other issues
One of the important issues is the processing of by-products such as skins, nonedible parts and seeds. Separate industry can be developed for seed but it is better
that by-product processing as cattle feed or bio-fuel should be integral part of the
jackfruit processing industry. In view of scarcity of cattle feed by-products can turn
into the main product and make the industry more profitable and avoid environment
hazard. Provision of by-product processing should also be considered in case of
jackfruit clusters.
15
4.6 Action Plans for the Technical Study
Action Plan for Cluster Development
Action 1: Jackfruit processing clusters
Background: There are scattered NGO, NGO sponsored groups as well as
individual entrepreneurial initiatives to process jackfruits with business motivation
but those initiatives did not lead to scale up as business due to small scale
production mostly experimental, poor quality, without or unattractive packaging,
poor product quality, and lake of serious effort for marketing. It is expedient to
support those initiatives as a cluster of operations as defined by EU through a BIO
such as Chamber of Commerce and Industries and producers or traders
associations. This action plan is designed for those BIOs who intend to organize
those initiatives as cluster of jackfruit processors for generation of employment
and income in rural areas and make the product available throughout the year for
domestic consumption as well as for selling in the local, regional and national
markets in immediate future and global market if quality and standards could met
their demand. Therefore, this action plan suggests establishing JACKFRUIT
PROCESSING CLUSTERS to undertake following actions viz.
1. Organize clusters of Jackfruit Processing MICRO enterprises in Jackfruit
Commercial Hubs of the country
2. Identify, display, link and assist entrepreneurs to establish common
infrastructure and machinery facilities of Jackfruit Processing
3. Organize and impart training to potential technicians of the clusters for Jackfruit
processing
4. Assist entrepreneurs identify market, and remain competitive through Value
Chain Development
5. Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions for financing
Jackfruit processing
6. Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in regions of
cluster of Jackfruit processing
Goal:
Increasing employment and income and wealth through production of
high value added products
Outputs:
1) 20-50 MSMEs established to process Jackfruits in a cluster
2) Capacity of BIOs enhanced for Jackfruit promotion through
networking
Impacts:
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1000 new job created (self and employed)
25% income of enterprises and employees increased
100 tons of value added products of jackfruit produced yearly in a
cluster worth 6.16 million Tk.
Customers get processed products of jackfruits year round
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Total Cost: € 170,000= Tk. 14.11 Million (€ 1=T 83)
Detail break down of costs has been presented in Annex D.
The actions are briefly outlined as follows:
Action 2: Organize clusters of Jackfruit Processing MICRO enterprises in
Jackfruit Commercial Hubs of the country
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Background: New venture, enterprises are not organized as cluster
Objectives: Emergence of a VC based cluster of enterprises
Key stakeholders group: Processors, producers, Nurseries, equipment
suppliers and traders
Type of activities: Awareness creation, VC development, institution
building, management training
Specification of related outputs and results: Capacity development:
Cluster established with linkages
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Growth of jackfruit industry depends on cluster development
Timeframe: First six month
Estimated cost: € 13,300 = Tk. 0.84 Million
Action 3: Identify, display, link and assist entrepreneurs to establish
common infrastructure and machinery facilities of Jackfruit Processing
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Background: Enterprises have no access to equipments and machinery
and technologies
Objectives: Creating common infrastructure and machinery facilities
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, equipment providers (home
and abroad),
Type of activities: Equipment sources and establishment of common
facilities and equipments business planning, expert advices
Specification of related outputs and results: Establishment of
processing enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters: Growth of
jackfruit industry depends access to equipment and machinery
Timeframe: 1 year
Estimated cost: € 29290 = Tk. 2.43 Million
Action 4: Organize and impart training to potential technicians of the
clusters for Jackfruit processing
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Background: No technician available for Jackfruit processing
Objectives: Ensure supply of skill technicians and professionals
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, managers, and technicians
and professionals
17
-
Type of activities: Training home and aboard, overseas visit and
apprenticeship
-
Specification of related outputs and results: A common facilities will
be created
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Operation and profitability of the enterprises will depend on availability of
skilled technicians
Timeframe: 1 year
Estimated cost: € 21960 = Tk. 1.83 Million.
-
-
Action 5: Assist entrepreneurs identify market, and remain competitive
through Value Chain Development
-
Background: Unknown market
Objectives: Increase sales at home
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, marketing executive,
professionals
Type of activities: Market study, development of supply chain, market
mission abroad
Specification of related outputs and results: Sales increase
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Market is key to sustainability
Timeframe: 3 years
Estimated cost: € 28800 = Tk. 2.39 Million
Action 6: Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions
for financing Jackfruit processing
-
Background: Unwillingness of financial institutions to invest in new
venture
Objectives: Ensuring access to fund
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, Executive of financial
institutions,
Type of activities: Workshop, business planning, seed fund creation,
operational modality
Specification of related outputs and results: Establishment of cluster
of enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Finance is key to growth of the industry
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: €5300 = Tk. 0.44 Million
Action 7: Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in
regions of cluster of Jackfruit processing
1. Background: Suitability of raw materials is key to gain competitiveness.
2. Objectives: To ensure long term sustainability and competitiveness
18
3. Key stakeholders group: Producers and nursery owners and field
technicians
4. Type of activities: Identification and preservation of mother plants and
propagation by budding and tissue culture
5. Specification of related outputs and results: Profitability of enterprises
6. Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Branding and competitiveness will depend on quality of raw materials
7. Timeframe: 3 years
- Estimated cost: € 1860 = Tk. 0.16 Million
Action Plan for Establishment of a JACKFRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL in
Bangladesh
Action 1: Jackfruit promotion council
Background: It is expedient to establish a Jackfruit Promotion Council in
Bangladesh to exploit the potential of industrialization of Jackfruit (Artocarpus
heterophyllus) for promoting investments in jackfruit trade and industries in order
to generate employment and income in rural areas and make the product available
throughout the year for domestic consumption as well as for export. Therefore, this
action plan is suggested establishing a JACKFRUIT PROMOTION COUNCIL to
undertake following actions viz.
1. Organize and formalize the Council for promoting growth of Jackfruit
industries
2. Sourcing technologies and linking potential entrepreneurs
3. Capacity development of managers and entrepreneurs for Jackfruit
processing
4. Assist entrepreneurs to identify market, both domestic and export and remain
competitive through Value Chain Development
5. Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions for
financing Jackfruit processing
6. Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in regions
cluster of Jackfruit SMEs located
Goal:
Increasing employment and income and wealth through production of
high value added products
Outputs:
1) 80 SMEs established to process Jackfruits
2) Capacity of BIOs enhanced for Jackfruit promotion through
networking
Impacts:
1. 1000 new job created (self and employed)
2. 25% income of enterprises and employees increased
3. 500 tons of value added product of jackfruit produced worth 6.16
Million Tk.
4. Customers get processed products of jackfruits year round
19
Total Cost:
€ 175,000= Tk. 14.52 Million (€ 1=T 83)
Detail break down of costs has been presented in Annex E.
The actions are briefly outlined as follows:
Action 2: Organize and formalize the Council for promoting growth of
Jackfruit industries
-
Background: No one promoting investment in Jackfruit, an institutional
frame work is necessary
Objectives: Creating awareness and capacity development
Key stakeholders group: BAPA officials, professions and
entrepreneurs
Type of activities: Creation through participation, MOA preparation,
Registration, Launching
Specification of related outputs and results: A institutional
framework created with a business plan
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Essential for growth and sustainability
Timeframe: 1 year
Estimated cost: € 1330 = Tk. 1.10 Million
Action 3: Sourcing technologies and linking potential entrepreneurs
-
-
Background: Enterprises have no access to equipments and
machinery and technologies
Objectives: Linking Entrepreneurs with equipment and technology
sources
Key stakeholders group: Professionals, Entrepreneurs, equipment
providers (home and abroad),
Type of activities: National Jackfruit technology fair, business
planning, Overseas visit
Specification of related outputs and results: Establishment of
processing enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Growth of jackfruit industry depends access to equipment and
machinery
Timeframe: 1 year
Estimated cost: € 29800 = Tk. 2.47 Million
Action 4: Capacity development of managers and entrepreneurs for
Jackfruit processing
Background: Entrepreneurs and managers, as well as technician are not knowledgeable for
Jackfruit processing
20
-
-
Objectives: Ensure supply of skilled, managers, technicians and
professions
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, managers, and technicians
and professionals
Type of activities: Training at home and aboard, overseas visit and
apprenticeship
Specification of related outputs and results: Skilled manpower will
make jackfruit processing possible
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Operation and profitability of the enterprises will depend on availability of
skilled technicians
Timeframe: 1 year
Estimated cost: € 22080 = Tk. 1.83 Million
Action 5: Assist entrepreneurs identify market, both domestic and export
and remain competitive through Value Chain Development
-
Background: Unknown market
Objectives: Increase sales at home and abroad
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, marketing executive,
professionals
Type of activities: Market study, development of supply chain, market
mission abroad
Specification of related outputs and results: Sales increased
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Market is key to sustainability
Timeframe: 3 years
Estimated cost: € 28000 = Tk.2.32 Million
Action 6: Organize linkages between entrepreneurs and financial institutions
for financing Jackfruit processing
-
Background: Unwillingness of financial institutions to invest in new
ventures
Objectives: Ensuring access to fund
Key stakeholders group: Entrepreneurs, Executive of financial
institutions,
Type of activities: Workshop, business planning, seed fund creation,
operational modality
Specification of related outputs and results: Establishment of cluster
of enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Finance is key to growth of the industry
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: € 4800 = Tk. 0.40
21
Action 7: Identify and propagate industrially suitable varieties of Jackfruits in
regions of cluster of Jackfruit SMEs located
-
Background: Suitability of raw materials is key to gain competitiveness.
