Jeremy Denk
Director and Piano
Wednesday Evening, March 25, 2015 at 7:30
Hill Auditorium • Ann Arbor
62nd Performance of the 136th Annual Season
136th Annual Choral Union Series
Photo: Academy of St. Martin in the Fields; photographer: Bill Page.
Igor Stravinsky
Concerto in D Major
Arioso: Andantino
Rondo: Allegro
Johann Sebastian Bach
Concerto for Keyboard No. 1 in d minor, BWV 1052
Mr. Denk
Concerto for Keyboard No. 5 in f minor, BWV 1056
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
Mr. Denk
Tonight’s performance is sponsored by MASCO Corporation Foundation.
Tonight’s performance is supported by Linda Samuelson and Joel Howell, Gary and Diane Stahle, Ann and
Clayton Wilhite, and Marina and Robert Whitman.
Media partnership provided by WGTE 91.3 FM and WRCJ 90.9 FM.
Special thanks to Linda Gregerson, professor of English Language and Literature at U-M, for speaking at
tonight’s Prelude Dinner.
Apollon musagète
Premier Tableau: Naissance D’Apollon: Largo
Second Tableau: Variation D’Apollon
Pas D’Action: Moderato
Variation de Calliope: Allegretto
Variation de Polymnie: Allegro
Variation Terpsichore: Allegretto
Variation D’Apollon: Lento
Pas de Deux: Adagio
Coda: Vivo
Apothéose: Largo e tranquillo
Special thanks to Tom Thompson of Tom Thompson Flowers, Ann Arbor, for his generous contribution of
lobby floral art for this evening’s concert.
Special thanks to Kipp Cortez for coordinating the pre-concert music on the Charles Baird Carillon.
The ASMF gratefully acknowledges the American Friends of the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields for
their ongoing support.
The Academy of St. Martin in the Fields and Mr. Denk appear by arrangement with Opus 3 Artists, New York, NY.
Mr. Denk is a Steinway Piano Artist.
N O W T H AT Y O U ’ R E I N Y O U R S E AT…
For all his reputation as a musical revolutionary, Igor Stravinsky was drawn to reliving
and re-imagining the past his entire life, though he was inspired by different kinds of
past at different times. His so-called “neo-classical” period, which lasted about 30 years
(roughly 1920–50), was longer than either his early “Russian” or his late “serial” periods,
and was devoted to an endless variety of creative games played with various aspects of
the musical tradition.
One of Stravinsky’s major influences during his neo-classical period was Johann
Sebastian Bach, making a Bach-Stravinsky program a very attractive idea. One finds
echoes of Bach’s music in many Stravinsky works from the Piano Concerto (1924)
to Dumbarton Oaks (1938); there was a time when commentators liked to refer to
neo-classicism in general as a movement “back to Bach.” While this is an obvious
oversimplification, by putting Stravinsky’s music side by side with Bach’s, we will be able
to hear the specific connection in some of the rhythmic patterns. In 1956, Stravinsky
freely arranged Bach’s variations on the chorale Vom Himmel hoch for chorus and
orchestra, crowning a lifetime of engagement with Bach's music.
Concerto in D Major (1946,revised1961)
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
Igor Stravinsky
Born June 17, 1882 in Oranienbaum (now
Lomonosov), near St. Petersburg, Russia
Died April 6, 1971 in New York, New York
UMS premiere: Stravinsky’s Concerto in
D Major has never been performed on a
UMS concert.
S N A P S H O T S O F H I S T O R Y… I N 1 9 4 6 :
•The first meeting of the United Nations is held at
Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London
•The Central Intelligence Group is established
•Ho Chi Minh is elected President of North Vietnam
•UNICEF (the United Nations Children’s Emergency
Fund) is founded
•President Harry S. Truman delivers Proclamation 2714,
which officially ends hostilities in World War II
Stravinsky first collaborated with the
Swiss conductor Paul Sacher (1906–99) in
1930, when he played the solo part of his
Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra under
Sacher’s direction in Basle. Within a few
years, Sacher, who had founded the Basle
Chamber Orchestra, emerged as one of
the world’s most important champions
of new music. His commissions gave the
world such masterpieces as Bartók’s Music
for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta and
Richard Strauss’s Metamorphosen, to
name but two. Stravinsky wrote two works
for Sacher: the present Concerto and A
Sermon, a Narrative, and a Prayer (1963).
