Abstract This study lay in the field of agricultural extension and rural

This study lay in the field of agricultural extension and rural
development. The problem addressed the traditional generating projects
of Khartoum State farmers livelihood which were mainly production of
vegetables crops, micro-investment in poultry and animal production. The
importance of the study emerge from shifting to non-traditional ideas in
livelihood generating projects and break the production seasonality, and
depend on introducing of mushroom production technology as nontraditional idea for its importance as food to contribute in bridging the
global and local food and obtaining food security. The study aimed to
determine the impact of personal characteristics and training on changing
farmers knowledge towards the adoption of mushroom production
technology. One independent variable, the desire in training on
mushroom production technology taken with a set of farmers personal
characteristics on dependent variables, which are: Age, gender, education
level, marital status, size of the agricultural holding and annual income.
One hundred and seventy three trainees who have exposed to training
program in mushroom production technology had been questioned using
pre prepared questionnaire before and after training. The collected data
was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
Frequencies, percentages and Chi-square were calculated at significant
level of 0.05 . The main results of the study were that the training found
had clear impact on changing the trainees knowledge about mushroom
production technology, While there was no significant differences
between the trainees personal characteristics and their desire in training
exist for the gender character. The main recommendation of the study
was the continuing of training for the farmers of Khartoum State and the
other desired categories and involving the Ministry of Agriculture in the
training process for the diffusion of the new technology.
‫تقع ىذه الدراسة في نطاق اإلرشاد الزراعي والتنمية الريفية بوالية الخرطوم‪ ,‬تتمثل‬
‫مشكمة الدراسة في استخدام المزارعين لألساليب االستثمارية التقميدية في الحصول‬
‫عمي معيشتيم والتي تتمثل في إنتاج محاصيل الخضر وتربية الدواجن واإلنتاج‬
‫الحيواني‪ .‬تنبع أىمية الدراسة في أىمية التحول من اإلنتاج التقميدي إلي أساليب‬
‫جديدة مبتكرة لكسر موسمية اإلنتاج وتقديم تقانة إنتاج المشروم كفكرة جديدة غير‬
‫تقميدية مع أىميتو الغذائية ليساىم في ردم ىوة الغذاء عالميا ومحميا والمساىمة في‬
‫تحقيق األمن الغذائي‪ .‬ىدفت الدراسة لتحديد اثر التدريب والخصائص الشخصية‬
‫لممزارعين المتدربين عمي ىذه التقانة‬
‫في تغيير معارف ىم تجاه تبني تقنية إنتاج‬
‫المشروم‪ .‬تم أخذ عامل مستقل واحد ىو الرغبة في التدريب عمي تقانة إنتاج المشروم‬
‫مع مجموعة من الخصائص الشخصية كعوامل تابعة وىي‬
‫العمر‪ ,‬النوع‪ ,‬مستوي‬
‫التعميم‪ ,‬الحالة االجتماعية‪ ,‬حجم الحيازة الزراعية‪ ,‬الدخل السنوي‪.‬‬
‫مائة وثالثة‬
‫وسبعون متدرب خضعوا لبرنامج التدريب في ىذا المجال تم جمع المعمومات عنيم‬
‫بواسطة ا الستبيان المعد قبل وبعد التدريب ‪ .‬تم تحميل البيانات التي‬
‫تم جمعىا‬
‫باستخدام برنامج الحزم اإلحصائية لمعموم االجتماعية )‪ ,(SPSS‬ومنيا تم حساب‬
‫التك اررات والنسب المئوية ومربع كاي باستخدام درجة معنوية ‪ .0,05‬توصمت الدراسة‬
‫إلي عدد من النتائج أىميا‬
‫أن التدريب كان لو أثر واضح في تغيير معارف‬
‫الم تدربين بينما لم يوجد اثر معنوي بين الخصائص الشخصية ورغبتيم في التدريب‬
‫عدا خاصية النوع‪ .‬كما خرجت الدراسة بعدد من التوصيات‬
‫أىميا االستمرار في‬
‫عممية التدريب لكل الفئات الراغبة في مجتمع الوالية مع اشتراك و ازرة الزراعة في‬
‫عممية التدريب من أجل نشر التقانة الحديثة‪.‬‬
1.1 Introduction
All developing countries have many problems in producing sufficient
food. Poverty is increasing rapidly in these areas which necessitates the
introduction of new crops to alleviate this poverty and to mitigate this
food gap. One of these interventions is the introduction and growing of
mushroom as vegetable crop, Badr (2005(. Mushrooms can be used as
food (fresh, snacks, sweets...) as medicine and for industrial purposes
(coloring, adsorbents...). In food there is a link between mushroom and
food security. Mushrooms provide high protein and essential amino acids,
Low in fat and high fiber. Also provide vitamins and thus stimulating the
immune system.
FAO (2000) reported that; Africa, compared to Asia, had enough land to
feed itself, and there are great potential of mushrooms in African forests
and other landscapes which largely untapped. There are long periods in
which warm weather and air moisture combine to provide excellent
conditions for the production of mushrooms, There are several varieties,
including those grow on decaying roots, dead wood, and termite mounds
or directly on cultivated land. There is much to do in sensitization and
information, Also in research to increase knowledge and use of African
mushrooms for food. “For example in Tanzania there are about 34 species
of edible mushrooms spread all over Tanzania from forests to bush lands.
The 34 species are from 13 genera, natural mushrooms are used mainly,
as subsistence and very small portion being sold along the roads FAO
According to Ramadan, R. (2003): in Sudan, There are many kinds of
mushrooms, some tribes have traditional knowledge of knowing and
eating mushroom while other do not consume it and consider it as
disdainful thing. Tribes gave mushroom different names according to
their culture and their local language. In northern Sudan mushroom is
known as "Wad Al Werda" and that meaning the thing which causes
fever, in other parts of Northern Sudan such as "Dongolla" people tend to
eat mushroom and name it as "Goroo". Some Nile tribes call mushroom
"Barnoog", and they have a proverb "Barnoog without root" describing or
insulting those who may not have definite tribe or of mix origin. Some
tribe know
mushroom as "Gowangy", they eat it after drying it as
porridge, in Gezira area some people eat it and call it "Al-Afan" and that
meaning the (mould), in Al-Gadaref it named as Abo- Elefeen, in other
area it is known as
Afan Al-Watta and that means the mould too.