-
Objectives: To ensure long term sustainability and competitiveness
Key stakeholders group: Producers and nursery owners and field
technicians
Type of activities: Identification and preservation of mother plants and
propagation by budding and tissue culture
Specification of related outputs and results: Profitability of enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Branding and competitiveness will depend on quality of raw materials
Timeframe: 3 years
Estimated cost: € 1860 = Tk. 0.16
-
Action Plan for Capacity Development of a BIO
Action 1: BAPA as a bio for jackfruit
Background: Most BIOs in Bangladesh act as pressure group for policy change
and realizing benefits from the government and associated institutions, programs
and projects. BAPA as a BIO of agro-processing sector does the same partly due
to lack of capacity and partly due to lack of right perspective of its role. In fact its
role of developing the bread earning industry is highly limited virtually none. This
action plan is proposed to develop capacity of a BIO to play a positive role for
growth and development of clusters of SME engaged in Jackfruit industry. The
proposed actions for capacity development are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Establish network of enterprises and clusters
Establish electronic communication system
Establish information clearing house
Establishing a monitoring and quality control system
Goal:
Emergence of an effective BIO promoting agro-processing in general
and jackfruit in particular
Outputs:
1) A one stops information service
2) A monitoring system to measure and report progress
Impacts:
1. Availability and sharing of information of markets, technologies and
development
2. Motivation for investments in Jackfruits industry
3. Better relation among value chain actors
4. A strong network
Total Cost: € 175280 = Tk. 14.55 Million (€ 1=T 83)
22
Detail break down of costs has been presented in Annex E.
The actions are briefly outlined as follows:
Action 2: Establish network of enterprises and clusters
- Background: Sustainable cluster depends on a strong network of
enterprises and clusters
- Objectives: BIO became able to maintain the network
- Key stakeholders group: BIO leaders, entrepreneurs and cluster
leaders
- Type of activities: Meetings, orientation, conference, visits to market,
workshops
- Specification of related outputs and results: Information seeking and
sharing
- Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Relation building
- Timeframe: 3 Years
- Estimated cost: € 16750 = Tk. 1.39 Million
Action 3: Establish electronic communication system
-
-
Background: No information is available now
Objectives: Information on market, technology and growth of the industry
become available
Key stakeholders group: BIO members, Entrepreneurs and cluster
leaders
Type of activities: Establishment of conference room, Computers, Web
development and hoisting, information tracking system, Videos, Still and
movie Camera
Specification of related outputs and results: Information need is
fulfilled quickly
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Quick decision making
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: € 62700 = Tk. 5.21 Million
Action 4: Establish information clearing house
-
Background: There is no system of information storage
Objectives: All relevant information is properly stored and supplied
Key stakeholders group: BIO members, Entrepreneurs and cluster
leaders
Type of activities: Collection, classification, cataloging and storage of
information of home and abroad
Specification of related outputs and results: BIO can help
entrepreneurs when information available
23
-
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Support to clusters linked with information available
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: € 6000 = Tk. 0.50 Million
Action 5: Establishing Standard and quality control system
-
Background: There is no quality standard and control system
Objectives: Keep products competitive
Key stakeholders group: BIO leaders, Entrepreneurs, and cluster
leaders,
Type of activities: Setting quality standards, Training on HACCP and
GAP, Monitoring product quality, Training on quality standards
Specification of related outputs and results: Growth of cluster and
enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Customer confidence
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: € 6600 = Tk. 0.55 Million
Action 6: Establishing a monitoring system
-
-
Background: Monitoring is essential for learning progress and planning
for future
Objectives: Keep stakeholders abreast of progress and future actions to
be taken
Key stakeholders group: BIO leaders, Entrepreneurs, and cluster
leaders,
Type of activities: Designing Monitoring system, Monitoring survey,
Printing and circulation of monitoring report, Workshop for learning
sharing
Specification of related outputs and results: Growth of clusters of
enterprises
Description of linkages/relationships between activity clusters:
Learning and experience sharing
Timeframe: 3 year
Estimated cost: € 15100 = Tk. 1.26 Million
24
5. Key Recommendations





Jackfruit processing is a potential new venture in Bangladesh. Experimental
efforts are noticed at individual and group levels through NGOs as in Rajbari
by Practical Action and by Idilpur Pineapple Cultivators and Mouchas
Unnayan Samity in Madhupur as well as at enterprise level through own
initiatives as by PRAN and Rajshahi Mango Products Ltd. The consultant
recommends organizing micro enterprises as CLUSTER with common
production and marketing facilities
The consultant recommends providing technical assistance to all enterprises
operating as CLUSTER as well as individual enterprises that have plans to
invest.
Grant winning clusters and enterprises should have linkage for credit support
through Bangladesh Banks or any other MFI for investment and operational
funds.
By-product processing should be integral part of any jackfruits investment
project to avoid environmental hazards and make cattle feed, bio fuel, etc
which will make the main products cheaper.
Training of consultants and entrepreneurs will surely improve their skills in
preparing applications. Flexibility in evaluating the application of Lot 1(a) is
important for jackfruit processing.
25
Appendix A: Business Feasibility Report on Jackfruit Processing
The Ministry of Industries of the
Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh
SME Competitive Grant Scheme
BUSINESS FEASIBILITY REPORT ON JACKFRUIT PROCESSING
Mohammed Hassanullah, Ph D
Consultant, INSPIRED Project
7 December 2012
26
TABLE OF CONTENT
No.
Subject
Page
1
Acronyms
23
2
Name and Coordinate
24
3
Justification and Benefit
24
4
Implementing Party or Agency
25
5
Methodology
25
6
Key Activities
33
7
Impact on Economic Growth and Jobs
33
8
Resources Required
33
9
SWOT Analysis
34
10
Gross Margin Analysis
35
11
Export Market Analysis
35
Charts
1
Pre-processing of bulbs and pulps
37
2
Process of preparing flakes and leathers
38
3
Process of preparing pickles and beverages
39
Appendix
i
Production Seasons of Jackfruits
41
ii
Findings of VC Analysis
42
iii
Comparison of Nutritional Value of Tropical Fruits
46
iv
Photographs of Jackfruit Products
47
v
Gross Margin Analysis
50
27
Acronyms
Acronyms
Meaning
BSTI
Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute
CFTRI
Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
ED
Executive Director
EU
European Union
HP
Horse Power
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
ICUC
International Centre for Unutilized Crops
MD
Managing Director
MSME
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise
NGO
Non-government Organization
SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SME
Small and Medium Enterprise
SWOT
Strengths, Weakness Opportunities and Threats
VC
Value Chain
28
BUSINESS FEASIBILITY REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING
JACKFRUIT
1. Name and Coordinates:
Title: Industrial Processing of Jackfruits
Location: Madhupur Upazila of Tanglail District
Type: Agro Product Processing
Contact Person: Mr. Abul Hossain
2. Justification and Benefits
Justification
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is recognized as the National Fruit of
Bangladesh. It is grown in all districts. Presently, Bangladesh cultivates jackfruits in
79 thousands hectares of land producing about 1,352,084 tons fruits in a year (DAE,
2012). Yield per hectare is 17 MT which could be increased three to five times more if
commercial gardens are established and proper and intensive management practices
are adopted. The highest volume of production takes place in Dhaka, Gazipur,
Tangail, Khagrachari, Rangamati, Maymansingh, Moulvibazar, Narsingdi, Dinajpur
and Rangpur. Modhupur is the heart of best quality Jackfruit growing areas. It has a
very short harvest season (2-3 months) and all consumed fresh. Since there is no
processing it is not available in rest of the year for consumption. During harvest in
June to August it is over consumed and sold at a throw away prices. The scope of
processing will be increased many fold with increase of yield per hectare.
Immediate Benefits
If processed industrially the product will be available all year round for consumption,
producers will get better prices and there will be new employment opportunities. Local
demand for jackfruit will increase. Farm gate price will increase increasing producers’
income. New processed products of Jackfruit will be available in the markets.
Consumer will get jackfruit processed products in the grocers’ shops. Market
opportunities will increase. Investment in jackfruit processing is relatively small
creating opportunity for growth and development of MSMEs particularly in the
commercial hubs in which local entrepreneurs can invest as clusters using locally
available business development services. Increased production will make import
substitutions. There are reports that canned jackfruits are imported from Thailand.
Productions of high quality vacuum fried chips will also substitutes importation of
various types of chips and other similar products.
Long Term Benefits
New investment opportunity will be created. It will have a great demonstrative impact
on the entrepreneurs. Many entrepreneurs will come forward, make investment in
29
jackfruit processing in all districts of Bangladesh particularly in those where intensity
of jackfruit cultivation is very high such as Dhaka, Gazipur, Tangail, Khagrachari,
Rangamati, Mymensingh, Moulvibazar, Narsingdi, Dinajpur and Rangpur. Production
of high quality vacuum fried chips and other products will open up opportunities of
export of jackfruit products to countries as global demand of jackfruit products is
increasing. The jackfruit is the most expensive fruit on sale in Britain costing about
£25.00 per fruit. The jackfruit has regional and international markets because it is
available as a fresh fruit as well as processed products. Besides, Bangladesh has
seasonal advantage over Brazil, Columbia, Indonesia and Thailand (Appendix A)
i.e. when jackfruit is harvested in Bangladesh, it is not produced at that time in those
countries.
Value Chain Analysis
In view of lack of value chain based data at national perspective a participatory value
chain analysis was conducted in a commercial hub of Jackfruit in Madhupur Upazila
in which 26 stakeholders, i.e. producers, traders, processors and service providers
participated. It has been observed that production is scatter with low per acre yield
which could be in from three to times more if proper practices are followed. A very
large number of producers are involved. A large number of primary traders gather
the products to primary market where large aggregators by the products at relatively
low prices and transport to whole sale markets of the metropolitan cities. About 10%
are consumed locally. There are no processors or exporters in this hub. There is no
safe transportation and storage system and very frequently immature fruits are
ripened by applying harmful chemical. Therefore, there is tremendous scope and
potential to process jackfruits in this hub. Similar opportunities also exist in other
commercial hubs of the country. Details of findings are presented in Appendix B.
3. Implementing Party or Agency
Fruit Farmers Association of Madhupur /Mou Chashi Samily of Madhupur in Tangail
district and many entrepreneurs will come forward to invest in jackfruit industries if
they can access technologies and finance.
4. Methodology
Why should jackfruit be processed?
