Migration in Global History - The Asian Association of World

Migration in Global History:
Peoples, Plants, Plagues, and Ports
The Third Congress of the Asian Association of World Historians
(AAWH)
Organizers: History Programme, School of Humanities and Social Science, Nanyang
Technological University, Singapore
The Asian Association of World Historians (AAWH)
Time:
29-31 May (Friday – Sunday), 2015
Venue:
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Table of Contents
Programme................................................................................................................................................ 1
The Asian Association of World Historians (AAWH) ................................................................................. 5
Nanyang Technological University ............................................................................................................ 7
School of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) .................................................................................... 8
NTU History Programme ........................................................................................................................... 9
Relevant Contacts ................................................................................................................................... 11
Inside the Campus .................................................................................................................................. 12
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................. 13
Panel Schedule ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Keynote Addresses ................................................................................................................................. 19
Abstracts ................................................................................................................................................. 22
Map of NTU ........................................................................................................................................... 128
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
Programme
Day 1 – May 29, 2015 (Friday)
8.30 am – 9.00 am
Registration
Outside of the HSS Auditorium
9.00 am – 9.45 am
Opening Ceremony
HSS Auditorium
9.00 am - 9.15 am
Professor Liu Hong (Chair, School of Humanities and Social Science, Nanyang Technological University)
Welcome Speech
9.15 am – 9: 45 am
Professor Patrick Manning (chaired by Professor Liu Hong)
Member of the AAWH Steering Committee
Andrew W. Mellon Professor of World History
Department of History, University of Pittsburgh
9:45 am – 10.15 am
Photo-taking
Inside the HSS Auditorium
10.15 am – 11.15 am
Keynote Address 1
HSS Auditorium
Professor Haneda Masashi (chaired by Professor Alan Chan)
Professor, Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia
The University of Tokyo
11.15 am – 12.45 pm
Lunch Buffet
HSS Foyer
1.00 pm – 3.00 pm
Session 1 panels
various
See the panel schedule for details, 9 panels
3.00 pm – 3.30 pm
Tea Break
HSS Foyer
3.30 pm – 4.30 pm
Keynote Address 2
HSS Auditorium
Professor Wang Gungwu (chaired by Professor Joey Long Shi Ruey )
Chairman, East Asian Institute
National University of Singapore
1
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
5.30 pm – 8.30 pm
Welcome Reception &
Hosted Dinner
2
The Chevrons
48 Boon Lay Way Singapore 609961
Welcome toast by Professor Liu Hong
(shuttle buses available from NTU to the Chevrons, and from Chevrons to NTU
or Jurong East MRT station )
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
3
Day 2 – May 30, 2015 (Saturday)
9.30 am – 11.30 am
Session 2 panels
various
See the panel schedule for details, 8 panels
11.30 pm – 1.00 pm
Lunch Buffet
HSS Foyer
1.00 pm – 3.00 pm
Session 3 panels
various
See the panel schedule for details, 8 panels
3.00 pm – 3.30 pm
Tea Break
HSS Foyer
3.30 pm – 5.30 pm
Session 4 panels
various
See the panel schedule for details, 9 panels
5.30 pm – 6.30 pm
6.30 pm – 8.00 pm
AAWH Board of Directors Meeting (board of
HSS conference
directors only)
(HSS 05-57)
Dinner (AAWH Board and editorial members
only)
Hosted by Professor Liu Hong and Professor
Joey Long
(Shuttle bus available between HSS building
and the restaurant)
Peach Garden, NTU
room
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
4
Day 3 – May 31, 2015 (Sunday)
9.30 am – 11.30 am
Session 5 panels
various
See the panel schedule for details, 9 panels
11.30 am – 12.30 pm
Keynote Address 3
HSS Auditorium
Professor Patrick Manning (chaired by Professor Shigeru Akita)
Member of the AAWH Steering Committee
Andrew W. Mellon Professor of World History
Department of History, University of Pittsburgh
12.30 pm – 1.00 pm
Plenary Session/General Assembly


1:00pm – 2:00pm
HSS Auditorium
Speech by Prof. Liu Xiaodong, Dean of
Department of History, Northeast Normal
University, China
Speech by Prof. Zhang Shunhong, Director of Institute of World History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China
Lunch Buffet
HSS Foyer
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
5
The Asian Association of World Historians (AAWH)
The Asian Association of World Historians (AAWH) was established in 2008. This association tries to analyze and criticize traditional historical narrative, which based on Euro-centrism with the Asian perspective,
and to deconstruct the absolute centralisms in history and to study histories on the basis of interconnections between many cores in Asia. Scholars whose interest are in the regions of Asia that have
been excluded from traditional world history narrative or people who emphasize the various historical narratives within the Asian perspective play the crucial role in the Asian Association of World Historians.
Since the first International Congress at Osaka University, Japan in 2009, the Asian Association of World
Historians has held the international conference in every 3 years. The second international congress was
held at Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea in 2012. The topics of the international conference were
world history studies and world history education in Asia, the definition and reorganization of the modernism regarded as the European intellectual and cultural result, and cores in Asia, which had been connected and established multiple layers of global networks before the rise of the West. Through theses themes
of the international congresses, the Asian Association of World Historians promulgate the necessity of
Asian historical perspectives and narratives, suggest the common interests and goals to Asian scholars
and maintain the international networks between them. In this sense, the Asian Association of World Historians seeks to historical studies and narratives with more balanced perspectives.
For this goal, the Asian Association of World Historians has published the international journal, the Asian
Review of World Histories. The first volume was published in January 2013 and the Institute of World and
Global History at Ewha Womans University manages the works about the journal. It is published 2 times
in a year, every January and July. The Asian Review of World Histories is the only English journal about
world history and global history in Asia and it is expected to devote to the development of world history.
Board of Directors
Ahmed Ibrahim ABUSHOUK (University of Qatar, Qatar)
Satyanarayana ADAPA (Osmania University, India)
Shigeru AKITA (Osaka University, Japan)
David CHRISTIAN (Macquarie University, Australia)
Patrick MANNING (University of Pittsburgh, USA)
ZHANG Weiwei (Nankai University, China)
Executive Secretary Acting
Seohyung KIM (Ewha Womans University, Korea)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
Postal Address
The Asian Association of World Historians
c/o The Institute of World and Global History
Ewha Womans University
#622 Ewha-Samsung Education & Culture Bld.
26 Ewhayeodai-gil, Seodaemun-gu
Seoul, 120-750
Korea
Website:
www.theaawh.org
6
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
7
Nanyang Technological University
A research-intensive public university, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) has 33,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students in the colleges of Engineering, Business, Science, Humanities, Arts, &
Social Sciences, and its Interdisciplinary Graduate School. It has a new medical school, the Lee Kong
Chian School of Medicine, set up jointly with Imperial College London.
NTU is also home to world-class autonomous institutes – the National Institute of Education, S Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Earth Observatory of Singapore, and Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering – and various leading research centres such as the Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Energy Research Institute @ NTU ([email protected]) and the Institute on Asian Consumer Insight (ACI).
A fast-growing university with an international outlook, NTU is putting its global stamp on Five Peaks of
Excellence: Sustainable Earth, Future Healthcare, New Media, New Silk Road, and Innovation Asia.
Besides its main campus, NTU also has campuses in one-north, Singapore’s science and tech hub, in
Novena, Singapore’s medical district, and at Gillman Barracks, Singapore’s contemporary arts cluster.
For more information, visit www.ntu.edu.sg
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
8
School of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS)
Established in 2004, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS) at Nanyang Technological
University currently has over 180 full-time faculty members, and supported by close to 60 administrative
staff. Our undergraduate student numbers have also grown rapidly from just 53 to over 2800 today, while
our graduate student numbers have multiplied to about 300. As one of the fastest growing faculties in the
region, HSS offers degrees in nine disciplines, namely, Chinese, Economics, English Literature, History,
Linguistics and Multilingual Studies, Philosophy, Psychology, Public Policy and Global Affairs, and Sociology. The School also offers four additional Minors in Creative Writing, Environmental and Urban Studies, Global Asia, and Translation. In addition to the Language and Communication Centre which provides
teaching of English and communication courses for students across the University, the School also houses the Centre for Modern Languages, Centre for Chinese Language and Culture, as well as the Economic
Growth Centre.
For more information, visit http://www.hss.ntu.edu.sg/
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
9
NTU History Programme
History was offered as a minor at NTU in 2006 and it has proven to be a popular programme pursued by
students across the university. To advance NTU’s Five Peaks of Excellence and to provide students with
solid training in one of the most fundamental subjects in the humanities and social sciences, the programme was established in 2012 at NTU. The programme currently offers a major and minor in History,
the Master of Arts in Global and Interdisciplinary History and Doctor of Philosophy via research, and general elective courses to all university students.
Distinctive Features of the Programme
Awarded prestigious fellowships and grants by prominent private foundations and government agencies,
the faculty members also aim to build the programme into one of the leading centres of historical scholarship on modern and contemporary Asia. The faculty’s research interests run the gamut from business,
cultural, economic, gender, global, intellectual, international, labour, political, social, and transnational
history to the interdisciplinary history of the environment, health, medicine, science, sustainability, and
technology. Students wishing to read for undergraduate and advanced degrees at HSS’s History Programme will find themselves continually challenged and inspired to produce cutting-edge and groundbreaking research.
The History programme offers foundational courses such as historiography and the histories of particular
continents and countries such as Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the United States.
But its focus on two interconnected teaching and research areas make it unique among other History
programmes in the Asia-Pacific, if not the world.
First, the programme was purposefully situated around the research and teaching of modern and contemporary Asian history in the global context. This will enable students to recognize and appreciate the
region’s vibrant internal dynamisms, its longstanding and continuing interactions with the outside world,
and its reception and transmission of the extensive flows of cultures, ideas, peoples, and capital from and
to other parts of the globe.
The second is in the area of interdisciplinary history. Faculty members teach and conduct cutting-edge
research on issues located at the interfaces between history and other disciplines such as science, technology, medicine, business, and environmental studies. Students will explore the ways in which scientific
breakthroughs and medical knowledge were created, distributed, and accepted. They will also be
equipped with the tools to understand the complex and multidimensional impacts that science, medicine,
and technology have had on the economic, intellectual, political, and social development of contemporary
societies, regions, and the world.
In all, the History programme is crafted specially to educate outstanding students who wish to develop
well-rounded analytical, communication, and research skills. The products of the programme are welleducated T-shaped professionals who are able to apply historical knowledge and sound analytical tools to
address contemporary issues relevant to the nation, the region, and the world. Technologically savvy and
culturally attuned to changing national and regional developments and global concerns, they will thrive
professionally and personally in today’s globalized world and knowledge-based economies.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
10
Historical Discipline
Studying history is not about memorizing a body of specific facts and acquiring the capacity to regurgitate
them when asked. History majors instead are trained to develop an eye for significant problems and issues throughout history, formulate penetrating research questions, identify and verify the authenticity of
relevant sources, embark on the collection of historical information via appropriate quantitative or qualitative methods, analyze the data collected, and present their findings and conclusions in meaningful and
persuasive ways through well-written narratives. Through this process, students acquire sound research
skills, develop rigorous analytical capacities, cultivate powerful problem-solving skills, and obtain culturally
sensitive and compelling communication skills to thrive in the globalized world as scholars, public servants, and private businesspeople. The faculty members at the History programme, who teach and write
the modern and contemporary histories of Asia and the world as well as the histories of business, the environment, gender, medicine, science, and technology seek to train outstanding students to acquire those
transferable and specialized skills.
For more information, visit http://www.hss.ntu.edu.sg/Programmes/history/Pages/Home.aspx .
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
11
Relevant Contacts
AAWH Event Managers:
Nicole Chan: +65 9743 2714, [email protected]
Sherry Chen: +65 9674 1406, [email protected]
NTU Organising Committee:
Dr. Li Yi: +65 9398 0450
Dr. Charlotte Setijadi: +65 9166 1787
Assoc Prof. Joey Long: +65 6592 1602
Ms. Rebecca Chong: +65 9177 4059
Taxi booking:
Comfort taxi/Citycab: +65 6552 1111
SMRT: +65 6555 8888
Premier taxi: +65 6363 6888
Trans cab: +65 6555 3333
SMART cab: +65 6485 7777
Prime taxi: +65 6778 0808
Nearest train station to NTU:
Pioneer MRT station (EW green line)
Nearest train station to airport:
Alight at Tanah Merah MRT station (EW green line), interchange to middle platform train to airport
Public buses to NTU:
179A, 179 (board from Pioneer MRT bus stop)
Emergency contacts:
Police: 999
Ambulance/Civil Defence: 995
Ibis Hotel (Novena)
Address: 6 Irrawady Road, Singapore 329543
Telephone: +65 6808 9888
Email: [email protected]
V Hotel (Lavender)
Address: 70 Jellicoe Road, Singapore 208767
Telephone: +65 6345 2233
Email: [email protected]
Nanyang Executive Centre*
Address: 60 Nanyang View, Singapore 639673
Telephone: +65 6790 6699/ 6790 6697
Fax number: +65 6794 7860
Email: [email protected]
*Guests could take a 15 minutes’ walk to reach the conference venue (HSS building), or board the campus shuttle buses available at the bus stop outside NEC. Please refer to NTU map or check with NEC
counter for information.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
12
Inside the Campus
Wireless Internet Connection
You can use any of the four wi-fi username/password combinations to access free internet connection in
the NTU campus during the conference. If you experience log-in problems, kindly approach our registration counter or organizers for assistance.
Username
Password
Domain
007400001
z8y6xfwmb
ASSOC
007400002
z8y6xfwmb
ASSOC
007400003
z8y6xfaab
ASSOC
007400004
z8y6xfbbb
ASSOC
NTU shuttle bus service
The nearest shuttle bus stop for the conference venue, the HSS building, is ‘Innovation Centre’ (Campus
Loop – red (CL-R), or ‘Opposite Innovation Centre’ (Campus Loop – Blue (CL-B).
For details about NTU shuttle bus route and schedule, and how to get around NTU, see:
http://www.ntu.edu.sg/has/Transportation/Pages/GettingAroundNTU.aspx
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
13
Acknowledgements
The organizing committee gratefully acknowledges the following for their generous support of the conference: the NTU College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and its Dean, Professor Alan Chan; the
NTU School of Humanities and Social Sciences and its Chair, Professor Liu Hong; and the Singapore
Tourism Board. The committee is also indebted to Professor Shigeru Akita of Osaka University, Professor
Seohyung Kim of Ewha Womans University, and Professor Patrick Manning of the University of Pittsburgh. The contributions of the late Professor Ji-Hyung Cho, President of the Asian Association of World
Historians, as a scholar, colleague, and friend are sorely missed.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
14
Panel Schedule
Session 1, 9 panels. 1.00 pm – 3.00 pm, May 29, 2015 (Friday)
Panel No.
Panel Title
Venue
1.1
Knowledge Making and Migration
HSS Seminar Room 3
(HSS-B1-10)
1.2
Teaching Migration History to High School Students:
Problems and Practices in Japan
HSS Seminar Room 4
(HSS-B1-09)
1.3
The Political Situations in the Eastern Eurasia and the
Local Societies
HSS Seminar Room 9
(HSS-B1-11)
1.4
A History of Everything: Big History Education in the
World
HSS Seminar Room 6
(HSS-01-04)
1.5
Comparing the world history teaching in Asia
HSS Seminar Room 7
(HSS-01-06)
1.6
Nature Beyond Borders: Science, Values, Species, and
Mobility
HSS Seminar Room 8
(HSS-01-09)
1.7
The Ancient Studies in Vietnam ~ The Late Professor
Nishimura’s Area studies from the view of integration of
Archaeology and History~
HSS Conference Room
(HSS-05-57)
1.8
Migrating Interests in the American Empire
HSS TR+ 1 (HSS-B1-08)
1.9
Transnational Narratives and Global Audience
HSS TR+ 2 (HSS-B1-07)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
15
Session 2, 8 panels. 9.30 am – 11.30 am, May 30, 2015 (Saturday)
Panel No.
Panel Title
Venue
2.1
Reconsideration of “Agricultural Development” in South
and Southeast Asia in the Nineteenth century------from
Global History perspectives
HSS Seminar Room 3
(HSS-B1-10)
2.2
Global & World History: Approaches & Trends in Asia &
Beyond (round table discussion)
HSS Seminar Room 4
(HSS-B1-09)
2.3
From the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea: Maritime
and Port Archaeology and History
HSS Seminar Room 9
(HSS-B1-11)
2.4
How to Teach/Learn Asian History: new perspectives, approaches, and “active learning” - Practices in High
Schools in Japan
HSS Seminar Room 6
(HSS-01-04)
2.5
Migration, Trade and Exchange around the Peripheral
East Asia
HSS Seminar Room 7
(HSS-01-06)
2.6
“The Age of Empires” in the Eurasia and the Movements
of the People or Goods”
HSS Seminar Room 8
(HSS-01-09)
2.7
Capitalism and Global Asia: Transnational Imageries of
Japanese and Chinese Intellectuals during the Twentieth
Century
HSS TR+ 1 (HSS-B1-08)
2.8
Diaspora communities across Asia
HSS TR+ 2 (HSS-B1-07)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
16
Session 3, 8 panels. 1.00 pm – 3.00 pm, May 30, 2015 (Saturday)
Panel No.
Panel Title
Venue
3.1
Too Foreign to Fit In? Global Migration, Racism, Xenophobia, and Diversity
HSS Seminar Room 3
(HSS-B1-10)
3.2
Y. T. Li: A Cosmopolitan Engineer’s Encompassing Vision
of World History
HSS Seminar Room 4
(HSS-B1-09)
3.3
GIS for Historians: Case Studies in Asian Urban History at HSS Seminar Room 9
(HSS-B1-11)
the Age of Globalization
3.4
Teaching Asian History to Students and Teachers within
New Frameworks of Subjects and Curriculums
HSS Seminar Room 6
(HSS-01-04)
3.5
Migrants in the Japanese empire: from early Meiji to
postwar
HSS Seminar Room 7
(HSS-01-06)
3.6
Colonial Governmentality
HSS Seminar Room 8
(HSS-01-09)
3.7
Post-war Migration
HSS TR+ 1 (HSS-B1-08)
3.8
Welfare, Diseases and States
HSS TR+ 2 (HSS-B1-07)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
17
Session 4, 9 panels. 3.30 pm – 5.30 pm, May 30, 2015 (Saturday)
Panel No.
Panel Title
Venue
4.1
Travelling Plants and transnational impacts
HSS Seminar Room 3
(HSS-B1-10)
4.2
Japanese Prisoners of War in Post War Soviet Union
HSS Seminar Room 4
(HSS-B1-09)
4.3
Pax Romana and Pax Mongolica: New Approaches to the
Anatomy of Pre‐modern Maritime Networks
HSS Seminar Room 9
(HSS-B1-11)
4.4
The End of the Charter Era in Eastern Eurasia: Social and HSS Seminar Room 6
(HSS-01-04)
Economic Changes in Japan, Korea and Đại Việt during
the 14th to 15th Centuries
4.5
Revisiting Chinese Migration in World History: China,
Southeast Asia, and Transnational Chinese Identities in
the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
HSS Seminar Room 7
(HSS-01-06)
4.6
Circumventing Exclusion: Chinese and Japanese Migrant
Laborers in New Caledonia, California, and Cuba
HSS Conference Room
(HSS-05-57)
4.7
Long-term movements and early settlements
HSS Seminar Room 8
(HSS-01-09)
4.8
Environmental and Cultural experiences in Yunnan
HSS TR+ 1 (HSS-B1-08)
4.9
Transnational Movement of Capital, Peoples and Goods
HSS TR+ 2 (HSS-B1-07)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
18
Session 5, 9 panels. 9.30 am – 11.30 am, May 31, 2015 (Sunday)
Panel No.
Panel Title
Venue
5.1
Middle Eastern Immigration to Latin America: History,
Memory and New Approaches
HSS Seminar Room 3
(HSS-B1-10)
5.2
Historical Contextualization of the East Asian Region
through the Lens of ‘Exchange of Ideas’, ‘Migration of
People’ and ‘Intervention of the State’
HSS Seminar Room 4
(HSS-B1-09)
5.3
Historical Patterns of Migration in the Pre-modern World
of East Asia
HSS Seminar Room 9
(HSS-B1-11)
5.4
Migration of Women between Urban and Rural Areas in
Asia and the Transformation of Patriarchy
HSS Seminar Room 6
(HSS-01-04)
5.5
World Maps as Knowledge Aggregators: from Renaissance Italy Fra Mauro to Web Search Engines
HSS Conference Room
(HSS-05-57)
5.6
The Praxis of Teaching World History to Secondary Students: The Philippine Science High School-Main Campus
Experience
HSS Seminar Room 7
(HSS-01-06)
5.7
Objects and memories
HSS Seminar Room 8
(HSS-01-09)
5.8
Immigration in Colonial Burma
HSS TR+ 1 (HSS-B1-08)
5.9
Reviewing the Global History
HSS TR+ 2 (HSS-B1-07)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
19
Keynote Addresses
Japanese Perspectives on Global History
Professor Haneda Masashi
Professor, Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia
The University of Tokyo
10. 15 am – 11.15 am, May 29, 2015
About the speaker
HANEDA Masashi is Professor of History. His main topics of research are description of world history,
history of the East Asian maritime world, Islamic urban studies, Iranian history of the 16th-18th centuries
and studies of European travel accounts on Persia, etc. He received his B.A. in 1972 and M.A. in 1976
from Kyoto University and obtained his Ph.D. in Iranian studies from the University of Paris III in 1983. He
joined the Institute as Associate Professor in 1989 and became Professor in 1997. During 1996-1997 and
in 2002, He was Visiting Scholar at the Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Cambridge and at CNRS
of France in 2002-2003. His current topic of research is on finding a new way of describing world history
and on cross-cultural exchange at port cities in Asian waters in the eighteenth century. He has organized
a research group for these topics with the aid of the JSPS research funds.