Interviews with locals in Sinner area revealed that some people eat wild
mushroom and call it "Abo-Zomo" and "Laham Al Watta" which mean
the flesh of the land, other names around Sinnar includes "Lahm el fertit"
referring to it as a food for pigs. Many people in the rainy agricultural
area feel a pessimism about wild mushroom as the same as appearance of
crow‟s dung.
We can concluded that most Sudanese know Mushroom in the name of
"Wad Al-Watta" , and that mean "the son of the land " . Other tribes
know mushroom and do not eat it and consider it as disdainful thing ".
One of disdainful name that southern Sudan tribes know mushroom as
"Thaker Al-Watta" and this is meaning “penis of the land".
The tribes who eat mushroom have ability to recognize the edible fungus
from poisonous one and they did not cultivate it .They only collect it from
In Khartoum State some wild mushrooms appearing during the different
seasons of the year. These can be found in nurseries, river bank,
greenhouses and farms. The majority of imported mushroom are mainly
consumed in Khartoum state as fresh or canned.
Mushroom is popular in restaurants serving international cousins,
takeaway, expatriates communities and intellectual Sudanese families
who exposed to international cousins.
1.2 Research Problem
Farmers, traditionally, produce few agricultural crops which has long
been a major threat to the livelihood security of Sudanese farmers in
general and to Khartoum State farmers in particular . Micro-investment
projects submitted for funding spin around a limited number of ideas or
an ongoing
circle that include (poultry, calves and sheep fattening,
greenhouses and protected nurseries etc.). The main effort is to look for
non-traditional crop that suit microfinance, break seasonality, compute
fairly with larger investors, and contribute to former livelihood security
and health, especially in the light of the fear of food shortage/gap and in
the pursuit of food security as a result of the increasing numbers in
world's population especially in developing countries. The lack of
sufficient awareness of the important of this fungus in terms of
production, adoption, acceptance and embracing it in local food diet, the
problem of marketing coupled with short shelf life of mushrooms and
absence of marketing efforts.
1.3 Importance of Research:
The importance of this research stems from the importance of mushroom
as a food which can contribute in bridging the food gap, enhance the
quality and diversity of food in the Sudanese diet.
It also contains a considerable amount of minerals such as potassium,
sodium and phosphate that have significance and vital role in human
health. It also has medicinal value and its extracted helps in boosting
treatment and control of many diseases such as diabetes, anemia, cancer,
heart disease and others.
The anticipated impact of mushroom adoption, cultivation, consumption
and marketing in the livelihood security of farmers and
makes it a good solution in developing country such as Sudan.
1.4 Research objectives:
The main objective of this research are:
 To explore the changing farmer‟s knowledge about mushroom
 To find out farmer‟s personal characteristics affect changing of
farmer‟s knowledge toward adopting mushroom production.
1.5 Research Hypothesis:
 Training has a positive impact on change farmer‟s knowledge
toward adopting mushroom production.
 The farmer‟s personal characteristics have a negative impact on
the adopting process of mushroom production.
Table (1): Dependent and independent variable:
independent variable
desire in training on mushroom
dependent variable
education level
marital status
size of agricultural holding
2.1 Adoption process:
2.1.1 Definition of adoption process:
A diffusion of innovation with in a social system takes place through its
adoption by individual or groups. Adoption is a decision to make full use
of an innovation as the best course of action available. The decision to
adopt an innovation, involves a process composed of learning, deciding,
and acting over a period of time. The adoption process, as a decisionmaking process goes through a number of mental stages before making a
final decision to adopt an innovation. Decision - making is a process
comprising a sequence of stages with a distinct type of activity occurring
during each stage. The way in which an individual adopts an innovation
is involves the following five steps namely, (Awareness stage, Interest
stage, Evaluation stage, Trial stage and Adoption stage). Rogers. E.
a) Awareness Stage
This is the starting stage wherein the farmer comes to know the existence
of the new idea but he doesn‟t have full information about the idea. At
this stage farmer is aware of the idea, but lacks detailed information about
b) Interest Stage
The farmer develops interest in the innovation and seeks additional
information about it either from extension officer or from fellow farmers
or from any source, which he feels credible. That means the farmer
acquires more information about an innovation or idea by wanting to
know what the innovation/idea is, how it works and what its potentialities
c) Evaluation Stage
At the evaluation stage, the farmer makes mental application of the new
idea in the present and anticipated future situations and decides whether
or not to try it. He judges the utility of the innovation, makes an
assessment whether the idea is applicable to own situation and if applied
what would be the result.
d) Trial Stage
The farmers may not take up any new idea and an innovation right away
on a large scale because he/she doesn‟t want to take risk even though the
potential of the idea has been proved. The new idea is applied on a small
scale in order to determine its utility or feasibility and applicability in
own situation.
e) Adoption Stages
Being satisfied with the performance of the new idea tested on small scale
in his own situation, the farmer uses the new idea continuously on a full
scale. Trial may be considered as the practical evaluation of an
innovation. The innovation becomes a part of his normal farming activity.
It provides the advantage of the innovation and hence the farmer takes
final decision and applies the innovation in a scale appropriate to own
situation on a continued basis.
Based his observations of farmers behavior (earliness or lateness) of
adoption, Swanson (1984) mentioned that: possibility of classifying
farmers in term of possessing more or less of that traits. Those few who
are first to try out a new idea are called Innovators. If the new idea
survives for an appreciable length of time and is accepted by more than
the first few; one can identify a second category of farmers, they called
early adopters. Then if the new idea continues to spread, the bulk of
farmers who ultimately accept the new idea can be classified as Early and
Late Majority, depending on the time (relatively early or late) at which
they make the decision to adopt. Finally, some minority of farmers
accepts the idea very late, and is conventionally called Laggards.
