Men's Health Guide “Stopping cancer before it starts”

Our vision
World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK) helps people make choices
that reduce their chances of developing cancer
Our heritage
We were the first cancer charity:
• T o create awareness of the relationship between diet and
cancer risk
• To focus funding on research into diet and cancer prevention
• T o consolidate and interpret global research to create a practical
message on cancer prevention
Our mission
Today World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK) continues:
• F unding research on the relationship of nutrition, physical activity
and weight management to cancer risk
• Interpreting the accumulated scientific literature in the field
ducating people about choices they can make to reduce their
chances of developing cancer
WCRF UK is part of the World Cancer Research Fund global network, which consists of the
following charitable organisations: The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR); World
Cancer Research Fund UK (WCRF UK); World Cancer Research Fund Netherlands (WCRF NL); World
Cancer Research Fund Hong Kong (WCRF HK); World Cancer Research Fund France (WCRF FR) and
the umbrella association, World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF International)
Health facts
Test your lifestyle
How can you reduce your cancer risk?
Watch your weight
Be active every day
Common cancers in men
A healthy diet
Red and processed meat
Healthy recipes
Find out more
Health facts
About a third of the most
common cancers could be
prevented by choosing a
healthy diet, being physically
active and maintaining a
healthy weight.
Only about five to 10 per cent of all
cancers result from specific inherited
genes, which means cancer is not simply
down to bad luck.
Rates of cancer
are 15 per cent
higher in men
than women.
In 2009, 22 per cent of men
aged 16 or over in England were
classified as obese, and 44 per
cent as overweight.
In England and Wales in 2010, the
two leading causes of death in men
were heart and circulatory disorders
(32 per cent of deaths) and cancer
(31 per cent of deaths).
Prostate, lung and bowel
cancer are the most common
cancers among men, making
up more than 50 per cent of all
cancers developed in the UK.
In 2009, men consumed on
average only 3.4 portions
of vegetables and fruits a day,
which is below the recommended
5 A DAY.
In 2009, 22 per cent of men
in England reported drinking
alcohol on five or more days
across the week.
Test your lifestyle
How often are you physically active?
a) Daily
b) A few times a week
c) Once a week or less
How long are you active for each day?
a) More than 30 mins
b) About 30 mins o
c) Less than 30 mins
How many portions of fruits and vegetables
do you eat a day?
a) 5 or more b) 3-4 o
c) 2 or less
How often do you eat red meat (beef,
pork, lamb)?
a) 2-3 times a week or less
b) 4-5 times a week
c) Every day
How many alcoholic drinks do you have a day?
a) 2 or less
b) 3-4
c) 5 or more
Do you smoke?
a) No
b) Yes, but I am trying to give up
c) Yes
Do you know your weight and your
Body Mass Index (BMI)?
a) Yes, I am a healthy weight b) Yes, I need to lose weight
c) No
8 Where on your body do you tend to
carry your weight?
a) I don't tend to gain weight
b) All over
c) Around the waist
When did you last have a check up with
your GP?
a) Within the last year b) More than 2 years ago o
c) I have never had one
How did you
Mostly As
Well done, you seem
to be living a
healthy lifestyle
already! Keep reading
for a few extra tips
and suggestions to
help you maintain
your health.
Mostly Bs
You’re on the right
track, but there’s
still room for
improvement. Keep
reading to see what
else you can do to
live more healthily
and reduce your
cancer risk.
Mostly Cs
Your lifestyle needs
improvement. Small
changes could make
a big difference to
your health and your
risk of developing
cancer. Read this
booklet to see how.
The evidence behind our advice
Our Continuous Update Project (CUP) provides an ongoing review of nutrition
and cancer research. It compiles the most up-to-date evidence available on
how people can reduce their cancer risk through weight management, diet and
physical activity.
The CUP reviews all new research findings and puts them in context with all
the studies analysed for our Second Expert Report – Food, Nutrition, Physical
Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective.
This report was published in 2007 by the WCRF global network and was
the result of a comprehensive process involving leading scientists and
researchers, who reviewed and analysed more than 7,000 studies.
An independent panel of 21 world-renowned scientific experts compared,
evaluated and interpreted these studies, and from them developed our 10
evidence-based Recommendations for Cancer Prevention.