Among his publications are Asian Port Cities, 1600-1800. Local and Foreign Cultural Interactions (editor),
NUS Press and Kyoto University Press, 2009,xvi+233p., Secularization et laicite (editor), University of
Tokyo Center for Philosophy, 2009, 109p., "Europeans at Bandar Abbas and the 'state' of Persia" in 17th
and 18th Centuries", Iran und iranische geprakte Kulturen , Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, 2008, pp.85-93,
"Emigration of Iranian Elites to India during the 16-18th Centuries", Cahiers d'Asie Centrale 3-4,
1997:129-143, "Modern Europe and the Creation of the "Islamic World"", International Journal of Asian
Studies , 4/2, 2007, Higashi-indo-kaisha-to Ajia-no Umi (East India Companies and Asian Waters) , Kodansha, 2007 (in Japanese), "The Character of the Urbanisation of Isfahan in the Later Safavid Period" in
Charles Melville ed., Safavid Persia , London & New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd, 1996, 369-387, and Islamic Urban Studies: Historical Review and Perspectives , (co-editor), London: Kegan Paul International
Ltd., 1994, xvii + 365 pp
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
20
Peoples and Places: between land and waterProfessor Wang Gungwu
Chairman, East Asian Institute
National University of Singapore
3. 30 pm – 4.30 pm, May 29, 2015
About the speaker
WANG Gungwu is University Professor and Chairman of the East Asian Institute at the National University of Singapore. He is Emeritus Professor at the Australian National University.
He received his BA (Hons) and MA degrees from the University of Malaya in Singapore, and his PhD from
the University of London. His teaching career took him from the University of Malaya, where he was Professor of History from 1963 to 1968, to the Australian National University, where he was Professor and
Head of the Department of Far Eastern History and Director of the Research of Pacific Studies from 1968
to 1986. From 1986 to 1995, he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hong Kong. He was Director of
the East Asian Institute at NUS from 1997 to 2007.
His books in English since 2000 include: The Chinese Overseas: From Earthbound China to the Quest for
Autonomy; Don’t Leave Home: Migration and the Chinese; Anglo-Chinese Encounters since 1800: War,
Trade, Science and Governance; Divided China: Preparing for Reunification, 883-947; Renewal: The
Chinese State and the New Global History; and Another China Cycle: Committing to Reform (2014).
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
21
Settlement and Resettlement of Asia: Homo sapiens on the move
Professor Patrick Manning
Andrew W. Mellon Professor of World History
Department of History, University of Pittsburgh
11. 30 am – 12.30 pm, May 31, 2015
Recent studies show the immense volume of Asian migration from 1850 to the present, especially in migrant journeys beginning in China, India, and Russia. These migrations, along with the earlier expansion
of maritime trade and migration from 1400 CE, are often explained primarily by changing technology. As
will be shown, these modern migrations also had significant social causes and, especially, such social
consequences as the rise and impact of diaspora communities.
The major emphasis of this presentation, however, is the long-term parallels and transformations in Asian
migrations, from the arrival of Homo sapiens 70,000 years ago to 1500 CE. As will be argued, migrations
before 1500 depended significantly on changing environmental conditions as well as on changing technology and social organization. The successive Asian migrations included the initial settlement of the
Asian tropics, the subsequent settlement of temperate lands, and the era of the Ice Age, which brought
remarkable technological change. The Holocene-era rise of agriculture brought new sorts of community
migration. Later, the full domestication of horses, some 4000 years ago, changed military and political life
forever. Thereafter, the rise of empires, great religions, and monetary commerce brought new types of
migration in periods of imperial dominion. Community migrations, meanwhile, continued in areas within
and beyond imperial boundaries.
The migrations of today, while eased by modern technology, retain many similarities to those of earlier
times. They reinforce but did not create the long pattern of maintaining human genetic and social commonality. Only large-scale urbanization provides us with a really different sort of migration.
About the speaker
Patrick Manning is Andrew W. Mellon Professor of World History at the University of Pittsburgh. He is
director of the World History Center, located in the Department of History and affiliated with the Global
Studies Program and the University Center of International Studies. Trained as a specialist in the economic history of Africa, he has become a specialist in world history overall. His research has focused on
demographic history (African slave trade), social and cultural history of francophone Africa, global migration, African diaspora as a dimension of global history, and an overview of the field of world history. He
was educated at the California Institute of Technology (BS in Chemistry, 1963) and the University of Wisconsin - Madison (MS in History and Economics, PhD in History 1969). Manning now directs the Collaborative for Historical Information and Analysis (CHIA), for work on creating a world-historical data resource.
He is also president of the World History Network, Inc., a nonprofit corporation fostering research and
international exchange in world history. His current research centers on creating a global historical data
resource, African populations 1650-1950, global social movements 1989-1992, and on an interdisciplinary
history of early humanity in collaboration with Christopher Ehret. Manning served as Vice President of the
Teaching Division of the American Historical Association from 2004 to 2006. He recently became President-Elect of the American Historical Association.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
22
Abstracts
1.1 Knowledge Making and Migration
Chair: Lee Young-Suk (Gwangju University), [email protected]
Migration and Translation: the Algebra in Medieval Arab
Supavit Thavaraputta (Thammasat University), [email protected]
The effect of migration can be easily seen in physical aspect such as demographical change and the rise
and fall of related location. But migration also allows people- to-people contact and once the contact occurs, it could lead to the circulation and exchange of thoughts and finally makes a change in some ideas.
The rise of algebra in the medieval Arab society is the case chosen to represent the said argument. Although it is widely known that the algebra has Arabic origin, even the word ‘algebra’ itself derives from the
title of an Arabic writing, the paper tries to propose that this branch of mathematics could not be developed without some knowledge from the outside. The interactions among people from different cultures
and intellectual origins in that time helped the Arab people to access various sources of knowledge. So it
is interesting to further examine how the migration of a group of people called the Nestorian is related to
the flow of knowledge from other regions to the Arabian peninsula and how this movement is related to
the role of the Abbasid rulers. Another necessity is to understand certain ideas of Al-Khwarizmi because
his book is one of the most crucial parts of modern algebra and it provided some basic procedures and
algorithms that are indispensable in fundamental algebra course. The paper will focus on the connection
between his ideas and the Greek mathematical heritage which was introduced to the Arab society
through migration and translation. Without this connection, the Arabic mathematician might not be able to
adapt his algebraic ideas to geometrical presentation. However, al-Khwarizmi’s synthesis was obviously
different from any preceding ideas and his invention was proven very useful in solving the quadratic equation. This paper is an example of the relation between history of ideas and the role of migration in world
history and its contribution to the development of history of mathematics. The emergence of algebra,
thus, is another case to confirm the pivotal role of migration in world history.
Britain and the Unites States: A Korean Intellectual’s View of the two countries in the Early 1930s
Lee Young-Suk (Gwangju University), [email protected]
Soon Tak Lee, a Marxist economist of Yonhee Higher College in Seoul traveled round the world during
his sabbatical year of 1933. He contributed a series of travel essays in the Chosun Ilbo, one of the major
newspapers at the time. After returning home, he collected the essays which he had contributed in the
newspaper, and published a travel book titled Essays on the Recent World Travel (1934), which is now
considered one of the first world travel literatures in the colonial age of Korea.
During his long journey, he stayed especially in Britain for about 50 days and in the Unites State for 4
months. With visiting several places of Britain and the Unites States, he observed various aspects of the
two countries during the Great Depression, and compared each other.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
23
Since the end of the 1920s Britain and the United States had experienced the deepest depression. What
was the reason? According to Lee’s explanation, it stemmed from overproduction in the field of consumer
durables, which raised the contradiction between production and consumption, and as a result, caused
the economic crisis of the United States. But the slump was deeper in Britain than in the United State. It
originated from the fact that the British people did not achieve the balance between tradition and innovation because of their attachment to their traditional life and industry. This attachment made the British
economy lose its competitive power in the world market. Everything has dual aspects in the world. Although British higher civilization and tradition helped the rise of the British Empire, now Anglocentrism
stemmed from it resulted in the decline of the empire.
His descriptions of the two countries let us know that the center of world economic activities was moving
from Britain to the United States. Although the British network on a world scale was still operated in the
several fields such as trade, sea transportation, and international monetary system, the rise of the United
States and decline of Britain was very impressive to Lee.
The purpose of the paper is to reconstruct Lee’s descriptions on Britain and the United States especially
in the cultural and economic aspects, and to introduce a Korean colonial intellectual’s consciousness of
the West, and of a deep change in the world network.
Comparative Study of the History of Agricultural Science in Taiwan and Malaysia
Leow Wei Yi (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
In the history of a former colonial polity, agricultural science can usually be found among the earliest
forms of scientific research activity carried out in that country. By this term, I include the various forms of
economic botany, inclusive of forestry. In the earliest periods of European colonial rule, physicians who
accompanied the early colonial fleets in South East Asia, such as Jacobus Bontius, carried out botanical
research in search of medicinal plants. By the late 18th Century, the botanical garden as an institutional
arrangement for serving colonial needs was well established in places such as Mauritius, Cape Town and
Calcutta. The end of the 19th Century saw the emergence of institutional arrangements concerned with
research directly related to economic botany in colonial polities. These were frequently bureaucracies
called departments of agriculture. This form of institutions played a more direct role in supporting colonial
capital interests, and featured test plots, support for farmers’ extension services and systematic experimentation of imported plants and trees as potential economic crops. In my study of the history of agricultural science in Taiwan and Malaysia, I will attempt to compare two Asian colonial polities, one under
Japanese rule and the other under the British Empire. This comparison will aim to show the differing ideological postures of the respective rulers and how they were translated into the institutional arrangements
for agricultural research and its scientific development. It will also identify key individuals associated with
the development of research programmes, both scientists and senior administrators such as governors,
and how they took positions regarding research priorities and funding. In addition, this research project
will also evaluate the ways in which agricultural science impacted upon the local population, especially
indigenous farmers and hunter gatherers who might have come into conflict with the state and colonial
capitalists over access to and use of land. The historical development of agricultural science in former
colonial polities is important for our understanding of the broader context of scientific research in the postcolonial countries of the world, as it was among the earliest forms of science organised along western
lines in those countries. While substantial work about the history of former colonies such as Australia and
India has been seen, work that focuses on Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia are much rarer.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
24
As such, this research project can contribute much to our understanding of the development of scientific
research among developing nations, which are mostly former colonies.
1.2 Teaching Migration History to High School Students: Problems and Practices in Japan
This panel aims at looking for possibility of dissolving the divide between “World History” and “Japanese
History” in Japanese high school’s curriculum, with teaching reports undertaken in cooperation with university scholars. History education in Japanese high school is composed of two subjects, namely “World
History” and “Japanese History”. In many cases, those subjects are taught by different teachers, and in
different school year. The problem is that, the contents of the history before the high school level hardly
includes foreign history. Therefore, many high school students tend to regard “World History” as a subject
to learn the foreign history other than Japan. And, they also regard “Japanese History” as the subject to
learn only Japanese history regardless of the world. Such recognitions are often seen also on the teacher
side, in spite of the fact that the government curriculum guidelines determined to teach Japanese and
World Histories in an integrated way. One of the causes of this situation, currently, is the tendency of high
school teachers who generally do not like having access to new research trends, such as maritime history, global history, etc., that are originating from universities. They are only concerned with educational
methods, while indifferent to academic contents. In order to improve this situation, we would like to discuss about our attempts on the integration of foreign and domestic history in high school teaching materials, by presenting three typical topics about migration, and subsequent flow of goods and culture.
Panel Organizer: Osamu
[email protected]
SAWANO
(Kanagawa
Prefectural
Samukawa
High
School),
Chair: ISHIBASHI Isao (President, NPO Kanagawa Research Institute for History Education), [email protected]
Discussant: Naoko IIOKA (independent scholar)
Export of Japanese Sulfur and World History from the 11th to the 16th Centuries
Shinji YAMAUCHI (Kobe Women’s University), [email protected]
The purpose of this paper is to examine the transition of export conditions of Japanese sulfur during the
11th to 16th centuries from the perspective of world history. Though I have never taught at high school, I
have been in collaboration with high school teachers for more than ten years regarding teaching materials
and contents of maritime Asian history, in which Japanese and Asian histories were closely combined
with each other. I’d like to show how the topic of Japanese sulfur fits the framework of cross-subject
teaching.
The export of Japanese sulfur to China began in the beginning of the 11th century, during the period of a
great expansion of overseas Chinese trading networks. Sulfur was produced at the islands south of
Kyusyu and transported to Hakata (present-day Fukuoka), the then major port city of Japan where the
first Chinatown in the Islands of Japan was formed, and exported to China. The main usage of Japanese
sulfur was an indispensable material for gunpowder in China, which was facing overwhelming military
threat of Inner Asian states. After that, Japan had kept supporting a part of Chinese military industry as an
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
25
essential provider of sulfur. However, export conditions of Japanese sulfur began to change greatly
around the 14th century.
In this paper, I would like to focus in particular on the linkage of this change and world history during the
14th to 16th centuries, a period when a series of “early-modern empires” developed thanks to the common phenomenon of “the gunpowder revolution”.
Mazu (媽祖) came to Japan: Tracing the Voyage of Goddess in Edo Era
Masanobu SATOH (Former Kanagawa Prefectural Yokosuka-Otsu High School)
The purpose of this paper is to review the conventional historiography of Japan by introducing the propagation of Mazu faith to Japan. It will reveal that the Migration of the Chinese into East Asian peripheries in
the Ming-Qing transition period had the political and cultural influence on and the subsequent change in
Japanese society.
Mazu has been upgraded to the guardian of the sea transport given the honorific title of Tian-fei(天
妃), ”Princess of the Heaven” by the Yuan Dynasty. She was a goddess of the sea whom both the Navy
of Ming and Japanese pirates were enshrined. Mazu faith was diffused throughout the East / Southeast
Asian waters with the Chinese in the Ming era.
Mazu was upgraded to Tian-hou(天后), “Empress of the Heaven” by Qing Dynasty during Taiwan suppression. Thereafter, Mazu Temple came to be called the Tian-hou Pagoda in the Chinatowns of Asia.
But there are two areas where she is still called Ten-Pi (Tian-fei) in present. Those are The Pacific Ocean
side of East-Japan and Okinawa. Because Mazu is originally the goddess for the Chinese, that she is enshrined by the Ryukyu and Japanese peoples are rare cases. I want to report what happened in what circumstances.
The fall of the Ming brought a wave of overseas refugee of Chinese. Many Chinese came to Japan, and
they were accepted even under the seclusion policy of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Among them, there
were many literary persons, monks, and the clan of Ming Emperor. At that time, they brought to Japan
Ming-Culture including Mazu. It had a significant impact on the formation of Edo culture, which is usually
taught as what developed purely in domestic contexts under the seclusion policy.
The Formation and Transition of the Chinatown at Yokohama
Jun FUKUMOTO (Eiko Gakuen Junior and Senior High School)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the formation and transition of the Chinatown at Yokohama (the
central city of Kanagawa Prefecture) as a learning material for high school students. In 1854, Japan lifted
the national isolation policy since the 17th century, and opened the country to the world. Five years after,
in the 1859, the port of Yokohama was opened as the outpost of Edo (present-day Tokyo).
At the same time, the Chinese compradors, interpreters and carpenters rushed to the new section of the
city, and formed a small quarter by themselves in the foreign settlement assigned by the government.
They adapted to rapidly to the changing social situation, such as changing of economic environment, the
Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, the first and second Sino-Japanese Wars, etc.. With the economic
growth of the Japanese merchants, the Chinese compradors lose the significance at the international
trade. They left the business world and turned to the service industry for Japanese. After 1949, among
the Chinese who flocked to Yokohama, people of both origin of Taiwan and the people’s Republic of Chi-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
26
na, helped each other in business.Today, the Chinatown of Yokohama became known as an entertainment area (especially the Chinese cuisine). This is the results of their efforts.
To study their progress is meaningful for students who will live in a multicultural society.
1.3 The Political Situations in the Eastern Eurasia and the Local Societies
In historical science today, it is increasingly fashionable to investigate “world history” and to look beyond
the histories of single countries or bilateral relationship. Such trend in historical science has the characteristic of considering the connection or relationship between the various regions and the aim of showing
historical image based on the broader framework.
On the other hand, there are a lot of researches focusing on the local societies. These researches often
point out the particularity and the features of each local society without regard period or region, and give
impression that each local society were formed independently of contemporaneous international situation.
However, were the formation of local society and the contemporaneous international situation really independent each other? The local society should have connected with international situation by the various
movements of people, goods, culture and so on.
Based on interest mentioned above, in this panel, we will discuss the relationship the formation of local
society and the contemporaneous international situation based on the cases of China, Japan and Vietnam. In particular, as Nakamura Tsubasa suggests, we focus on international politics. Through discussion in our presentation, we can identify that the formation of local society was related with international
situation.
Panel Organizer: ITO Kazuma (Osaka University), [email protected]
Chair: MUKAI Masaki (Doshisha University), [email protected]
Discussant: GOTO Atsushi (Osaka University), [email protected]
Maritime East Asia and Song-Yuan Transition
Nakamura, Tsubasa (Osaka University), [email protected]
In the post-1980s period, the scholars of Japanese history has criticized the notion of pre-modern Japan
as an island nation isolated from Asia; rather its history has been seen as synchronous with that of the
continent. Since the 1990s, therefore, research into the history of maritime East Asia has been furthered
by the results of Japanese researchers. The concept of “maritime East Asia” as a region is employed to
criticize that of “East Asian World,” which Sadao Nishijima advocated in the 1960s. “East Asian World”
compose of the nations in which Chinese literary culture was adopted; it included China, Korea, Vietnam,
and Japan, all of which were embraced by the tributary system of successive Chinese dynasties. In these
nations, a document administration based on lulling(律令) was enforced, and Confucianism and Mahayana (greater vehicle) Buddhism, based on Buddhist scriptures translated into Chinese, became the cultural
foundation for integration. Thus, “East Asian World” refers to “nations” that shared a high culture, founded
on the knowledge system of Chinese writing. Maritime East Asia, in comparison, refers to a “region”
around East China Sea that was formed by human movement, trade, and communication throughout East
Chinese Sea and that shared a rhythm of change in social and economic life, and religion.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
27
The scholars of maritime Asian history are interested in the “region” rather than the “nations,” since they
seek to transcend the scope of national history and to grasp a broader economic and cultural network.
Thus, they at first revealed that studies of maritime Asia did not pay sufficient attention to the relation between nations and region. In recent years, however, some scholars propose a view on the specific role of
the governmental policies in the formation of maritime East Asia. Their studies suggest that the governments that ruled China, the Korean peninsula, and the Japanese islands had crucial significant to commercial network over the maritime East Asia, and that changing of international political order over East
Asia could have great influence on the maritime network.
Based on this interest, this presentation will suggest two points about the relationship of the “international
politics” and “region.” First, I will introduce the latest results of research on the relationship between the
governments in East Asia and maritime merchants from 900 to 1350 CE. Second, I will examine how and
why the relationships between governments and merchants changed in Song-Yuan transition. As we
know, despite the war, Japan-Yuan trade was very active. On this view, Japan and Japanese archipelago
formed part of a “13th-century World System,” as Janet Abu-Lughod saying. Although she put stress on
sophisticated system of military and commercial organization by Mongol empire, however, we also know
maritime Asian network was formed before Mongol’s hegemony. If so, we have to re-exam the historical
significance of Mongol empire in maritime East Asian network.
Shan-xi(陝西) region during the Northern Song Dynasty and International Situation
ITO Kazuma (Osaka University), [email protected]
This paper will discuss the synchronization between Shan-xi(陝西) local society in Northern Song Dynasty
and the international situation in the Eastern Eurasia.
According to Prof. Seo Tatsuhiko, the international order was transformed throughout Eurasia and then
reorganized from the 10th to the 13th century. After the late 9th century many powers such as the Tang
Empire, the Tibet Empire, the Uighur, the Abbasids and the Frankish Kingdom became disorganized or
collapsed. In the 10th century, the rise or independence of emergent powers, regime changes and
movement of people took place in succession. As a result, “multi-polarity” in international affairs developed and a new international order was formed.
This era coincided with the era of Song Dynasty China. The Northern Song Dynasty succeeded in reunifying China proper, which had suffered upheavals due to a period of disunity from the Late Tang to the
time of the Five Dynasties. However, while the Northern Song Dynasty accomplished reunification, it also
faced the serious issue of how to deal with a developing international situation in Eastern Eurasia.
The Northern Song Dynasty had active diplomatic relations with the regions of Liao(Qitay) to the north, Xixia(Tangut) to the northwest, and Dayue(Vietnam) to the south. The Dynasty found itself pitted against
three empires, with its international arena known as one within “the three tense regions,” and the matter
was treated as crucial using both diplomatic and military means. Needless to say, the international situation surrounding the Northern Song Dynasty had a considerable impact on its domestic and diplomatic
policies.
In particular, because the Shan-xi region experienced frequent military clashes with Xi-xia and a cycle of
war and peace, there was a need to garrison large numbers of armed forces on the front line to prepare
against possible attack. Therefore, Shan-xi region not only became a region of military advancement in
Northern Song but also influenced the establishment of military systems in other regions such as He-bei
against Liao and the southeast circuits against Dayue. Moreover, the troops in Shan-xi region were often
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
28
thrown into the He-bei region or the southeast circuits. In addition, there were non-Chinese such as Tangut or Tibet people in Shan-xi region. As they had superior military power, Northern Song Dynasty tried to
win over them and make use of them for the war against Xi-xia. In Shan-xi region, it was a need to organize the administrative system and military system for controlling or using them. As a result, the administrative or military system in Shan-xi region became unique and different from other regions in Northern
Song.
Thus, closely linked with the contemporaneous international situation surrounding Northern Song Dynasty, the features of Shan-xi region were formed.
The Presence of Chinese Merchants in the Lạng Sơn Region of Vietnam during the Seventeenth
Century
YOSHIKAWA Kazuki (Osaka University), [email protected]
During the period historian Anthony Reid refers to as “The Age of Commerce” (1450–1680), international
trade in East and Southeast Asia flourished. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, Japanese, Portuguese, Dutch, and Chinese merchants began sailing to northern Vietnam to procure goods for the Japanese market. Northern Vietnam’s value to this market was at its highest during the 1660s to the 1680s,
because it was difficult for Chinese merchants to procure Chinese silk due to the restrictive maritime policies imposed by the Qing rulers.
Although many researchers have studied the trends in maritime trade during this period, few have highlighted the importance of overland trade in northern Vietnam. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the impact of overland trade between northern Vietnam and China on the Lạng Sơn region in Vietnam.
Lạng Sơn province is located in what is today the eastern end of northern Vietnam, bordering China’s
Guangxi province. In Lạng Sơn city, there remain two pieces of epigraphic evidence of the presence of
Chinese merchants in this region during the seventeenth century.