Several points can be made with respect to the types of adopters, given
the fact that some farmers are very early in adopting a new idea and some
are very late, with the majority in between, it is possible to use that
factual information to describe adoption behavior in terms of the familiar
bell shaped or normal curve. The important point here is that if adoption
behavior is observed over time, it can be seen to follow a certain pattern
and is predictable.
In term of time, it is useful to characterize individuals who make the
decision to adopt at different points in time. Classification with respect to
some dimension is an early step toward gaining scientific understanding.
The particular category labels chosen and the dividing lines between
categories have gained acceptance as being useful but are not to be
interpreted as representing sharp differences between types of people.
2.1.2 Factors Determining the Rate of Adoption:
Rogers, E. (1983) mentioned several factors that influenced determining
the rate of adopt any new initiatives, These factors include the following: Perceived characteristics of innovations: Relative advantage
a. The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the
idea it supersedes.
i) Cost.
ii) Status aspect, evidence based practices.
iii) Over adoption, the adoption of an innovation by an individual when
experts feel that should reject it.
b. Generalization
The relative advantage of an innovation, as perceived by members of a
social system, is positively related to its rate of adoption.
c. Preventive Interventions
A preventive innovation has a particularly slow rate of adoption because
individuals have difficulties in perceiving its relative advantage. Relative
advantage of a preventive innovation is highly uncertain
d. Communication campaign.
Intends to generation specific effects on the part of a relatively large
number of individuals within a specified period of time and through an
organized set of communication activities.
e. Formative research
Ongoing tested on intended audience to make sure the campaign in order
to improve effectiveness. Compatibility:
a) The degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the
exiting values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters
b) Compatibility with values and beliefs
c) An innovation may be compatible with deeply embedded cultural
values but also with previously adopted ideas
d) The more compatible innovation with norms and values, the less
change in behavior it represents
e) Innovation negativism – the degree to which an innovation‟s failure
conditions a potential adopter to reject future innovations.
f) Compatibility with needs
g) Change agents seek to determine the needs of their clients, and then to
recommend innovations that fulfill these needs. Complexity
i) The degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to
understand and use.
ii) The more complex an innovation is perceived, the slower the rate of
xii Trialability
i) The degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a
limited basis
ii) The more trialable, the greater the rate of adoption Observability
i) The degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others
ii) Observability is positively related to the rate of adoption Type of Innovation Decision:
refers to the number of people involved in the adoption process:
a) Optional innovation decisions taken by individuals independent of
others, independent of the decisions of other members of the system.
b) Collective innovation decision require consensus among many people
in a system or organization, allegedly causing adoption to be slower. The
choices could be to adopt or reject an innovation. All units of the system
must conform to the system‟s decision once it is made.
c) Authority innovation decisions involve only a few relatively powerful
individuals who possess power, status, or technical expertise can decide
on adoption or rejection by a collective decision. Collective and authority
decision types are much more common than optional. Authority decisions
have the fastest rate of adoption, but can be circumvented during their
d) Contingent innovation decision type is the fourth type in which choices
to adopt or reject can be made only after a prior innovation – decision.
For example, an individual member of a social system may be free to
adopt or not to adopt a new idea only after his/her system‟s innovation
decision. Communication Channels:
Communication Channel diffusing the innovation at various states in the
innovation decision process is:
a) Mass media channels:
Mass media channels are all those means of transmitting messages that
involve a mass medium, such as radio, television, newspapers, and so on,
which enables a source to reach an audience of many.
b) Interpersonal channels:
Interpersonal channels involve a face-to-face exchange between two or
more individuals. Localite sources of information belong to the same
social system as that of the receivers. Their knowledge about objects and
events are restricted, generally confined to the local system. Examples are
relatives, friends, neighbours etc. On the other hand, cosmopolite sources
of information are from outside the social system of the receivers. Their
knowledge about objects and events are wider, and as such, they can
bring new ideas to the receivers. Examples are extension agents (personal
cosmopolite), mass media (impersonal cosmopolite) etc.
c) Hybrid Media:
The Internet- New media have emerged that tend to combine the
functional properties of mass media and of interpersonal communication.
This is because they can potentially reach large numbers of people in
many locations, but at the same time support a level of interactivity that is
higher than with conventional mass media. Many of the hybrid media are
based on technology and often referred to as information and
communication technology. Nature of the Social System:
Connected largely with social influence and societal characteristics that
shape diffusion:
Knowledge and perception are subject to social influences and related to
social interests.
a) Social Norms people‟s, social background, socio cultural values and
b) Pattern of network interconnectedness in social networks- political
contexts and group interest, individual interest in specific interaction
settings Extent of Change agent’s promotion efforts:
Greatest response to change agent effort occurs when opinion leaders
adopt, which usually occurs somewhere between 3 and 16 % adoption in
most systems.
2.1.3 Theories of technology adoption:
Doss (1999) posits that we must recognize that technology adoption and
technology impacts depend on intricate webs of interaction that defy
simple generalizations. Farmers have subjective preferences for
technology characteristics (Ashby & Sperling, 1992) and these could play
major roles in technology adoption. Adoption or rejection of technologies
by farmers may reflect rational decision making based upon farmers‟
characteristics of the technologies. This means that several factors will
determine whether a technology will be adopted or rejected by farmers.
Leeuwis (2004) posits that improving food production and fostering
economic development is not just a matter of individuals receiving
messages and adopting the right technologies, but has more to do with
altering interdependences and co-ordination between various actors.
2.1.4 Dimensions of technology adoption:
According to Leeuwis model (2004), adoption of technology is pegged on
four dimensions: knowledge, interests, ability to do it and being allowed
to do it. These four variables can be helpful in understanding what
farmers do and not to do at a given time. By doing so it gives us some
entry points for contributing to change and innovation. Knowledge.