The fruit should be processed because of:




The fruit is rich in Vitamin A B and potassium, calcium, iron, proteins, and
carbohydrates
Processing reduces post harshest losses,
Processing increases shelve life of the fruit
Processing add value and increases income
30
A comparison of jackfruit with other tropical fruits shows that Jackfruit has very high
proportion of calcium, vitamins and some minerals (Appendix C). Composition of
the edible parts (100 g edible portion) of jackfruit (on the basis of fresh weight) is as
follows:
Composition
Young fruit
Ripe fruit
Seed
Water (g)
76.2-85.2
72.0-94.0
51.0-64.5
Protein (g)
2.0-2.6
1.2-1.9
6.6-7.04
Fat (g)
0.1-0.6
0.1-0.4
0.40-0.43
Carbohydrate (g)
9.4-11.5
16.0-25.4
25.8-38.4
Fibre (g)
2.6-3.6
1.0-1.5
1.0-1.5
Total sugars (g)
20.6
Total minerals (g )
0.9
0.87-0.9
0.9-1.2
Calcium (mg)
30.0-73.2
20.0-37.0
50.0
Magnesium (mg) 27.0
54.0
Phosphorus (mg)
20.0-57.2
38.0-41.0
38.0-97.0
Potassium (mg)
287-323
191-407
246
Sodium (mg)
3.0-35.0
2.0-41.0
63.2
Iron (mg)
0.4-1.9
0.5-1.1
1.5
Vitamin A (IU)
30
175-540
10-17
Thiamine (mg)
0.05-0.15
0.03-0.09
0.25
Riboflavin (mg)
0.05-0.2
0.05-0.4
0.11-0.3
Vitamin C (mg)
12.0-14.0
7.0-10.0
11.0
Energy (Kj)
50-210
88-410
133-139
Sources: Arkroyd et al,(1966); Narasimham (1990); Soepadmo
(1992); Gunasena et al,(1996); Azad (2000).
Potential Processed Products of Jackfruits
The potential processed products of jackfruit are as
follows:









Pickle/Chutney
Canned jackfruit
Fruit leather
Jam
Candy/Toffee/biscuit
Beverage
Powder
Dried Jackfruit Flacks
Pulp
To visualize the products photograph of the products have been presented in
Appendix D
31
Production process
Production processes of various products are shown in Chart 1 to 3
Product Preparation and Ingredients (International Centre of Unutilized Crop
2005):
Product Preparation and Ingredients required for major products are briefly
presented here:
Pickles
Ingredients
1 kg peeled jackfruit
Salt to prepare 5% brine solution (50 g/l)
2.5 g turmeric powder
25 g coriander seeds
10-20 g chilli powder
10 g salt
150 g sugar
10 ml vinegar
Method of Preparation
Small tender green jackfruits are cut into several pieces, then the bulbs are removed
by hand, the seeds may be removed and the bulbs are sliced into pieces. Jackfruit
slices are required to be cured in brine solution for 8-10 days prior to pickling.
Jackfruit pickle in oil is possible. Different types of pickles (sweet, spiced, sour)
prepared from raw jackfruits have been described by ICUC (2005).
Peel the skin. Cut the peeled fruits into 12-18 mm thick slices. Prepare a 5%
common salt solution by mixing salt with water, 50 g salt/l. Place the slices in a
container and cover with brine solution. Weigh them down to keep them submerged
in the brine. Drain the slices after 24 hours using a stainless steel sieve and wash
them to remove the excess salt. Grind and mix the following spices (for 1 kg peeled
jackfruit): 2.5 g turmeric powder, 25 g coriander seeds, 10-20 g chilli powder, 10 g
salt. 150g sugar. Add the spice mix and vinegar (10 ml/kg) to the jackfruit slices and
cook the mix in a stainless steel boiling pan for 30 minutes while stirring. Pour the
pickle into pre-sterilized jars and seal. Cool the jars at room temperature, then label.
32
Jam
Ingredients:
Jackfruit pulp 1 kg
Sugar 1 kg
Citric acid 2½ g
Pineapple essence ½ kg
Orange essence ½ ml
Method of Preparation
Ripe fruits are cut into several pieces and the bulbs are removed by hand. The bulbs
are then cooked for 15 minutes and pulped, the core being removed. Cut the end of
the bulb to remove the seeds, and grind the bulbs to pulp using a blender. The pulp
is mixed with other fruit pulp (jackfruit: other fruits=1:1). Dissolve 10 g pectin per kg
mixed fruit pulp in some water and add to the mixture. Add 1 kg sugar per kg mixed
fruit pulp and mix. Heat the mixture in a stainless steel vessel while stirring
continuously until the total sugar content is 68-70º C, pour into pre-sterilised jam jars
and seal. The ideal pouring temperature is 82-85º C. Cool jars at room temperature,
then label. The color of the final product is yellow, TSS is 68° Brix, the consistency is
semi solid, and the flavour is pleasant. But the product is somewhat sticky, so further
refinement of the process is needed to develop a marketable product.
Jelly
Ingredients for jackfruit extract
Jackfruit extracts 1 kg
(perigones and rind of ripe jackfruit)
Water 1½ kg
Boiling time 40 minutes
TSS 100º Brix
Ingredients for jelly preparation
Quantity of extract 1kg
Quantity of sugar 1kg
TSS 75º Brix
Final weight 1.02 kg
Number of bottles 500 x 2
33
Method of Preparation
Jelly is a product of gelatinous consistency prepared by boiling strained fruit extract
with sugar. It is a sparkling product which is transparent with an attractive color.
Jackfruit beverages
Ingredients
Pulp 150 g
Sugar 140 g
Water 710 ml
KMS (Potassium metabisulphite) 140 mg
Final weight of the product 1 kg
Fruit TSS 14º Brix
Taste Refreshing
Colour Yellow orange
Method of Preparation
Cut ripe fruit in half lengthwise. Carve out the core of the fruit Scoop out the bulbs.
Cut the end of the bulbs to remove the seeds. Homogenize the pulp using a pulper
or blender. Boil the pulp for 5 minutes in a stainless steel boiling pan. Cool the pulp.
Add pectin-degrading enzyme according to instructions on the packet. Keep the
mixture at room temperature overnight. Filter the extract using a muslin cloth or
stainless steel filter. Prepare a 50% sugar syrup solution at 90º C by dissolving 500 g
sugar in a small amount of water and make the volume up to 1 litre. Combine the
fruit juice (30%) and sugar syrup (70%). To obtain 1 litre of the beverage mix 300 ml
juice and 700 ml sugar syrup. Add a preservative such as sodium meta-bisulphite
(concentration up to 0.05%)(Optional). Pour into pre-sterilized bottles by using either
a jug and funnel or a stainless steel bucket with an outer tap. Cap the bottles.
Pasteurize the sealed bottles at 80-95ºC for 10-20 minutes. Cool the bottles to room
temperature by immersing in cool water Label
Candy
Candies can be prepared from ripe jackfruit pulp by putting them in sugar syrup and
gradually raising its TSS to 70º Brix.
34
Ingredients
Pulp 500 g
Water 1250 ml
Sugar 750 g
KMS 2 g
Citric acid 3 g
Method of Preparation
Cut the fruit in half lengthwise, carve out the core of the fruit, Scoop out the bulbs.
Cut the end of the bulbs to remove the seeds, Prepare a brine solution containing
15% salt (150 g/l) and 1% calcium chloride (10 g/l). Soak the bulbs in a brine solution
for 2 days. Place a wooden plate with a weight on top of the fruit to keep them
submerged in the brine. Remove the bulbs from the brine, wash them to remove the
salt and drain using a stainless steel sieve. Check the flavour to ensure that all salt
has been removed. Prepare sugar syrup of 40º Brix. Boil the deseeded bulbs for 5
minutes in the syrup. Keep the mixture at room temperature (28-31º C) for 24 hours.
Remove the bulbs from the syrup. Add sugar to the syrup until it is 50º Brix (use a
refract meter). Immerse the bulbs in the syrup and keep at room temperature for 24
hours. Remove bulbs from the syrup again. Add more sugar to the syrup until it is
62º Brix. Re-immerse the bulbs in the syrup and keep at room temperature for 24
hours. Remove the bulbs and quickly rinse in water to remove surface syrup. Drain
off the syrup by spreading the bulbs on wire trays. Dry drained fruits for about 1 day
in a solar or tray dryer. Pack the candies in jars, tins, cardboard cartons or in
polythene pouches and seal them.
Label
N.B. Citric acid was added when strength of the syrup was 50° Brix.
Final TSS 70° Brix Color yellow
Candying of bulbs is practiced to extend their utilization. It was prepared by
conventional syruping at 70°C Brix, with subsequent oven drying at 60° Brix for one
day. The moisture level of the fruit was reduced to 20% after drying.
Fruit bars
Jackfruit bars are prepared by mixing sugar and citric acid with pulp and drying to
moisture content below 30%.
Ingredients
Pulp 300 g
Sugar 60 g
35
Citric acid 0.6 g
KMS a pinch
Essence 1.5 ml
Weight of the final product 150 g
Method of Preparation
Three methods of drying for fruit bars were attempted - sun drying, drying in a
cabinet drier at 60° C, and microwave dehydration. The product dried in a microwave
oven had an undesirable dark color. The color of the product dried by sun drying and
the cabinet drier were good. Weight of the final product: Sun drying 155 g, Cabinet
drying 150 g. recover %, Sun drying 43, Cabinet drying 42
Dehydrated products
Jackfruit can be preserved by dehydration of the bulbs, seeds, perigones and used
to make products like papads. Pectins can also be extracted for use in processing
(Jain and Lal, 1954). Jackfruit bulbs can be dried in the sun or in a cabinet drier at
50-55°C after sulphuring them in a closed chamber. Teaotia and Awasthi (1968)
carried out detailed studies in the dehydration of jackfruit bulbs and reported that
fruits harvested between 165-195 days from spike appearance with 0.2% SO2
treatment for 15 minutes gave a good quality dehydrated product.