The first evidence of the presence of Chinese merchants in the area is an inscription on Tả Phủ shrine
(đền Tả Phủ), located in the Hoàng Văn Thụ district of Lạng Sơn city. This inscription was engraved in
1683, when the shrine was built to commemorate a contemporary military officer named Thân Công Tài
(申公才), whom later Vietnamese sources credit with opening Kỳ Lừa market. According to the inscription,
Tả Phủ shrine was founded by Chinese merchants and the indigenous chiefs of Lạng Sơn region, indicating that Chinese merchants were engaged in trading activity at Kỳ Lừa market during the late seventeenth century.
The second evidence of the presence of Chinese merchants in this region is the temple bell from Diên
Khánh temple, now called Thành temple (Chùa Thành), which is located in the Chi Lăng district of Lạng
Sơn city. An engraving on the bell from 1697 records that the temple was originally a benevolent association, and was built using funds donated by Chinese merchants in the region. A later inscription in the temple from 1796 also mentions the existence of the benevolent association described in the bell’s inscription.
These sources are proof that Chinese merchants were a significant and active presence in the Lạng Sơn
region during the late seventeenth century. Later sources, such as the records of tributary missions from
Vietnam to China during the eighteenth century, also mention Kỳ Lừa market as a commercial center for
both Vietnamese and Chinese merchants. The remarkable presence of Chinese merchants in the Lạng
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
29
Sơn region in the late seventeenth century is a fact often overlooked by historians dealing with this time
and place, and one deserving of greater attention.
The local officials of Edo-bakufu's government during the late early-modern period: The case of
the second conquest of Choshu clan
OZAKI Mari (Osaka University), [email protected]
In 1854(Kaei 7), Due to the Peace Treaty between Japan and United States, the Japanese isolation policy that had lasted for 200 years was abolished. That means Japan started to open the country to the
world. In addition, Japan initiated trade between Japan and foreign countries other than China and Holland before long. Because of this, Japanese economy was dislocated like prices of commodities being
raised ,and some feudal domains(藩)increased political influence.
From this time to the time that the Edo Bakufu collapsed, We call this situation ''Meiji Restoration''(明治維
新). About ''Meiji Restoration', there are so many studies especially about Political history. But in recent
years, Based on this political history, Takuji Iwaki insisted that we have to turn our eyes towards social
situation under ''Meiji Restoration''(2011). This means we study how ''Meiji Restoration'' influence the social situation in Japan.
In this study, I'll handle the case of the second conquest of Choshu clan(第二次長州戦争), one of the big
event in this period. This is the battle between Edo-bakufu and Choshu clan. In the second conquest of
Choshu clan, The local officials in the estates directly controlled by Bakufu, (what we call ''daikansho''(代
官所)) played an imoportant part in recruiting laborers and supplying provisions for The Bakufu Army. In
bakuryo (estates directly controlled by Bakufu) laid scattered in many parts of the country, daikansho had
right to collect tax and laborers, so daikansho had a lot of meanings in controlling the region. Daikansho
has not been studied so much because of lack of historical sources, but recently, Maiko Tomori did the
study by paying attention to daikan's servent tetsuki or tedai(手付・手代)(2001).
Based on the above, I'll study how the local officials govern the region by making a study of tetsuki or tedai's part in the system of mobilizing laborers. What I mainly handle in this research is tedai who was
hired temporary workers in Osaka in order to go to geishu-guchi(Hiroshima),one of the battlefield, and
lead laborers, so in this study, I'll especially take note of emergency system of governing.
1.4 A History of Everything: Big History Education in the World
In this panel, we can talk big history, one of the ways to think about history in different perspectives. It
deals with Big Bang, the origin of the Universe, the present and the future of all human beings. In this new
kind of perspective, we can expand historical analysis with connecting the natural sciences and humanities. With big history perspective, students can learn main concepts and structures of big history. They
can imagine their world with totally different ways of thinking, so they will develop their creativities. Recently, creativity in education is very important, so we can tell the importance of big history in world education. In this panel, we can examine various situations and realities of big history education in different
countries. By discussing different situations of big history, we can think about the positive and possible
alternatives based on the big history.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
30
Panel Organizer: Kim Seohyung (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Chair: Akita Shigeru (Osaka University)
Discussant: Young In Jang (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Big History & Big History in Australia: Connecting Knowledge & Empowering Students
Tracy Sullivan (Macquarie University)
Big History connects knowledge. Big History tells the story of the universe from the Big Bang to our complex modern societies, by drawing on insights from disciplines such as astronomy, physics, biology, archaeology, history, anthropology, and economics. Big History empowers students by showing how different knowledge disciplines are connected, and helps them reflect on big questions: Why does our universe
exist? Where do we come from? What challenges will the future hold for the planet and ourselves? This
paper will provide an overview of how Big History has been successfully implemented in schools across
Australia and is being delivered to over 3500 Australian secondary students using practical examples,
offering a pedagogical model for how big History operates at a secondary level to connect knowledge and
foster critical and visible thinking skills necessary to empower students to be active and engaged 21st
century global citizens. It will also explore how the Big History Institute is facilitating the development of
exciting and innovative pathways for this unique and empowered group of secondary students to explore
opportunities for intellectual growth and challenge beyond the secondary experience.
The Why and the How of Big History: Building a Program
Mojgan Behmand (Dominican University of California), [email protected]
The arguments for adopting Big History into educational programs—be they at the primary, secondary, or
post-secondary level— are as numerous as are the modes of delivering the Big History content. This paper examines the arguments for incorporating Big History through drawing on the expertise of Big Historians and the experience of various institutions, suggests methods for aligning institutional or departmental
goals with the programmatic or course objectives of Big History, gives insight into using the principles of
backward design for creating the program or course, discusses structures and approaches to teaching
Big History, and suggests tools for the meaningful assessment of the Big History outcomes in the course
or program.
Big History in a Small Country
Esther Quaedackers (University of Amsterdam), [email protected]
Big history has been taught in the Netherlands for more than 20 years. Since 1994, when the first big history course was launched at the University of Amsterdam, it has spread to 5 other Dutch universities. Big
history has been picked up by over a dozen secondary schools and is even being taught at the primary
level. Because all of this has happened within a fairly small country, the Netherlands has one of the highest densities of big history courses in the world.
While teaching a relatively large number of big history courses over prolonged periods of time, we have
learned a number of things, both about the practicalities of organising and teaching big history and about
course content.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
31
While organising our courses, we learned that it was vitally important to involve large numbers of more
specialised colleagues in our big history endeavours. Doing so not only provided us with amazing opportunities to learn about recent developments in fields that are relevant to big history; giving more specialised colleagues a prominent place in many of our courses also ensured they started to see big history as
a field that valued their contributions and that encouraged exchanges of ideas between academics from
different fields. This led to broad institutional support that has been vital for big history’s survival at the
University of Amsterdam.
Another practical thing we learned while teaching big history is that there does not seem to be a perfect
onesize-fits-all big history course. When faced with students from different ages, social backgrounds and
fields of study, we often noticed that established course formats did not work as well as we had hoped
and that we had to adjust.
Experiences like these reminded us to remain flexible and adapt every course to the specific needs of the
group of students taking the course.
But even though most courses we teach are fairly flexible, two recurrent items are featured prominently in
all our courses. The first recurrent item is a big big history paradigm that we use to unify and summarise
the most important developments in big history. We have learned that without such a paradigm, it is hard
to create a sufficiently coherent course and it is complicated to explain to students why we focus on certain processes while paying less attention to others. The second recurrent item is our little big history assignment, in which students connect a topic of their choice to all important phases of big history. We developed this assignment because it can help students understand why big history is relevant for them and
for subjects they are interested in and as a result keeps them engaged in the course.
All of these lessons learned have contributed to the dissemination of big history in the Netherlands, a process that has not yet stopped and in fact seems to be accelerating.
Big History Teaching and Research in Korean University
Seohyung KIM (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Big history is the new historical way to connect the natural sciences and humanities with a big pattern and
frame. So big history is one of the powerful models for convergence education in Korea. There is a general course, “History of Everything after the Big Bang” for undergraduate students at Ewha Womans University. In this course, students can learn different perspectives and ways within the big pattern and picture from the Big Bang to present and future. Also, there is a big history course for graduate students.
They can learn main concepts and definitions of big history and think about how to have a research project in big history. So in this paper, I will examine big history education and research in the university level
in Korea. It will be a good opportunity to see the current situation of big history education and research in
Korea.
1.5 Comparing the world history teaching in Asia
The comparison of the world history teaching in Asian countries was initiated by the AAWH in 2010 in
terms of gathering questionnaires. The proposed session will be the second occasion of comparing the
world history teachings in Asian countries; the first was in Seoul in 2012. While in Seoul Korean, Chinese
and Japanese experiences were discussed, we will compare the world history teachings in South-East
Asia; the cases of Singapore and the Philippines.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
32
Meanwhile we are preparing the publication of a book on the world history teaching in Asian countries
and collecting papers from Korea, China, The Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, India and Japan. The
proposed session will promote the publication of the planned book.
Panel Organizer: Shingo Minamizuka (Chiba Univ. and Hosei Univ.), [email protected]
Chair: Shingo Minamizuka (Chiba Univ. and Hosei Univ.), [email protected]
Discussant: Satyanarayana Adapa (Osmania University), [email protected]
The World History teaching in Asia: A survey
Shingo Minamizuka (Chiba Univ. and Hosei Univ.), [email protected]
This will survey the history and the present situation of the world history teachings in Asian countries adding more information to the similar survey given in Seoul; that is the world history teaching carried in
South-Eastern Asia which had few influences of the Chinese vulture and deep impact of the colonial rule
by the West.
World History Education in Singapore
Sim Yong Huei (National Institute of Education, Singapore), [email protected]
Chelva Rajah (National Institute of Education, Singapore), [email protected]
This paper will characterize the history-teaching in Singapore in the post-independence period into three
phases: (A) during the survival phase 1965-78; (B) in the post-survival phase 1978-95; and (C) phase
going into new millennium 1995-2000s.
To compare the world history teaching in the USA, this paper will show, the history curriculum in Singapore also underwent several phases before it arrived at a curriculum that encompasses a few content
areas making up a good balance which exposes the students to various cultures and geographical regions outside Singapore.
Between Three Empires: The History of the Philippines and the History of World History Studies in
the Philippines
Francis Alvarez Gealogo (Ateneo de Manila University)
Formal education in the Philippines was a prominent feature of its colonial experiences over the past four
hundred years. From the establishment of Spanish colonialism in the sixteenth century; to the institutionalization of American imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century; to the imposition of the Japanese
occupation during the Great Pacific War; and the post-colonial period after the war – the Philippine educational system has had to contend with the intervening forces of imperialism, colonialism and foreign
domination that characterized the delivery of educational programs for its people.
The delivery of courses and subject areas in general, and world history subjects and courses in particular,
had been conditioned by these external forces. Most of these external forces oriented the appreciation of
world history studies to the manner from which the colonizers deemed fit for the Filipinos to take. In a
way, the general education program, and the specific mode of delivery of world history as part of this pro-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
33
gram – form part of the project for the occupation of the native mind to be more appreciative of the colonial establishment.
The study will review and assess the world history textbooks used in the different periods of the evolution
of the Philippine educational system. The periodization used, the geographical scope and coverage utilized; the historical methodology applied in these studies will all form part of the evaluation of the delivery
of world history studies in the Philippines. But more importantly, the ideological, theoretical and philosophical underpinnings and frameworks that are manifest in the textbooks will be highlighted in the study. All
of these will be done by analyzing some of the extant textbooks and world history materials used in the
formal educational system in the various epochs of Philippine history. It is hoped that such an assessment will prefigure the contemporary conditions of the delivery of world history studies in contemporary
Philippine educational system.
1.6 Nature Beyond Borders: Science, Values, Species, and Mobility
Rather than focus on better known human migrations, this panel will explore the various ways in which
“nature” – both as physical reality and value laden idea – has transcended national boundaries in Australasian history. Timothy P. Barnard will examine the transportation of Komodo dragons from their Southeast Asian point of origin to the zoological gardens of Europe and North America. In so doing, he will
shed fresh light on early twentieth century international scientific networks, and their impact on Western
thought and Eastern environments. Brett Bennett will ponder the diffusion of national parks and conservation biology in South and Southeast Asia in the 1960s and 1970s. Treating these entities as migrant ideas, his paper will situates their histories within a complex entanglement of power politics, the justification
and maintenance of elite status, and environmental idealism. Miles Powell will contextualize Western
Australia’s controversial shark cull within the longer history of Australia’s struggle to manage a group of
large, and very occasionally dangerous cartilaginous fish that transcend many of the real and imagined
barriers through which we try to structure our relationship with the natural world. By highlighting the porosity of national borders in relation to physical and conceptual nature, these three papers will present a
powerful challenge to the prevalent state centered narratives of Australasian environmental history.
Panel Organizer: Miles Powell (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Chair: John van Wyhe (National University of Singapore)
Discussant: Hallam Stevens (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Transporting and Displaying the Dragon
Timothy P. Barnard (National University of Singapore)
The transfer of Komodo dragons from an isolated archipelago in the Dutch East Indies to Western zoological gardens in the early twentieth century was a difficult task. At the time, the newly discovered Komodo
lizards were a “celebrity species”, which could financially save a struggling zoo while providing a sense of
adventure for naturalists searching for the romantic ideal of the prehistoric. This paper will focus on
Dutch, British and American efforts to transport a healthy reptile to cooler climates in the 1920s and
1930s, and how the status of these reptiles led to changes in how animals were displayed in zoos, and
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
34
understood by the general public. In the process, issues such as transnational nature, Orientalism and its
display in the West will be discussed.
Making National Parks in an International Era: the Case of Asia
Brett Bennett (University of Western Sydney)
The proliferation of national parks in South and Southeast Asia happened in the decades following the
end of European empire. This paper explores how a complex set of international actors from experts in
United Nation's FAO and UNESCO program and conservationists from IUCN and WWF to princes, prime
minister, and celebrity personalities prompted the establishment of national parks in the region during the
1960s and 1970s. It argues that conservation was used as a tool by development agencies as well as
local governments to create economic development while maintaining ecosystems in idealized conditions
for the future. Treating national parks and conservation biology as migrant ideas, this paper situates their
histories within a complex entanglement of power politics, the justification and maintenance of elite status,
as well as environmental idealism. Studying the early history of national parks in Asia offers insights into
the problems surrounding management, especially through sites managed under UNESCO's World Heritage program.
Historicizing the Western Australian Shark Cull: Fish, Boundaries, and Mobile Nature
Miles A. Powell (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Western Australia has fallen under heavy criticism in recent years for culling large sharks in a seemingly
misguided attempt to make local waters safer for human surfers and bathers by waging war on the open
ocean. This paper will contextualize this practice within the longer history of Australia's struggles to manage a group of large, very occasionally dangerous cartilaginous fish that transcend and complicate many
of the boundaries we use to try to rationalize our relationship with nature. These boundaries range from
the physical (fences, breakwaters, etc.), to the economic (do shark proof enclosures render beaches private property?), to the cultural (what distinguishes a "beach" from other littoral zones?), to the political
(what level of government is responsible for ensuring the protection of bathers?), to the sovereign (do
sharks invite foreign fishers into Australia's Exclusive Economic Zones?). This piece will add nuance and
new levels of analysis to an ongoing discussion among environmental historians regarding the enduring,
perhaps inescapable tension between mobile nature and the real and imagined boundaries with which we
seek to control and exploit it.
1.7 The Ancient Studies in Vietnam: The Late Professor Nishimura’s Area studies from the view of
integration of Archaeology and History
This panel aims at studying the ancient history of Vietnam by inviting both archaeologists and historians
to cooperate in search for a more nuance understanding of the ancient history of Vietnam. Experts in
several correlated fields (such as ceramics, citadels, Buddhism, Vietnamese traditional villages, Champa
studies) will discuss several prominent issues in the history of Vietnam in a broader context of global history.
The late Professor Nishimura Masanari was widely recognized as an archaeologist whose works focus on
the ancient history of Vietnam by synthesizing various correlated fields including history, anthropology,
geography, topography, chemistry and so on. Professor Nishimura, however, unexpectedly passed away
last year after a traffic accident while carrying out his project in Bac Ninh province, north Vietnam. This
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
35
panel, therefore, is organized to commemorate the works of the late professor Nishimura in which his
Japanese and Vietnamese colleagues and friends will highlight the main works had been done by him in
last two decades before his sudden departure and the future collaborations to continue his unfinished projects. Papers in this panel will focus on four major topics those closely associated with the late Professor
Nishimura, including: The Lung Khe citadel in North Vietnam, the Champa citadels in central Vietnam, the
Vietnam traditional villages and the newly founded 9th century shipwreck in central Vietnam.
Panel Organizers:
Ueda Shinya (Osaka University), [email protected]
Nishino Noriko (Foundation to Safeguard the Underground Cultural Heritage in Southeast Asia(NPO)),
[email protected]
Chair: John Miksic (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
Lung Khe citadel in Bac Ninh province (Northern Vietnam): New understanding from historical and
archaeological perspectives
Pham Le Huy (Vietnam National University), [email protected]
Le Thi Lien (Vietnamese archaeology Institute of Archaeology, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences),
[email protected]
Nishino Noriko (Foundation to Safeguard the Underground Cultural Heritage in Southeast Asia(NPO)),
[email protected]
Lung Khe ancient citadel is located in Thanh Khuong village, Thuan Thanh district, Bac Ninh province. It
was identified as the center of Luy Lau district established as capital of the Jiaozhi prefecture in the
Western Han period and also used to be residence of Shi Xie (Si Nhiep in Vietnamese) - Prefect of the
Jiaozhi during the late 2nd - early 3rd centuries AD. Based on the his excavation in 1999 and 2001, and
the historical records, late Dr. Nishimura Masanari hold the hypothesis that Lung Khe citadel is not Luy
Lau but Long Bien citadel. He further emphasized the role of Lung Khe in the cultural interaction context
of Nan Hai trading from the end of the 1st millennium BC to the first half of the first millennium AD. Archaeological evidence from Central and Southern Vietnam (i.e. early Champa and Oc Eo culture) have
been identified by him for this hypothesis.
In recent years, new discoveries in archaeology and palaeography at Lung Khe brought to light interesting data related to the issue of Lung Khe -Luy Lau-Long Bien citadel. Following the research of Nishimura, the present authors will discuss on following issues:
- Summarizing updated archaeological research results by Nishmura and others at Lung Khe Citadel site,
- By analysis of the historical records from China and Vietnam, as well as new discovered inscriptions in
the Lung Khe area to further discuss on the location of Luy Lau and Long Bien citadels.
- From archaeological and cultural document at Lung Khe area and related sites, discussing on several
aspects of cultural relationship between Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam during the first half of
the first millennium AD.
Champa Ancient Citadels: View from archaeological and historical perspectives
Yamagata Mariko (Kanazawa University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
36
Nguyen Van Quang (Hue University of Sciences), [email protected]
Suzuki Tomomi (Waseda University), [email protected]
Do Truong Giang (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
Champa civilization, especially the ancient citadels of Champa, is among favored research topics of the
late Professor Nishimura Masanari in an effort to do comprehensively comparative research on the political and economic centers in ancient and medieval history of Vietnam. Over the past few years, we had
had the opportunities to participate in joint research with the late Professor Nishimura in conducting field
surveys and excavations of ancient citadels, political and economic centers of ancient Champa in central
Vietnam. For instance, from 2009 to 2012, under the direct supervision of the late Professor Nishimura, a
joint-research team of Japanese and Vietnamese archaeologists had conducted surveys and excavated
at 15 sites around the Hoa Chau citadel in Thua Thien Hue province, an ancient citadel built by the people of Champa from the ninth century and then continued to be used by the Viet people till the fifteenth
century. Professor Mariko Yamamoto and her colleagues have focused on another citadel of Champa in
Tra Kieu (Quang Nam province), an important citadel of Linyi/Champa mandala from the second century
CE.
This article aims to introduce some findings of the ancient citadel of Champa bases on the results of the
archaeological excavations undertaken recently at three Champa ancient citadels including the Hoa Chau
citadel in Thua Thien Hue Province, the Tra Kieu citadel in Quang Nam province, the An Thanh citadel in
Binh Dinh province. Base on analyzing the archaeological findings and in combining with the historical
materials and field surveys, the team will try to clarify several important issues on the ancient citadels of
Champa and their roles in Champa history. Firstly, we will describe the scope and structure of the ancient
citadels of Champa. Secondly, we will explore the position, role and function of these citadels in the context of their own nagara/small kingdoms and of Champa mandala as a whole. Thirdly, we will generalize
the characteristics of the ancient Champa citadels based on a comparative study with other contemporary
citadels in the North of Vietnam (like those of Lung Khe and Co Loa citadels) and in other part of Southeast Asia. Fourthly, based on archaeological artifacts found at these citadels, especially ceramics from
China, Champa, Vietnam and other artifacts derived from the long-distance geographical areas such as
West Asia we will make effort to reconstructing the social life, economic relations and trade exchange
between the people of Champa with the outside world, and also the process of urbanization in Champa
history.
Ceramics International Trade and the Social Change in the 16th-18th Centuries Red River Delta: A
Case Study of Bát Tràng Village
Ueda Shinya (Osaka University), [email protected]
Nishino Noriko (Foundation to Safeguard the Underground Cultural Heritage in Southeast Asia(NPO)),
[email protected]
Late Nishimura examined history of colonization in the Red River Delta by archeological technique and
showed a lot of potential of the historical study that focuses on the village. Especially, his opinion that the
transition from horseshoe-shaped dyke to closing-type dyke brought the establishment of new villages
and the acceleration of raising riverbed in the 17th-18th centuries is suggestive for documents historian.
The 16th-18th centuries Red River Delta was the period when put various closed social group represented
by village commune and kinship group on a firm footing, and it can be surmised that this phenomenon
was related closely to the population densification. It will be certain to deepen mutual understanding by
discussing between archaeologist and historian for examining the establishment of traditional society in
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
37
the Red River Delta. Therefore, this presentation examines the Red River Delta development and the international trade by documents history and the archeology fusing mainly on the example of the Bát Tràng
village and its pottery.
Bát Tràng is a pottery village that follows from the Lý and Trần dynasty periods, part of its products had
been prized as tea ceramics in Japan. Currently, Nishimura and Nishino’s chronology of Vietnamese Ceramics types has become possible to identify the age of Vietnamese ceramics by a unit for 25-50 years,
and this let us know that most of Vietnamese Ceramics which are existing as tea pottery in present Japan
were not mass-produced, but were made-to-order at Hải Dương province and Bát Tràng village in the
early 17th century. This fact suggests that Vietnamese side had person who was familiar with Japanese
tea culture and could give detailed instructions to craftman directry.