Believe/know, this dimension has to do with the knowledge of the
farmers. Whether they understand all the concepts of the whole process
and whether they believe they can do it. Wesonga, et al (2002) cites
several reasons for neglect of mushroom in developing countries:
comparatively little scientific study has been done on tropical
mushrooms; literature on mushroom growing is expensive and not aimed
at developing countries, unavailable technical skills to produce spawn and
suitable strains are hard to find. Interests.
The dimension of interests has to do with claims and benefits. Farmers
would have to weigh the advantages and disadvantages before they adopt
the innovation. For farmers to adopt they have to compare between the
advantages and disadvantages of the innovation. According to Odendo et
al (2004) women are involved in most of the mushroom management
practices even though the decision to venture to mushroom production is
highly vested on men. This means that there are power relations in
mushroom production above the fact that it also increases the workload
for the women. Farmers who want to adopt an innovation must also fully
understand the benefits related to it. Ability.
Ability relates to farmers‟ access to factors of mushrooms production.
The role played by women in rural mushroom production can be very
significant because certain parts of the mushroom cultivation process,
such as filling substrates in containers and harvesting, are ideally suited
for women‟s participation (Marshall & Nair, 2009). Initial costs
determine adoption decisions especially in the case of the resource-poor
smallholders they may become a limiting factor for adoption (Batz et al,
1999). This means that if farmers are resource poor and access to capital
is limited, profitable technologies might not be adopted if it requires a
high capital outlay. Another aspect has to do with their conditions in
terms of soil fertility, ease of transport to market, availability of inputs
etc. The ability of marking the product is important since one of the
benefits of the produce is high income then they must be able to market it
to realize its benefit. Social pressure.
Being allowed to do it has to do with social pressure. Leeuwis (2004)
cites that farmers have direct and indirect relationships with other people
who often have certain explicit or implicit ideas about what they would
like a farmer to do in a specific context. Such factors can include spouses,
children, relatives, village leaders, neighbours, communication workers,
politicians among others. Thus, it is conceivable that while a farmer holds
an attitude towards an innovation that is largely positive, social pressure
from his/her neighbours may influence his/her decision to adopt it
(Burton, 2004).
The interests by farmers to adopt a technology can be based on their
perception on its claims and benefits.
Singh et al (2008) posits that the high profitability of mushroom can
make the unemployed youths, housewives and farmers to be attracted
towards this enterprise because the space required for mushroom
cultivation is available even at home and the surplus manpower of a
family owing mushroom unit can be judiciously utilized. The claims are
the perceived disadvantages of the technology. Mushroom production is
associated with high labour requirement especially during substrate
preparation and sterilization (Odendo et al., 2004).
2.1.5 Impact of new technologies on farmers’ wellbeing and rural
livelihood security in India:
According to Souvenir, I T M T, (2010): Agricultural innovations and
diffusion of new technologies are the important factors in the country's
quest for food, nutrition, environmental security and enhancement of
income and employment. Agricultural research in India has generated
outstanding productivity increases in the past and shall continue to play
an important role in supporting rural livelihoods and accelerating rural
growth. However, rising population and per capita income are pushing up
the food demand, which needs to be met through enhanced productivity
per unit area, input, time and energy. At the same time, the issues of
decreasing factor productivity and resource use efficiency have also
emerged. Furthermore, many promising research findings have not
reached the farmers, due to either inadequacies in research designs or
research results, deficiencies of delivery systems or lack of economic
incentives. This is particularly visible in the complex environments and
less favored areas. In order to address the problems of poverty and
hunger, it is critical to redirect and augment resources devoted to
agricultural research to the farming and livelihood systems of the poor
rural communities. Further, to utilize the technological breakthroughs that
are already available for commercial use, the agricultural research
priorities and strategies will have to be revised and new system wide
approaches need to be developed and adopted.
2.2 Mushroom Production and Technology:
Mushroom is a simple form of life known as fungus and most of the fungi
are the mushroom which can be visible to eye not like other fungi. The
origin of the term "MUSHROOM" is from the Latin word "fungo” that
means "flourish".Although the benefits and food value to mushroom;
there are some poisons type of them.
2.2.1What is mushrooms?
According to Miles & Chang (2004): "Mushroom is a macro fungus with
a distinctive fruiting body that can be either epigeous (aboveground) or
hypogenous (underground) and large enough to be seen with the naked
eye and to be picked by hand".
That includes both Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes, hypogenous as
well as epigeous species, fleshy and non-fleshy textured macro fungi,
edible or non-edible, or poisonous or medicinal species.
2.2.2Types of mushroom
Acording to N.N. Patil (2010): Mushroom were classified into three types
according to their growing characteristics.
A) Parasitic mushrooms
They attack a living host plant, usually a tree and eventually kill it. An
example of a parasitic mushroom is the Honey mushroom. This type of
mushroom can be cultivated but will require a living host.
B) Mycorrhizal mushrooms
These mushrooms form a symbiotic relationship with the roots of trees.
Examples include the Boletes, Truffles, Chanterelles, and Amanitas.
Cultivation of this type of mushroom requires other half of the symbiotic
relationship, which is the live tree. It is almost impossible to establish this
symbiotic relationship under controlled conditions on a commercial basis.
However, success has been achieved with truffles whereby a grower
inoculated the roots of small oaks with the mycelium, and then waited for
more than ten years before harvesting the truffles.
C) Saprophytic mushrooms
These grow on dead organic matter such as dead trees, stumps, old roots,
grass, straw, compost, etc. Mushroom in this group which are
successfully cultivated including Shiitake, Oyster, Champignons or White
Button mushrooms (Agaricus spp.), Portobello, Enokitake, Reishi,
Maitake, Paddy Straw mushroom, and many others.
2.2.3 Food Value of Mushroom
Sufficient food supply is a country's most valuable asset. With increasing
population and conventional agricultural methods we cannot cope with
the food problem. In view of the current energy food crisis it has become
most important to make a substantial breakthrough in the technology of
food production to meet a serious food deficit situation.
According to Nita Bahl (2000) Mushroom provide a rich addition to the
diet in the form of protein, carbohydrate, valuable salts and vitamins. As
food the nutritional value of mushroom lies between meat and vegetables.