Method of Preparation
Cut fruit in half lengthwise, Carve out the core of the fruit, Scoop out the bulbs, Cut
the end of the bulbs to remove the seeds, Cut the deseeded bulb into 2 or 4 pieces,
Blanch the fruit segments by plunging into boiling water for 2 minutes, and cool them
rapidly under clean cold water, Place the blanched segments in a single layer on
mesh dryer trays. Put them close together but not touching to achieve the maximum
capacity and an even rate of drying. Load trays into the drying cabinet and dry at 55º
C for 6-7 hours until the moisture content is reduced to 5%. Remove trays and pack
dried fruits immediately in moisture proof containers e.g. 400 gauge polythene or
polypropylene pouches, and heat-seal them.
Jackfruit leather
Ingredients
1 kg fruit bulbs
100-150 g/kg sugar
0.1 g/kg potassium or sodium meta-bisulphite
36
Method of Preparation
Cut fruit in half lengthwise, Carve the sticky core, Scoop out the bulbs, Cut the end of
the bulbs to remove the seeds, Add sugar (10-15% the weight of the bulbs = 100150 g/kg) according to variety used and taste. Blend the bulbs, Dissolve preservative
e.g. potassium or sodium meta-bisulphite (0.1g/kg) in water and add to the product,
Concentrate mixture in a stream-jacketed pan. Spread concentrate on stainless steel
trays lined with grease proof paper in 3 mm thickness. Dry leather using a solar (2
days) or mechanized dryer (18-20) hours. Turn it over after 1 day in a solar dryer or
5 hours in an artificial dryer until the moisture content is 9-12%.
Canning of raw jackfruit
Bhatia et al. (1956) described a procedure for canning raw jackfruit in brine in which
tender jackfruit flesh cubes were used in 2% brine in cans. Bhatia et al. (1955) also
described methods for canning of raw jackfruit packed in curried style, either alone or
in combination with other vegetables like potato, tomato, cauliflower, beans etc. In
this case, the product is canned in spiced gravy instead of brine.
Jackfruit seeds
Sun dried or oven dried (cabinet drier) seeds can be preserved in airtight containers
for over a year. The dehydrated seeds after soaking in water for about 18 hours can
be used as fresh seeds for canning or can be cooked and consumed (Bhatia et al.,
1956). Flour prepared from dried jackfruit seeds mixed at a 25% level with wheat
flour was found to be useful for “Chapati” making.
Jackfruit pectin
Good quality pectin can be prepared from jackfruit waste. Krishnamurthy and Giri
(1949) reported that pericarps and kernels of jackfruit are rich in pectin. Bhatia et al.
(1959) prepared pectin and also pectin extracts from jackfruit rind.
Jackfruit powder
Method of Preparation
Cut fruit in half lengthwise. Carve out the core of the fruit. Scoop out the bulbs, Cut
the end of the bulbs to remove seeds, Cut the deseeded bulb into 2-4 pieces, Blanch
fruit segments by plunging into boiling water for 2 minutes and cooling them rapidly
under clean cold water. Place the blanched segments in a single layer on the mesh
dryer trays. Put them close together but not touching to achieve the maximum
capacity and an even rate of drying. Load trays into the drying cabinet and dry at 55º
37
C for 6-7 hours until the moisture content is reduced to 5%. Grind the pieces into a
powder using a grinder or by pounding them using a pestle and mortar. Sieve the
powder to remove lumps and un-ground material. Pack powder in moisture-proof
containers, e.g. 400 gauge polythene or polypropylene pouches, and heat-seal them.
Label Further recipes are available at www.fairchildgarden.org/horticulture/jackfruitrecipes.html
Storage of Jackfruit
Fresh Fruits: For 4-5 days at 25-35 0 C
For 2-6 weeks at 11-13 0 C
Bulbs:
For 3 weeks at 2 0C when packed in heat sealed polythene bags
Pulp:
For more than one year at -20-220 C when packed in heat sealed
polythene bags
5. Key Activities
In order to set up a Jackfruit industry an entrepreneur will have to perform the
following activities:









Prepare a business plan or get it prepared with the help of an expert with
details of production planning, packaging, labeling and storage, and market
channel development and market promotion with details of cost benefit
analysis
Access sources of machinery and logistics and arrange infrastructure in
suitable place generally within the production zone, complete civil work and
set up machineries with the help of suppliers on turnkey basis
Arrange appropriate human and financial resources to operate the enterprise
Identify the appropriate type of jackfruit suitable to produce a product(s), make
contractual arrangement with the owners of the trees and ensure
procurement/supply of mature and safe jackfruits in time and quantity
Identify potential markets, marketing channels, make trial marketing and
assess customer taste and presences and accordingly adjust product quality
and production process
Adopt quality and safety measures relating to HACCP and assist the
producers to adopt good agricultural practices
Identify stakeholders of the value chain and establish rapport with them with
those who have forward and backward linkage.
Conduct periodical financial analysis and establish financial control system to
guard pilferage of resources
Run the enterprise profitability, watch the market signals and adjust the
products and production processes.
38
6. Impact on Economic Growth and Jobs
Bangladesh produced about 1,352,084 tons of jackfruits in 2012 (DAE, 2012). If onethird of it is brought under processing as SMEs there will be about 900 SME which
will generate 9000 employment and Tk. 851 million revenue from processed
products only in factories. Processing of waste, inedible portion as feed or bio-fuel
will generate similar volume of revenue. The employment and revenue generation
will be 5 times more if jackfruit production, transportation and trading related to
processing is considered. If successful both production of raw materials and
processed products will increased significantly.
7. Resources Required
Establishment and expansion of jackfruit industry requires human, machinery,
physical infrastructures and financial resources. Since it is a new enterprise virtually
there is no skilled labors, technicians and professionals also. Capacity development
is of prime importance. There is an efficient light engineering sector in Bangladesh. It
is reported that several enterprises like Mark Industries can manufacture the
equipment needed to process jackfruit. Their capacities also need to be developed.
39
8. SWOT Analysis
Strengths
Small and subsistence farmers possess traditional knowledge and
skills to produce enough surpluses of good varieties of jackfruits
available in the region. On a national perspective about one-third of
total production about 450,000 MT would be available for processing
all over the country. There are many small and large traders who can
aggregate the products from remote villages and ensure supply to
outside suppliers or processors. All available types of jackfruits will be
processed as different products require different types of raw
jackfruits, soft medium and hard. Land is most suitable for jackfruit
cultivation and there is scope to organize small scale specialized
gardens increasing productivity and supply of fresh quality jackfruit for
shipping outside the country for fresh consumption and processing.
There are huge markets of processed products as it is a very much
popular product and is available for only three months for
consumption.
Weaknesses
Farmers have lack of access to modern technologies to increase
production as there are no extension and research efforts on
jackfruit. There is a vast market but farmers have little access to
markets outside the community as a result there is seasonal glut
resulting very low prices. Besides, there is no access to preservation
technologies. Neither the producers nor the traders can hold for
some time as it is highly perishable product. Producers and traders
have small operation and have no external financing. As it is
harvested in monsoon season it is difficult to carry the products from
production site because of muddy road. Often it becomes difficult to
transport the product to distance places due to natural calamities.
Opportunities
Threats
There is a great scope of establishing commercial small holder
plantations which will increase three to five times more production than
the present level of production of jackfruits. Application of simple
technologies selective variety plantation, intercropping, manuring and
fertilization, irrigation, pruning trees and thinning of fruits can double or
even triple the yield of jackfruits which is now less than 17.00 MT per
hectare. There is increasing domestic demand of jackfruit due to
population increase and urbanization and international demand of both
fresh and processed products is also increasing in countries like UK,
USA, middle-east as well as in Asian countries. Concerted effort is
required for research, extension, processing, infrastructure
development and trade promotion.
Stakeholders reported that incidence of disease and insect is
increasing but there is no effort to identify and undertake remedial
measures. Some exotic varieties are facing extinction due to genetic
deterioration due to lack of effort of identification and insitu
preservation of desirable trees. Customers are reported to lose trust
of fruits in general and of jackfruit in particular due to use of
chemicals (formalin) to ripen immature fruits due to lack of
availability of bio-secured methods of preservation and ripening.
40
9. Gross Margin Analysis
Detail analysis is presented in the Appendix E.
10. Competitors Analysis
It is generally assumed that the production of jackfruit will expand mostly due to an
expanding market for processed products. It is estimated that the demand for fresh
fruits will expand in countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom in
addition to Singapore and Hong Kong and some Middle Eastern countries.
Bangladesh exports about 54.00 MT jackfruit to the United Kingdom at a price of
£1.23/kg. In the United Kingdom a fresh fruit is sold at £2.45 per kg and a medium
size fruit may cost £16-£20. Canned tender raw jackfruit and seeds can be sold in
international markets, mostly for ethnic consumers. One cane containing 250 g of
bulbs in brine is sold in the United Kingdom retail market for £1.39. In Bangladesh
there is no government support for exporters from the Export Promotion Bureau.
Malaysian Government has recently signed a contract with Bangladesh to supply
jackfruit which will be processed in Malaysia for re-export.