In the case of Bát Tràng village, we can suppose that Wada Rizaemon had an important role in the tea
pottery production for Japan. Because, following historical documents, he played an active part in the Japan-Vietnam trade as a purveyor of Trịnh Lord, and had a close relationship with Nguyễn clan of Bát
Tràng village. On the other hand, Nguyễn clan accumulated wealth by pottery in the first half of the 17th
century, and produced two Imperial Scholar in the second half of the 17th century. In Bát Tràng village,
many other clans had government bureaucrat such as Nguyễn clan, we can easily suppose that pottery
wealth stimulated by the activation of the international trade led them become more powerful and extend
their influence to the national politics.
At the same time, we can confirm that villages arounding Bát Tràng village cultivated mulberry at the dry
riverbed area, and the east side dyke of the Red River let transfered several times in the 17th century. The
development of the dry riverbed area and the marsh sediment of the Red River Delta related closely with
the international commodification of rawsilk and ceramics. However this development caused frequent
occurrence of the land dispute between villages. That is a one of the reason of the strong autonomy of
the Red River Delta villages in this period.
“Nishimura Project” The Oldest Shipwreck found in Vietnam: Testimony to the Maritime Ceramic
Route
Nishino Noriko (Foundation to Safeguard the Underground Cultural Heritage in Southeast Asia (NPO)),
[email protected]
Aoyama Toru (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), [email protected]
Kimura Jun (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago)
Nogami Takenori (Nagasaki University), [email protected]
Le Thi Lien (Vietnamese archaeology Institute of Archaeology, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences),
[email protected]
The discovery of at least three shipwrecks off the shore of Binh Chau in Quang Ngai Province came to be
known recently. These shipwrecks include the Binh Chau No.1, No. 2, and the Chau Tan Shipwreck.
While the first two shipwrecks have been relatively exposed to the public through the media, the Chau
Tang Shipwreck is limitedly acknowledged despite its potential as the oldest shipwreck ever found in the
country. Dr. Nishimura, a Japanese scholar with expertise in Vietnamese Archaeology, has initiated the
study of this shipwreck until his sudden and unfortunate death. A group of Japanese scholars took over
the archaeological analysis in cooperation with the Institute of Archaeology to clarify the significance of
the cargo and ship timbers’ remains. The cargo and ship timbers have been pillaged and were recovered
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
38
from the waters without recording the archaeological contexts. The begging stage post-analysis, however,
indicates the importance of the remains in that the ship was probably the SEA ship engaged in a maritime
trade with the Indian Ocean World, represented by a number of Chang Sha ware of Tang Dynasty. This
paper outlines the research scheme of the new shipwreck analysis project.
1.8 Migrating Interests in the American Empire
The panel focuses on transitional moments in the migration of ideas across the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American Empire in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Pacific Oceans. In doing so, the papers feature shifting American interests in political economy, martial values, foreign policy, and colonial
activities. These ideas, of course, did not exist in an intellectual and national vacuum. For instance, each
contributor considers transoceanic exchanges and global events that greatly informed the development of
American imperial activities. While the notion of an American Empire is still somewhat controversial, the
panel collectively aims to shed new light on the ways in which it emerged and the ideas that gave it
meaning.
Panel Organizer: L. Michael Ratnapalan (Yonsei University), [email protected]
Chair: Shi Ruey Joey Long (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Discussant: Daniel Chua Wei Boon (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Strategic Rivalry, Commerce, and the emergence of a Continental Union: Sir William Keith and the
Colonial Origins of American Empire
Paul Tonks (Yonsei University), [email protected]
This paper traces the colonial, pre-revolutionary origins of America’s imperial vision in the strategic and
commercial rationale for continental union. Paradoxically, the deep historical roots of American empire
and its later global status lie in the earlier eighteenth-century rivalry between Great Britain and France to
establish dominance in the Atlantic world system. In the half-century before American Independence,
French diplomatic and commercial networks in the interior of the American continent constituted a profound threat to Anglo-American expansionism. In particular, France’s astute policies towards indigenous
Amerindians stood in starkly apparent contrast to the failures of colonial American native relations. In response to the existential threat constituted by French commercial, diplomatic and military rivalry in North
America, the Scottish-born colonial official and former Jacobite exile Sir William Keith laid out his ideas on
long-term unification of Britain’s American colonies through a strategy of economic and political collaboration. Keith had first migrated to America as surveyor-general of customs for the southern colonies (17131716). Subsequently, he served as governor of Pennsylvania and the area that is now Delaware between
1717 and 1726. His experience of life in America convinced him of the crucial necessity of union amongst
the American colonists. To withstand the formidable challenge of rival colonial efforts by the French,
Americans needed to cooperate with each other. If Americans were able to unite internally in the face of a
common external threat, namely the French empire, they would be able to construct an irresistible force
that would enable them to control the Continent. The ultimate legacy of this ambitious vision of intercolonial cooperation and continental union, strikingly articulated in the emergent discourses of Enlightenment historical thought and political economy in early eighteenth-century Pennsylvania by Sir William
Keith, was the later American empire that developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
39
Enlightenment Civility in the First Barbary War: American Consul William Eaton’s Common Place
Book, 1801-1803
Charles Bradford Bow (Yonsei University), [email protected]
This paper examines William Eaton’s treatment of national peculiarity in his Common Place Book as the
American Consul of Tunis from 1801 through 1803. As a personal journal of sorts, Common Place Books
served as a medium for reflection and, more importantly, a method of improving character. For Eaton, it
was a source to prescribe his solution to the First Barbary War. Tripoli, Algiers, Tunis, and the Sultanate
of Morocco (known collectively as the Barbary States) terrorized merchant ships with piracy of cargoes
and enslavement of sailors throughout the early modern period. In doing so, Barbary States claimed that
the Koran authorized these types of activities against alleged infidels. Recognizing the cost of combating
these frequent attacks Spain, France, and Britain among other nations paid regular monetary tributes for
unobstructed passage through the Mediterranean. Without Britain’s and then France’s protection after the
American War of Independence, American merchant ships fell victim to a series of attacks along the Barbary Coast and, in turn, received costly ransom demands. Consequently, the Washington and Adams
administrations arranged treaties with Barbary States as well as established American Consulates in the
region. President Thomas Jefferson later abandoned this exchange after his 1801 election, which
prompted Tripoli’s declaration of war and the beginning of America’s war on terror. Negotiating American
diplomatic and martial options within the Barbary States, Eaton believed Jefferson miscalculated and
misunderstood the situation, which he freely expressed in his Common Place Book. According to Eaton,
Jefferson’s foreign policies, which were predicated upon notions of Enlightenment civility, would fail because they did not account for cultural differences in the Islamic Barbary States. He wrote that “[t]hough
[Jefferson might] kill me he will not destroy the weight of truth nor the justice of the cause which it is advanced to support” (Huntington Library, MSS EA 207). This paper sheds new light on the ideological rivalry between the Enlightenment and Islam in the First Barbary War.
‘Increase the race’? An intellectual and cultural battle for the Hawaiian Islands, 1888-98
L. Michael Ratnapalan (Yonsei University), [email protected]
The Honolulu Social Science Association was an intellectual body that came together in the 1880s to present scientific research as well as to discuss wide-ranging issues concerning the Hawaiian Islands. It was
also from this predominantly immigrant and settler-based group that the ideological foundations of the
pro-annexation party would be established in the years prior to the American takeover. As such, HSSA
members often had broader roles in developing policy and strategizing the future of the territory.
One of the perennial problems in nineteenth century Hawaii, widely discussed in scholarly literature, was
native depopulation. In 1888 the Presbyterian missionary Sereno Bishop gave a presentation on the subject at the HSSA, in which he outlined the main issues, his interpretation of the causes, and some possible solutions to the problem. This paper will situate Bishop’s ideas within the context of the HSSA’s research and the activities of its members to explore wider attitudes towards health, disease, settlement
and depopulation on the islands. A cultural battle was being fought at this time between the institutionalizing approach to health and disease posited by Bishop and others, and the more liberal approach held by
native Hawaiian islanders including the King, David Kalakaua. The latter led a nativist revival that called
on Hawaiians to ‘increase the race’ in response to increasing foreign intervention in islander affairs. By
positioning themselves against this campaign the HSSA’s members also aligned themselves politically
with influential elements of American imperialist thought. The paper will conclude by reflecting on this relationship and its implications for the meaning of American imperial expansion in the Pacific.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
40
1.9 Transnational Narratives and Global Audience
Chair: Sinae Hyun (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
British Indophiles in an age of Empire 1895-1915
Somak Biswas (Jawaharlal Nehru University), [email protected]
Transnational histories of the British colonial encounter in South Asia have not adequately represented
the marginal trajectories of thought represented by British Indophilic figures who had made definitive
‘passages’ from the metropole to the colony in largely non-official capacities. Occupying spaces that were
often politically peripheral to the dominant asymmetries of nation and empire, such figures were either
sought to be co-opted or disregarded in nationalist or imperialist narratives, their personal passages denied a wider historical significance of their own, their anti-imperial gestures of little practical investment in
the dominant discourses of India and Britain. I argue that by exploring the affective solidarities and discursive configurations of these individuals we can seek an exciting way to conceptualize transnational
histories of empire that undercut the established asymmetries of colonial power structure. I analyze how
small gestures of kindness, intimate experiences of friendship and revelation inform and animate the wider intellectual engagements and discursive practices of such transnational figures.
Recent scholarship has further emphasized the intertwined nature of Britain and its imperial histories –
how discourses in both the colony and the metropolis became influential in shaping the ideas, individuals
and institutions of each others. Through a close consideration of the Indian careers and credos of two
referential British Indophile figures –Margaret Noble (1867-1911) and C.F. Andrews (1871-1940) – I seek
to understand how transnational passages could be considered as hybrid sites to engage the social. The
persistent preoccupation of these figures with ideas of history, nation and freedom in the leading journals
of the day and their creative application to the Indian context characterize a continuous investment in anticolonial efforts – both individual and institutional – enabled multiple entry points into a complex world of
transcultural politics and affect. Nivedita’s active espousal of the Hindu cause in the control over Bodh
Gaya dispute, or Andrews’s efforts in the anti-indenture campaigns in South Africa and elsewhere offer us
telling instances to study this transitivity in their politics. Prolific correspondents that they were, their social
and epistolary networks offer us a rich palimpsest in analyzing their transcultural negotiations and friendships, enabling us to glimpse the less guarded and frank moments of the transnational Indophile. I suggest that a more focused attention to the complexities of such transitive politics offers us an entry point in
examining the affective and discursive engagements between individuals that fostered inter-subjective
solidarities across the empire.
The figure of the British Indophile enables a critical interdiscursivity that, while instrumental in sustaining
counter-hegemonic solidarities across the empire, lent the anti-colonial struggles of India a rare transnational cast that signified a moral vindication of indigenous anti-imperial efforts against the colonial state.
My research seeks to map the intersectionality of this affective and discursive politics that transformed
such figures from liminal to mainstream entities – acting, asserting, and being influenced perpetually by
the dominant concerns of India and the world.
From Goa to Bombay and Mary to Catherine: Ports and Female Icons in Salman Rushdie’s
Midnight’s Children
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
41
R. Benedito Ferrão (The College of William and Mary), [email protected]
In having Mary Pereira/Braganza be Goan, Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children brings into focus the
significant utility of his character’s native land in the European imperial history of South Asia. The Goan
character draws to mind the ports sought out by the Europeans in their search for the fabled Indies. Mary
Pereira also evokes the figure of Goa as one of the earliest colonies and then the last foreign dominion
(15101961) in what was to become modern day India. Though adopting the Braganza moniker, Mary arguably challenges the heteropatriarchal construction of nation, unlike her namesake. The marriage of
Catherine of Braganza to Charles II in 1662 was orchestrated to secure the relationship between two colonial powers. Through the alliance, England received the port city of Bombay as a dowry payment from
Portugal. The arranged marriage, in some sense, conjoined the two empires like an extended family, for it
allowed the colonizers to negotiate dealings elsewhere, Africa included. Mary, on the other hand, reorders
the families which in the novel are symbolic of the nation: she switches a rich child with a poor one, a
Hindu for a Muslim.
Further, in renaming herself after the Portuguese infanta, Mary Pereira also evokes that other Catherine.
On 25 November, 1510, Afonso de Albuquerque took the port of Goa. It was the feast day of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, and the Portuguese conqueror believed she had overseen his defeat of the Muslim
ruler of the enclave. It was to her that he consecrated his victory. The daughter of a Pagan Roman governor, Saint Catherine was famously martyred in the fourth century for refusing to recant her faith in Christ.
Unsurprisingly, she became an icon of the Crusades, similarly serving as a symbol for the perseverance
of faith in the Portuguese colonial mission, wherein the spread of religion and empire became inseparable. While a shared faith is the most evident connection between Saint Catherine and the Portuguese,
Africa is another less examined one. The site where Saint Catherine discovered her faith, doubly pagan
and quintessentially “other” in the later Occidental imagination is, curiously, also the continental location
from which sprung the Moors: Muslims who ruled over Iberia for several centuries.
By centring on the iconic naming and renaming of Mary Pereira in Midnight’s Children, I expect to argue
that the novel uses the history of the ports of Goa and Bombay to challenge the Anglocentrism of postcolonial thought in relation to India. In so doing, I will also aim to investigate how Goa’s connection to Europe and Africa from the early modern period continues to subvert contemporary notions of the postcolonial nationstate.
From East to West and Back: The Travels and Writings of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan
Jeena Sarah Jacob (Jawaharlal Nehru University), [email protected]
A traveller from Bengal in England, Mirza Abu Taleb Khan, in the early 1800s was once told by a young
lady at a party that she felt that it was terrible to be a woman from Hindustan, hidden behind veils and
curtains in a separate part of the house, unable to communicate with the outside world. In response to
this and other notions of Hindustan he had encountered a number of times while in London Abu Taleb
wrote a tract titled Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women which was later published as an annexure to his travelogue.
In the context of migration of people and ideas, we can study the writing of Mirza Abu Taleb Khan to see
the ways in which a person from Hindustan, from an upper class elite Muslim background, engages with
the people, culture and ideas of the places he visits. Influences like that of the work of Mary Wollstonecraft on his writing leads one to believe that the traveller also negotiated and refigured in his own context
ideas that were in vogue amongst the intelligentsia. In some ways Taleb attempted to provide a counter
to the prevalent orientalist ideas that were dominant in Europe at the time.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
42
This paper would attempt to in the context of Taleb’s Vindication of the Liberties of the Asiatic Women
and Taleb’s travelogue to look at how an exchange of ideas took place in both in terms of how he was
able to represent his point of view to those he encountered in England, and what he learnt and brought
back with himself to Hindustan.
Haraguchi Tsuruko and Japanese Female Immigrants in New York, 1900-1910s
Astghik Hovhannisyan (Hitotsubashi University), [email protected]
Haraguchi (Arai) Tsuruko (1886-1915) was the first Japanese woman to earn a PhD degree in any subject. She graduated from Japan Women’s University in 1906 and was admitted to Columbia University in
1907 to pursue a PhD degree in psychology. Tsuruko successfully completed the degree in 1912, writing
a dissertation on “Mental Fatigue”. She later returned to Japan with her husband and managed to publish
her extended PhD dissertation, the Japanese translation of Francis Galton’s Hereditary Genius, and the
diary of her days in the USA made into a book called Happy Memories (Tanoshiki Omoide).
In Happy Memories, Tsuruko not only shares her observations about the American society, American
people and their values, position of women, and others, but also gives a detailed account of Japanese
women immigrants living in New York at the beginning of the 20th century, describing their background,
lifestyle, employment status and income.
This paper will analyze Haraguchi Tsuruko’s activities and experiences in New York and will introduce
Japanese female immigrants’ lives through her lenses.
Science as Theory and Entertainment: Reception of Interstellar in a Korean Context
Park Hyung Wook (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
I analyze the unexpected success of the Hollywood blockbuster, Interstellar (2014), in South Korea, a
country with little tradition of science fiction. Indeed, it is hard to find successful SF films in this country.
Even major Hollywood movies like the Star Wars series fared poorly in Korean theaters. My paper thus
explains why more than ten million Koreans watched Interstellar. For this purpose, I investigate the Korean culture of science, which has regarded theoretical physics as the "highest" science, which should also
be "foreign" in nature. I argue that the success of Interstellar is due to Koreans' longstanding Confucian
culture, colonial legacy, and the strong postwar American influence in industrialization. These historical
experiences have led Koreans to value theoretical physics above more experimental disciplines and also
to believe that it is essentially un-Korean. In this situation, many Koreans paid a serious attention to the
American theoretical physicist Kip Thorne's involvement in the film. They thus thought that Interstellar was
a "difficult" movie, meaning that it should be seriously considered as a means of experiencing science for
all audiences, including both adults and children. For this presentation, I conducted interviews as well as
discourse analyses of newspaper articles and personal blog postings. This work would contribute to the
scholarship on science fiction by Carl Silvio and Dongwon Kim as well as the understanding of the complex and contradictory relations among science, colonial legacy, and transnational identities in East Asia.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
43
2.1 Reconsideration of “Agricultural Development” in South and Southeast Asia in the Nineteenth
century------from Global History perspectives
This panel aims at reconsidering the historical significance of “agricultural development” from Asian perspectives. In the second-half of the nineteenth century, we may recognize the increase of agricultural
production in Asia in close connection with population growth and (internal & overseas) migrations. These
phenomena have usually been interpreted as a part of European-centered economic globalization or the
incorporation of Asia into the world-economy (Modern World-System), and they were related to the formation of Western colonial empires and an imperialistic world-order.
However, recent global history studies in Japan tried to reveal Asian initiatives for economic development
or more active roles of indigenous agencies such as Asian (Indian & Chinese) merchants and local peasants for the growth of primary products, like rice, sugar, natural rubber and other tropical goods. We will
explore the dynamic roles played by these Asian agencies for economic “development”, especially for
“agricultural development”, and their impacts on the transformation of agrarian societies and on the patterns of land-holding not only in colonies such as British India, the Dutch East-Indies (Indonesia), and
Northern Vietnam (French Indochina) but also in independent Siam (Thailand). In order to make comparisons and reveal outstanding features of tropical regions, a case study of the Russian Far East (Northeast
Asia) will be examined.
Panel Organizer: Shigeru AKITA (Osaka University), [email protected]
Chair: Shigeru AKITA (Osaka University), [email protected]
Discussant: -
GIS Analysis of Village Land Registers in South India between 1850s and 1920s
Tsukasa MIZUSHIMA (University of Tokyo), [email protected]
Interpretations of India’s economic development under the British colonial rule have produced two contrastive views. To classify them simply, one, so-called nationalist school, stresses an exploitative nature of
the rule while the other, so-called Cambridge school, observes steady progress of Indian economy during
the period. Agricultural statistics starting from the late 19th century generally indicate slower and stagnant
production growth till the Independence while some studies on non-agricultural industries hint steady progresses in various fields in the late colonial period. So far as village structure is concerned, we again observe contrastive views between those stressing structural change in caste and class relationship and
those negating them. Such contrastive views may be partly rooted in the regional variations across the
sub-continent but mainly in the poor empirical investigation at the village and individual levels.
The paper to be proposed deals with hundreds of village land registers in the former Lalgudi Taluk (subdistrict) in south India. The registers, officially called Settlement Registers, were prepared every thirty
years at the time of revision of land-tax under the Raiyatwari system and were from the years of 1860s,
1890s, and 1920s. They are the most important and essential sources in the colonial period as they contain the most detailed information about land, landholding, and landholders of every lot in the respective
villages. They also have information about land use of every lot in the village common land and the cropping pattern of every village. In a country like India, where information about people is desperately poor,
the village land register having personal landholders’ names of every village is the rare and precious
source to know the very bottom of the society and her changes.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
44
The proposed paper is a part of the on-going analysis into them after decades of data-input of the huge
amount of information contained in the registers. The GIS (geographical information system) has been
found to be an indispensable analytical tool, without which millions of village information would have been
almost impossible to analyse. The GIS will also prove to be a very strong tool to clarify the spherical variations over the period and across the varied environments in such a country as India.
The presentation will be composed of two sections. The first will show some results of analysis into the
landholding structure and cropping pattern of the three periods of 1860s, 1890s, and 1920s respectively.
The second will investigate and summarize the conspicuous features of the historical changes observed
between the periods. The findings would indicate varied but patterned impacts of the British colonial land
policy and of the economic change upon the rural society not only in the studied area but also in India.
Between Local Production and Global Market: Copra Export from North Sulawesi, c. 1860-1929
Atsushi Ota (Hiroshima University)
Copra (dried coconut kernels, from which oil is obtained) was one of the important export products from
Netherlands East Indies destined to industrial states. Copra was used as cooking oil or a material of industrial products such as margarine, soap, and glycerin. In spite of such industrial uses, copra was produced not in large-scale modern plantations, but in local smallholder cultivation in most of the producing
regions in Southeast Asia, including North Sulawesi. In North Sulawesi, one of the major copra-producing
region in Asia, it was mainly Chinese and local intermediaries that connected local production to the global market. They financed initial investments for local smallholders to prepare coconut gardens, and they
collected the products from cultivators and brought them to trading farms in major transit ports such as
Manado. Sometimes they themselves ran trading farms. Based on the examination of materials created
by the local colonial government, this paper discusses the structure and the developments of such intermediary systems from around 1860s, when the copra production boomed, to 1929, when the production
dropped in relation to the Depression. By so doing, this paper aims to argue that through the initiatives of
local smallholders Chinese and Southeast Asian intermediaries the local society of Southeast Asia spontaneously participated in the global economy, different from a general assumption that Western imperialism forcibly incorporated Southeast Asia in the system of international division of labor in the high colonial
period.
Socio-economic Dynamics in the Mountainous Region of Northern Indochina Peninsula during the
period between 1880s and 1910s
Okada Masashi (Osaka University), [email protected]
The mountainous region of Indochina Peninsula has been a significant role as a crossroad of overland
trade between China and mainland Southeast Asia during over the centuries as well as centers of tropical
forest products which were important commodities for regional and global markets. However, as for the
French colonial period, the socio-economic dynamics of the region has been less estimated while its process of political marginalization has been focused. In fact, the region experienced an economic growth
during the period from its colonialization to the World War I. Treaty of Tientsin (1885) after the SinoFrench War launched some open ports on the Sino-Vietnamese inland borderlands and especially the
port of Lao Kay accelerated the transit trade through the Red River between Yunnan and Canton (The
Yunnan–Vietnam Railway took over the role of the river traffic partly since 1910). This change also made
new opportunities for the local powers and networks in the region in various ways, such as exploitation of
new products and contraband of monopolized commodities (e.g. opium, salt).