Stravinsky had left Europe in 1939
and settled in the US, living for many years
in Southern California. By the end of the
war, he was eager to renew his European
contacts — and Sacher was responsible
for his first European commission in more
than a decade. Stravinsky started working
on the piece even before mailing his letter
of acceptance to Switzerland.
The 12-minute Concerto in D Major
(also known as the Basle Concerto)
employs motoric rhythm inspired by the
Baroque era, melodic fragments alluding to
Romanticism, and a sophisticated handling
of the string instruments that wouldn’t
have been possible before the 20th century
— all in Stravinsky’s own inimitable
manner. All three movements are based,
in one way or another, on alternating halfsteps. The first movement continually
hovers between major and minor, with
numerous rhythmic and melodic surprises
that break the patterns as soon as they have
Concerto for Keyboard No. 1 in
d minor, BWV 1052 (1738)
Born March 21, 1685 in Eisenach, Germany
Died July 28, 1750 in Leipzig
UMS premiere: Harpsichordist Kenneth
Gilbert with the Chicago Symphony
Baroque Orchestra conducted by Jean
Maritnon, June 1967 at the UMS Fair
Lane Festival in Dearborn.
S N A P S H O T S O F H I S T O R Y… I N 1 7 3 8 :
•Pierre Louis Maupertuis publishes Sur la figure de la
terre, which confirms Newton’s view that the earth is
an oblate spheroid slightly flattened at the poles
•Black Forest clockmaker Franz Ketterer produces one
of the earliest cuckoo clocks
•The Great Plague of 1738, an outbreak of bubonic
plague, begins to spread from Banat across
central Europe
•Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel,
premieres in London
•The Imperial Ballet School at Saint Petersburg is
founded with Jean-Baptiste Landé as its principal
Since the appearance of the solo concerto
in the early 1700s, most concertos were
written for the violin. The cello and various
wind instruments were also occasionally
given a chance. The harpsichord, however,
Johann Sebastian Bach
was relegated to the role of Cinderella:
always present as a continuo instrument,
providing indispensable harmonic support,
but rarely noticed as a separate entity. The
reason for this may have been that early
concerto writers such as Vivaldi and Torelli
were string players; keyboard virtuosos
such as Domenico Scarlatti had either
no interest in writing concertos, or no
opportunities to do so.
As far as we know, J.S. Bach was the
first to write concertos for a keyboard
instrument. The virtuoso harpsichord part
in the Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 (which
also includes solos for flute and violin)
inaugurated a new genre that was destined
for a great future. About a decade after the
Brandenburg set, Bach wrote seven solo
concertos for the harpsichord when he was
the director of the Collegium Musicum
that performed at Zimmermann’s coffee
house in Leipzig. But for some reason,
he doesn’t seem to have thought of the
harpsichord/string orchestra combination
as an independent medium that could
stand on its own feet: instead of composing
original works, he merely transcribed some
of his earlier concertos for the keyboard.
For three of the seven, the originals are
well known. The Brandenburg Concerto
No. 4 (in G) became a harpsichord concerto
in F Major; and the two violin concertos in
a minor and E Major were reincarnated
as harpsichord concertos in g minor and
D Major, respectively.
For the other concertos, the originals
have not survived. Nevertheless, scholars
are sure they existed, and have even
attempted reconstructions. In the case of
the d-minor concerto, the keyboard part
has many features that are conspicuously
violinistic, such as the wide leaps in the
theme and a particular repeated-note
pattern that would have been played
to special effect on the violin, using
alternating strings. But other details in
the solo part, such as the arpeggios, are
been established. Later, the tempo slows
down for a middle section with languid
harmonies and expressive syncopations,
followed by a more energetic transition.