The main exporters of jackfruit in Asia are Thailand, China and Malaysia, and
among them, Thai products are considered to be the market standard, followed in
quality by Malaysia and China. Malaysia exports to Singapore (almost 85%) and
Hong Kong, where grading for uniformity in shape is not required as strictly as in the
United Kingdom. In Thailand, the jackfruit has a long season, April to October, and it
is exported to the USA year round. Colombia, India, Malaysia, Uganda, Jamaica,
Thailand, Sri Lanka. Bangladesh and Kenya export jackfruit to the United Kingdom
market. Among these, Colombia, India, Malaysia and Uganda supply throughout the
year. Thailand exports throughout the year except for July-September and Sri Lanka
exports during all calendar months except December and January. The UK retailer
Sainsbury is increasing its range of fruits as customers are prepared to try an
increasing variety and jackfruit has now reached 15 of its stores (www.just-food.com,
2002). The jackfruit is the most expensive fruit on sale in Britain costing about
£25.00 per fruit. The jackfruit has regional and international markets because it is
available as a fresh fruit as well as a processed product. Malaysia exported more
than 4633 tones of fresh fruits to Singapore and Hong Kong in 1995 (Azad, 2000)
and earned about US$ 740,000. Jackfruit is popular in Hong Kong and the fruits are
supplied from Thailand, Malaysia and particularly from other parts of China (Vinning
and Moody, 1997). The Philippines has also exported jackfruit to the value of US$
324,000 (Acedo, 1992).The jackfruit is available in the wholesale markets of
Australia, supplied from Queensland and the Northern Territory. The fruits are sold in
the Sydney market, most frequently ranging from A$ 3-4 /kg. In addition to Sydney,
jackfruit is traded in Melbourne and Brisbane. The fruits are consumed by ethnic
groups such as Pacific Island communities and Southeast Asian communities
resident in Australia. Whereas the large, heavy and perishable fruits will have limited
fresh export capacity from producing countries. There is a clear niche for canned and
other processed products as exports. Bangladesh should focus due attention on
those products.
41
Chart 1: Pre-processing of bulbs and pulps
Ripe Jackfruits
Cut in half
Deseeded bulbs
Crush bulbs
Add 30-40 g sugar
per 100 g pulp and
mix
Carve out the Core
Dry
Scoop out the bulbs
Pack
Sort
Preserve pulp
Remove Seeds
Pack + Seed
Store
42
Chart 2: Process of preparing flakes and leathers
Dry Jackfruit flakes
Leather
Dehydrated bulbs
Add Sugar (100Dehydrated bulbs
150 g per kg bulb)
Blend
Cut into slices
Dissolve potassium
metabisulphite (0.1
g per kg in water
and add
Blench for 2 minutes
jacketed pan
Cool under cold
water
Concentrate
mixture in a steam
Packaging and
storage
Spread
concentrate on tray
Pack in heat sealed
Place on mess
trays
400 gauge polythene
backs and store in
Dry
dark, cool place for
several months
Dust with starch
Dry
Dry
Pack + Seal
Cut into pieces
Roll (Optional)
Dry
43
Chart 3: Process of preparing pickles and beverages
Pickles
Beverage
Young Green Fresh
Deseeded bulb
Jackfruit
Homogenize using
pulper or blender
Peel skin
Cut into slice
Brine for 24 hours
Place slices into
container and cover
with brine solution
a
Boil for 5 min
Add pectin
degenerating enzyme
Cool
Prepare 5% brine
solution
Keep overnight
Filter
Add 50% sugar solution
Drain and was to
remove excess salt
Add sodium
metbisulphite ((0.5 g per
kg (optional)
Mix
Grind and mix spices:
Pour into bottles and
seal
Add spice + vinegar (10
ml per kg)
Cook for 30 minutes
Turmeric, coriander,
chilli powder, salt and
sugar
Heat pasteurize in
0
bottles at 80-95 C
Pour into jar and seal
Cool at room
temperature
Cool in cold water
44
Packaging and storage of pickle
Seal in polythene bags or pack in clean,
tightly capped glass or plastic jars or
bottles. Store in cool, dark place for
several months
Packaging and storage of
beverages
Pack in well sealed clean glass or
plastic bottles and store in cool dark
places for several months
45
Appendix i: Availability of jackfruit in different countries
Countries
Australia
Bangladesh
Brazil
Colombia
India
Indonesia
Jamaica
Kenya
Malaysia
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Uganda
USA (Florida)
Zanzibar
Source: Soepadmo, 1992; Crane et al.,
2003
Main season(s) of availability
June-April
June-August
January-March, August-October
January-December
April-July
August-January
January-July
June-October
April-August, September-December
March-August
February-November
January-May, October-December
January-December
May-August, September-October
June-December
46
Appendix ii: Value Chain Analysis
This value chain is developed through discussion with 26 stakeholders representing
NGOs, agro processors, traders, nurseries and farmers using the EU Guideline of
value chain development as in Chart 1. The list of stakeholders who participated in
the value chain mapping FGD is attached in Appendix 1.
Chart 1: EU style value chain of Jackfruit in Madhupur Upazila of Tangail
District
Consumes most of total
Production/seed for next year
Planting
Material
(400
nurseries)
160,000
Farmers in the
Upazila
100% of total vegetable production goes to
market unchanged
Local
Market
(100
small
hats
Small
Trader
10,000
Processors
(None)
Buyers
Households
(None)
Household
Family
Consumption
(10% only
Buyers
Household
10%
Distance to
market will
be very short as
3km
Urban
Market
(only one)
Buyers
Household
Distance to
urban markets
will be short as
3km to 150 km
Post Harvest Losses as high as 10-15%: no
storage, post harvest handling, and
transportation losses
47
Production
Jackfruit is almost a natural product in Madhupur. About 160,000 farmers are
involved in production. Generally, seeds or grafts from nurseries are planted
scattered in the homestead or in adjacent areas. Small scale commercial gardens
cover about 20%. There is no dearth of planting materials as there are about 400
nurseries in the upazila. The quality of grafts is reported to be good. Producers
cannot recognize the varieties but accustomed with three types such as soft bulb,
medium hard bulb and hard bulb. Similarly there are early, medium and late maturity
types. There are wide variation of size, flavour and sweetness. There are very little
knowledge of agronomy, disease and pest protection, maturity and post harvest
handling and operation. As a result waste is very high. Harvesting season is May to
August. The peak season is July. Farmers reported that when jackfruit is raised in an
organized garden and intercropped production increased 3-5 times more as
compared to homestead scattered trees whose yield is about 10 tons per hectare.
Production, harvest and post harvest is not organized to meet the requirements of
industries. There are varieties as reported by farmers which produce fruits year
round which can be multiplied rapidly to feed the industry year round.
Production Costs
Jackfruit in Bangladesh is almost a natural crop. Nothing is done after planting
except harvesting from the trees. There is no cost of production except the price of
the graft which is about Tk. 20.00, in exceptional cases plants may require fencing
which is about Tk. 10.00. When the plants are above man height nothing is for about
15-20 years or more, only plucking and selling.
Market Trends
Demand of fresh Jackfruit is increasing due to population increase and urbanization.
In certain areas like Madhupur production is also increasing as the region is most
suitable for Jackfruit cultivation. Demands of metropolitan cities are increasing faster.
Traders’ guess is that demand and supply are equally increasing approximately
about 10% a year. During last ten years it has doubled. Industrialization will increase
the demand further but there is scope to increase area three times and that of yield
by 3-5 times if production is organized as commercial plantation with selected high
producing industrially suitable varieties through rapid multiplication of selected tries
through tissue culture technique.
Trading
Trading of jackfruits takes place at several levels. Farmers take their fruits in the
neighbourhoods market or some small traders buy matured/ripen fruits from the
household and sell in the neighbourhood market or to the Arathders (aggregators)
who ship it to wholesale markets of metropolitan cities where whole sellers buy and
48
sell to retailers. The retailers sell in the road side or fruit shops in organized markets.
It is transported to long distance on the top of bus, bulk in truck or pick up to market
of short and long distance.
Processing and Value Addition
Virtually there are no value addition activities, except transporting to markets of high
demand which fetch high prices. Even sorting, grading and packaging is not done.
There is no industrial level processing initiative primarily due to lack of knowledge
and access to technology. The traders and agro-processors have no idea about
consumers’ taste and preferences. There is no import of any processed products.
Small scale home/cottage level processed products like pickle, jam, jelly and
dehydrated product could not be marketed due small scale supply, poor quality,
packing and preservation. In fact no serious efforts are noticed among the public,
private and NGO sector.
Global Competitors
Bangladesh is exporting about 55 tons of jackfruit to the United Kingdom at a price of
£1.23/kg. In the United Kingdom a fresh fruit is sold at £2.45 per kg and a medium
size fruit may cost £16-£20. Canned tender raw jackfruit and seeds can be sold in
international markets, mostly for ethnic consumers. One can containing 250 g of
bulbs in brine is sold in the United Kingdom retail market for £1.39. In Bangladesh
there is no 138 government support for exporters from the Export Promotion Bureau,
but the Malaysian Government has recently signed a contract with Bangladesh to
supply jackfruit which will be processed in Malaysia for re-export. If Bangladesh
enters into global market of jackfruit with fresh or processed products her
competitors will be Malaysia, Thailand, India and Vietnam
Consumers
All Bangladeshis like to eat fresh jackfruits except few who do not like its strong odor
and messiness. Supermarkets have started to separate bulbs of ripen fruits, arrange
on a cellophane tray, cover by thin cellophane and put in the self. It is reported that
affluent consumers also prefers to buy in such condition at a higher prices. Since
there is no process products in the market consumer taste and preference cannot be
evaluated.
Regulatory Framework
No regulatory problems are reported relating to production, trading and processing. It
is a fruit which is grown and sold everywhere in the country with no regulation and
legal constraints. However traders in recognized and regulated markers require
licenses to conduct business any
49
Business Development Services
No business development such as extension, research, financing, and other advisory
and regulatory services are available for jackfruit production, trading and value
addition activities, no appropriate transportation system. It is simple a negligence to
this nutritious and valuable crop while neighboring countries have progressed quite
far. Provision of these services is a must to industrialize the crop.
Constraints
Even in the traditional system constraints are many with severe consequences. Graft
of desired varieties is not available; there is damage of trees due to disease and pest
infestation, during harvest in monsoon no vehicle can ply in muddy road of
production sites, needs to carry head load to nearby market, immature harvest,
artificial ripening with chemicals, damage due to bulk transportation and no scientific
knowledge of production, processing and storage is are available. All are done in
traditional way.
Conclusion
There is a traditional value chain, verbal contract among stakeholders which are
often breached at one’s own convenience without any linkage with formal sector of
extension, research and financing.
50
Participants of Value Chain FGD in Madhupur
No Name
Addresses
Mobile No.