Mushroom contains protein which consists of various amino acids. All
the essential amino acids required by an adult are present in mushroom.
Some of amino acids are absent in vegetable proteins. Protein of
mushroom like other fungal protein is intermediate in quality between
vegetable and animal protein. Mushroom are a good source of energy,
also made similar observations and stated that one pound (454 g) of fresh
mushroom provides 120 K calories.
2.2.4 Cultivation of commercial species of mushrooms:
N.N. Patil (2010) mentioned: Mushroom are cultivated and consumed
worldwide for both culinary and medicinal purposes. The commercial
potential of an edible species for any grower depends on a number of
factors including edibility and shelf life, local and regional culinary
customs, and the existence of a distribution network, among others. Some
edible species are cultivated and consumed internationally while other
edibles have not yet achieved worldwide culinary appeal and are
therefore cultivated only in countries where a local market has developed.
Many mushrooms species can be cultivated at home on a small scale
using various methods. Since home cultivation is mainly a hobby, the
experimentation alone can lead to a satisfactory experience.
Commercial cultivation, on the hand, requires reproducible, quantitative
results. A steady supply of mushrooms is necessary in order to enable the
commercial grower to satisfy the demands of potential customer such as
food distributors, supermarkets and restaurants.
Cultivation techniques have been determined for a number of edible and
medicinal mushroom species, which have a high potential for commercial
2.2.5 The prospects of mushroom cultivation:
According to Paul S. Teng, (2008): Some reasons are as follows:
(1) Mushrooms can convert waste materials into human food by growing
on all types of wastes and degrading them by secreting extensive
enzyme complexes.
(2) Mushrooms are relatively fast-growing organisms, some tropical
mushrooms can be harvested and consumed 10 days after spawning.
By using different varieties, mushrooms can be producedall year
(3) Mushroom cultivation is labor-intensive and can provide jobs for
many in tropical countries.
(4) It requires minimum land unlike other crops, and is again suitable in
places where land is scarce and expensive.
(5) Mushrooms have been accepted as human food from time
immemorial, and can immediately supply additional protein to the
human diet.
(6) Mushrooms should be used as a type of vegetable; this would be
beneficial to the public once it is grown as widely and cheaply as
other common vegetables.
(7) It represents one of the world‟s greatest relatively untapped source of
nutritious and palatable food for the future.
2.2.6 Factors influence mushroom cultivation:
According to Soliman, H. et al (2013).: They are many factors are
important when the process of mushroom cultivation, are as follows: Sanitary measures:
a) The cultivation room should be easily closed.
b) Windows and openings lined with wire net to prevent insects and
rats from entering the room.
c) Room floor made from concrete with smooth surface of ceramics.
d) The room equipped with drainage facilities. Humidity:
 Humidity of the production room:
The relative in the production room should be kept between 70 – 80%.
It should be emphasized that under lower humidity the substrate
becomes dry and the product fruits become wilted and dry.
To achieve the desirable humidity, the room ground should be sprayed
with water. Water on the room ground should be changed every day to
avoid accumulation of contaminants.
 Humidity of substrate:
The fungi mycelium grow well on wet substrate (65% moisture).
Increasing water content of substrate reduces aeration and encourages
the growth of bacteria. Reducing water content of substrate affects the
growth of fungi and reduces its substrate degrading function. Temperature:
Optimum room temperature for maximum fruit growth range between
(18 - 25)ᵒ C.
Fruiting starts 7 – 10 days after the end of the incubation period and the
removal of the plastic covers. Aeration:
Aeration is an important factor to produce good quality mushrooms. The
room should be aerated by opening the windows or providing it with a
If aeration is poor, stems of fruits are prolonged and production of fruits
without caps take place. Lighting:
Direct sunlight should be avoided as it has a negative effect on the quality
of the fruits produced. Oyster mushroom require (3 – 4) hrs light daily.
This could be provided by indirect sunlight or by electric light, increasing
the intensity of light produces undesirable dark colored fruits .
2.2.7 Enterprise Issues in Mushroom Businesses:
Mushroom cultivation is big business in North America, Between 2002 to
2003, 260 mushroom growers in the USA produced more than 383
million kilograms of mushrooms. Certified organic mushrooms accounted
for only 1% of all sales, although 12% of growers were certified organic.
The vast bulk of sales were of the Agaricus species, which includes white
button mushrooms, portobellas and criminis.
Total production of Auricularia spp. in 1991 exceeded 465,000 tons in
fresh weight. This value is an increase of 346,000 tons or 290% over the
net weight of mushrooms produced in 1986. (Chang, 1993).
Auricularia spp. production now represents about 11% of the total
cultivated mushroom supply worldwide. Worldwide production of
F.velutipes (enoki) has increased from about 100,000 tons in 1986 to
about 187,000 tons in 1991.
Japan is the main producer of enoki. In 1986, Japan produced 74,387
tons; by 1991, production had risen to 95,123 tons. In 1993, Japan
produced 103,357 tons.
From these data, it is evident that a faster growth rate, in terms of total
production, is being enjoyed by other countries. In the United States, for
example, enoki production has increased at an estimated rate of 25% or
more per year for the last four years.
Production of the straw mushroom increased from 178,000 tons in 1986
to about 253,000 tons in 1991. Volvariella accounts for approximately
6% of the total worldwide production of edible mushrooms.
Countries like Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines have active
homegrown mushroom industries supplying the fresh produce market.
2.2.8 Marketing channels of mushroom production:
Marketing channel is defined as a set of interdependent organizations that
help make a product or service available for use or consumption by the
consumers (Kotler, 2010).
The chain of intermediaries through which the various farm commodities
pass between producers and consumers is called marketing channel. The
existence of the agricultural farm depends on the marketing channel
mainly because the agricultural commodities move from farmers to
ultimate consumers through various market intermediaries that operate in
the marketing system and marketing efficiency.