After a series of startling chords played by
solo violas and cellos, both earlier sections
are recapitulated. The harmonics of the
first cello and four double basses serve as
a bridge to the second-movement “Arioso,”
which spins a romantic, and ever sweeter,
singing line from a simple alternation of
two pitches. The final “Rondo” unfolds
over a constant background of agitated
tremolos, where this whirling and buzzing
activity plays the role of the rondo theme,
contrasting with those moments where
that activity briefly stops.
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
so idiomatic to the keyboard that a
reconstruction of the original violin
version is by no means a mechanical task.
We don’t know for sure when the original
violin concerto was written, though we
may assume that it was during the Cöthen
years (1717–1723), the period when Bach
wrote his known violin concertos. In the
1720s, Bach used the musical material
of the d-minor concerto in two of his
church cantatas. Cantata 146 opens with
the first movement of the concerto as an
instrumental introduction or Sinfonia,
already featuring a solo keyboard
instrument (the organ). The second
movement of this cantata is identical to the
second movement of the concerto, with
the chorus singing the words “Wir müssen
durch viel Trübsal in das Reich Gottes
eingehen” (We must enter God’s kingdom
through many tribulations). Another
cantata, No. 188, uses the concerto’s last
movement as its Sinfonia, again with a
concertant organ solo.
The Concerto for Keyboard No. 1
in d minor is a remarkably daring work
that treats Baroque concerto form with
a great deal of freedom: in one moment,
the music follows a strict logic based on
sequential progressions and consistent
melodic development, and in the next, it
surprises us with an outburst of rhapsodic
passagework. The unusualness starts
right at the beginning: the ritornello,
or recurrent theme, is played in unison,
which enhances the dramatic power of the
dissonant intervals (tritone, diminished
sevenths, minor ninths) in which the theme
abounds. It is one of the most passionate
instrumental movements Bach ever wrote.
Like the first movement, the second
starts with a unison theme featuring
wide leaps, including dissonant ones. The
melody stays in the bass, its presence
uninterrupted as the soloist’s right hand
plays an extremely ornate singing melody,
expressive of the line about tribulations
applied to this music in Cantata 146.
The finale doesn’t quite have the
chromatic asperities of the first two
movements, but it is still not exactly a
light movement. Despite some playful
elements in the rhythm, the tensions never
completely go away.
This concerto had a major influence
on Bach’s son Carl Philipp Emanuel, who
made his own arrangement of it, and who
developed the dramatic side of his father’s
writing further in his own music. The
highly charged emotional style of C.P.E.
Bach in turn influenced the composers of
the Classical era, including Haydn, Mozart,
and Beethoven.
Concerto for Keyboard No. 5 in
f minor, BWV 1056 (1738)
UMS premiere: Bach’s Concerto No. 5 in
f minor has never been performed on a
UMS concert.
The genesis of all seven of Bach’s extant
solo keyboard concertos is complicated,
to say the least. All are arrangements,
dating from the mid-to-late 1730s, of
earlier works by Bach, some of which are
lost. But, as recent research has shown,
the case of the f-minor work is even more
complex. Bach apparently used a work
by another composer, namely Georg
Philipp Telemann, as a model for his slow
movement; he had used a theme from a
Telemann concerto in his Cantata 156
(1729) before returning to it for the second
time in the harpsichord concerto. The
fast movements were apparently written
several years later, though no exact dates
of composition can be established.
Although both Bach concertos on the
present program are in the minor mode,
they differ considerably in their mood. The
dance rhythms and playful echo effects of
Apollon musagète (1928)
UMS premiere: Zurich Chamber Orchestra
with Edmond de Stoutz conducting,
February 1980 in Rackham Auditorium.
Stravinsky had a special affinity for
ballet throughout his career. Just as The
Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring
were the most outstanding works of his
early, Russian period, his neo-Classical
period was also marked by his love for
dance theater. His second ballet trilogy,
created in the 1920s and 1930s, began
with Apollo, which was commissioned
by Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge for the
Library of Congress in Washington, DC.
The European premiere was given by
Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, the legendary
company that had catapulted Stravinsky
to fame about a decade and a half earlier.