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
45
In this presentation, at first I will illustrate the commercial growth in the region under the French rule by
the investigation of the colonial documents and statistics. Secondly, I will examine how the transregional
trade networks (Cantonese merchants and Yunnanese Muslim caravan merchants) and the local agents
like Tai lords and pirogue peddlers took part in the socio-economic dynamics in the region while giving
attention to its continuity between periods.
Land Development of the Chaopraya Delta and Rice Export in Thailand: A Case of Rangsit District,
Chaopraya River
Toshiyuki Miyata (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), [email protected]
Thailand developed rice production, especially in the Chaopraya delta of the central region and increasingly exported rice in respond to the rapid expansion of rice demand in Southeast Asia and the southern
China in the late 19th century. So, during this period, land values in Thailand rose according to the boom
in rice exports. But as Thomas Larsson [2012] explained, the lines of authority in regard to the issuance
of land documents were muddled. Different officials would frequently issue of land documents to different
persons for the same plot of land. Certainly a lot of drafts of land law, regulating the property rights in
land, were considered among the governmental officials. But the land law of centralized land registration
with the issuance of title deeds was not enacted. Scott [1998] described the Siamese state was simply
unable to “see like a state.”
On the contrary, Larsson [2012] pointed out that the direct effect of the restrictions on the evolution of the
property rights in land during the King Rama V was to provide the Siamese with a legitimate reason for
denying foreign requests to acquire land, and that the Siamese state used land rights policy as an instrument to protect and eventually enhance its sovereign status and territorial integrity in the face of the threat
of colonization.
This study re-examine, while referring to this Larsson’s work, the historical process of the delta development project of Rangsit district near Bangkok along Chaopraya river, which the Siamese and the European joined in the late 19th century. Although the Siamese government was willing to limit the foreigner’s
requests to develop and acquire land, this Rangsit delta project was approved by the King Rama V and
his government. It is important to re-consider the reasons why the Rangsit delta project was done, in the
context of the historical delta development and the protection of Siamese sovereignty.
The economic development of Russian Far East villages in the late-nineteenth century and earlytwentieth century: Analysis of the Reports of the Amur Expedition
Yukimura Sakon (Niigata University), [email protected]
Although Northeast Asia, including the Russian territory, has been recognized as one of the three major
frontier destinations in the age of global migration since the second half of nineteenth century, less attention has been given to migration to Northeast Asia than the Americas and Southeast Asia due to geographical isolation. However, analysis of such migration in Northeast Asia provides insights into not only
the structure of the Russian Empire but also the population structure of Eurasia through the comparison
with other regions.
In the middle of the nineteenth century, Russia acquired the left bank of the Amur (Amur oblast (district))
and the right bank of the Ussuri (Maritime oblast) from the Qing Empire, and facilitated Russian settlement into the new territory. We can divide the Russian settlers into three categories: (1) old settlers mainly transported by carriages or ships in the nineteenth century; (2) new settlers by the Trans-Siberian railway in the twentieth century; and (3) Cossacks. Moreover, the inflow of Russian peasants caused an in-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
46
creasing influx of Chinese and Korean migrants into the Russian territory, because the Russian settlers,
principally from Ukraine, had rarely known their surroundings in the Far East and had to rely on Chinese
and Korean labors for cultivation. Recent studies revealed that the movement of people, goods, foods
and materials from East Asia accelerated the economic development of the Russian Far East before the
October revolution. On the other hand, the demographic percentage of the Russian kept increasing from
the mid-nineteenth century to the First World War: from 63.5 percent in 1885 to over 80 percent in 1914.
Yet few historians tried to reveal the relationship between “dependence” on East Asia and “independence” of the Russian Far East.
First, this paper examines Russia’s “dependent” character through some reports on the Amur Expedition,
which the Russian government had made from 1910 to 1912 to achieve economic independence of the
Russian Far East from East Asia. More than 40 volumes-reports on the Expedition revealed detailed economic situation in the Russian Far East and Manchuria, but little attention has been given to these valuable materials.
And then we analyze Russia’s “independent” character through two statistics of the Amur Expedition.
They covered wide range of topics, such as peasants’ situation in Amur oblast, population structure,
peasants’ and Cossacks’ property, literacy rate, and a cop and so on in volosts or okrugs (administrative
divisions between oblast and village) at the beginning of the twentieth century.
2.2 Global & World History: Approaches & Trends in Asia & Beyond
A round table discussion
Chair: Shi Ruey Joey Long (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
A Discussion on the Developmental Direction of World History Studies in China
ZHANG Shunhong (Institute
[email protected]
of
World
History,
Chinese
Academy
of
Social
Sciences),
World history studies have made great progress in China in the past decades. In 2011, World History became a top-level national academic subject, and research on world history is surely entering a new phase
of prosperity. But in this field, in many respects we still lag behind the advanced countries in the world. As
a great country, China certainly needs to establish a strong historiography not only of Chinese history, but
also of the history of foreign countries. So in the coming years, how should we promote the development
of world history studies in China?
In my view, the developmental direction of world history studies is to construct an internationally strong
historiography of and undertake innovative projects on world history with Chinese characteristics. Among
others, the following efforts are essential. We need first, to adhere to the guidance of Marxism to apply
and develop historical materialism; second, to absorb the advantages of traditional Chinese historiography and the valuable elements of Western historiography while expelling its negative influence; third, to
strengthen the training of interdisciplinary talents and promote scientific and strict styles of academic conduct; and fourth, to undertake studies of world history from the perspective of China’s historical and current realities.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
47
How can we develop a strong historiography and carry out research work on world history with Chinese
characteristics? It is essential that we need to understand and look into the realistic problems and challenges facing our country. And then as historians of world history, we should try to seek ideas and inspirations on the right solutions to these problems and challenges in the context of historical development of
the world. In this way, we may be able to reveal to the society the utility of world history studies, namely
making world history studies “more useful”. Thus it is important for us to find proper topics to enquire into.
Perhaps the following are the very relevant ones and need to be deeply examined by historians of world
history in China: (1) The laws in the rise and fall of civilizations and nations in the historical course of human social development; (2) the social polarization or differentiation in the history of human society; (3)
the economic history of public ownership in countries across the world in different times; (4) the history of
the international movement of wealth; (5) the laws in the evolution of the world situations; (6) the history
of international communist movement; (7) the history of the national liberation movement; (8) the military
blocs in the history of the world; and (9) the history of developing countries.
Development of the Concepts of “World/Global History” in Thai Universities’ General Education
Vachara Sindhuprama (Thammasat University), [email protected]
The study, initially, attempts to explore the concepts and the studies of world/global history among Thai
scholars in higher education. Having discovered that outright works on this subject matter are not reasonably substantial, I narrow the scope down to a trace in the development of general education in Thai
higher education.
The paper will examine a history of modern Thai historiography which derived its concepts and understandings of the term “history”, in academic sense, from western scholarship, and began the mission of
historical writing to serve the ideology of a nation-state. As Thailand or Siam was recognized by western
scholars as a rare case of Asian countries which had never been colonized by any western powers during
the colonial era, many conventional Thai historians answered to this recognition (or myth?) by emphasizing certain uniqueness or potentials of the Thai state to struggle fairly successfully to maintain “independence”. This success story led many Thai historians to buy the “civilizations” approach when they came
across the study of world history. In this theme of study, Thailand has been a part of, or has inherited the
legacy of, the “Eastern Civilizations”, i.e., Indian, Chinese, and Islam. The Eastern Civilizations, Indian
and Chinese, in particular, were even older and more spiritually complicated as compared to the “Western
Civilization”.
The paper focuses on a case study of the courses and the teaching of general education at Thammasat
University since it was the first in Thailand to adopt general education as an integrated part of all Bachelor
degree programs. For decades, Thammasat University were a leader in the teaching of Western / Eastern
Civilizations; and even a course on “Thai Civilization” were added to the general education curriculum.
Several years after the study of world history as a separate discipline had been formed, and world history
had started to replace world civilizations in numerous American universities curricula, Thammasat retained all the civilization courses in general education until 2009.
As Thai language uses only one same word for “World” and “Global” history, the emergence of “Global
History” and the discussions or debates on the distinction (and also the denial of any critical difference)
between Global History and World History received little attention in Thai universities. As the concepts
and the usage of the term “Globalization” have become the most common worldwide, “Global History” has
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
48
been naturally or automatically accepted and put into use by Thai academicians without much critical
questioning on the difference from “World History” which had been used for several decades earlier.
In conclusion, the paper attempts to describe the present situation of the awareness and understanding of
Thai scholars in the relevance and contribution of the study of “World/Global History” to both the fields of
history and general education in Thai higher education, in particular, and as a part of the development of
global learning, in general.
THINKING HISTORY GLOBALLY
Diego Holstein (University of Pittsburgh), [email protected]
THINKING HISTORY GLOBALLY offers a broad map of the historiography that transcends national, regional, and linguistic boundaries. It defines and exemplifies twelve branches of history (comparative history, relational histories, new international history, transnational history, oceanic histories, civilizational
analysis, historical sociology, the world system approach, global history, the history of globalization, world
history, and big history) in their conceptual and methodological singularities as well as distinctive professional networks. Conversely, it also emphasizes the overlaps between these twelve branches resulting in
the definition of the four big C’s for THINKING HISTORY GLOBALLY: comparisons, connections, conceptualizations, and contextualizations. All of these conceptual, historiographic, and methodological discussions are embedded in the presentation of a concrete case study: the rise of Perón to power in Argentina
(1946-1955).
2.3 From the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea: Maritime and Port Archaeology and History
Port sites in Southeast Asia, including the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea have moved frequently during the past 2,000 years. During this long span of time, the networks of exchange in this region have
evolved constantly in response to changing political, economic, and technological factors. This panel will
explore the various factors which led to the formation of port networks and routes at specific points in
time, and also investigate the processes of change involved in their formation. The papers in this panel
will examine both information from land (port) sites and shipwrecks to provide multi- faceted discussions
on the complex flow of goods and people through specific ports located in the South and Southeast Asian
regions. Sources of information utilized include history and archaeology.
The panel comprises five participants: two underwater archaeologists, two historians, and an archaeologist. This combination of academic scholars representing two disciplines and with expertise which ranges
from the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) to mainland and island Southeast Asia to Japan not provides a
multidisciplinary examination of the importance of ports and harbors as interaction zones where fluid exchanges of goods and peoples along with ideas and technology were carried out between 500 and 1500
CE, but also of the ships which facilitated the transportation of goods and peoples between the nodal
ports. Through the use of both archaeological and historical evidence, the scholars in this panel will provide a meaningful understanding of complex networks of exchange through the analysis of the artifacts
and material culture at both land and shipwreck sites; these artifacts represent the archaeological and
historical footprints of exchanges between cultures, in both socio-cultural and technological/industrial
senses.
Panel Organizer: Goh Geok Yian (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
49
Chair:Discussant: John Miksic (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
Arab Shipping in Southeast Asia
Michael Flecker
The 9th century Belitung Wreck was discovered some 15 years ago in Indonesian waters. Through an
examination of structural details and the identification of ship’s timbers a Middle-Eastern origin has been
confirmed. Until quite recently this has remained the only documented example of an ancient Arab vessel
found anywhere in the world.
However, in September 2013 there was a new discovery of a dhow-type ship in a swamp west of Bangkok, some 8 km inland from the present shoreline. The stitched hull technique is identical to that of the
Belitung Wreck. It has become known as the Phanom Surin Shipwreck. The site is still under investigation, and unlike the Belitung Wreck, there are relatively few associated artifacts. Nonetheless, a comparison of the two ships will help to put the Belitung finds in context and to fill in gaps in ship design data.
The Belitung Wreck was found several km offshore in 17 m of water. She was fully laden with a cargo of
ceramics from China, together with other trade goods. These included iron and a lime-based compound
that formed solid concretions within the hull remains. As a result, structural details such as keelson fastening and mast-support configuration, could not be observed. The Phanom Surin Wreck is on land and
virtually empty of cargo, which will allow archaeologists to accurately record all construction details.
The Belitung Wreck was most likely on the return voyage from China to the Middle-East when she was
lost. There were Southeast Asian artefacts on-board, implying that ports in the region were visited, and in
all probability Southeast Asian crew were recruited. The Phanom Surin Wreck also contained Southeast
Asian artefacts and from the location confirms that trade was conducted throughout the South China Sea.
It is speculated that she was visiting a Dvaravati port at the time of her loss.
Post-excavation Analysis on the Java Sea Wreck
Jun Kimura (Field Museum of Natural History)
The Java Sea Wreck was first found in the Indonesian waters by local fishermen in the late 1980s. After
the salvage operation led by Pacific Sea Resources, approximately 50 percent of the recovered material
was donated to the Field Museum for further study in 1998. Inventory and database development of more
than 7,500 objects has proceeded by museum staff and volunteers. Archaeometric study of the Java Sea
Wreck artefacts has been recently led by research fellows at the Elemental Analysis Laboratory of the
Museum as well as collaboratively at the other research institutes. Recent provenance study of some
Chinese ceramics carried on board provides a new perspective to the origin of these ceramics. This paper will present outcomes of the post-excavation analysis on shipwreck items excavated 17 years ago.
Cultural Routes and Maritime Landscapes: Connecting the Indian Ocean World
Himanshu Prabha Ray (National Monuments Authority, New Delhi/Ludwig Maximillian University)
Fishermen, sailors and merchants travelled the waters of the Indian Ocean as early as the third millennium BCE, linking the world’s earliest civilizations from Africa to East Asia in a complex web of relation-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
50
ships. The commodities exchanged through these networks included a wide array of objects – aromatics,
medicines, dyes, spices, grain, wood, textiles, gems, stones and ornaments, metals, and plant and animal
products – and were transported through voyages and sold at markets or bazaars along the Indian Ocean
littoral. Many of the commodities involved had multiple meanings and diverse functions. Spices, for example, were not only used as condiments and for preservation of food, but also played a major role in
materia medica and ritual practices.
Additionally, while trade might have underpinned many of these cross-cultural relationships, the Ocean
was also a highway for the exchange of religious cultures and specialized technologies. The expansion of
Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity helped define the boundaries of this Indian Ocean ‘world’,
creating networks of religious travel and pilgrimage. The construction of traditional sailing craft involved
trade and transportation of wood for planking and coconut coir for stitching from different regions of the
Indian Ocean, enabling the transmission and preservation of ancient boat-building technologies. This paper will present an overview of many of these issues that united the societies of the Indian Ocean world
with reference to pre-14th century maritime history.
A Tale of Two Sites and Singapore in the Asian world-system, 1400-1600
Goh Geok Yian (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Temasek (14th-century Singapore) was an important port polity and node in the commercial networks
connecting the Bay of Bengal and South China Sea between the 14th and 16th centuries. The peak of
Temasek’s fluorescence was in the 14th century, a conclusion which is corroborated by archaeological
evidence and a contemporary text, Wang Dayuan’s Dao Yi Zhi Lue. A large proportion of the research
undertaken on Singapore archaeology is in John Miksic’s 2013 publication, Singapore and the Silk Road
of the Sea. This paper adds to ongoing research and discussion on Singapore archaeology and history by
focusing on the recent analysis of archaeological finds from two sites, St. Andrew’s Cathedral (STA) and
Fort Canning Spice Gardens (FTCSG). A critical analysis of the artifacts provides a better understanding
of the complex networks of exchange which linked South and East Asia via Southeast Asia with Singapore as a key trading center. A close examination of the artifacts also gives insight into the material culture of 14th-15th century Singapore, especially on the intricacy of a port polity like Temasek, where spatial distribution of artifacts can provide much needed information on site usage.
2.4 How to Teach/Learn Asian History: new perspectives, approaches, and “active learning” Practices in High Schools in Japan
This panel will discuss a new history education for Asian history in high schools in Japan. Kawashima is a
World History Teacher in Doshisha High School in Kyoto in Japan. Doshisha high school is a member of
Doshisha Educational Foundation, which manages Doshisha University and Doshisha Women’s College
of Liberal Arts. He has belonged Osaka University History‐Education Seminar since 2009 and is now the
Secretary General of the Research Society of Social Studies in High Schools in Kyoto Prefecture. He attended the history education panels in the 1st and 2nd AAWH Congress. Now, Kawashima and Goto are
organizing a history teachers circle in Kyoto to create a new world history sourcebook for high school education. This time, Kawashima and Goto would like to organize a panel to discuss a new history education on Asian History including a new style “active learning” in high schools in Japan, with the participation
of five specialists from Japan, Korea, and Unites States.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
51
Masaki Minagawa will present a new style “active learning” for history education in high school in Japan.
He is leading the reformation of the teaching/leaning method in Japan. Keiichi Kawashima will introduce a
new style of teaching/learning for Ancient and Medieval Southeast Asian History in the theme of Migration
in Asia. His style is based on the newly edited historical document sources for world history. And, he also
focuses on the multiple structural problems in Southeast Asian History Education in high schools in Japan. Hiroshi Sasagawa will discuss the differences of perceptions on the anniversary of the end of the
World WarII (Asia‐Pacific War) among nations such as North Korea, South Korea, China, Russia, Mongolia, Japan, Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Burma. This theme is a very current and important issue to have strong impact on history education.
The chair of this panel is Kristine Dennehy, Professor and Vice Chair Dept. of History, California State
University Fullerton, USA. And the commentator is KIM Minkyu, a Senior Research Fellow, Northeast
Asian History Foundation in Seoul, Korea. They are both specialists for the history education so that rational and effective discussion will be held from a global point of view in connection with reformation of
history education.
Panel Organizers:
KAWASHIMA Keiichi (Doshisha High School), [email protected]
Goto Seiji (Kyoto Municipal Hiyoshigaoka High School), [email protected]
Chair: Kristine Dennehy (California State University Fullerton), [email protected]
Discussant: KIM, Minkyu (Northeast Asian History Foundation), [email protected]
Practice of Active Learning in Japanese History Class at High school
MINAGAWA Masaki (Senshu University high school, Japan), [email protected]‐u‐h.ed.jp
Japanese high school teachers spend much time giving a one‐way lecture to students. Students only
copy what teachers write on the blackboard without thinking. An opportunity for students to ask a question
or have a question is hardly given in class. However, there have been active learning lessons in Japanese high schools recently. That is, such lessons give an opportunity not only for teachers to give a lecture but for students to work together actively or review from various viewpoints.
This report describes about active learning in high school Japanese history class giving an example of a
class about exchange between ancient Japan and Asia.
A New Style of Teaching/Learning for Ancient and Medieval Southeast Asian History in the Theme
of Migration in Asia: Based on the Newly Edited Historical Document Sourcebook
KAWASHIMA Keiichi (Doshisha High School), [email protected]
Why is it that many Japanese high school students know almost nothing about Southeast Asian History
after they graduate from a high school? Why don’t they learn and are not taught well in world history classes, especially as it has been a compulsory subject in the high schools in Japan since 1994. The reason
why is that there are multiple and structural problems in Southeast Asian History Teaching/Learning in
high schools in Japan. The problems include in the textbooks themselves, an old style of teach-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
52
ing/learning, the influence of the entrance examination for university, the history education curriculum, the
teacher training system and so on.
Next, why does this paper focus on an ancient and medieval Southeast Asian History. It is a serious situation that many Japanese students know almost nothing about it. In this globalized 21st century, there is
an urgent need for students to better and deeply not only understand modern Southeast Asian History but
also to learn about an ancient and medieval Southeast Asian History.
This paper will introduce a new style of leaning/teaching that is used to teach world history in my classes
in high school in Japan, and is based on newly edited historical document sourcebook. The new World
History Sourcebooks (Rekishigaku Kenkyukai hen,“Sekaishi Shiryou”[the Historical Science Society of
Japan edited, “World History Sourcebooks <12 volumes〉” Iwanami Shoten, 2007‐2013 ]) were published
in Japan, and have been newly edited and translated by over 500 specialists and historians for including
approximately 3000 historical sources with explanations and comments. In this sourcebook, there are lots
of ancient and medieval Southeast Asian historical sources. I introduced some of them to my world history class to help them again a better and deep understanding of its history and to teach/learn it in a new
“active learning” style. That does not just require memorizing words in a passive way, but thinking historically by answering questions and doing tasks and activities based on the historical sources and pictures,
drawings, and so on.
Finally, this paper will also introduce a high school history teacher’s efforts to create a new comprehensive sourcebook for world history education that is based on recent history research, such as marinetime,
local and global point of views free from euro‐centrism and nationalism. A sourcebook such as this suitable for high school students and teachers has not published in Japan since 1994.
August 15, 1945 ― the Date of the End of World War II
SASAGAWA Hiroshi (Tennoji Senior High School Attached to Osaka Kyoiku University), [email protected]
What’s the date of the end of World WarII(Asia‐Pacific War)? Japanese government notified the Allies
(USA, UK, USSR and China) of the acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration on August 14, 1945. On the
following day (August 15th) the Emperor Hirohito conveyed the surrender of Japan with nation‐wide radio
broadcast (Gyokuon‐hōsō). For USA September 2 has been the official V‐J Day (Victory over Japan Day),
since the official document for the surrender to the Allies was sealed by Japanese government in the formal ceremony on that day.
Under the Occupation of GHQ, September 2 is determined as the date of the end of WWII. However, as
soon as Japan restored the independence in 1952, August 15 became the important date for Japanese.
Now almost all of us Japanese think that it is natural to consider August 15 to be the anniversary of the
end of WWII. Probably Japanese people unconsciously hoped that because August 15 is the traditional
memorial service day (Bon Festival day) and also, such a special day as Gyokuon‐hōsō was broadcasted. However, if the date of the end of the war should be based on the relationships with other countries,
August 14 may be more proper, on which Japan notified the waging‐war countries of the acceptance of
the Potsdam Declaration, or September 2 when Japan signed the instrument about the surrender.
While in most countries the anniversary of the end of WWII is September 2, it differs in some countries. In
South Korea and North Korea, the date is the same as Japan (August 15). In China, Russia and Mongolia
the date is September 3 (in Taiwan, October 25). Japanese army in some districts disarmed, in the Phil-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
53
ippines on September 3, in Singapore and Malaysia on September 12, and in Thailand and Burma on
September 13.