The CUP will ensure our Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and the
advice in our booklets are always kept up-to-date.
Find out more:
Why do more men than women
develop cancer in the UK?
Rates of cancer are 15 per cent higher in men
than women. Lifestyle behaviours may contribute,
for example:
en are more likely to have unhealthy habits,
such as smoking and drinking (see box below).
en are less likely to take up available screening
(e.g. bowel cancer screening).
Men are less likely to seek early medical advice.
In general, there is less health awareness
information available for men, who tend to be less
knowledgeable about cancer and health.
Men are more likely than women to:
Eat meat-based dishes
Drink alcohol
Consume fats and sugars
Drink sugary soft drinks
Not eat enough vegetables and fruits
e overweight – though men and
women are equally likely to be obese
About 1/3 of the most common cancers
could be prevented by:
Maintaining a healthy weight
Being physically active every day
Eating a healthy diet
How can you reduce your
cancer risk?
Enjoying a healthy diet, being physically active and maintaining a healthy weight
are the basis of WCRF UK’s Guidelines for Cancer Prevention. Along with not
smoking, all of these directly reduce cancer risk and, together, a healthy diet and
being physically active help to manage our weight.
Following any one of these Guidelines is likely to reduce the chances of getting
cancer, but following all three offers the greatest protection.
ai m
e every day
eat and avoid pro
WCRF UK Guidelines for Cancer Prevention
mostly plant
inutes or m
re hoose
The choices you make about food, physical activity and weight
management can reduce your chances of developing cancer
– choose mostly plant foods, limit red meat and avoid processed meat
– be physically active every day in any way for 30 minutes or more
– aim to be a healthy weight throughout life
And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco
Watch your weight
Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight
Why does body fat increase cancer risk?
Fat, especially when stored around the waist, produces hormones that can
speed up the cancer process.
Being overweight creates a state of low-level inflammation, which increases
cancer risk.
Fat facts
Energy in, energy out
The average man needs around 2,500 calories
a day. If you eat or drink more than your body
needs you will gain weight. To give you an idea of
just how much activity it takes to burn off those
extra calories here are some examples:
2 medium slices deeppan pepperoni pizza
710 calories
1 pint strong ale
409 calories
round 66 per cent
of men in England
are overweight or
obese compared
with 57 per cent
of women
fter not smoking,
maintaining a
healthy weight is
the most important
thing you can
do for cancer
bout 1 in 3 cases
of pancreatic
and oesophageal
cancer, and 1 in
7 cases of bowel
cancer in men in
the UK could be
prevented by being
a healthy weight
You need to
run at 7 mph for:
65 minutes
You need to
walk briskly for:
86 minutes
eing overweight
also increases
the risk of other
chronic diseases,
such as Type 2
diabetes and heart
How do you measure up?
Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference are two ways you can keep an
eye on your weight and body fat.
Your BMI
To work out your BMI and find out if you are a healthy weight, divide your weight
by your height squared:
Weight (kg)
(Height x Height)
Less than 18.5
Between 18.5-24.9
healthy weight
Between 25-29.9
30 or more
BMI may not be an accurate indicator for some groups of people, including body builders,
athletes, the elderly, pregnant women, children or those less than five feet tall.
Your waist measurement
Excess body fat around your waist can increase your risk of cancer and heart
disease. Men are particularly at risk as they tend to carry fat around their waist.
Your waist =
As a guide, a healthy waist measurement is:
 less than 94cm/37” for white and black men
 less than 90cm/35” for Asian men
How to maintain a healthy weight
Lower the energy density of your diet
Avoid sugary drinks and limit your intake of energy-dense
foods, which contain a lot of calories for their weight.
They tend to be high in sugar or fat, and low in fibre, such
as fast food, sweets and crisps. Instead, eat more low
energy-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, wholegrain
cereals and pulses such as beans, which make you feel
fuller for longer.
Move more
To maintain a healthy weight aim to be moderately active
for 30 minutes every day – for example, 30 minutes of
brisk walking. As fitness improves, aim for 60 minutes
or more of moderate, or 30 minutes of more vigorous
physical activity, every day (see pages 13, 16 and 17).
Keep an eye on your portion sizes
Control portions by using smaller plates, with two-thirds
(or more) containing plant foods such as wholegrains,
pulses (such as beans), vegetables and fruits to make up
your 5 A DAY. Aim to fill one-third (or less) of your plate
with lean meat, poultry, fish or reduced-fat dairy.