However, market linkage is the most appropriate in the context of the
farmers‟ involvement and the market to supply goods to consumers (Kit.
et al., 2006; and Shepherd, 2007). Usually, marketing channel links the
producers and consumers, and thereby supplying goods from producers to
consumers. A large number of intermediaries are involved in the
marketing channels and they earn their daily livelihoods.
2.2.9 Impact of mushroom production on rural area development
and livelihood security:
Now mushroom is being cultivated in more than 100 countries of the
world and the estimated total production is over 12 million tons (Suman
and Sharma, 2007).
Mushroom is considered as one of the important food items since ancient
time and its consumption is being increased over the period for its
significant role in human health, nutrition and diseases (Suzuki and
Oshima, 1976; Uddin, et al., 2011). The edible mushrooms are also good
source of protein, vitamins and minerals (Khan et al., 1981).
Recently, unemployment is increasing rapidly both in developed and
developing countries. In this situation, self-employment can be one
important way to increase employment rate for small, marginal poor farm
households for generating employment and earning extra money. They
can easily cultivate mushroom in their home yard because it requires
small piece of land where mushrooms can be grown.
The objectives of rural development in developing countries are mainly
diversification of rural income and attaining a competitive structure for
agriculture in order to increase job opportunities and development. Small
family farms are disadvantaged groups since they do not have enough
land to produce crops and raise animal. Also rural environment can be
protected by improvement of Environmental-Friendly Agricultural
Practices. Especially, farmers in forest villages both do not have
agricultural land and have to protect forest ecosystem.
Mushroom production can be meaningful to the extent that non
agricultural job and income opportunities. Intensive type of mushroom
production could provide good alternative income opportunities for small
family enterprises since they do not have adequate land to produce crops
and raise animal. Also, mushroom production gives additional/alternative
income to farmers looking for a value-added product and a way to
supplement farm income while making use of by products or co-products
from other crops.
Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production is a lucrative and profitable
cottage industry for low income rural households (Lelley, 1988) and this
industry is providing full or part time employment to rural and urban
poor and marginal people in many developing countries (Ferchak and
Croucher, 2001.
2.2.10 Mushroom project in Sudan:
Increasing attention is being given to the role of smallholder subsistence
agriculture in ensuring the food security of the African continent, as 73%
of the rural population consists of smallholder farmers. In sub-Saharan
Africa, agriculture accounts for approximately 21% of the continents
GDP and women contribute about 60 – 80% of the labor used to produce
food both for household consumption and for sale. The important role of
smallholder subsistence farmers in Sudan, of which the majority are
women, was highlighted in several occasions. Women constitute 80% of
the farmers in the traditional sector and 49% in the irrigated sector.
According to mushroom project publication: in Sudan, the ten year
strategy plan targeting the agricultural sector encouraged foreign
investment and large scale farming through providing access to
productive resources such as land, irrigation, credit, technology,
extension services and training. This has adversely affected small and
marginal farmers leading to a wide spread of poverty among them.
The importance of this shift has put a tremendous strain on small and
marginal farmers especially women who are concentrated in the
subsistence sector and whose ability to move into large scale farming is
limited by various constraints, including:
a) Time (double burden of productive and reproductive tasks).
b) Systemic (low access to credit, technological packages and
marketing information).
c) Socio-cultural (traditional responsibility for feeding and care of the
Over the years, mushroom production has proved to be a successful
solution to poverty and health among smallholder subsistence agriculture.
Mushroom production has shifted small and marginal farmers to a better
position, a legacy of such success is still echoing in India and China rural
areas. Nowadays mushroom consumption is picking up due to the arrival
of many investors from Asia in addition to the increase in awareness
among Sudanese on the important of mushroom. This is quite evident
from the statistics of consumption especially in Khartoum State, the
location of this project.
In 2010, Al Zaeim Al Azhari University, Sudan, in partnership with
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, India, establish mushroom project
entitle "Mushroom technology and farming for livelihood security of
small and marginal farmers of Khartoum State, Sudan“. The project was
funded under programme known as; Development Partnership in Higher
Education (Del PHE) and administrated by the British Council and the
Department for International Development (DFID). The project team
included Dr. A.I.Abdalla ,Dr. O . Abdal Maboud ,Dr. H. H. M. Khalaf
and Dr Mustafa Yousif Mohammed .The project aimed to the
introduction of mushroom species including Agaricus bispours, Lentinus
edodes, Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus sajur caju, Ganoderma and milky
mushroom. These strains has been introduced from India, Malaysia &
2.2.11 The Objectives and anticipated outcome of Mushroom Project
in Sudan:
The overall objectives and anticipated outcomes of the project are
summarized in the following:
1. Introduction of Mushroom Technology and Farming to a large
deprived sector of small and marginal farmers that possess diet
which consistently been marked as poor in term of diversity,
quantity and quality.
Anticipated outcome:
The of mushroom technology and farming is expected to enhance the
diversity and quality of vegetables consumed by farmers, providing this
sector of the society with an additional vegetable of high quality proteins,
minerals and vitamins which can be of direct benefit to human health and
2. Introducing Mushroom Technology and Farming in the curriculum
and research activities of the faculty of Agriculture at Al Zaiem Al
Azhari University.
Anticipated outcome:
Acquainting students and faculty with the subject, stimulating research
interests and initiating training program, extension activity and degree
program in area of mushroom science and technology.
3. Improving production cycle and minimizing the impact of
seasonality of production by integrating mushroom farming inbetween main crops when the farming schedule is light.
Anticipated outcome:
This will generate an additional family income that will bring an
equitable economic growth in income of small and marginal farmers
around Khartoum State.
4. Providing the knowledge and skill to initial a cottage industry on
mushroom to farmers, extension and microfinance bodies.
Anticipated outcome:
Providing a mean for generating employment, particularly for rural
women and youths in order to raise their social status.
5. Better management and recycling of farms waste product in the
production of mushroom.
Anticipated outcome:
Stimulate green attitudes, reduce environment pollution and build
awareness on organic farming around farmers of Khartoum State.
This chapter devoted to the Summary of the finding of the research,
Conclusion and testing of hypothesis and the recommendation.