The second trilogy was completed by The
S N A P S H O T S O F H I S T O R Y… I N 1 9 2 8 :
•English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith reports the
results of Griffith’s experiment, indirectly proving the
existence of DNA
•The Michigan Theater opens in Ann Arbor
•The first regular schedule of television programming
begins in Schenectady, New York
•The animated short Plane Crazy is released by Disney
Studios in Los Angeles, featuring the first appearances
of Mickey and Minnie Mouse
•Aviatrix Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to
make a successful transatlantic flight as a passenger
Fairy’s Kiss (1928) and Jeu de cartes (1936).
Several of the great Stravinsky works
from the 1920s and 1930s were inspired
by Greek mythology. Apollo came soon
after the opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex,
and a few years before the melodrama
Persephone. Yet unlike those works, it
eschews all dramatic conflicts; Stravinsky
clearly wanted to write a real “Apollonian”
work, free from all “Dionysian” impulses.
(The contrast between Apollo, the
calm god of beauty and Dionysus, the
personification of ecstasy, dominated
European artistic thinking since
Nietzsche’s Birth of Tragedy [1872].)
Stravinsky envisioned a so-called ballet
blanc (white ballet) in which all the ballerinas
wore white, and the choreography remained
close to the classical tradition. There is no plot
to speak of in the conventional sense. After
the prologue, which represents Apollo’s
birth, the Muses appear. There are only
three of them, not nine as in the mythological
tradition. Apollo dances with all three one
after the other, before the muses come
forward perform successive solos. This is
followed by a pas de deux between Apollo
and Terpsichore, the muse of dance; then
all four characters dance together, and the
“leader of the muses” escorts his companions
to Mount Parnassus.
The musical equivalent of a “white
ballet” is, of course, the diatonic scale made up
of the white keys of the piano; Apollo is one
of the most consonant of all of Stravinsky’s
works. Yet the absence of conflict doesn’t
mean monotony since there are plenty of
changes of tempo and rhythm. Stravinsky
was able to achieve an enormous variety of
timbres with an ensemble consisting entirely
of strings: in the course of the 30-minute
ballet, we hear a wide range of sonorities
from unaccompanied violin solo to the rich
sound of multiple divisi (divided parts).
the f-minor concerto make it a more lighthearted work, at least as far as the opening
and closing movements are concerned. The
lyrical cantilena of the second movement,
where the accompanying ensemble plays
pizzicato (plucking the strings), is an
emotionally heightened elaboration of the
Telemann, followed by a “Presto” where
Bach carefully indicates the alternation
between forte and piano as a special and
rather novel musical effect.
Program notes by Peter Laki.
in 1969, and the 2007 recording of the
same piece with Mr. Bell reached number
one on the Billboard Classical Chart. Their
soundtrack for the film Amadeus won
13 gold discs alone, while in 1996 The
English Patient picked up an Academy
Award for “Best Music,” with a soundtrack
performed by the Academy. In March
2013 the orchestra and Mr. Bell released
their first recording on Sony Classical
under his leadership, performing
Beethoven’s Symphonies Nos. 4 and 7.
The Academy’s US tours are
supported by the American Friends of
the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields.
If you would like to join the American
Friends, please send an email to
[email protected] for more details.
For more information, please visit Follow the Academy on
Facebook, Google+, and on Twitter at
ne of America’s most thoughtprovoking, multi-faceted, and
compelling artists, pianist
JEREMY DENK is the winner of a 2013
Photo: Michael Wilson
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
IN THE FIELDS is renowned for
its polished and refined sound,
rooted in outstanding musicianship.
Formed by Sir Neville Marriner in 1958
from a group of leading London musicians,
the Academy gave its first performance
in its namesake church in November
1959. Originally directed by Sir Neville
from the leader’s chair, the collegiate
spirit and flexibility of the original
small, conductor-less ensemble remains
an Academy hallmark which continues
today with virtuoso violinist Joshua
Bell as its music director. Together they
explore symphonic repertoire to perform
“chamber music on a grand scale.”