Be active every day
e physically active every day in
any way for 30 minutes or more
How can being active decrease
cancer risk?
It helps move food through our digestive system,
reducing the amount of contact that cancer-causing
substances have with the lining of the bowel.
It reduces body fat, which is linked to several
types of cancer.
It strengthens our immune system.
It lowers insulin resistance (a condition where the
hormone insulin becomes less effective at lowering
blood sugar levels). Research shows insulin
resistance has a role in cancer development.
Being active also reduces your risk of:
Heart disease
Type 2 diabetes
Deterioration in brain function and dementia
Activity facts
About 1 in 8 cases
of bowel cancer
in the UK could
be prevented by
being active for
30 minutes a day
five times a week
In 2008, 39 per
cent of men and
29 per cent of
women aged 16
and over reported
being active for
the recommended
30 minutes five
times a week
However, research
has shown that
people think they
are more active
than they actually
are. Why not keep
a personal activity
diary to see where
you could fit in
more activity?
Common cancers in men
Please note: having any of the symptoms described below doesn’t mean that you hav
It’s also a good idea to find out about the types of cancer (if any) that run in your fam
Prostate cancer (the most common cancer in men) 1
About 37,000 new cases a year
Possible symptoms: weak or reduced urine flow; need to
urinate frequently; difficulty or pain passing urine; pain
in the testicles; blood in urine or semen.
Risk factors: some research shows certain foods might
increase or decrease risk, but the evidence is not strong
enough to make specific recommendations.
Early detection: there is an informed choice
programme called Prostate Cancer Risk Management.
Lung cancer
About 22,800 new cases a year. Causes 23% of all
male cancer deaths
Possible symptoms: coughing; unexplained weight loss;
shortness of breath; chest pain.
Risk factors: smoking: the most important thing you can
do is to not smoke, or to give up smoking.
Bowel cancer
About 22,100 new cases a year
Possible symptoms: bleeding from the back passage;
abdominal pain; change in bowel habit; lump in abdomen.
Risk factors: high consumption of red and processed
meats and alcoholic drinks, being overweight, especially
carrying weight around the waist, smoking, being inactive.
Early detection: the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening
Programme offers screening every two years to all men
and women aged 60 to 69.
ve cancer, but it’s best to visit your GP and get them checked out anyway.
mily, and to speak to your GP if you are at all concerned.
Mouth and throat (pharynx and larynx) cancers
About 5,700 new cases a year
Possible symptoms: ulcer or soreness in the mouth or
tongue; red or white patches in the mouth; head or neck
pain; painful throat; a lump in the mouth or neck.
Risk factors: smoking or chewing tobacco, drinking
alcohol, a diet low in vegetables and fruits. Exposure to
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) which can be transmitted
through oral sex may also be a risk factor.
Early detection: at your next dental check up, ask your
dentist to examine you for any early warning signs.
Oesophageal cancer
About 5,500 new cases a year
Possible symptoms: difficulty swallowing; pain in the
throat or chest; constant coughing and hiccups; weight
loss; vomiting.
Risk factors: smoking and chewing tobacco, drinking
alcohol, being overweight, a diet low in vegetables and
fruits, gastric reflux (a condition where acid from the
stomach travels back up the oesophagus).
Testicular cancer
About 2,100 new cases a year
Possible symptoms: a swelling or hard lump in one of the
testicles; a heavy feeling in one or both of the testicles;
sudden filling of the scrotum (sac) with fluid. These
symptoms may be painless – if in doubt, get it checked out!
Risk factors: unlike the majority of cancers, it is most
common in younger men aged between 15 and 44.
What type of activity should I do?
There are three basic types of physical activity: aerobic activity, strength training,
and stretching. Each one helps your body in a different way. Aim to include a mix
of all three in your routine. Check our F.I.T.T. (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type)
lists below for best results.
Strength (weight or resistance) training
This involves working your muscles against weight
or resistance to increase strength.
Frequency: Two to three times a week.
Intensity: You should be able to complete eight to
12 repetitions of each exercise.
Time: Between 20 and 30 minutes, exercising a
range of muscle groups within this time.