One hundred and seventy three (farmers, rural women, small investors,
disables and graduates) of Khartoum state trained on mushroom
production technology.
All respondents who exposed to the training in mushroom production
were interviewed using questionnaire addresse the farmer‟s personal
characteristics and their knowledge about mushroom production before
and after training.
The collected data were fed to computer and analyzed using Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) frequencies; percentage and chisquare test were calculated. A significance level of 0.05 was used in
comparisons of the collected data.
5.1. Summary of finding:
High percentage (78%) of the respondents in the age group (20 – 50)
Almost the gender of the respondents distributed equally (55 %) of them
were female and (45%) were male.
High percentage (73%) of the respondents were Graduate and Post
Graduate education.
Average percentages (53 %) of the respondents were single.
A percentage of (28%) of the respondents their agricultural holdings was
less than 5 acres.
A percentage of (36%) of the respondents income is less than five
thousand pounds.
A percentage (64%) of the respondents did not have any information
mushroom production before
after training all
showed (100%) adequate information about mushroom
The majorities of respondents (86%) did not have knowledge about
method of mushroom producing before training, after training all
interviewees showed (100%) adequate knowledge about mushroom
An average percentage (36%) of the respondents mentioned that
mushroom cultivated directly in the soil before their exposed to training,
but after the training, 41% of them mentioned mushroom cultivated on
special pre-prepared medium.
The majority of respondents (73%) did not have knowledge about types
of mushroom before training, after training all interviewees showed
(100%) adequate knowledge about types of mushroom.
An average percentage (61%) of the respondents did not have the
knowledge about benefits of mushroom food before training, after
training all interviewees showed (100%) adequate knowledge about
benefits of mushroom food.
The majority of respondents (87%) did not have the knowledge about
benefits of medicinal mushrooms before training, but after training all
interviewees showed (100%) adequate knowledge about benefits of
medicinal mushroom.
The majority of respondents (79%) did not have the knowledge about
economic benefits of mushroom before training, but after training all
interviewees showed (100%) adequate knowledge about economic
benefits of mushroom.
The majority of respondents (90%) did not have the knowledge about
social benefits of mushroom before training, after training all
interviewees showed (100%) adequate knowledge about social benefits of
High percentage (98%) of the respondents never exposed to training on
mushroom production before training, but after training all interviewees
showed (100%) have exposed to training on mushroom production.
The majority of respondents (84%) desire for training on mushroom
production mainly for investment.
5.2 Conclusion:
5.2.1. The impact of training on mushroom production for respondents
had clear impact on changing their knowledge towards adoption of
mushroom production in Khartoum state in all selected items.
5.2.2 All chi-square test for dependency of respondents personal
characteristics not significant to their desire in training except the
character of their gender.
Dependence on the above conclusions the author accepted the following
Training has a positive impact in changing respondents knowledge
toward adopting mushroom production technologies.
Not all respondents personal characteristics have a positive impact
towards adoption of mushroom production technologies.
5.3 Recommendations:
Based upon the findings of this study the author recommended the
5.3.1 To the Al Zaeim Al Azhari University:
 Intensification of production of mushroom seeds in mushroom
production unit, for providing all the desired farmers in Khartoum
state in particular and desired farmers in Sudan in general.
 Continuation and expansion of training sessions on mushroom
production to cover wide range of farmers in whole country.
 Encouraging the trained farmers to start their production of
mushroom in associations to ensure and organize the production
and marketing processes.
5.3.2 To the Department of Agricultural Extension in Khartoum:
 Activating the role of agricultural extension to work on the
deployment of mushroom production technologies among state
 Working intensively on introducing and diffusion of mushroom as
a promised future food to the Sudanese food table.
5.3.3To the state Ministry of Agriculture:
 Support and develop the project of mushroom production in
Khartoum in particular and Sudan as general.
 Adopting clear strategy for the diffusion and dissemination of
mushroom production technology throughout the country.
Ashby, J. and Sperling, L., (1992) Institutionalizing participatory,
client-driven research and technology development in agriculture. Paper
presented at the Meeting of the CGIAR Social Scientists, 15-22
September, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 115-122.
Badr ,Ahmad.( 2005) mushroom growers' handbook 2, shiitake
cultivation Mushroom.
Bahl, Nita. (2005) Handbook on Mushroom
(Fourth Edition) Printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
BATZ, F. J., et al. (1999). The influence of technology characteristics on
the rate and speed of adoption. Agricultural Economics.pp 21, 121-130.
Burton, R. J. F. (2004). Reconceptualising the „behavioural approach‟ in
agricultural studies: a socio-psychological perspective. Journal of Rural
Studies, 20, 359-371.
Chang, S.T. (1993). Mushroom biology: The impact on mushroom
production and mushroom products. In Mushroom Biology and
Mushroom Products (Ed. S.T. Chang et al.). The Chinese University of
Hong Kong.
Doss C. (1999). Twenty-Five Years of Research on Women Farmers in
EC-FAO. (1998-2000) Partnership Programme Tropical forestry
Budget line B7-6201/97-15/VIII/ For Project GCP/INT/679/EC The
status of non-timber forest products in Tanzania by forestry and
beekeeping division 1999.
Ferchak, J. D. and Croucher, J. (2001). Prospects and Problems in
Commercialization of Small-Scale Mushroom Production in South and
Southeast Asia, Appropriate Technology International, Washington DC,
USA, 321-329 pp.
Khan, S. M. et al. (1981).Yield Performance of Paddy Straw in Pakistan.
Mushroom Science,2(1):675-687.
KIT, Mali, F. IIRR, (2006). Chain Empowerment: Supporting African
Farmers to Develop Markets, Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.
Kotler, P., and Armstrong, G, (2010). Principles of
Marketing, 13th edn., Prentice Hall, 339 p.
Leeuwis C. (2004). Communication for Rural Innovation: rethinking
Agricultural extension. Oxford. Blackwell publishing.
Lelley, J. (1988). Growing Edible Mushrooms-Still a Generally
Neglected Opportunity.Gate 4, 30-34 pp.