1
Mr. Md. Golam Mondal
Bunduza, Modhupur
01714321022
2
Mr. Golam Mostafa
Bicharan, Executive Director
01717333577
3
Mr. Abdur Rahman
Ram Krishna Bari
01714919280
4
Mr. Md. Hsen Ali
Idilpur, Modhupur
X
5
Mr. Md. Azahar
Idilpur, Modhupur
01745687629
6
Mr. Md. Montalin
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
01739606237
7
Mr. Md. Amjad
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
01736219806
8
Mr. Md. Abdul Jalil
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
01747628952
9
Mr. Gumed Ali
Gobudia, Kanchain
01741712241
10
Mr. Abu Md. Habail
Gobudia, Kanchain
01718988073
11
Mr. Md. Hasan Ali
Ram Krishna Bari
01735114519
12
Mr. Md Anwar Hossain
Pirojpur
01758921394
13
Mr. Bachad
Kakraid
01724571517
14
Mr. Md. Shahjahan
Kakraid
01729566976
15
Mr. Md. Najifuddin
Gobudia,
01759633038
16
Mr. Md. Azizul
Kakraid
01729590807
17
Mr. Md. Abdul Based
Ram Krishna Bari
18
Mr. Md. Azhar Ali
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
01743939916
19
Mr. Palash
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
01712808503
20
Mr. Md. Somen Raj
Idilpur, Modhupur
01821948053
21
Mr. Md. Rafiqul Islam
Gobudia, Kanchain
01732319142
22
Mr. Md. Tota Mia
Gobudia, Kanchain
X
23
Mr. Noasher Ali
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
X
24
Mr. Abdul Mannan
General Secretary, Idulpur
Pineapple Farmers
Multipurpose Cooperative
Society
01740905408
25
Mr. Litan Kumer
Singha Roy
MD, Projector Food Industries
Limited
01712807048
26
Mr. Md. Abul Hossain
ED, Mou Chash Unnayan
Sangstha
01712563501
X
51
Appendix iii: Comparison of properties of tropical fruits
Fruits
Cal.
Prot. (g)
Ca
(mg)
Fe (mg)
Vit. A
(IU)
Thiam.
(mg)
Vit. C
(mg)
Orange
Banana
Mango
Pineapple
Papaya
53
116
63
57
39
0.8
1.0
0.5
0.4
0.6
22
7
10
20
20
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
100
600
100
1000
0.05
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.03
40
10
30
30
50
Ber
Ripe
Tender
Jackfruit
seeds
21
98
50
139
1.75
2.0
2.0
7.04
37
53
50
0.5-1
1.1
0.4
1.5
540
30
17
0.09
0.12
0.25
166
10
12
11
Cal.- calorie, Prot.- protein, Ca - calcium, Fe - iron, Vit - vitamin,
Thiam.-thiamine. Source: Azad (2000), Pareek (2001).
52
Appendix iv: Photos of Jackfruit Products
Fresh Jackfruit Pod
Fresh Jackfruit Pod
Frozen Jackfruits
Frozen Jackfruits Pod
Jackfruit Papadums
from Bangalore, India
Jackfruit chips
Jackfruit Flesh
Jackfruits
53
Jackfruit Jam
Jackfruit Pickle
Jackfruit Slice
Dehydrated Jackfruit
Vacuum Dried Jackfruit
54
Fresh Jackfruit
Dehydrated Jackfruit
Jackfruit Chip
Freeze Dried Jackfruit
Dried Jackfruit
Vacuum Dried Chips
Chips
55
Appendix v: Gross Margin Analysis- Green Earth Agro Ltd.
(Note: A Hypothetical Enterprise)
JACKFRUIT PRODUCTS INVESTMENT PROJECT
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Jackfruit is a typical sub-continental fruit mainly grown in Bangladesh, West Bengal,
Bihar, Assam and the west coast of India. The project can be set up in any of the
locations viz. Madhupur, Bhaluka, Tangail, Savar etc. Fully ripe jackfruit is sweet and
has exotic flavor. The bulbs (edible flakes) contain 7.5% sugar on dry weight basis
and a fair amount of carotene which is Vitamin-A. Many down the line products from
jackfruit are contemplated. Apart from better utilization of perishable fruit this would
also result in considerable value addition.
2.0 PRODUCTS
2.1 Applications
Many products could be made from ripe jackfruit like nectar, jam, pickle, chips and
canning. Jackfruit is grown in only certain parts of greater Dhaka division like
Madhupur, Bhaluka, Tangail, Savar etc but its popularity is not limited to the growing
regions only. Greater Mymensingh, especially Bhaluka upazila of the district, grows
substantial quantities of this fruit and reportedly there is no processing unit in that
area including Bangladesh.
2.2 Availability of know-how and Compliances
SAARC Engineering Group, Dhaka in association with CFTRI, Mysore, has
successfully developed the technical know-how of jackfruit processing. Compliance
with Food Act and BSTI is required.
3.0 MARKET POTENTIAL
3.1 Demand and Supply
Jackfruit is sweet in taste and also contains Vitamin-A. Like any other fruit, it is
perishable in nature. Jackfruit is grown in only certain parts of greater Dhaka division
like Madhupur, Bhaluka, Tangail, Savar etc but its popularity is not limited to the
growing regions only. It is heavy and bulky fruit and hence transportation is not very
easy and is costly as well. Therefore, its down the stream products with longer shelf56
life can be easily transported and shall also have value-addition. Products like
canned pieces, nectar, jam, pickle and chips are recommended.
3.2 Marketing Strategy
These products have market round the year since it is very perishable and becomes
available for a very short period of time and are popular through-out the country as
well as in the ethnic communities abroad. Products shall have to be sold with the
help of retailers at many locations like cities/towns, bus-stands, railway stations,
school/college canteens, picnic spots and various exporters etc. There is a distinct
possibility of marketing these products in the metropolitan cities, district headquarters and other up-scale markets as well. Super markets show-cases widely
across the country are very lucrative places of marketing such products in case of a
bit large project of its type.
4.0 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Jackfruit is heavy and bulky and actual recovery of bulbs or edible portion varies
from 20% to 25%. After cutting the fruit in several pieces, the bulbs are removed
manually. As the fruit contains highly sticky latex, small quantity of vegetable oil is
applied on hands and then seeds are removed from bulbs. In case of canned
jackfruit, these bulbs are canned with a small quantity of citric acid as the pH value of
this fruit is very high. While making nectar, the bulbs are passed through pulping/fruit
mill and around 10% hot water is mixed. Nectar is prepared from this pulp. In case of
chips, raw or unripe jackfruits are used. After removing bulbs as stated earlier,
suitable smaller sizes are cut and they are fried in edible oil. These fried pieces are
salted and then packed. In case of pickle also unripe jackfruits are used. After
removing bulbs and seeds, small pieces are made and they are mixed with oil, salt
and spices before packing. Jam is prepared from the pulp of ripe fruits with additives.
5.0 CAPITAL INPUTS
5.1 Land and Building
Land of around 10 decimals with built up area of 1200 sft shall be adequate. The
main production hall would occupy around 600 sft whereas balance area of around
600 sft can be suitably divided into godown, packing room and factory office. Cost of
land could be about Tk. 10 Lac whereas that of civil work it could be Tk. 06 Lac.
5.2 Plant and Machinery
It is suggested to have annual production capacity of 100 tons. Jackfruits are
available for around 5-6 months and hence yearly working is assumed to be 200
days with 2 shifts per day.
57
100 Ltrs. capacity SS make steam jacketed kettle, Straight
feeding exhaust box with 2 HP motor
Starter and gear box
Sterilization tanks
Semi-automatic Can Sealer
Can body reformer with electric motor and starter
Can body flagger with electric motor and starter
Fruit Mill with 2 HP motor with blades and sieves suitable for
jackfruit
PP Cap sealing machine
Plastic bag sealing machines
1
Price
(Tk.)
40,000
1
2
1
1
1
1
44,000
10,000
70,000
30,000
18,000
38,000
1
2
14,000
3,000
Large frying pans
Storage containers of food grade plastic of 50 kg capacity for
pickle
Storage containers of food grade plastic of 30 kg capacity for
pulp
SS knives, utensils etc.
Testing Equipments
2
9,000
100
40,000
100
30,000
LS
LS
10,000
20,000
LS
12,000
1
100,000
Total
2,44,000
Machinery Items with Specifications
Weighing Scales
200 Kg Capacity Mini-boiler
Qty.
5.3 Miscellaneous Assets
Other items like office furniture, working tables with aluminium tops in the factory,
exhaust fans, storage racks and bins etc. are likely to cost Tk. 80,000/-.
5.4 Utilities
Total power requirement shall be 15 HP and water requirement for production
process, potable and sanitation purposes shall be around 1500 liters every day.
Furnace oil or coke or wood will be required for boiler. Annual expenses on utilities at
100% activity level would be Tk. 160,000.
5.5 Raw Material
Jackfruit is grown in large quantities in greater Mymensingh and the total annual
production is estimated to be in the vicinity of about 175,000 MT. As against this, the
annual requirement of the unit even at 100% capacity utilization will not be more than
500 MT. Actual recoveries of bulbs or edible portion is in the range of 20% to 25%.
58
Hence, to be on safer side and to present a realistic picture, recovery or yield is
considered to be 20%. However, transportation of jackfruit is expensive and hence
the factory should be located in the jackfruit growing area. Other items like sugar,
edible oil, salt, citric acid, spices etc. are required in very small quantity and their
availability would not be a problem. Packing materials like plastic/glass bottles, tins,
caps, labels, printed polythene bags etc. shall be required and since the total
quantities shall not be much, it is necessary to make proper supply arrangements.
6.0 MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS
Skilled Workers
Semi-skilled Workers
Unskilled Workers
2
2
4
Monthly Salary
(Tk.)
6,000
5,000
4,000
Salesman
1
8,000
8,000
Total
46,000
Particulars
Nos.
Total Monthly
Salary (Tk.)
12,000
10,000
16,000
7.0 TENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
Activity
Application and sanction of loan
Period (in months)
2
Site selection and commencement of civil work
Completion of civil work and placement of orders for
machinery
Erection, installation and trial runs
1
4
1
8.0 DETAILS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT
8.1 Land and Building
Particulars
Land
Building
Area
Cost (Tk.)