Type: Include a variety of free weights, weight
machines or use your own body weight, for example
by doing push-ups.
Strength training:
 Maintains bone density
Strengthens core muscles
Builds muscle mass, which increases
your metabolism
Decreases ‘bad’ cholesterol
Here are some approximate values for a person of average build weighing
63.5kg/10 stone
Squash playing
Calories burnt
in an hour
Swimming (leisurely)
Calories burnt
in an hour
Jogging (5 mph)
Calories burnt
in an hour
Aerobic (cardiovasular or endurance) activity
This is any activity that raises heart rate to a higher
but safe level and keeps it there for a period of time.
This includes activities such as brisk walking, jogging,
football and squash.
Frequency: Fit in some aerobic activity every day. It
doesn't have to be all in one go.
Intensity: Aim for moderate (you should still be able
talk) to vigorous (talking during these activities would
be difficult and you might become out of breath).
Time: 30 to 60 minutes spread throughout the day.
Type: Include a variety of activities that raise
your heart rate, such as cycling, brisk walking
and swimming.
Aerobic activity:
Improves levels of ‘good’ cholesterol
Lowers blood pressure
Improves brain function
Improves mood
Gardening (general)
Calories burnt
in an hour
Rowing machine
Calories burnt
in an hour
(12 – 14 mph – moderate)
Calories burnt
in an hour
A healthy diet
hoose mostly plant foods, limit red
meat and avoid processed meat
How does a heathy diet decrease
cancer risk?
Eating a lot of foods that are higher in fat and
calories increases your risk of becoming overweight,
which is a risk factor for many cancers.
Plant foods, such as vegetables, fruits and pulses
contain nutrients, which can help to protect cells
from damage that may lead to cancer.
Plant foods are also rich in fibre, which helps
speed up the digestive process and fill us up,
which reduces the likelihood of overeating and
becoming overweight.
Food facts
Vegetables and fruits probably protect against
a range of cancers, including those of the
mouth, throat (pharynx and larynx), stomach,
oesophagus, lung, and pancreas
In 2009, only 1 in 4 men reported meeting the
Government's 5 A DAY guidelines for fruit and
vegetable consumption
Men are more likely than women to consume
sugary soft drinks, fats and oils and sugary
foods and preserves such as jam
Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains,
and pulses such as beans
What does a 5 A DAY portion look like?
Dried Fruit
Fresh Fruit
Cooked Vegetables
1 heaped tablespoon
e.g. sultanas
1 handful of berries/grapes
1 medium or 2 small fruits
1 slice of large fruits
e.g. melon
3 heaped tablespoons
e.g. sliced carrots
Salad Vegetables
Pure Fruit or Vegetable Juice
1 cereal bowl
e.g. mixed salad
1 glass (150ml)
e.g. orange juice
3-4 heaped tablespoons
e.g. cooked mixed beans
Remember – a portion of pure fruit or vegetable juice only counts as one 5 A DAY
portion each day, no matter how much you consume. This also applies to pulses.
Practical and simple tips for eating well
You do not have to completely change your diet to reduce your cancer
risk. Making small, simple changes can make a big difference to your
health in the long term. Here are some tips:
 Keep an eye on your portion sizes. Don't go back for seconds – you
can keep leftovers for lunch the next day.
 Learn some basic healthy cooking techniques. Baking, boiling,
steaming and stir-frying are all healthy cooking methods. They require
little or no addition of oil or fats and can be used for a variety of foods.
lan your meals for the week ahead to avoid relying too much on
takeaways and ready meals. This can also help you save money.
Fat has many more calories weight for weight than protein and
carbohydrates: even a small amount of fat can contain a surprising
amount of calories! To help you cut down, measure oils with a
teaspoon when cooking and dressing salad or use an oil spray.
Get the balance right
By reshaping what you put on your plate, you can bring
a healthier balance to your diet. The first step is to look
at what you usually serve at each meal time. It can
seem normal to centre your meals around meat, but it is
actually better for your health to base meals around
plant foods, with at least two-thirds of your plate
made up of these.