Marshall E. & Nair G. (2009). Making money by growing mushrooms.
Rome. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
Miles,Philip. G., Shu-Ting Chang (2004). Mushrooms Cultivation,
Nutritional Value, Medicinal, Effect, and Environmental Impact.
Second Edition. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
Mushroom project, publication of the project in Sudan.
Odendo, M. et al. (2004). Analysis of mushroom value chain in Kenya.
Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) publications.
Paul S. Teng. (2008) Bioscience entrepreneurship in Asia
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Biotechnology--Asia. 2. Biotechnology industries--Asia. I. Title.
Patil, N. N (2010) mushroom cultivation, processing and uses, ISBN:
Ramadan, Rania.(2003) Mushroom Cultivation, unpublished graduating
research, University of Khartoum.
Rogers, Everett M. (1983). Diffusion of innovation. New York. ISBN
Shepherd, A. W. (2006). Approaches to link producers to Markets- A
Review of Experiences to Date, Agricultural Management, Marketing and
Finance, Occasional paper No. 13, Rome, FAO.
Singh N. et al. (2008) Constraints in mushroom production technology in
Haryana. Agricultural Science Digest, 28 (2): 118 - 120. pp.
Soliman, H. et al. Biotechnological Technique For the Production of
Animal Feed and Human Food Using Agricultural Wastes, Agric. Res.
Center, Giza, Egypt (2013).
Souvenir: International Training on Mushroom Technology, 2010. A. C.
Pune, India.
Suman, B.C. and Sharma, V.P.(2007). Mushrooms Cultivation in India,
Daya Publishing House, Delhi.-110035, 18-22 pp.
Suzuki, S. and Oshima, S. (1976). Influence of Shii-te-ke (Lentina
edodes) on Human Serum Cholesterol. Mushroom Science, 1:463-T.
Swanson, E. (1984). Agricultural Extension, A Reference Manual
(second edition). Edited and Printed by FAO.
Uddin, M. N. et al (2011). Production of Oyster Mushrooms in Different
Seasonal Conditions of Bangladesh. Journal of Scientific Research, 3(1):
Wesonga, J.M. et al. (2002). Proceedings of the Horticulture Seminar on
Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics. 3rd – 6th October
2001. Department of Horticulture, Jomo Kenyatta University of
Agriculture and Technology.
 ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/003/X6700E/X6700E00.pdf
 FAO; Food supply situation and crop prospects in Sub-Saharan
Africa - April 2000.
 FAO/GIEWS: Africa Report No.1, April 2000
 www.sudabids.com/reports1-archive.php?id=1065ar.wikipedia.org
/ wiki
Al Zaeim Al Azhari University
Faculty of Agriculture
Mushroom technology and farming project
20 – 30
31 – 40
41 – 50
51 – 60
more than 60
Primary education
Intermediate education
Secondary Education
Graduate education
Post Graduate
marital status:
Size of holding
less than 5
5 – 10
11 – 15
16 – 20
more than 20
less than 5 thousand pounds
5 – 10 thousand pounds
more than 10 thousand pounds
Have you any information about mushroom?
( )
( )
DO you know mushroom production methods ?
( )
( )
Where is mushroom cultivation?
Natural environment
Industrial environment )
The species of mushrooms? Did you know
( )
( )
Know the benefits and value of mushroom as a food? Did you
( )
( )
Know the mushroom medicinal values? Did you
( )
( )
know the economic benefits and value of mushrooms? Did you
( )
( )
know the social benefits of mushrooms? Did you
( )
( )
Are you exposed to previous training on mushroom production
( )
( )
Why do you desire in training?
general information
for investment
open training
‫ثسن هللا السحوي السحين‬
‫جبهعخ الصعين االشُسي‬
‫كليخ الصزاعخ‬
‫هشسوع روطيي رمبًخ وإًزبج فطس الوشسوم‬
‫أسزجبًخ الزدزيت للوصازعيي‬
‫العوس ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 30 – 20‬سٌخ‬
‫‪ 40 – 31‬سٌخ‬
‫‪ 50 – 41‬سٌخ‬
‫‪ 60 – 51‬سٌخ‬
‫أكثس هي ‪ 60‬سٌخ‬
‫ذكس (‬
‫أًثي (‬
‫الوسزوى الزعليوي‪:‬‬
‫فوق جبهعي (‬
‫الحبلخ االجزوبعيخ‪:‬‬
‫هزصوج (‬
‫عبشة (‬
‫هطلك (‬
‫حجن الحيبشح‪:‬‬
‫ألل هي ‪ 5‬فداى‬
‫‪ 10 – 5‬فداى‬
‫‪ 15 – 11‬فداى‬
‫‪ 20 – 16‬فداى‬
‫أكثس هي ‪ 20‬فداى‬
‫الدخل السٌوي‪:‬‬
‫ألل هي ‪ 5‬الف جٌيَ (‬
‫‪ 10 – 5‬الف جٌيَ‬
‫أكثس هي ‪ 10‬الف جٌيَ (‬
‫ُل رعسف أي هعلوهخ عي فطس الوشسوم؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رعسف طسيمخ اًزبج ُرا الفطس؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫في زأيك أيي يصزع ُرا الفطس؟‬
‫في الزسثخ‬
‫في الوعول‬
‫في ثيئخ طجيعيخ (‬
‫في ثيئخ صٌبعيخ (‬
‫ُل رعسف أًواع الفطس الوسزصزع هٌَ؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رعسف فوائد ُرا الفطس الغرائيخ؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رعسف فوائد ُرا الفطس الطجيخ؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رعسف فوائد الزصبديخ؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رعسف فوائد الفطس االجزوبعيخ؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫ُل رلميذ دوزح ردزيجيخ في هجبل رمبًخ اًزبج فطس الوشسوم؟‬
‫ًعن (‬
‫ال (‬
‫لوب رسغت في الزدزيت في ُرٍ الدوزاد؟‬
‫للوعسفخ العبهخ فمط‬
‫لالسزثوبز في هجبل إًزبجَ (‬
‫الى الزدزيت هجبًي‬