This report refers to the following two points. (1) How and why Japanese changed the date of the end of
WWII from September 2 not to August 14 but to 15? And what high school students think about this
change. (2) Why the date of end of WWII varies with countries? And what students think about the end of
WWII.
2.5 Migration, Trade and Exchange around the Peripheral East Asia
This panel aims at clarifying various aspects of social, political and economic interactions around peripheral regions of the East Asia, and especially paying attentions to them among Japan and other regions.
Thus, we conclude that personal exchanges in the East Asia mutually had affected to political, social and
economic changes in each areas in the East Asia.
In the sixteenth century the development of the Iwami silver mine had exerted a big influence on the East
Asia. However, this panel discloses it closely linked with political situations as the faction struggle of Korea.
Moreover, we clarify the concrete influence affected from minting coins by China in the Northeast Asia.
For example, Ainu people were using Chinese coins for trades with surrounding regions, and since China
had stopped minting coins, the civil war broke out in the sixteenth century Japan, and this war influenced
the Ainu society.
In aspects of the human exchange, we pay attentions to the Amboyna massacre in 1623, and pursue a
social background generating Japanese hired soldiers by comparing interactive relations between Japan
and the Southeast Asia. In addition, we try to bridge a gap between recent studies and the education of
the world history in Japan about this massacre.
Panel Organizer: Takashi KAWATO (Chiba Keizai University), [email protected]
Chair: Csaba OLAH (International Christian University, Tokyo)
Discussant: Csaba OLAH (International Christian University, Tokyo)
The Circulation of Chinese Coins in Hokkaido island and Sakhalin island after 15th century
Kazuyuki NAKAMURA (Hakodate National College of Technology)
Hokkaido island is located in the north of the Honshu island and the south of the Sakhalin island. The
Chinese coins discovered in Hokkaido island were carried from Honshu island. The most part of them
were the coins of Tang(唐) ,Northern Song(北宋) and Ming(明) Dynasty. The ratio of kinds of coins is very
similar to that of coins discovered in the northern Honshu district. The Chinese coins discovered in Sakhalin island were coins of Qing(清) dynasty. Those Chinese coins were carried from the lower Amur basin to the Sakhalin island.
The circulation of Chinese coins in Japan was stopped in Hokkaido island. The aboriginal peoples in the
Sakhalin island accepted the Chinese coins as ornaments, not as the ones which have exchange value.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
54
Changes in the Japanese Currency System due to the Interactions in East Asia from the 15th to
the 17th Century
Takashi KAWATO (Chiba Keizai University), [email protected]
The main topic of this paper is to examine the economic interactions in East Asia from the 15th to the
17th century; by focusing in the 17th century on these interactions’ political and social aspects as they
evolved in a dynamic fashion. We could also state that the economic aspects of these interactions underwent a similar dynamic, if not for the fact that studies relative to currency circulation for this period are
rather scanty. Therefore, this paper will pay attentions to the changes in the circulation of currency within
Japan and in his surrounding regions.
This paper will examine two main topics. The first topic regards a peculiar aspect of the multiple currencies circulating in Japan in the 16th century. The second topic deals with the establishment of a new
monetary system, called “the three currencies’ system,” at the beginning of the 17th century. In essence I
will examine how both topics are related to the economic interactions that Japan established in East Asia.
From the 12th century, Japanese people had used bronze coins imported from China as their only currency, and their circulation was sustained by common market practices, NOT imposed by any authority
but by the market itself. By the 16th century, there was a widespread circulation of “bad coins” (Akusen),
so called for their lower metallic content compared to their face value, and by consequence the currency
market had fallen in a turmoil. According to former studies, the reason for their appearance relates to the
fact that Ming China had very few coins minted from the second half of the 15th century, and the severe
coins’ shortage hit the Japanese market causing the usage of “bad coins.”
In addition, this paper also takes into account several structural changes occurring by then in the Japanese currency market. In this era the Muromachi shogunate had weakened and Japan underwent a severe decentralization of power benefitting local daimyos that arose as new powerful regional lords. Thus,
regional markets that had developed in each daimyo’s territories had their own regional currencies as
well. Those regional currencies were also categorized as “Akusen” (or no value currency) outside of each
daimyo’s controlled territories. Hence, Akusen were not just low-quality coins.
In the second half of the 16th century in Japan, in order to deal with markets’ turmoil given by the shortage in coins’ circulation, gold and silver (and rice) were employed as currency. This situation developed
at first in the market place, without any government control or regulations, just like the previous occurrence. Then in the 17th century, the Tokugawa shogunate established a new currency system called ‘the
three currencies’ system’ (authorizing the circulation of gold, silver and bronze currencies). Consequently
the shogunate minted the Kan’ei coins (so called by the name of their minting year) as their true Japanese currency by 1636 to control the currency market in Japan, while by then the Chinese coins (medieval coins) had flown out of Japan by means of trade to South-east Asia.
The circulation of Japanese Silver in 16th Century East Asia and the Bureaucracy of Korean Dynasty
Nobuyuki ONISHI (Chuo University Suginami High School), [email protected]
The purpose of this presentation is to show the circulation of silver, which had a big economic impact in
16th century East Asia, built a big demand in Korean peninsula, where the usage of silver is strictly restricted, and to show to have a strong relation with dispute of cliques inside the Joseon Dynasty (the dynasty of late 14th – early 20th century in Korean Peninsula), which is apparently unrelated to the situation
outside Korea.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
55
Needless to say, the “asiawide” circulation of Japanese silver in 16th century is so well-known that Europeans left on records. At the time in Korean Peninsula, It was severely restricted the use and exports of
silver for fear of the order that the Ming dynasty told them to tribute silver again. In Korean Peninsula, the
government relaxed restrictions on use and exports of silver after Japanese marshal Toyotomi Hideyoshi
invaded there and Ming military which came there as reinforcements had consumed a large amount of
silver. However, in fact silver was secretly used to buy luxury items from earlier. We can easily find the
fact in “The annals of Joseon Dynasty”, which are official records of the dynasty.
When a mine of good quality was found in Iwami province Japan (present eastern Shimane prefecture),
cupellation, which is one of refining processes of silver, was introduced from Korean Peninsula, even
though it was concealed by Joseon dynasty. After this, production of silver in Iwami Ginzan (silver mine)
grew drastically and as a result of it Japanese Archipelago became attractive place for many maritime
people including pirates, so called “Wukou(倭寇)”. The Japanese silver ran around in East and Southeast
Asia in that way. This is no exception in Korean Peninsula.
In the middle of 16th century, a Japanese monk who claimed that the king of Japan dispatched him
brought no less than 3 ton of silver in order to exchange it for cotton cloth, which was a role of currency in
Korean peninsula at that time. It caused the intense argument that bisects the officials of Joseon government. It was recorded in the annals of Joseon Dynasty, and we can know it in detail. Those who agreed
to receive the silver in the name of “Friendship” were officials born in prestigious families, who they had
been meritorious vassals since the dynasty is established. On the contrary, those who disagreed to do so
was the group of officials from newly risen class, having learned the Confucianism very hard. Both groups
were often conflict, and the former, who were still in the center of government, severely oppressed the
latter.
Thus, the circulation of Japanese silver was up to Korean Peninsula, while it was closely related to the
factional strife in Joseon dynasty.
The Japanese Diaspora of the 17th century and the Southeast Asian World
Shigeyuki YOKOI (Kaijo Junior and Senior High School, Japan)
This presentation will reexamine the Amboyna massacre of 1623 and aim to bridge the gap between current research and education in Japan about this massacre. The social background that produced the diaspora of Japanese mercenaries who were involved in the massacre will be considered in terms of the
relations between 17th century Japanese society and the Southeast Asian world. Furthermore, the following will be emphasized. There was a close connection between the shift of power between the British and
the Dutch in the East Asian sea region and the French, the British and the Dutch going into the North
American continent through the fur trade in the coldest part of the Little Ice Age. In particular, the exchange of the Rhun island (Pulau Run in Bahasa Melayu) and Manhattan Island is very symbolic. The
above subject matter is suitable to be taught in both world history and Japanese history.
2.6 “The Age of Empires” in the Eurasia and the Movements of the People or Goods”
The “empires” such as the Tang Empire, the Umayyad and the Abbasid, the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Kingdom, the Turkic Qaghanate and the Uighur Qaghanate, the Tibet Empire established throughout
Eurasia from the 6th/7th century to the 9th/10th century. It can be said that the international situation was
the result of “Völkerwanderung”. That is to say, “the age of empires” in Eurasia emerged from the movements of various peoples. Such empires had vast territory and reigned over various peoples, moreover,
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
56
they had major influence on international situation. At the same time, the movement of people, merchants
and monks became promoted and international trades both of by land and by sea became active.
In this panel, there are 4 presentations. Nishida Yuko points out nomadic groups coming into the Tang
China gave contribution to the foundation or the expansion of Tang Empire, Inohara Tasuo argues the
role of eunuchs sent around the Tang Empire and foreign state on behalf of the emperor, Kawakami
Mayuko discusses the instances of Buddhist monks’ involvement in diplomatic relationships through their
personal and trans-boundary connections, and Pham Le Huy and Pham Thi Thanh Huyen reveal continuity of the contacts and exchanges with the Islamic World in northern Vietnam during this period through
migration of people from Champa. Through 4 presentations, we discuss the characteristic of “the age of
empires”.
Panel Organizer: ITO Kazuma (Osaka University), [email protected]
Chair: Discussant: YAMAUCHI Shinji (Kobe Women's University), [email protected]
The Expansion of the Tang Empire and Turkic Nomads
NISHIDA Yuko (Peking University), [email protected]
This presentation will discuss the role and the significance of the Turkic nomads in the Tang Empire.
As well known, Li clan who founded Tang Dynasty belonged to Xianbei(鮮卑) Tuoba(拓跋) tribe, therefore
recently the researches on Tang Dynasty often pay attention to the aspect as nomadic state. In fact, it
can be confirmed that the various nomadic groups played the important role in process of the foundation
or expansion of Tang Empire. In particular, the military contribution for Tang Dynasty by Turkic nomads
was greatly significant.
After the foundation of the Tang Dynasty, some Turkic nomads groups migrated to the Tang China in
succession. Moreover, the much of the Turkic nomads come into the Tang China because of the fall of
the Eastern Turk Qaghanate 東突厥 in 630. And then, The Turkic nomads who migrated to the Tang China played the role of the inner circle or palace guard, the commander of the mobile encampments 行軍
and the cavalry armies and so on.
For example, Jibi Heli(契苾何力) was concerned with the policymaking as a member of the inner circle of
the Emperor Taizong(太宗). In addition, he led the mobile encampments to attack Central Asia or Korean
Peninsula, and gave the contribution for the expansion of the territory. Then, the main body of the mobile
encampments were the Turkic nomads. Based on the case of Jibi Heli, this presentation will discuss the
military and political role of Turkic nomads during the Tang Dynasty.
A Study of Eunuchs who Communicated Imperial Edicts at Inner and Outer Court in the Late Tang
Period
INOHARA Tatsuo (Osaka University), [email protected]
China is known that eunuchs often had much political power in history. Especially in the Tang dynasty
after the An Lushan Rebellion (755-763), eunuchs controlled imperial armies and assumed various politi-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
57
cal duties through various posts, which were exclusively for eunuchs. They had been regarded as a symbol of corruption of the government for a long time, but in fact, they entered the politics with the support of
the emperors. So in the beginning of 9th century, the empire improved administrative offices, the hierarchy and career paths of eunuchs.
Basically eunuchs are faithful servant of the emperors, so communicating classified information at inner
and outer court is one of the most significant duties for eunuchs. At inner court, two eunuchs with the title
of Palace Secretary (Shumi Shi 枢 密使) moved among emperor and chancellors. Similarly in outer court,
a large number of eunuchs called Imperial Envoy (Zhongshi 中使) moved around the empire on behalf of
the emperors and communicated imperial edicts include classified information.
This study will focus on eunuchs in outer court, and explore the role of the eunuchs in governance of the
empire from two points of view: their detailed duties and a tendency of the nomination for Imperial Envoys. Historical records described about eunuchs are limited, but recently excavated epitaphs of eunuchs
in Tang dynasty reveal their background and political career. So I will use over 100 these epitaphs widely.
Zhongshi is a generic term means Imperial Envoys, so in epitaph we cannot attest it. But I discovered that
there are two specific titles for eunuchs named Neiyang(内養) and Gongfeng guan(供奉官)instead of
Zhongshi. These eunuchs not only communicated imperial edicts, but also carried out various duties include sending presents and advising to the Military Commanders (Jiedu Shi 節度使), and executing exiles. From my research result of their political career, these two titles had a clearly difference in the hierarchy of the eunuchs in Tang Empire. Gongfeng guan had other higher-ranking titles and more important
duties than Neiyang. That is to say, the former is higher in rank than the latter, and both these two titles
were included in the hierarchy of eunuchs.
From the discussion above, this study reveals a new viewpoint of the relationship between the emperor
and eunuchs. The emperor’s favor is not crucial factor for the promotional track of eunuchs, but the job
evaluation is more important for them. Sending eunuchs around the empire is a sign that the power of the
emperors reached the provincial areas more directly, so it is essential for the emperors to control personal
affairs of eunuchs on the basis of their abilities.
The Role of Buddhist Monks in Diplomacy in Tang China
KAWAKAMI Mayuko (Nara Women’s University), [email protected]
This paper will discuss the instances of Buddhist monks’ involvement in diplomatic relationships through
their personal and trans-boundary connections.
My past research has confirmed the existence of those envoys, from Jin(晋) to Tang(唐) Dynasties, which
emphasized Buddhism in order to gain diplomatic benefits; Chinese dynasties and the surrounding kingdoms formed a unique international network through the religion. As the role of Buddhism in diplomacy
thus expanded, the monks were expected to play increasingly significant roles. In the eighth century, for
instance, kingdoms in Central Asia, threatened doubly by the Tibetan Empire and Muslim forces, sent
their monks to Tang in the hope of involving the Chinese military presence into the scene or constructing
friendly relationships with Tang China.
While some monks played major roles in international negotiations, others also contributed to its developments in more modest ways. The Tang dynasty, given the fact that Buddhism was worshipped in many
regions in Asia, witnessed a number of those monks who traveled across borders to study or pilgrimage.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
58
They got acquainted with the monks, worshippers, kings, royal family, and aristocrats in the kingdoms
they visited, and formed personal relationships with them based on the religion. Some of those monks
retained their connection after they returned home, and even served as the facilitator of diplomacy when
a conflict occurred between his native kingdom and the land where he had studied once.
An exemplary episode comes from Xuanzang (玄奘) who received a messenger from Bodhi Temple (菩提
寺) in India after the renowned monk returned to China; it was when a tension rose between Tang and
India due to the confusion in the latter after Harsha Vardhana died, and also when Tang China was expanding its rule into its western regions. Xuanzang had taken residence in Nalanda Temple during his
stay in India, so that the sudden resumption of interaction between Xuanzang and Indian monks, led by
the other temple, indicates certain purpose in the action of Bodhi Temple. It can be assumed that the Indian temple sent a messenger to the Chinese monk, who had gained the trust of the Tang emperor, in
order to ease the tension between the two regions.
The late ninth century saw another instance of monks’ involvement in diplomacy; Guiyi Circuit (帰義軍) in
Dunhuang, after its independence from the Tibetan Empire, frequently sent monks as part of their envoy
to Tang China. They supposedly helped confirm the western kingdom’s subordination to the Chinese empire by being officially admitted to Tang and having religious and secular interactions.
My paper will discuss the significance of monks’ contribution to ancient Asian diplomacy, focusing on
these Buddhism-based relationships, including those personal ones between teacher and student, peer
students, monks, clergy and laity, as well as more official relations between a protector and temples who
received his or her support.
Contacts with the Islamic World in northern Vietnam from 7th century to 14th century
Pham Le Huy (Vietnam National University), [email protected]
Pham Thi Thanh Huyen (Vietnam National University), [email protected]
Until now, when people think of the influence of Islamic culture on Vietnam, they usually focus on interactions and exchanges in central and southern Vietnam. In this context, this research will do survey on the
contacts and interconnections between the Islamic World and northern Vietnam in the period from 7th
century to 13th century. In order to aim at this target, this paper firstly investigates records in geographic
books written in Arabic, clarifies the role of Jiaozhou (Giao Châu) as a trading port in the commercial network of Arabian merchant ships in period from 7th century to 9th century. In the next step, by analyzing
textual documents and especially, recently- unearthed archaeological findings at Thang Long Imperial
Citadel, the paper points out some traces of trading exchanges between Annam Protectorate (An Nam
Đô hộ phủ) and foreign merchant ships. These commercial activities still continued till the late of 9th century thanks to open commercial policies of the Dinh, Early Le Dynasties (Đinh- Tiền Lê). By analyzing the
foreign exchange and trade curbing policy of the Ly, Tran Dynasties (Lý, Trần) in comparison with the
Song Dynasty, the research figures out reasons of the decline in activities of foreign merchant ships, especially Arabian ships in northern Vietnam between 10th century and 14th century. However, this paper
reveals continuity of the contacts and exchanges with the Islamic World in northern Vietnam during this
period through migration of people from Champa.
2.7 Capitalism and Global Asia: Transnational Imageries of Japanese and Chinese Intellectuals
during the Twentieth Century
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
59
Ideas are always in motion. This panel discusses intellectual history in Japan and China from a transnational perspective, thereby focusing not only on the interaction between Chinese and Japanese intellectuals, but also on the intertwinement of global, regional, and national dynamics. As such, the panel does not
just offer reflections on intellectual history and its transnational logic, but also on the reshaping of a region
in relation to changing global dynamics. Central aspects of all the papers concern the tension between
processes of global capitalist formation, changing visions of “Asia,” and reinterpretations of nationalism.
More specifically, the papers revolve around three defining moments in the twentieth century. Christian
Uhl explores the moment of the Chinese Revolution of 1911 and the role of Japanese intellectuals in this
revolution. 1911 is here understood not as a cornerstone in China’s national history per se, but as a global “constitutional moment” that allowed for the re-envisioning of a capitalist modernity. Viren Murthy’s discussion of Asianism is situated in the context of post-WWII Japan and following the defining moment of
the 1949 revolution, when the Cold War and anti-imperialism led Japanese intellectuals to reinterpret nationalism in relation to anti-imperialism. In the radically different context of the 1980s, following the period
of “reform and opening up” since 1978 and the rise of “East Asia,” Els van Dongen looks at how Chinese
intellectuals, engaging with American constructs and earlier insights from Japan scholars, revised visions
of the region in terms of “Asian” capitalism. Once more, however, this regional vision, linked with the resurgence of global capitalism, also existed in tension with nationalist and socialist appropriations of Confucianism.
Panel Organizer: Els van Dongen (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Chair: Ryoko Nakano (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
Discussant: Satoshi Shirai (Bunka Gakuen University)
The Chinese Revolution and Romantic Responses to Global Capitalism in Early Twentieth Century
Japan: Miyazaki Tōten and Kita Ikki
Christian Uhl (Ghent University), [email protected]
The processes of modernization in China and Japan are so intertwined that they defy academic conventions that study the two separately. Although the Xinhai Revolution is labeled a cornerstone of Chinese
history, as a manifestation of a global process of social, political and economic transformation, it is as
much part of the history of modern Japan. Most scholars have assessed the role that Japan and a number of Japanese played in the history of the 1911 Revolution in China negatively. In particular, Marxist
historians have identified behind the Japanese involvement in the Chinese revolutionary movement only
the evil spirit of Japanese Imperialism and hidden reactionary political agendas. However, the story of
Japanese involvement in the Xinhai Revolution is much more complex. To shed light on this complexity, I
focus on two Japanese intellectuals and political activists – Miyazaki Tōten (1871-1922) and Kita Ikki
(1883-1937) – and the ideas and motivations that fueled their engagement with the revolution in China. I
will argue that the prevailing assessments of such engagement are basically products of rather biased
definitions of “revolution” and “reaction.” I show that their involvement in the 1911 Revolution was, in fact,
inseparably bound with hopes for radical social change in Japan and the world. Finally, I will argue that it
is Marx himself who provides us with the most effective theoretical means to achieve a more sophisticated critique of these hopes and ideas as being likewise expressions of an essentially romantic discomfort
in a world under the sway of globalizing capitalism.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
60
Asianism and the Problem of Third World Nationalism: Ishimoda Shō’s History and the Discovery
of Nationality
Viren Murthy (University of Wisconsin-Madison), [email protected]
In postwar Japan, the topic of Asianism was filled with controversy. On the one hand, given that panAsianism was the ideology of Japanese imperialism, postwar intellectuals shunned references to Asian
unity. However, with Japan’s defeat in World War II and subsequent Chinese revolution, Japanese intellectuals began to develop a new discourse of Asia based on the unity of non-allied nations. Takeuchi Yoshimi was the most well- known of such intellectuals, but he was also in contact with a group of Marxist
thinkers. One such figure was Ishimoda Shō, a renowned Marxist historian in post-war Japan. His famous
book, History and the Discovery of Nationality, published in the early 1950s, reevaluates nationalism, especially from the perspective of the Third World and Asia. His work separates anti-imperialist nationalism
from imperialist nationalism. We can understand the distinction between these two nationalisms in the
context of the Cold War and the difference between capitalism and socialism. In short, people hoped that
anti- imperialist nationalism, a nationalism of weak nations, could somehow create an alternative to capitalism. What is often unasked in such formulations is the connection between the respective logics of nationalism and capitalism. I pose this question in my analysis as I aim both to situate Ishimoda’s work in his
historical context and interrogate its contemporary relevance in an age when Asianisms have resurfaced
in a different guise and the global inequalities that made plausible the concept of the Third World have
been radically transformed.