Vegetables and other
plant foods
Plant foods are
important for reducing
your cancer risk and
provide a number of
different vitamins and
minerals. As well as
vegetables and fruits,
other plant foods
(or more) vegetables,
wholegrains, cereals
and pulses
Grains and cereals
(e.g. rice, oats, pasta,
bread, cous cous and
breakfast cereals)
(e.g. lentils, chickpeas
and beans)
(or less)
animal foods
Roots and tubers
(e.g. potatoes
and yams)
Foods from animals
(e.g. meat, poultry, fish, game, eggs, dairy)
Foods from animals should make up less than a
third of your plate. You will be surprised what an
easy change this is to make to your diet – and
what a difference it will make to your health too!
For quick and simple recipe ideas turn to page 24 or go to
Red and processed meat
Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) to
500g (cooked weight) a week and avoid processed meats (such as
bacon and ham)
Meaty facts
ating more than 500g cooked weight (700-750g raw weight) of red meat
per week increases bowel cancer risk
ating processed meat is linked to an increased risk of bowel cancer
rocessed meat is meat preserved by smoking, curing, salting or by the
addition of other chemical preservatives
n average, men consume about 60g more ham and/or bacon a week
than women
The link between red and processed meat
and bowel cancer
Haem, which gives red meat its colour, has been
shown to damage the lining of the bowel.
Processed meat can produce substances that
damage cells in the body, potentially leading to the
development of cancer.
Cutting down
Red meat is a good source of nutrients including
protein, iron and zinc. However, eating a varied diet
that contains less red meat can still provide you with
all the vitamins and minerals you need.
Red meat – how much a week?
We can still enjoy red meat in several meals a week
and stay within the recommended limit.
Here is an example of medium portions of red meat in
four main meals that remain within the recommended
limit of 500g (cooked weight) per week:
Spaghetti bolognese with minced beef (140g)
+ Pork chop (75g)
+ Medium steak (145g)
+ Roast beef (90g)
Total = 450g cooked red meat
Simple tips to
cut down:
Swap red meat for
chicken, turkey, fish
or eggs once or
twice a week
Bulk up meat
dishes with beans,
chickpeas, lentils
and vegetables
Try eggs, canned
fish, low-fat cottage
cheese, low-fat
houmous or
vegetables instead
of ham or salami
in sandwiches
If you enjoy a full
English breakfast,
have it as a treat on
no more than one
day of the weekend
and try healthier
cooking methods
such as grilling
If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men
(and 1 for women) a day
Alcohol facts
Alcohol is an important risk factor in cancers of the oesophagus, mouth
and throat (pharynx and larynx), bowel and liver
About 4 in 10 cases of mouth and throat cancer and half of all
oesophageal cancer cases in the UK are alcohol-related
Since 1970, alcohol consumption has fallen in many European countries
but has increased by 40 per cent in England
How does alcohol raise cancer risk?
When our bodies break down alcohol, it can directly
damage the DNA in our cells. This also produces
cancer-causing compounds and raises levels of some
hormones, all of which can increase cancer risk.
What is a 'drink'?
One unit contains 8g (10ml) of pure alcohol.
The percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) tells us
how many units of pure alcohol there are in one litre
of the drink.
As a rough guide, a 'drink' contains about
10-15 grams of alcohol, so one drink is roughly the
same as:
Half a pint of normal strength (3-5% ABV) beer,
lager or cider
One 25ml measure of spirits (40% ABV), such
as vodka or whisky
One small glass (125ml) of wine (12-13% ABV)
Tips to reduce
alcohol intake
Alternate between
alcoholic and
non-alcoholic soft
Don't drink alcohol
when you are
thirsty because
you are likely to
drink more
Aim to keep at
least a few
nights each week
Healthy recipes
Eating healthily doesn't have to mean having salad all the
time – here are some recipes for quick, easy and satisfying
meals. For more ideas, visit
Handful of mushrooms,
2 tomatoes, halved
1 egg
2 slices wholegrain
bread, toasted
Fresh basil (optional)
Pinch of black pepper
Poached Egg à la Grecque
(serves 1, 300 kcals, 9g fat, 0.9g salt and 1.5 of your 5 A DAY per serving)
Eating more healthily doesn’t have to mean no more cooked breakfasts.
What's important is what you cook and how you cook it – poaching, grilling,
microwaving and steaming are all good options. Choose low-fat and lean foods
to go with these healthier cooking methods. This recipe is quick and filling.
1) Boil a small pan of water.
2) Place the sliced mushrooms and halved tomatoes under a hot grill for
5 minutes, turning once half way through.