Highlights of this season include
London concerts and international tours
with pianist Jeremy Denk, clarinetist
Martin Fröst, and violinist Julia Fischer.
Principal guest conductor Murray
Perahia tours with the orchestra to
Europe in August and September and on
an exciting tour of Asia in November. Mr.
Bell himself will undertake four tours
with the Academy this season, traveling
as far as South America and the Middle
East, as well as two tours of Europe.
In addition to concerts, the players
of the Academy continue to reach out
to young musicians and adult learners
through Outward Sound, the Academy’s
education program. This year’s projects
include workshops for school children,
professional development partnerships,
and lifelong learning schemes, which
create opportunities for the public
to connect and create music with the
With over 500 recordings to date,
the Academy is one of the most recorded
chamber orchestras in the world. The
orchestra received their first gold disc for
their recording of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons
MacArthur “Genius” Fellowship, the
2014 Avery Fisher Prize, and Musical
America’s 2014 “Instrumentalist of the
Year” award. He has appeared as a soloist
with the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the
Philadelphia Orchestra, as well as the
symphony orchestras of Boston, Chicago,
the New York Times, and the New York
Review of Books. One of his New Yorker
contributions, “Every Good Boy Does Fine,”
forms the basis of a memoir for future
publication by Random House. In 2014 he
served as music director of the Ojai Music
Festival, for which he performed, curated,
and wrote the libretto for a comic opera.
The opera will be presented by Carnegie
Hall in the 2014–15 season.
Mr. Denk’s debut recording for
Nonesuch Records juxtaposed Ligeti’s
Études with Beethoven’s final sonata,
and was included on many “Best of 2012”
lists, including those of the New Yorker,
Washington Post, and NPR Music. His
second recording for the label, Bach:
Goldberg Variations, was released in
September 2013. It reached number one
on Billboard’s “Classical Albums” chart.
San Francisco, and London. He regularly
gives recitals in New York, Washington,
Boston, Philadelphia, and throughout
the US. In the 2014–15 season, Mr. Denk
launches a four-season tenure as an
artistic partner of the Saint Paul Chamber
Orchestra; makes debuts with the
Cleveland Orchestra and the New York
Philharmonic; appears as a soloist with
the Los Angeles Philharmonic and San
Francisco Symphony; and performs Bach
concertos on tour with the Academy of St.
Martin in the Fields.
Mr. Denk is known for his original
and insightful writing on music, which
Alex Ross praises for its “arresting
sensitivity and wit.” His blog, Think
Denk, was selected for inclusion in the
Library of Congress web archives, and he
has written pieces for the New Yorker,
This evening’s concert marks the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields’ seventh
performance under UMS auspices following its UMS debut in November 1980 at
Hill Auditorium with violinist Iona Brown. The Academy most recently appeared in
Ann Arbor in April 2012 at Hill Auditorium with Joshua Bell where they received the
2012 UMS Distinguished Artist Awards. Tonight marks Jeremy Denk’s fourth concert
under UMS auspices following his UMS debut in February 2007 with Joshua Bell at
Hill Auditorium. Mr. Denk most recently appeared under UMS auspices in March
2012 as part of the San Francisco Symphony’s American Mavericks Festival where he
performed as piano soloist in Henry Cowell’s Concerto for Piano at Hill Auditorium and
in a chamber concert performance of Lukas Foss’ Echoi with members of the Symphony
at Rackham Auditorium.