10 Decimal
10,00,000
1200 sft
Total
6,00,000
16,00,000
59
8.2 Miscellaneous Assets
A provision of Tk. 80, 000/- is adequate to install other support assets as explained
earlier.
8.3 Preliminary & Pre-operative Expenses
Any industrial venture entails certain pre-production expenses like registration and
establishment expenses, trial run expenditure and interest during implementation
and so on. A provision of Tk. 90,000/- would take care of such expenses.
8.4 Working Capital Requirement
The project is expected to operate at 60% capacity in the first year. To achieve this
target it would need adequate amount of working capital as worked out hereunder:
Particulars
Stock of Packing Materials
Period
1 Month
Margin
30%
Total
0.60
(Tk. in lacs)
Bank Promoters
0.42
0.18
Stock of Finished Goods
½ Month
50%
0.80
0.60
0.20
Receivables
1 Month
25%
3.00
2.30
0.70
Working Expenses
1 Month
100%
0.50
0.50
Total
4.90
-3.32
1.58
60
8.5 Cost of the Project and Means of Financing
(Tk. in lacs)
Item
Amount
Land and Building
16.00
Plant and Machinery
4.88
Miscellaneous Assets
0.80
Preliminary & Pre-operative Expenses
Contingencies @ 10% on Land and Building and Plant &
Machinery
Working Capital Margin
0.88
Total
Means of Finance
27.02
Promoters' Contribution
8.11
Term Loan from Bank/FI
18.91
Total
27.02
Debt Equity Ratio
2.88
1.58
2.24 : 1
Promoters' Contribution
30%
Financial assistance in the form of grant is available from the SME Foundation, Govt.
of Bangladesh, towards expenditure on technical civil works and plant and
machinery for eligible projects subject to certain terms and conditions.
9.0 PROFITABILITY CALCULATIONS
9.1 Production Capacity and Build-up
The rated production capacity of the plant shall be 100 MT per year but capacity
utilization in the first year is restricted to 60% whereas second year onwards, it is
assumed to be 75%.
9.2 Sales Revenue at 100%
(Tk. in lacs)
Product
Canned Jackfruit
25
Selling Price
(Tk./MT)
60,000
Jackfruit Jam
25
60,000
15.00
Jackfruit Nectar
20
52,000
10.40
Jackfruit Pickle
20
56,000
11.20
Jackfruit Chips
10
100
100,000
10.00
61.60
Total
Qty. (MT)
Sales
15.00
61
9.3 Raw Materials Required at 100%
(Tk. in lacs)
Qty. (MT)
Unit Price
(Tk./MT)
Total Cost
Jackfruit (Ripe)
350
2,400
8.40
Jackfruit (Unripe)
150
2,000
3.00
Sugar
LS
-
4.76
Citric acid, pectin, colors, essence etc.
LS
--
1.00
Salt, Vinegar, spices
Packing Materials/Plastic/Glass bottles &
Caps
Aluminum Cans
LS
--
0.80
LS
LS
---
3.00
6.50
LS
--
Product
Labels, polythene bags, new/used
cartons, etc.
Total
2.50
30.96
9.4 Utilities
The total annual cost at 100% utilization is estimated to be Tk. 160,000/- as
explained earlier.
9.5 Selling Expenses
The products shall have to be sold through retailers for whom a provision of sales
commission @ 10% is made. There will be some other expenses like transportation,
publicity in local media etc. for which a provision of 5% is made.
9.6 Interest
Interest on term loan of Tk. 18.91 lacs is worked out @ 12% per annum considering
repayment in 5 years including a moratorium period of 1 year. Interest on bank
borrowing for working capital is computed @ 14% per annum.
9.7 Depreciation
The rates assumed are 10% for building and 20% for machinery and miscellaneous
assets and the method adopted is WDV (Written-Down Value method).
62
10.0 PROJECTED PROFITABILITY
No. Particulars
A Installed Capacity
Capacity Utilization
Sales Realization
B Cost of Production
Raw Materials
Packing Materials
Utilities
Salaries
Stores & Spares
Repairs & Maintenance
Selling and Distribution @ 15%
Administrative Expenses
Total
C Profit before Interest & Depreciation
Interest on Term Loan
Interest on Working Capital
Depreciation
Net Profit
Income-tax @ 20%
(Tk. in lacs)
1st Year
2nd Year
--- 100 Tonnes --60%
75%
36.96
46.20
11.38
7.20
0.96
2.96
0.30
0.48
5.40
0.60
29.46
7.50
1.98
0.46
2.61
3.98
0.80
14.22
9.00
1.20
3.40
0.42
0.72
6.94
0.84
54.74
9.46
1.47
0.58
2.16
6.46
1.26
Profit after Tax
3.18
5.20
Cash Accruals
Repayment of Term Loan
4.92
6.64
2.80
--
63
11.0 BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
No
[A]
[B]
[C]
[D]
[E]
Particulars
Sales at 60% Plant Capacity
Variable Costs
Raw Materials
Packing Materials
Utilities (70%)
Salaries (70%)
Stores & Spares
Selling Expenses (75%)
Administrative Expenses (50%)
Interest on Working Capital
Contribution [A] - [B]
Fixed Cost
Break-Even Point [D ÷C]
(Tk. in lacs)
Amount
36.96
11.38
7.20
0.70
2.10
0.30
4.16
0.30
0.46
26.60
10.36
6.38
62%
64
Appendix B: List of Meetings
Mr. Md. Amimul Ehsan,
Senior Manager (Product Development),
DMS Limited, 119/1, Shegun Bagicha,
Dhaka – 1000, Bangladesh
Mob. 0167808081602
Mr. Sadequl Islam
Managing Director
DMS Limited, 119/1, Shegun Bagicha,
Dhaka – 1000, Bangladesh
Tel:8362478
Dr. Engr. Md. Miar Uddin
Post Harvest Technology Division
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute,
Joydevpur, Gazipur-1700
9261514 (O), 9262191 ®
Mr. S.M. Quamruzzaman
Project Director
Integrated Quality Horticulture
Development Project, Department of
Agriculture Extension, Room No.732(6th
Floor), Middle Building, Khamarbari,
Farmgate, Dhaka – 1215
Tel. 9101175
Dr. Sreekanta Sheel
Logistic (Transportation & Storage) Expert
National Agricultural Technology ProjectSupply Chain Development Component
Hortex Foundation, Sech Bhaban (3rd
Floor), Manik Mia Avenue, Shere Bangla
Nagar, Dhaka-1207
Tel. 8123433 Ext.142
Dr. Md. Anisur Rahman
Supply Chain Knowledge Management
Expert
National Agricultural Technology ProjectSupply Chain Development Component
Hortex Foundation, Sech Bhaban (3rd
Floor), Manik Mia Avenue, Shere Bangla
Nagar, Dhaka-1207
Tel. 8123433 Ext.105
Dr. Md. Tofazzal Hossain
Mr. Raju Ahmed
General Secretary
Bangladesh Agro-processors
Association (BAPA), House No.15 (1st
Floor)
Road 16 (Old 27)
Dhanmandi, Dhaka-1207
Mob.01711629268
Prof. Md. Moslem Ali
Advisor Bangladesh Agro-processors
Association (BAPA), House No.15 (1st
Floor), Road 16 (Old 27), Dhanmandi,
Dhaka-1207
Tel.8144536
Mr. Md. Eleash Mridha
Director, PRAN Group of Industries
Corporate Headquarters
Property Heights, 12 RK Mission
Road, Dhaka-1203, 9563126 Ext. 143
Dr. Mosharraf Hossain
Senior Consultant, Action for
Enterprises
NAM Vila, Flat 3A4
House No. 3, Road No. 6
Gulshan-1, Dhaka-1212
Tel. 8817188
Mr. Enamul Haque Patwari
Jute Bags Export Coorporation
99 Motijheel C/A
Karim Chamber (1st Floor)
Room # 203, Dhaka-1000
Mr. Jean Clude Malongo
Attache, Private Sector Development
& Trade
European Union
Delegation to Bangladesh
Plot 7, Road 84, Gulshan 2, Dhaka1212
Tel. 8823118
Mr. Richard Phillips
65
Member (Science and Technology)
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research, Dr. Qudrat-i-Khuda
Road, Dhanmandi, Dhaka-1205
Tel. 8620021
Mr. Hossain Mohammad Masud
Sr. Industrial Liaison Officer
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and
Industrial Research, Dr. Qudrat-i-Khuda
Tel: 9663173
Senior Consultants
EU Support to Private Sector
Competitiveness
SME Foundation, Royal Tower,
4 Panthapath, Dhaka-1215
Mob.01771091899
Mr. John Willsie
Senior International Consultant for
Value Chain Analysis, Technical
Assistance for Capacity Development,
SME Foundation, Royal Tower, 4
Panthapath, Dhaka-1215,
Mob.01771091891
66
Participants of FGD in Madhupur
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Name
Mr. Md. Golam Mondal
Mr. Golam Mostafa
Mr. Abdur Rahman
Mr. Md. Hsen Ali
Mr. Md. Azahar
Mr. Md. Montalin
Mr. Md. Amjad
Mr. Md. Abdul Jalil
Mr. Gumed Ali
Mr. Abu Md. Habail
Mr. Md. Hasan Ali
Mr. Md Anwar Hossain
Mr. Bachad
Mr. Md. Shahjahan
Mr. Md. Najifuddin
Mr. Md. Azizul
Mr. Md. Abdul Based
Mr. Md. Azhar Ali
Mr. Palash
Mr. Md. Somen Raj
Mr. Md. Rafiqul Islam
Mr. Md. Tota Mia
Mr. Noasher Ali
Mr. Abdul Mannan
25
Mr. Litan Kumer Singha
Roy
Mr. Md. Abul Hossain
26
Addresses
Bunduza, Modhupur
Bicharan, Executive Director
Ram Krishna Bari
Idilpur, Modhupur
Idilpur, Modhupur
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
Gobudia, Kanchain
Gobudia, Kanchain
Ram Krishna Bari
Pirojpur
Kakraid
Kakraid
Gobudia,
Kakraid
Ram Krishna Bari
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
Idilpur, Modhupur
Gobudia, Kanchain
Gobudia, Kanchain
Ram Krishna Bari, Kabaira
General Secretary, Idulpur
Pineapple Farmers
Multipurpose Cooperative
Society
MD, Projector Food Industries
Limited
ED, Mou Chash Unnayan
Sangstha
Mobile No.