3) Crack the egg into boiling water, and simmer for 3-4 minutes – depending on
the size of the egg, and how you like your eggs done.
4) Place the toast on a warmed plate, spoon over the mushrooms and tomatoes
and top with the poached egg. Season with black pepper. Top with a little fresh
basil to bring out the taste of the tomatoes.
Top Tip
 For extra energy you could serve this with baked beans, which will provide one
of your 5 A DAY and a slow, sustained release of energy throughout the morning.
Spicy Bean Burgers
(serves 2, 400 kcals, 8g fat, 1.6g salt and 2 of your 5 A DAY per serving)
A family favourite, these are a great alternative to beef burgers. Reducing the
amount of red meat you consume to below 500g (cooked weight) per week will
reduce your risk of cancer.
1) Drain the sauce from the chilli beans into a cup and keep to one side.
2) Tip the beans into a mixing bowl and, using a large fork or hand blender, mash
to form a rough paste. Mix in the sweetcorn, coriander and black pepper.
3) Add the egg yolk and breadcrumbs, then use your hands to blend the
ingredients so that they are mixed evenly. Shape into two burgers.
4) Heat a griddle pan or non-stick frying pan. Cook the burgers until they are well
cooked and hot all the way through.
5) Using a slice, remove the burgers from the pan and set aside. Split the
rolls and griddle them, add the burgers, drizzle 2 to 3 tablespoons of chilli
sauce over the top of each burger, then add a lettuce leaf and sliced tomato.
Serve immediately.
For the burgers:
1 can (400g/14oz)
mixed beans or kidney
beans in chilli sauce
100g (3½oz) sweetcorn,
frozen or canned
1 tablespoon coriander,
Freshly ground black
1 medium egg, yolk only
30g (1oz) wholegrain
To serve:
2 wholegrain rolls
2 lettuce leaves
1 tomato, sliced
Fish 'n' Chips with a Twist
(serves 2, 476 kcals, 14.7g fat, 0.9g salt and 2 of your 5 A DAY per serving)
Most people enjoy fish and chips every once in a while, but the average shop
serving provides us with a whopping 937 kcals of energy and 44g of fat – half
the daily fat allowance for a man. This version is kinder to your waistline but is
still tasty and satisfying. It includes a colourful range of plant foods, including
peas and tomatoes, which count towards your 5 A DAY.
1) Heat the oven to 200ºC / 400ºF / Gas Mark 6 and
preheat a baking sheet inside.
2) Measure the vegetable oil into a plastic bag
and add the sweet potato chips. Shake so that the
potatoes get coated in a thin layer of oil.
3) Spread the chips over the baking sheet and cook
for around 20 minutes, turning at least once.
4) Meanwhile place the two fish fillets onto a sheet of
lightly oiled aluminium foil on a baking tray.
5) In a bowl mix the melted butter, breadcrumbs,
juice from half the lemon and herbs, and press the
mixture on top of the fish fillets.
6) Place in the oven beneath the chips and cook for
10-12 minutes, depending on the thickness of the
fillet, until the fish is opaque and flaky.
7) Cook the peas for a couple of minutes in a small
amount of boiling water.
8) Serve the fish and chips immediately with the
sliced tomatoes and peas on a warm plate, with a
wedge of lemon on the side.
1 tablespoon
vegetable oil
2 medium sweet
peeled and cut into
chunky chip shapes
2 pieces of skinless
haddock fillet or
similar white fish
(150g/6oz each)
Knob of butter
(15g/½oz), melted
2 tablespoons fine
1 lemon, cut into
1 teaspoon mixed
160g/6oz frozen peas
4 tomatoes, washed
and sliced
8 small amaretti
1 tub (150g/6oz)
fat-free Greek yoghurt
2 tablespoons of
half-fat crème fraîche
2 pieces fresh fruit
(about 160g/6oz in
total), peeled and
chopped into small
pieces. Alternatively,
use the same weight
of small fruits like
raspberries or
strawberries, or tinned
fruit salad in natural
juice, drained
Tutti Frutti Surprise
(serves 2, 159 kcals, 5.3g fat, 0.3g salt and 1 of your 5 A DAY per serving)
A deceptively simple dessert that makes a great treat for a special occasion.