Regionalizing Capitalism? Chen Lai and the Discourse on Confucianism and “East Asia” during
the Reform Era
Els van Dongen (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
During the 1980s, following Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms in China and in the context of the rise of
the so-called “Mini-dragons,” the new dynamics between nation, region, and global capitalism were reflected in Chinese discourse. Engaging with American constructs of an “East Asia” that was industrializing
rapidly, Chinese intellectuals of Confucian persuasion, such as the famous “New Confucian” Chen Lai,
engaged with these new discourses on the role of Confucianism in a “capitalist” East Asia. Once more,
Japan played a role in this re-imagining: Japan scholars had first turned to the question of the relation
between Confucianism and capitalism; it was Michio Morishima who coined the term “Confucian capitalism” in the late 1970s. Turning Weber on its head, Chinese intellectuals built on existing revisions of the
modernization paradigm to discuss the relation between Confucianism and capitalism. Although scholars
such as Chen Lai acknowledged the positive relation between the two, and hence were criticized by
Marxist scholars for blatantly embracing a global capitalist order, their position was more complex. They
also argued that Confucian values formed an antidote against the ills of capitalist modernity, thereby underscoring the importance of community as emphasized in the socialist tradition. Here too, we see a tension between the emphasis on Asian capitalism and the nationalist and socialist appropriations of Confucianism of official Mainland discourse. I argue that this paradoxical position of Chinese intellectuals in the
debate on Confucianism and capitalism can be traced back to the tension between “value rationality” and
“instrumental rationality” in Max Weber.
2.8 Diaspora communities across Asia
Chair: Mahjoob Zweiri (Qatar University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
61
Suppression of Slave Trade and Establishing the Informal Empire in the Persian Gulf, 1820-1950
Hideaki Suzuki (Nagasaki University), [email protected]
Abolition of slavery and related institutions is a common phenomenon in this globe during the period between the beginning of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. Focusing on this
feature as a globally shared experience, the topic of abolition allows us to step into world/global history.
There are a wide range of existing literatures on abolition; however, many deal with either the Atlantic or
Africa with a few exceptions which explore that of the Indian Ocean. These existing literatures, especially
those on Africa and the Atlantic, tend to put emphasis on the role of humanitarian movement. Also, economic factor has been the point at issue since Eric Williams’ Capitalism and Slavery published in 1944.
However, the debate with case studies from the Atlantic and Africa could not cover the cases from other
regions. Looking carefully particularly at the Indian Ocean cases, we can find out that political motivation
played a significant role. Details on political motivation varies. Not a few cases to protect the state against
colonial invasion (such as the case of the Chakri Thai), others to deal with unequal treaty (such as the
case of Meiji Japan). In addition to these cases, especially in the Persian Gulf, Britain used abolition of
slave trade as a tool to establish her supremacy in this region. This paper focuses on the process of her
establishing superiority in this region along with suppression of slave trade.
Constructing patron client relationship with local chiefdoms, Britain has established a solid foothold in this
geopolitically important region since the second decade of the nineteenth century, and eventually the
Persian Gulf became so called a part of British “informal empire”. In this process, suppression of slave
trade was a frequently used tool. The first half of the presentation spend for clarifying this process of conjunction between the process of establishing foothold and progress of suppression activities in the Persian Gulf.
The other half of the paper examines over 1700 slave testimonies recorded by British officers as well as
British reports on them, and it will argue how Britain who could not interfere internal issues of local chiefdoms including that of slavery tried to unsettle the institution of slavery within the territory of these chiefdoms. These slaves were those who fled from master’s place to British representatives in Sharjah, Doha
etc. in order to request manumission certificate. Many testimonies were produced in the first half of the
twentieth century. As byproduct of this examination would be to clarify high mobility of slaves in the Persian Gulf.
Arabs and Persians: Immigration Patterns and Interactions
Mahjoob Zweiri (Qatar University), [email protected]
The Arabs Persians interactions have been flourishing the Gulf throughout history. These interactions
were based on immigration and trade, which gave the Gulf region its importance as an active cultural and
commercial exchange route.
Immigration in the gulf region can be divided into two main phases; immigration of Arabs to the Iranian
coast, and the return of Arabs to their homeland. Immigration of Arabs in the first phase started in the
med- eighteenth century, in the background of harsh environment of the Arab side, when tribes were
competing on the scarce resources. Protecting their commerce was a huge motivation to immigrate and
settle in the Iranian coats. Flexible politics between the Iranian governments and Arab immigrants was an
incentive along with the shared commitment by both sides. The second phase flipped the coin enforcing
Arabs to turn back home with huge commercial losses as the Iranian government was holding monopoly
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
62
over trade. This was caused by the Pahlavi harsh rule that imposed unjust policies against Arabs in addition of the cultural changes enforced by the government that promoted liberalism. After 1970s, the Arab
state emerged and the Iranian rule became Islamic, these two factors caused tension between both sides
and so impacted the cultural, commercial and political interactions in the region.
This paper discusses the issue of immigration between Arabs and Iranians with special emphasis on the
significance of the Iranian influence in the Gulf during the absence of the pre-Islamic era starting from the
eighteenth century till 1970s. It also examined the motivations of such immigration and the ramifications
of the economic and social life on the nature of the Arab- Persian contemporary history.
Migration of Ideas and Transmission of Text: Islamic Revivalism in the Malay World
Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk (Qatar University), [email protected]
The migration of ideas is one of the most significant features of cultural, religious, intellectual and scientific history. It takes place across time and space in conjunction with the migration of people and sometimes independently. These ideas first appeared in the works of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838–1897),
Muhammad ʿAbduh (1849–1905), and Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865–1935), who appealed for the reform of Muslim communities along with the principles of the revelation and aspirations of modernity. They
were later adopted by Muslim advocates who tried to disseminate them in their local communities in different parts of the Muslim world. The objective of this paper is to examine the channels that transmitted
these revivalist ideas from the Middle East (the centre) to the Malaya World (the periphery) with special
focus on Malay students who studied in the Middle East, the Malays who attended the annual pilgrimage
to Mecca (hajjis) and al-Manar Magazine. The impact of these reformist ideas on the traditional Muslim
societies in the Malaya world will receive special attention, while the resistance which they encountered at
the grass-root level of the society will be investigated. The intellectual networks emerged from this interaction between the centre and the periphery will be thorough discussed in terms of exchange of ideas
and circulation of relevant texts.
3.1 Too Foreign to Fit In? Global Migration, Racism, Xenophobia, and Diversity
This panel provides an interdisciplinary forum to discuss how the influx of plants and animals as well as
migrants from other countries into the Americas have been perceived and treated by their host societies.
It particularly focuses on the historical and contemporary experiences of people of Asian descent in the
United States and within a transnational context.
Influenced by the civilization and racist discourses embedded in specific historical and sociocultural contexts, new American arrivals are often subjected to various forms of prejudice, discrimination, or injustice.
Xenophobic attitudes are sometimes even thought to be responsible for controversies over the introduction of new foreign species. On the other hand, with the changing demographic compositions in American
cities resulting from huge increases in foreign-born populations, especially in the aftermath of the 1965
Immigration and Nationality Act, other recent migrants feel comfortable advocating for and actively utilizing multicultural resources, including what they brought from their home countries, in their adaptation processes. In addition, some argue that the current lexicon of invasion ecology—the study of the impact of
introduced species on host ecosystems—should be reconsidered to create an inclusive platform to protect ecosystems.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
63
Concerned with issues of biological and cultural diversity, this panel seeks to scrutinize how global migration has shaped and reshaped the construction of race, ethnicity, and urban community space in the
United States.
Panel Organizer: Jin Suk Bae (Korea University), [email protected]
Chair: Jin Suk Bae (Korea University), [email protected]
Discussant: -
“Insanity Is the Price of Civilization”: Civilization Discourses and Insanity Debates for Asian Immigrants in the United States
Ji-Hye Shin (Yonsei University), [email protected]
Examining debates on insanity (encompassing a wide range of mental troubles) and immigration in the
late nineteenth and early twentieth-century United States, this paper engages the discourse of civilization
to discuss the ways in which insanity among Asian immigrants, in particular Chinese and Japanese, was
understood and various racial groups in America were defined and stratified. During the period, insanity
was regarded as a disease of civilization, which had been increasing due to struggles of modern life.
While Americans witnessed insanity among the “colored” and Asians, they argued that these groups had
lower rates of insanity than white Americans and European immigrants because they belonged to lower
positions on the civilization scale. The differences in civilization explained why non- white immigrants
were seemingly protected from the debilitating impact of American society and had fewer cases of insanity. Though not explicitly racialist or even racist, the civilization discourse ordered the international world
and drew a line between white European from Asian immigrants. It also informed the American view of
“Oriental psychology” and aided the global exchange of medical knowledge. Insanity, it seemed, was curiously absent among the Chinese and Japanese in the United States, and their symptoms and psychoses, if any, were not easy to understand. However, American missionaries, government employees, and
medical professionals stationed in China and Japan, who came to see and learn about insanity in Asia,
added to the medical understanding of insanity and offered a knowledge base to American psychiatrists
who would examine the Asian insane at mental hospitals or immigration stations. This exchange, or migration, of knowledge became possible because immigration experiences of Chinese and Japanese in
America were rarely taken into account; their inherent and uncivilized nature was believed to remain unchanged regardless of their transoceanic movement. Thus, what these Americans observed in Asia could
be applied to Chinese and Japanese immigrants in the United States. In addition, American psychiatrists
were in close communication with those stationed in Asian countries, many of whom took a keen interest
in insanity as they were aware of the alleged increase in mental problems in America and often puzzled
by the seeming invisibility of insanity outside the western world. These missionaries and medical experts
played an important role in educating Americans of the mental condition and psychology of Asian immigrants and revealed the enduring influence of the civilization discourse.
The relative lack of mental troubles for Chinese and Japanese was not considered an asset; the insanity
debates confirmed the non-white, non-American status of Asian immigrants, rendering them forever foreign. Their distance from western civilization explained why they allegedly suffered less from mental disturbances and how they could resist the typically unsettling effects of mobility and migration. African
Americans and Native Americans were viewed through the similar discourses of civilization and mobility,
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
64
but despite segregation and discrimination, they were not, of course, subject to deportation, perhaps the
gravest threat to immigrants.
Invasion, Immigration, and....Injustice?
Wei Ying Wong (Philadelphia Zoological Society), [email protected]
Invasion ecology – the study of the impact of introduced species on host ecosystems – has been a growing field for more than three decades. Invasive species is widely considered by biologists, ecologists, and
conservationists as one of the greatest threats to biological diversity after direct habitat destruction. Yet,
not everyone is convinced. Many skeptics point to the clear historical evidence that wherever and whenever people moved, plants and animals have always moved with them, and “invasive species” is merely
more hype from radical environmentalists committed to pre‐lapsarian past. Others go even further and
argue that the field is nothing more than xenophobic “pseudoscience” perpetuated by anti‐globalization
purists. Who is right? What is true?
This interdisciplinary paper examines the scientific rationale for the heightened concern, the socio‐cultural
complexities of why the field has had limited traction among the lay public, and the baggage inherent in
the lexicon of invasion ecology that threatens the implementation of socially just management policies
that protect vulnerable ecosystems in a globalizing world.
While movement of plants and animals is not a new phenomenon, and the history of humanity is indeed
replete with examples of introductions – intentional and unintentional – rapid advancements in technological capabilities and exponential growth in migration rates have ensured that this latest slew of species
movement is different from those that have come before. The number, frequency, and speed of movement are nothing we have ever seen. Species can now easily transcend physical barriers (mountains,
oceans, deserts, and more) in a matter of days if not hours – and they do it, frequently. The magnitude of
the issue puts phenomenal stress on the host ecosystem, and many native species are unable to adapt
quickly enough to survive the onslaught of predation and competition.
With such significant ecological impact, why does the issue face so many obstacles in gaining support
among the public? Many scientists and conservationists firmly believe that it can be attributed to a lack of
knowledge among the “general public”, and to this end continually seek to educate the public. However,
in field research conducted in San Francisco, California and Middle Quarters, Jamaica, this knowledge
deficit model is roundly debunked. Many interview participants are not only well‐versed on the topic, they
are sometimes an important source of biological information.
What is clear, however, is that issues of xenophobia, varying gestalt, and perception of power and privilege permeate the discourse on invasion ecology and hinder effective dialogue among the stakeholders.
In an ever globalizing world, the current lexicon of invasion ecology distracts from the science, compromises conservation efforts, and unintentionally participates in the construction of environmental injustice.
How can we reconcile these seemingly opposing factions to create an inclusive, socially just platform to
protect ecosystems and maintain biological diversity?
Migration, Language, and Multiethnic New York: The Experiences of Korean Secondary Migrants
from Latin America
Jin Suk Bae (Korea University), [email protected]
New York is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse cities in the world, geographically and symbolically containing distinct ethnic communities. This is partly attributable to the simultaneous increase in
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
65
Asian and Latino immigrant populations, especially since the introduction of the 1965 Immigration and
Nationality Act. For instance, the 2010 U.S. Census indicated that around 235,000 Koreans reside in the
New York metropolitan area, which was home to only about 400 Koreans in 1960. The growth in size of
the Korean American community and its subsequent economic and institutional expansion has created a
new dynamic and increased heterogeneity among Korean Americans. Yet less known is that among the
Korean immigrants in New York are secondary migrants (i.e., re-migrants) originating from various places
in Latin America. These individuals often arrived in the U.S. with more diverse cultural and linguistic
backgrounds than those who came directly from Korea.
When Korean re-migrants converse in Spanish or Portuguese in public, they often receive curious or surprised reactions from others. “Looking Asian” confuses people and is assumed to preclude the ability to
speak Latin American languages. That is, Asian and Latino are two distinctively disparate “racialized” categories in U.S. society. Speaking Spanish is one of the powerful signifiers of a pan-Latino identity that is
usually presumed to be exclusive of any Asianness. This alleged mismatch between race and language
sometimes leads Korean re- migrants to choose not to speak Spanish at all.
Given the changing demographic compositions and interracial relations in New York, however, it is significant to examine how some groups of Korean New Yorkers, equipped with knowledge of Latin American
culture and languages, interact with the growing Latino population. Based on the extensive interview data
from 102 people of Korean descent from Latin America, this paper contextualizes Korean–Latino interracial relations within the diverse economic environment of the city. It examines how the linguistic abilities or
inabilities of Korean immigrants from Latin America have influenced their resettlement experiences in the
New York area. This paper concentrates on their incorporation into local labor markets and intra-ethnic
and interracial relations vis-à-vis both the Korean and Latino communities at large.
3.2 Y. T. Li: A Cosmopolitan Engineer’s Encompassing Vision of World History
This panel explores the development of world‐historical thinking through cosmopolitan experience in the
contemporary world. It examines the life, the thinking, and the world‐historical interpretation of a leading
aeronautical engineer, especially through analysis of his autobiography, which was published in both Chinese and English. Dr. Y.T. Li (1914 – 2011), who was born in Beijing and became director of the MIT Innovation Center, became interested in world history in later years.
Dr. Li’s biography is interesting in itself. He received his degree in engineering from the National Central
University (Nanjing) and received his PhD from MIT, and led an active life in innovative engineering that
took him to many parts of the world. In the 1970s and 1980s he participated in the dialogue between Beijing and Taipei in the 1970s and 1980s. Following his retirement he became interested in the Needham
paradox—the question of why China was slow to industrialize—and from that basis he developed a
broader interest in world history.
The three papers address different aspects of the life and work of Dr. Li. Yinghong Cheng explores the
question of whether a “layman” historian could add significantly to the understanding of world history
though his analysis of the Chinese experience. Patrick Manning investigates Dr. Li’s efforts to seek funding for studying world history, inquiring into the way his engineering skills and cosmopolitan experience
encountered the persistent limits restraining investment in world‐historical studies. Bin Yang focuses especially on the autobiography of Dr. Li, tracing his life through the early days of the Republic, war with
Japan, the postwar division of his family, his accomplishments in the expanding world of engineering, and
concentrating his last years on evaluating Chinese and global society.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
66
Copies of Dr. Li’s autobiography, in both Chinese and English, will be available for inspection by those in
attention at the session.
Panel organizer: Patrick Manning (University of Pittsburgh), [email protected]
Chair: Ahmed Abushouk (University of Qatar), [email protected]
Discussant: Prasenjit Duara (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
Transnational Life Experience and Historical Perceptions: Dr. Y.T. Li as an engineer, inventor,
business CEO and world historian
Yinghong Cheng (Delaware State University), [email protected]
Dr. Y.T. Li was born in China early the last century, grown up during the tumultuous years of war and revolution, educated in China and America’s finest universities, and eventually he established himself as a
highly successful engineer/inventor and a business leader in Boston. During his later years of retirement,
however, he spent much of the time mulling over a question “why did China fail to become the first industrial nation?” He journeyed through literature to which he had rarely been exposed before and eventually
ventured to answer the question in his autobiography. To what extent might a “layman” world historian
enlighten “professional” ones? And to what extent could a transnational and scientific/technological life
experience facilitate historical insights? This is the questions I would like to explore for an answer in my
paper.
Dr. Li as Organizer and Promoter: His Campaign for Funding of World‐Historical Research
Patrick Manning (University of Pittsburgh), [email protected]
Dr. Li’s encounter with the “Needham paradox”—the question of why China failed to become the first industrial nation—preoccupied him from the time he visited Joseph Needham’s laboratory in Cambridge.
But as he read more history and participated in the international relations of China and the U.S., he became interested in world‐ historical study more generally. He responded not as a historian, researching
and publishing his results, but as an engineer who at once tinkered with the problem and sought resources for investing in research. He developed and circulated a number of proposals for research in
world history. The author of this presentation, as director of the World History Center at Northeastern University, was able to collaborate with Dr. Li on these proposals. This collaboration also enabled the author
to see the way Dr. Li drew on his experience in engineering and his world travels to design an approach
to funding study of world history, and the description and analysis of his approach to building research in
world history is the focus of this paper.
A Life Near the Global Stage: Y. T. Li and a Developing Global Consciousness
Bin Yang (National University of Pittsburgh), [email protected]
In one side of his life, Y.T. Li was a skilled and successful aeronautical engineer, based at MIT but working in many parts of the world. In another side of his life, he underwent the experiences of youth in Republican China, study abroad, return to China to join the anti‐Japanese war through building airplane engines in Kunming, experiencing the division of his family among PRC, Taiwan, and the United States, and
experiencing later reunions in which his wife became translator of the poetry of Mme. Zhou En‐lai. This
cosmopolitan experience developed a steadily broader global consciousness in Dr. Li. This presentation
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
67
analyzes the text and illustrations of Dr. Li’s autobiography to explore the interplay of personal development and global consciousness in the evolution of his views.
3.3 GIS for Historians: Case Studies in Asian Urban History at the Age of Globalization
This proposed panel aims to provide case studies, which are conducted by employing GIS (Geographic
Information System), and to offer a platform for historians to exchange the ideas regarding the GIS-based
historical research and its future.
GIS is a powerful tool for historians in analyzing spatial features and in obtaining comprehensive pictures.
It seems to be a very powerful tool in the fields not only of economic and social history but also for any
other historical studies including political or cultural history. Recently GIS-based historical studies have
become very popular methodology of the historical studies of the Western world. Yet, it is still very rare for
Asia. Keeping this situation in Asia in mind, now is the time for Asian historians to have an opportunity to
discuss the potentials and problems of GIS-based historical studies.
For this purpose, the four presenters will present GIS-based researches on urban histories in Asia since
the seventeenth century onwards. The studied period is when the globalization emerged. The papers will
focus respectively upon the urbanization in South India (Mizushima), the colonial urban history of Batavia
(Shimada) and of Manila (Lagman), and the business network across Asian cities (Miyata). These papers
will hopefully enable participants to discuss the usefulness and problems of the GIS based analysis in the
session.
Panel Organizer: Tsukasa MIZUSHIMA (The University of Tokyo), [email protected]
Chair: Tsukasa Mizushima (The University of Tokyo), [email protected]
Discussant: -
A GIS-based Study on the Emergence of Small and Medium Scale Towns in Pre-Independent
South India
Tsukasa MIZUSHIMA (University of Tokyo), [email protected]
The ratio of urban population in India crossed 30 percent for the first time in 2011 Census. The tempo of
urbanization in India is, however, much slower than most of Asian countries. India, on the other hand, has
a number of populous towns having millions of population. Mega cities like Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay
(Mumbai), Madras (Chennai) and Delhi are typical cases. Such contrast between the huge mega cities
and the other less developed towns can be explained as the result of exclusive growth of a few colonial
towns at the cost of other indigenous towns during the colonial period. The Gulliver cities existing in India
today are mostly the products of colonial formation.
The proposed paper will focus upon the demographic change and the growth of urban centres in
Chingleput, a district surrounding Madras, during the period mainly between 1770s and 1941. Spatial distribution of urban centres in 2001 in the same area and whole India will be also presented to compare the
feature of post-Independent urbanisation with the pre-Independent period. The reason of the focus upon
this area simply lies in the fact that it has exceptionally good historical sources on population since the
late 18th century. The tool to be utilized throughout is GIS or Geographical Information System, which
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
68
seems to be most convenient tool for a study like the one attempted here. The main sources to be utilized
are village-level local records and decennial Census. Information of village-level population covering more
than 230 years is fairly exceptional and is hardly found in other Asian countries. By picking up Chingleput,
the presenter expects to indicate potentials of historical demography to characterise the salient feature of
urbanization in India and Asia.
The presentation first shows the spatial distribution of villages/towns whose population were above certain level in the respective periods. The location of top-ten percent of towns will be also exhibited and examined. This will be followed by another set of investigation into the population growth rate between respective periods. The spatial features of high-growth towns will be examined. The third will be an analysis
of occupational composition of the top 10 percent towns. This is to clarify the background of urbanisation
related to industry, religion and other factors. A look into the impact of transport system including railway
and road will be also attempted. Lastly the findings will be summarized and some implication for similar
studies in Asia will be presented.
A Spatial Analysis of Ethnicity and Land-use of Batavia, 1619-1930
Ryuto Shimada (University of Tokyo), [email protected]
In 1619 the Dutch East India Company (VOC) fixed Batavia, present-day Jakarta, to be its headquarters
in maritime Asia. Afterwards, this port city took an important role as a center for the global trade as well as
for Dutch colonial rule in Asia until the mid-twentieth century.
Not only European and Asian employees of the VOC lived in Batavia, but also European and Asian free
citizens and even Asian slaves. The population of Batavia increased during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For example, in the 1673 her population was 27,000 and in the early nineteenth century
it reached about 47,000. From the point of view of ethnicity, Europeans and Eurasians had political and
economic power, but they were a minority group in this city. In fact, they occupied only 11 per cent in
1673 and 4 per cent in 1815. Asides from Europeans, there were several ethnic groups in the city, such
as Chinese, Indian Muslims, Arabians, Malays, Javanese and so on.