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
Tomo Keller
Harvey de Souza
Robert Salter
Martin Gwilym-Jones
Raja Halder
Clare Hayes
Clare Hoffman
A C A D E M Y O F S T. M A R T I N I N T H E F I E L D S
Helen Paterson
Fiona Brett
Amanda Smith
Mark Butler
Anna Blackmur
Sir Neville Marriner CBE, Life President
Joshua Bell, Music Director
Murray Perahia KBE, Principal Guest
Gabriel van Aalst, Chief Executive
Andrew McGowan, Head of Development
Sally Sparrow, Orchestra Personnel Manager
Ina Wieczorek, Concerts and Recordings
Cecilia Sala, Development Manager
Katherine Adams, Orchestra Manager
and Librarian
Kim Perkins, Education & Outreach Manager
Creative Producer
Peter Fisher, Marketing Manager
Patrick McEntee, Concerts and Administration
Danielle Scott, Development Assistant
Clare Thompson, Orchestral Administration
Rebecca Driver, Media Relations,
PR Consultant
Paul Aylieff, Chairman
Heather Benjamin
Elizabeth Bennett
Sir Peter Coulson
Mark David
Robert Smissen
Stephen Upshaw
Alex Koustas
Martin Humbey
Stephen Orton
Judith Herbert
Morwenna del Mar
Lynda Houghton
Cathy Elliott
Catherine Morgan
Trevor Moross
Simon Morris
Charlotte Richardson
Richard Skinner
Harvey de Souza
Peter Stott
Paul Aylieff
Cyrille Camilleri
Gareth Davies
Jill Hoffbrand
Christine Jasper
Alan Kerr
Trevor Moross, Chairman
Mark Oshida
Peter Stott
David V. Foster, President & CEO
Leonard Stein, Senior Vice President, Director,
Touring Division
Robert Berretta, Vice President, Senior
Director, Artists & Attractions Booking,
Manager, Artists & Attractions
Irene Lönnblad, Associate, Touring Division
Samantha Cortez, Associate, Attractions
Kay McCavic, Tour Manager
Eugene M. Grant:
Victor for
the Arts
Hill Auditorium ceiling emblem
UMS thanks U-M alumnus
Eugene M. Grant (LSA, ‘38)
for making the New York
Philharmonic residency
possible. Eugene’s
$1,000,000 gift supports the
first phase of this partnership
that will bring the New York
Philharmonic to campus three
times over the next five years.
New York Philharmonic
in Hill Auditorium
Three Amazing Concerts in one
Extraordinary Weekend
October 9-11, 2015
The U-M campus is brimming with experiences
to come home to — a crisp walk through the
Diag, an epic football game, and an evening spent
with one of the world’s best orchestras. As part
of an extended UMS artistic residency, the New
York Philharmonic will perform three concerts
in Ann Arbor’s Hill Auditorium during the U-M
Homecoming Weekend. Performing a different
program each night, the orchestra’s residency
includes a performance of Leonard Bernstein’s
live score to the 1954 classic, On the Waterfront,
starring Marlon Brando. Full details and programs
available at
"I believe the arts are a
critical piece of a wellrounded education and
should be a part of the
Michigan experience
for all students,
through affordable
tickets, in-class
experiential learning,
and exposure to worldclass performers on
and off the stage. As
a New Yorker and as
a Michigan man, I am
thrilled to help bring
together my 'hometown'
orchestra and
my alma mater."
New York Philharmonic Weekend Packages go on sale
starting Monday, March 16 2015. Tickets to individual
performances go on sale on August 3.
734.764.2538 / UMS.ORG
Eugene M. Grant
20 15 - 1 6
The 2015–16 UMS season is positively brimming with must-see performances. In fact, there
are so many incredible options that we’re announcing the Choral Union and Chamber Arts
series early this season, with subscriptions to these packages on sale now. Take a peek, mark
your calendars, and plan something special.
1 3 7 T H ANNUAL
53 R D A NN UA L
New York Philharmonic
Alan Gilbert, music director
Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Riccardo Muti, music director and conductor
Leif Ove Andsnes, piano
Sphinx Virtuosi with the Catalyst Quartet and
Gabriela Lena Frank
Danish String Quartet
Takács Quartet
Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
Pinchas Zukerman, principal guest
conductor and violin
2/16 & 2/18
Igor Levit, piano
Sir András Schiff, piano
The Last Sonatas of Haydn, Mozart,
Beethoven, and Schubert
Montreal Symphony
Kent Nagano, music director
Daniil Trifonov, piano
Bach Six Solos
Gil Shaham, violin
With video installation by David Michalek
Bavarian Radio Orchestra
Mariss Jansons, music director
Sir András Schiff, piano
Jerusalem String Quartet
The remainder of the 2015-16 season
will be announced in late April.