01714321022
01717333577
01714919280
X
01745687629
01739606237
01736219806
01747628952
01741712241
01718988073
01735114519
01758921394
01724571517
01729566976
01759633038
01729590807
X
01743939916
01712808503
01821948053
01732319142
X
X
01740905408
01712807048
01712563501
67
Appendix C: References
DAE, 2012. Food Crop Statistics. Food Crop Wing, Department of Agriculture
Extension
Arkroyd, W.R., Gopalan, C. and Balasubramanuyam. S.C. (1966) The nutritive value
of Indian food and the planning of satisfaction diet. Sept. Rep. Ser. 42 Indian Council
of Medical Research, New Delhi.
Narasimham, P. (1990) Breadfruit and jackfruit. In: Nagy, S., Shaw, P.E. and
Wordowski, W.F. (eds.). Fruits of Tropical and Sub-tropical origin - Composition,
Properties and Uses. Florida Science Source, Inc: 193-259.
Soepadmo, E. (1992) Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. In: Verheij, E.W.M. and
Coronel, R.E. (eds.) Plant Resources of Southeast Asia No.2: Edible Fruits and
Nuts. PROSEA,Wageningen, Netherlands: 86-91.
Gunasena, H.P.M., Ariyadasa, K.P., Wikramasinghe, A., Herath, H.M.W.,
Wikramasinghe, P. and Rajakaruna, S.B. (1996) Manual of Jack Cultivation in Sri
Lanka. Forest Information Service, Forest Department: 48.
ICUC (2005) Training Manual on Processing and Small Business Development.
ICUC, University of Southampton, UK.
Bhatia, B.S., Siddappa, G.S. and Lal, G. (1956) Development of products from
jackfruit. V. Dried jack seeds, flour, roasted nut and jack papad and toffee. Indian
Food Packer 10:9.
Bhatia, B.S., Siddappa, G.S. and Lal, G. (1959) Preparation of pectin, pectin extract
and syrup from jackfruit rind. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 29:75.
Azad, A.K. (2000) Genetic diversity of jackfruit in Bangladesh and development of
propagation methods. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton. UK.
Vinning, G. and Moody, T. (1997) A Market Compendium of Tropical Fruit. RIRDC
Research Report No. 97/74, Rural Industries Research and Development
Corporation, Barton, Australia. 110-120.
Acedo, A.L. (1992) Jackfruit biology, production, use and Philippine research.
Multipurpose Tree Species Network Series. Winrock International Institute for
Agricultural Development, Thailand. 51.
www.just-food.com, 2002
URL: http://www.icuc-iwmi.org/
68
Appendix D: Budget for BIO Cluster Development Action Plan
N
o.
A
1
2
3
4
5
B
1
2
3
Heads of
Expenses
Human
Resources
Project
Director
Monitoring
Specialist
Support Staff
Travel
Perdiem
Project
Director
Monitoring
Specialist
Sub-total
Activity Cost
Clusters
Organizing
Opening
ceremony
VC Analysis
institution
building
meeting
management
training
Sub-total
Setting
Facilities
Agro
processing
Specialist
Logistics
Support
Computer
Printer
Mobile
Local Taxes
Sub-total
Training to
No
Time
MM
Rate
(Ero)
Year
1
Amount
Year Year
2
3
1
20%
7.2
730
15768
100%
100%
36
36
480
180
5256
1728
0
6480
5256
1
1
5256
1728
0
6480
17280
6480
51840
19440
Days
30
60
600
600
600
1800
Days
42
40
560
3017
6
560
3017
6
560
1680
30176
90528
1
batch
1
Lump
100%
Total
1
1
6000
3600
6000
3600
6000
3600
6
15
90
90
1
360
360
1005
0
360
36
750
9000
2
2
2
760
420
180
200
1520
840
360
200
1192
0
10050
9000
9000
27000
1520
840
360
200
9000
9000
29920
69
4
5
6
7
potential
technicians
Domestic
Training
Overseas visit
Sub-total
Domestic and
export Market
Market study,
Development
of supply chain
Market
mission
abroad
Sub-total
Linkages
among
entrepreneurs
and financial
institutions
Credit Need
Assessment
Business plan
preparation
Workshop
Sub-total
Identify and
propagate
industrially
suitable
varieties
Identification
and
preservation of
mother plants
Training of
nurseries
Protocol
Development
for Tissue
culture
Sub-total
Formalization
of the Cluster
Registration
MOA
preparation
Technology
Batch
1
6
360
3600
360
21960
360
21600
21960
21600
1
3600
3600
3600
1
3600
3600
3600
6
3600
7200
Batch
21600
28800
21600
21600
1
2500
2500
2500
1
1
2000
800
2000
800
5300
2000
800
5300
1
360
360
360
1
1500
1500
1860
1500
1860
1
1200
1200
1200
1
1
500
1000
500
500
10000
10000
70
fair
Evaluation
Sub-total
Grand Total
1
0
4000
1700
80116
60776
4000
4000
14000 15700
53176 170248
71
Appendix E: Budget for Action Plan for JPC Development
No Heads of
. Expenses
A Human
Resources
1 Project Director
2 Monitoring
Specialist
3 Support Staff
1
2
3
4
5
B
1
2
3
Travel Perdiem
Project Director
Monitoring
Specialist
Logistics
Computer
Weighing
Machine
Printer
Mobile
Local Taxes
Sub-total
Activity Cost
Organize and
formalize the
Council
National
Jackfruit
Convention
MOA
preparation
Registration
Launching
Sub-total
Sourcing
technologies
Jackfruit
technology fair
Business
planning
Overseas visit (6
persons)
Sub-total
Capacity
development
Domestic
Amount
No
Time MM
1
1
10%
50%
3.6
36
Rate
(Euro)
730
450
1
100
%
36
180
6480
6480
6480
19440
1
1
days
10
40
30
20
120
300
120
300
60
200
300
800
2
1
760
250
1520
250
1520
250
2
2
420
180
200
840
360
200
840
360
200
Lump
Year
Year
Year
1
2
3
2628 2628 2628
16200 16200 16200
7884
48600
28898 25728 25568
80194
1
5000
5000
5000
1
1000
1000
1000
6
1
800
2500
4800
2500
13300
4800
2500
13300
1
7000
7000
7000
1
1200
1200
1200
6
3600
8200
Batch
Total
1
360
360
21600
21600
21600
29800
360
72
4
5
6
Training
Overseas visit
Apprenticeship
Sub-total
Market
identification &
development
Market study,
Development of
supply chain
Market mission
abroad
Sub-total
Linkages with
financial
institutions
Credit Need
Assessment
Business plan
preparation
Workshop
Sub-total
Identify and
propagate
industrially
suitable varieties
Identification
and preservation
of mother plants
Training of
nurseries
Protocol
Development for
Tissue culture
Sub-total
Grand Total
2
MM
6
48
3500
15
21000
720
22080
21000
720
22080
1
1
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
6
3500
7000
Batch
21000
21000
21000
28000
1
2500
2500
2500
1
1500
1500
1500
1
800
800
4800
800
4800
1
1000
1000
1
360
360
360
1
1500
1500
1500
1860
81338 68328 25568
1860
175234
73
Appendix F: Tentative Budget for BIO Capacity Development Action
Plan
No. Heads of
Expenses
A Human
Resources
1 Project Director
2 Jackfruit
Processing
Specialist
3 Monitoring
Specialist
4 Support Staff
Travel Perdiem
1 Project Director
2 Jackfruit
Processing
Specialist
3 Monitoring
Specialist
1 Computer
2 Printer
3 Photo copying
machine
4 Mobile
Sub-total
B Actions
1 Establish
network of
enterprises and
clusters
Annual Meetings
of Entrepreneurs
Orientation
meeting
Conference of
members
Visits to
Overseas market
Workshop on
Jackfruits
Sub-total
2 Establish
electronic
communication
system
Amount
No
Time
MM
7.2
36
Rate
(Euro)
730
450
Year
1
5256
5400
Year
2
5256
5400
Year
3
5256
462
1
20%
100%
1
1
Total
15768
11262
100%
24
480
3840
3840
3840
11520
100%
36
180
6480
6480
6480
19440
Days
Days
30
60
60
60
600
1200
600
1200
600
1200
1800
3600
Days
42
40
560
560
560
1680
3
1
760
420
2280
420
2280
420
2
180
360
26396 23336 18398
360
68130
3
250
750
750
1
2000
2000
2000
6
200
1200
1200
3
3600
10800
10800
1
2000
2000
2000
16750
16750
74
3
4
5
Establishment of
conference room
Computers
Web
development and
hoisting
information
tracking system
Still and movie
Camera
Videos,
Projector
Sub-total
Establish
information
clearing house
Collection
Classification,
cataloguing
Storage in
information
Sub-total
Establishing
Standard and
quality control
system
Setting quality
standards
Training on
HACCP and
GAP
Monitoring
product quality
Training on
quality standards
Sub-total
Establishing a
monitoring and
quality control
system
Designing
Monitoring
system
Monitoring
survey
Printing and
circulation of
monitoring report
1
6000
6000
3
1
1500
400
3000
1
6000
1500
400
4500
400
3000
3000
3000
1
2000
2000
2000
3
1
15000
1800
15000 30000
1800
23700 30000
45000
1800
62700
9000
Lump
Lump
1500
2000
Lump
2500
6000
Batc
h
Batc
h
1
3600
3600
3600
2
600
1200
1200
1
1200
1200
1200
1
600
600
600
6600
6600
1
3600
3600
3600
1
3000
3000
3000
6000
2
1000
1000
1000
2000
75
Workshop for
learning sharing
Sub-total
Grand Total
1
3500
3600
4000
3500
3500
7500
15100
175280
76
`