Not only does it taste delicious, but it also contains one of your portions of fruit
for the day. Try out different types of fruit, using varieties in season whenever
possible for maximum flavour.
1) Place the amaretti biscuits in a plastic food bag and crush with a wooden
spoon or rolling pin.
2) Blend the fat-free Greek yoghurt and half-fat crème fraîche in a small bowl and
stir in the crushed amaretti biscuits.
3) In 2 tall glasses, add some of the chopped fruit, spoon over the yoghurt
mixture, then add some more fruit and repeat, finishing with the yoghurt mixture.
4) Chill and serve, decorated with a sprig of mint or a slice of fruit.
Start today, not tomorrow
Many people believe that their risk of developing cancer is just down to genetics
or bad luck, but research has shown that our diet and lifestyle play an important
part. About a third of the most common cancers could be prevented by choosing
a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and being physically active.
By taking a close look at your own diet and activity patterns, you can start making
changes today that could help you lead a longer and healthier life.
Find out more
For information on cancer prevention contact World Cancer Research Fund
(WCRF UK). Visit or call us on 020 7343 4205.
For information on the detection and treatment of cancer contact
Macmillan Cancer Support. Visit their website,, or
call 0808 808 0000.
For particular health concerns or general health information at different
stages of life, visit
To find information on NHS Cancer Screening Programmes visit
For any concerns about alcohol and drinking, or to get support:
 The Drinkaware Trust
 Drinkline
The national 24 hour alcohol helpline 0800 917 8282 (calls are free of charge).
WCRF UK’s healthy eating and lifestyle information is aimed at the general population and is not intended to
influence individuals who are following special diets (on medical advice) or who have special dietary or exercise
needs. The information contained in WCRF UK’s education publications relates to the prevention of cancer.
WCRF UK is not engaged in giving medical advice. For advice in specific cases, please consult your doctor.
WCRF UK’s Recommendations for Cancer Prevention
1. Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight
2. Be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day
3. Avoid sugary drinks. Limit consumption of energy-dense foods (particularly
processed foods high in added sugar, or low in fibre, or high in fat)
4. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, and pulses
such as beans
5. Limit consumption of red meats (such as beef, pork and lamb) and avoid
processed meats
6. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to 2 for men and 1 for women a day
7. Limit consumption of salty foods and foods processed with salt (sodium)
8. Don’t use supplements to protect against cancer
Special Population Recommendations
9. It is best for mothers to breastfeed exclusively for up to 6 months and then
add other liquids and foods
10.After treatment, cancer survivors should follow the Recommendations for
Cancer Prevention
And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco
WCRF UK is the principal UK charity dedicated to the prevention of cancer through
the promotion of healthy diet and nutrition, physical activity and weight management.
WCRF UK is committed to providing cancer research and education programmes which
expand our understanding of the importance of our food and lifestyle choices in the
cancer process.
By spreading the good news that cancer can be prevented, WCRF UK hopes that many
thousands of lives will be saved. The education and research programmes of
WCRF UK are funded almost entirely by donations from the public.
This booklet gives information based on WCRF UK’s Recommendations for Cancer
Prevention developed from the Expert Report: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and
the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective (2007). The Report, produced by WCRF/
AICR, is the largest study of its kind ever published and its Recommendations are
based on the most comprehensive review of all the available evidence. WCRF UK is
committed to interpreting scientific research in the field of food, nutrition, physical
activity and cancer prevention and to translating the results into meaningful and
practical advice for the public to follow.
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WCRF UK Guidelines for Cancer Prevention
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The choices you make about food, physical activity and weight
management can reduce your chances of developing cancer
– choose mostly plant foods, limit red meat and avoid processed meat
– be physically active every day in any way for 30 minutes or more
– aim to be a healthy weight throughout life
And, always remember – do not smoke or chew tobacco
WCRF UK is part of the WCRF global network
For more information about this booklet please contact us:
World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF UK)
22 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3HH
Tel: 020 7343 4200 Fax: 020 7343 4201
Web: Email: [email protected]
Registered in London, England No: 2536180
Registered with the Charity Commission in England
and Wales (Registered Charity No:1000739)
Registered Office: 22 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3HH
“Stopping cancer before it starts”
© 2012 World Cancer Research Fund / WEW1MH
Next review date: January 2015