The missions of the proposed paper, which is based upon the historical analysis of GIS (Geographic Information Systems), are as follows: The first is to examine ethnically divided districts in the urban area. It
is often said that each ethnic group formed its own district. Based on a GIS-based analysis of population
data, I will reexamine ethnic distributions of citizens in the city spatially. The population datawas annually
reported from the High Government of Batavia to the Netherlands. The spatial distribution will be inserted
in the Dutch colonial maps.
The second mission is concerned with the development of suburban areas. The suburban areas were
developed for plantation agriculture to produce sugarcane to export to the European and Asian markets
since the seventeenth century. However, during the nineteenth century, the sugar plantation disappeared
while the industry emerged in the northeast coast of the Island of Java. Meanwhile, the suburban areas of
Batavia were transformed to rice fields to feed the inhabitants in Batavia. This is because the urban area
of Batavia expanded greatly during the nineteenth century and the Dutch colonial authorities introduced
cultivation system to Java in order to increase the exports of colonial agricultural products. In any case,
my investigation will focus on changes in land-use in the suburban areas based on GIS-analysis.
Assessing the Demographic and Spatial Characteristics of Migrant Workers in Selected Districts
of Nineteenth Century Manila using Archival Census Records and Geographic Information Systems
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
69
Marco Stefan B. Lagman (University of the Philippines-Diliman), [email protected]
Cities and urban areas throughout history have long attracted and benefitted from the arrival of migrants.
Accounts of foreign visitors on Manila and its surrounding areas from the nineteenth to the early twentieth
century took note of the said region’s status as an in-migration area, and historians who have done research on Philippine history have likewise noted the arrival of foreign and local migrants in Manila, particularly during the Spanish period.
While Manila’s status during the nineteenth century as a magnet for outsiders cannot be disputed, the
nature of migration may be better understood if it is studied from the scale of migration of the respective
districts. Such district-level analysis of Manila’s migration history is made possible by the availability of
village-based annual census records called the General Padron de Vecindarios kept at the National Archives of the Philippines (NAP). Moreover, a greater level of understanding and representation of such
data can be attained through the adoption of such new research technologies as Geographic Information
Systems (GIS).
Using selected Vecindarios records from several Manila districts such as Sampaloc, San Fenrando de
Dilao, Tondo and Binondo and combining these with GIS methods, this paper seeks to clarify tendencies
in the characteristics of Filipinos migrating to these particular places. It also seeks to find out potential
differences in the attractiveness of these districts by studying the number and type of migrants each attracted. Particular focus would be given in determining differences or similarities among these migrants
with respect to: a) the towns and provinces where they came from, b) their ages, c) gender as well as
their d) listed occupations. Through this research, it is hoped that more social scientists who are interested in Philippine history would be encouraged to not only capitalize on readily available demographic records at the NAP but also to employ technologies, such as GIS, in order to maximize the utilization and
representation of these sources.
A Study of Business Directory published in Hongkong
Toshiyuki Miyata (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), [email protected]
In spite of the World War I in the 1910s and the Great Depression in the late 1920s, “Intra-Asian” trade
continued to develop during the first half of the twentieth century till the World War II. Little attention,
however, has been given to the development of business from the view point of the companies engaged
in “Intra-Asian” trade. Certainly it is not easy to investigate the whole activities of the companies in this
large business arena including South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, but, by using the classified
business lists of the companies recorded in the Hongkong directory, it is possible to analyze some aspects of the location and the business activities of the companies in “Intra-Asian” Trade. Here the focus is
given upon those in “The Far East”. As a part of “Intra-Asian” trading area, “The Far East” seemed to
function as a distinctive regional trading space in which business people conducted their business by
strengthening networks.
This study studies the lists of the companies classified in “The Far East” compiled in the Directory &
Chronicles for China, Japan etc. published in Hongkong. For example, the classified list of 1941 records
10,676 companies in 97 port cities including Shanghai, Manila, Hongkong, Kobe and the others, and then
categorizes them into 82 industrial classifications. As the classified business lists are available from 1929
to 1941, the study will mainly focus upon those in the 1930s from the viewpoints of the change of location
of the companies in the main ports, the change of the industrial classification, and the change of the companies’ branch networks.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
70
3.4 Teaching Asian History to Students and Teachers within New Frameworks of Subjects and
Curriculums
This panel will deal with how to teach Asian history in an appropriate way within history education as a
whole, focusing on three cases, namely California State in the United States, South Korea, and Japan.
Such a topic is relevant to some common issues of the era of globalization and multiculturalism, the reorganization of conventional Euro-centric framework of “World History”, and the historical reconciliation
among national histories, for instance. The three paper presenters of this panel have already had a panel
together at the 2nd congress of AAWH regarding the frameworks of world and national history educations. This time we would discuss how to realize better understandings of Asian history at high schools
and universities, based on the results of the last panel and some new ideas and experiments after that.
For this purpose, specific issues will be raised as textbooks, teacher trainings, entrance examinations,
connectivity between high school and university curriculums, and cross-disciplinary lessons. Our discussion will also pay attention to recent trends concerning new efforts in East Asian countries to set up new
high school subjects into which world/regional and national histories are integrated, such as the initial effects of the new subject “East Asian History” in South Korea and the public discussion on the proposed
new subject “Basic History” in Japan. The chairperson (an authority of history education in Europe) and
the commentator (a leader of world history education in China) will stimulate a multifaceted discussion of
the issues.
Panel Organizer: MOMOKI Shiro (Osaka University), [email protected]
Chair: SATO Masayuki (University of Yamanashi)
Discussant: YANG Biao (East China Normal University)
Aligning Asian History with California State Standards and the Common Core
Kristine Dennehy (California State University Fullerton), [email protected]
This paper will introduce a series of workshops that I have conducted in Southern California for middle
school and high school teachers, as a way to incorporate lessons about Japanese, Korean and Asian
history more generally into their curriculum. Over the past several years, the workshops and lessons have
been aligned with the California Department of Education Curriculum Framework and more specifically,
the California History-Social Science Content Standards. For instance, the standards for Grade Ten
World History, Culture and Geography: The Modern World, include an examination and analysis of the
following events and issues: the effects of the Industrial Revolution, patterns of global change in the era
of New Imperialism, the causes and effects of World War I and II, international development in the postWWII world, and contemporary nation-building and global integration. More recently, California’s classrooms have been affected by the introduction of the Common Core Curriculum which prioritizes the development of critical thinking skills over the mastery of specific facts and issues like the ones listed above.
While the Common Core has the biggest impact on the subject areas of Mathematics and Language Arts,
the effects reverberate on History-Social Science teaching as well.
The majority of teachers who attend the workshops I will discuss in this paper are in the field of HistorySocial Science (mostly world history and geography) but some of the participants come from areas like
Language Arts. In some cases, teachers in the same school but from different subject areas who work
together on cross-disciplinary lesson planning attend these workshops together so they can develop their
curriculum planning to include Asia in a collaborative manner. For instance, in a workshop on premodern
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
71
Japanese history, when we discuss the historical significance of the Tale of Genji, Language Arts teachers will then be able to elaborate on the Heian era context of this novel when they introduce sections of
this classic text of world literature.
The workshops are structured in such a way that teachers are first given background reading (both primary and secondary sources) on a particular topic (e.g. The Meiji Restoration), followed by a lecture on that
topic, and then finally a small group assignment that they could readily conduct with their own students
back in their classroom. This is often accompanied by a collaborative activity such a coming up with a
group poster with illustrations that symbolize the dramatic changes of the early Meiji era, such as the
construction of railway lines and other aspects of Japan’s rapid industrialization. This paper will introduce
the themes and issues that arise in these workshops as teachers strive to incorporate Asian history into
the California State Standards and the newly emerging Common Core Standards in the United States.
Retrospect and Prospect of “East Asian History” in South Korean High Schools
KIM Minkyu (Northeast Asian History Foundation), [email protected]
The “East Asian History” course began to be offered in South Korean high schools in 2012 as a new elective history course separate from “Korean History” and “World History.” In 2014, there now are three textbooks for the course. The upcoming Fall (2014) National College Scholastic Aptitude Test will include
“East Asian History” as a subject for the first time.
The establishment of the “East Asian History” course stems from the discrepancies among Korea, China,
and Japan regarding their shared history from ancient times to the modern period, the authenticity of historical facts, and interpretations. The discrepancies have grown into diplomatic disputes, which have become so exacerbated that they are often referred to as the “history war.” The “East Asian History” course
was created with the desire to overcome this serious situation through peaceful means. At the same time,
however, the curriculum was not limited to the histories of Korea, China and Japan. It also tried to incorporate such countries as Mongol and Vietnam in order to foster broader regional perspectives.
This paper offers an account of the establishment and the practice of the “East Asian History” course in
South Korea. I will clarify difficulties and concerns of the teachers and of the students who chose the
course. I will also identify strengths and limitations of the present textbooks. In this way, I will offer suggestions for how to overcome the current limitations on history education and produce more “desirable”
“East Asian History” textbooks.
How to teach world history in japan, in which Asia is well positioned and Japan is fully incorporated
MOMOKI Shiro (Osaka University), [email protected]
My paper aims at introducing recent public discussion in Japan about history education and experiments
undertaken by Osaka University. The first part will outline general problems such as high school curriculums, university entrance examinations, and teachers training. The contradiction between high school
curriculums and university entrance examinations, combined with the latter’s conventionalism which only
require memorizing of names and dates (usually with full of Euro-centric bias), made more and more students became disgusted with high school history, especially with World History in which they have to
memorize too many things in unorganized ways. Apparently, this phenomenon is one of the backgrounds
of the recent expansion of the ultra-nationalistic sentiment and antagonism with neighboring countries,
following which nationalist political leaders have been advocating that Japanese (National) History be the
only compulsory subject. To get over such a deadlock, the Science Council of Japan has been proposing
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
72
a new subject of “Basic History”. It pursues integrated contents of world history and Japanese history with
proper attention to Asian history, and a curriculum paying more attention to active learning methods than
didactic teaching and memorizing by rote. They also made tentative plans to reduce items to be taught in
existing subjects of world history and Japanese history.
The latter part of this paper will introduce the activities of Osaka University History Education Project
(OUHEP), of which I am the project leader since its foundation in 2005. In collaboration with concerned
high school teachers from various prefectures (and universities in recent years), we have organized a
series of seminars and published commentaries for high school teachers focusing on the theoretical and
paradigmatic dimensions in new fields such as modern intra-Asian trade, Central Eurasian and maritime
Asian interactions, gender history, and ecological history. We have made constant efforts to place individual topics in the total framework of world history and to scrap old items so that new topics will not result
in simple “Asia-centrism” and/or cause heavier burden to students. Collaboration with high school teachers have also been reflected in the reorganization of university curriculums, ranging from liberal art courses for students who had not studied history in high school to introductory courses of history (compulsory
for students who want to get a teacher’s license). Not only students who would be high school teachers
but also graduate students who would be professional researchers are recommended to join OUHEP to
grasp the total views of world history and to be familiar with educational matters. As a synthesis of these
activities, we published a new textbook of world history for liberal arts, the entire structure of which centered on East Asia, though the significance of modern western civilization was clearly explained. General
overviews of the world, regions and periods are shown with least names and dates and questions based
on the overviews (which do not always have a single answer) are often raised. This textbook is also intended to provide a new model of high school education.
3.5 Migrants in the Japanese empire: from early Meiji to postwar
The formation, expansion and eventual break-up of the Japanese colonial empire have generated considerable historical research, though until recently the individual actors and their migration experiences
have rarely been treated. Zooming in on individual lives at different phases of the empire, the panel revisits the images of migrants in the Japanese empire that typically begin with early-Meiji students to the
West, followed by colonial settlers whose emigration ended with arduous repatriation and hardships in
postwar society. Yamamoto claims that most Japanese travellers in the late nineteenth-century sought
economic gains in East Asia instead of Western education, and Japan’s passport system restricted, rather than promoted, their movement. Ivings’s paper takes a close look at forced labourers in Karafuto,
which included Koreans, and how the network of recruitment that spread over the empire led to the workers’ divergent experiences. Nishizaki and Bull both focus on the Japanese repatriates after the WWII and
question the conventional narratives’ emphasis on their victimhood. Bull’s research investigates the allied
forces’ policy towards Japanese repatriates in the immediate postwar period and discusses how the hitherto understudied G3 section of SCAP pushed the concept of Japanese repatriates as those who had
‘home’ in Japan and contributed to the popular representation of repatriates. Nishizaki examines their
postwar occupational transitions and their important roles in the country’s rapid economic recovery. Collectively the panel introduces alternative narratives of migration throughout the Japanese empire that underscore the agency of other groups than the state, ranging from family businesses to conglomerates to
the allied forces, that sometimes served the empire but often pursued their own goals.
Panel Organizer: Takahiro Yamamoto (LSE), [email protected]
Chair: Takahiro Yamamoto (LSE), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
73
Discussant: -
Japanese overseas travellers and the development of the passport system, 1866-1878
Takahiro Yamamoto (LSE), [email protected]
Within the theme of the Japanese empire that has recently gathered much attention from historians of
modern Japan, colonial settlers to continental East Asia and their postwar repatriation in particular have
received close investigation. This large-scale migration of the Japanese in the twentieth century, both to
and from Japan, discussed by other panelists, makes a stark contrast to the preceding three centuries,
when the political authority severely restricted cross-border mobility of the population. This paper sheds
light on the very beginning of the outflow of the Japanese emigrants by looking at the turning point in the
late nineteenth-century, when the Tokugawa shogunate’s foundational policy of the total ban on overseas
travel was overturned. The travel restriction came to an end in 1866 when the shogunate signed with
Britain the Tariff Convention, admitting the Japanese’ overseas travel, and more or less simultaneously
introduced the passport system. The majority of the historiography has attributed the experience of the
late nineteenth-century Japanese travellers to elite students who went to Europe or the United States and
contributed to modernisation reforms upon their return. It then typically discusses emigrants to Hawaii and
the western coast of North America so as to trace the origins of racial tensions and anti-Japanese immigration movement. The records relating to the administration of the passport system provides a way to
look at other aspects of overseas travel. This paper finds that the majority of earliest travellers were not
students, nor did they go to Hawaii or the United States as is commonly understood. The findings of the
paper show that, in the first two decades of the Japanese passport travel, contract workers and merchants who went back and forth between Japan and treaty ports in China, Korea, and Russian far east
comprised the majority and therefore should be put in the centre of the narrative of Japan’s overseas
travel around this time. They resemble the ‘brokers of empire’ (Jun Uchida) rather than those who
crossed the Pacific. As a harbinger to the later wave of Japanese migration to and repatriation from East
Asia, these earliest passport travellers merit close scrutiny, as they present recurring themes for the century that followed.
One such theme is the government’s preoccupation with the external image that these sojourners might
present to the eyes of foreigners, especially ‘civilised’ nations. The Meiji government, inheriting the halfbaked border control scheme from the Tokugawa regime, feared the risk of an uncontrolled draining of
indentured labour and thus damaging the country’s reputation as well as finance. It thus employed the
passport system to prevent unwanted emigration, requiring applicants to nominate a financial guarantor
or to go through interviews before travelling overseas. The ‘opening’ of the country therefore bears a different kind of significance when placed in the context of the migration of these Japanese. It helps to critique the conventional discourse on the ‘opening’ of Japan as a historical construct and to shed light on
the conditions under which the Japanese colonial empire expanded.
Labor Recruitment & Practices in Japan’s Far North: the Takobeya of Colonial Karafuto (Southern
Sakhalin)
Steven Ivings (University of Heidelberg), [email protected]
Karafuto (Southern Sakhalin) was acquired by Japan in the treaty of Portsmouth in 1905 following the
Russo-Japanese war becoming Japan’s second formal colony and the most sparsely populated territory
in the Japanese empire. The colony of Karafuto was larger than Taiwan and at peak had a population
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
74
little over 400,000. The peripheral location and small population did not render the colony of Karafuto an
empty northern wasteland, as the colony boasted considerable deposits of natural resources which were
of significant value to the Japanese economy such as marine products, coal, oil, and timber. This combination of richness and remoteness meant that most types of enterprise in Karafuto suffered from an
overwhelming labor shortage. This paper seeks to examine the various responses of enterprises operating in Karafuto to this unfavorable situation, examining the recruitment, management and maintenance of
labor in Karafuto’s forestry and construction industries.
One such response to the challenge of recruiting and maintaining a labour force at worksites in Karafuto
was the infamous takobeya. This was an extreme kind of hanba (worker barracks) which had been surprisingly common during the colonization of Hokkaido, in which workers were tied to a hanba by wages
paid in advance and other hidden charges. These fees rendered it difficult for laborers to escape their
bondage whilst the threat of violence intensified the risk of escape. The existence of coercive hanba
(takobeya) in both Hokkaido and Karafuto all the way up to and including WWII sheds light on some of
the features of the dual economy of the Japanese empire. This paper traces labor recruitment networks
which connected colonies such as Karafuto with labour markets in virtually all of Japan’s major cities as
well as Korea. Making use of contemporary social research, colonial newspaper reports, oral testimony
and other sources this paper finds that recruits from further afield were more likely to be involved in incidents of abuse than those coming from regular recruiting grounds in Tohoku which was in close proximity
to Karafuto. This suggestion runs contrary to prevailing wisdom that views migratory laborers from rural
Tohoku as disadvantaged in migratory labour markets compared to their counterparts from the major urban centres. Instead local connections, strength in numbers and the mutual dependence of Tohoku workers and Karafuto recruiters for work/labor served to reduce levels of conflict between the two parties.
The imaginary “repatriate” and the Allied Occupation of Japan
Jonathan Bull (Hokkaido University), [email protected]
The collapse of the Japanese Empire in 1945 led to the migration of approximately 7 million Japanese, as
well as about 1.5 million Koreans, Taiwanese and Chinese. Japanese arriving from the former colonies
and occupied territories were categorised as hikiagesha (repatriates). Processed through repatriation
centres, the Japanese government then tried to reintegrate them into society. Four years after the end of
the Asia-Pacific War, repatriation was deemed complete and over 95% of Japanese overseas had been
transferred back to Japan.
Compared to other large-scale forced migrations occurring after the Second World War, this movement of
people has received relatively little academic attention. In the case of Europe after 1945 there has been
much interest in how Allied policies affected the movement and reintegration of German expellees and
Displaced Persons from other countries. Like Germany, repatriation in Japan was conducted under the
auspices of an occupying military. From the end of 1945 until 1952 the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) oversaw Japan’s occupation. Unlike the German experience, SCAP was dominated
by one country’s military – that of the United States. The role of SCAP in the running of repatriation is the
topic of this paper.
Existing research on Japanese repatriates has shown how repatriation became an important issue in
post-war diplomacy as America sought to manoeuvre Japan into a Cold War Alliance against the USSR
(Yokote Shinji). Another theme, pursued by Lori Watt, has been the use of the term “repatriate” in Japanese society to differentiate people who were in the colonies from those who remained in the metropole
(and who therefore could avoid stigmatization as “colonists” and sidestep responsibility for Japanese imperialism). This paper engages with Yokote’s perspective by considering the domestic implications of
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
75
SCAP’s repatriation policy. It furthers Watt’s research by examining how American decisions impacted
upon Japanese policy-makers’ decisions and, in doing so, guided the construction of categories for repatriates.
By analysing the minutes of meetings, internal memos, SCAP reports and newspapers, this paper argues
that SCAP policy towards repatriates had two distinct channels. The first, already well-known, was created through the surveillance work of SCAP’s “Intelligence Arm” known as G2 Section. By suspecting repatriates as potential Communists, G2 intelligence-gathering did much to whip-up fears about “Red Repatriates” which were then spread by the Japanese media in the late-1940s. The second track has received
virtually no attention but was probably more important than the first in developing the post-war image of
the repatriate. Largely the work of G3 Section which organised the logistics of repatriation, its officers
promoted the idea that a repatriate was someone who had a “home” in Japan and a social network that
would provide a job. This imaginary of the repatriate was used to guide Japanese bureaucrats away from
more radical policies such as a scheme providing loans based on assets acquired in the colonies. It also
became a central theme in SCAP’s propaganda message to the Japanese people and shaped popular
representations of repatriates.
3.6 Colonial Governmentality
Chair: Li Yi (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Colonial surveillance and freedom of movement: passport issues of the Japanese in the Dutch
East Indies, 1899-1918
MAKOTO YOSHIDA (Fukuoka Women's University), [email protected]
This paper examines the emerging colonial surveillance with a particular focus on the regulations on entry
and freedom of movement of the Japanese in the Dutch East Indies from 1899 to 1918. As John Torpey
has shown in his book The Invention of the Passport, modern nation state has invented administrative
apparatus to control passport, free movement, and identity of the people. However, there remains untouched issue to be considered; that is, the surveillance in the colony.
Entry and freedom of movement of the Japanese in the Dutch East Indies offers a crucial case for considering the surveillance system constituted in the colony. The rights to entry and freedom of movement
varied in accordance with population groups. European and those who were equalized with them were
entitled to entre and move in the East Indies with few restrictions; on the contrary, those who fell into
population groups such as natives or foreign Orientals (i.e. Chinese), had not been allowed for their free
movement until its restriction was abolished with the enforcement of Reisregeling (Travel regulation) in
1918. In this legal context, the Japanese became equalized as European with the introduction of the socalled ‘Japanese law’ in 1899. Since then, Japanese had been entitled to enter and move freely in the
East Indies. However, problems often occurred concerning their entry and free movement even after the
law came into force.
Major case was a misidentification of Japanese with Chinese on their similar appearance; several Japanese peddlers were often arrested and even held in detention by the local police despite a release-claim
by the Japanese consulate in Batavia. Also, a series of incidents turned to be clear with regard to Chinese attempts to acquire a Japanese passport via Formosa. With the colonization of Formosa in 1895,
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
76
local people, being as the Japanese subject, had been issued a Japanese passport. Family register must
be submitted with a passport application form. Access to family register in Formosa had crucial meaning
to some Chinese in the East Indies. These Chinese regarded the Japanese passport highly since it
opened the gateway to the European legal status from which they would benefit greatly in terms of commercial activities.
Focusing on negotiation process between the Dutch colonial authorities and the Japanese foreign affairs
concerning passport and nationality of the Japanese, the paper also aims to investigate what sort of surveillance measures were taken to avoid misidentification, and to what extent these measures had impact
on regulating colonial surveillance.
Methodology of Deriving the Annual Opium Consumption in the Colony of Singapore and Its Impact to Government Revenue Earnings and Government Portfolio-financial Investment
Ichiro Sugimoto (Soka University), [email protected]
This paper firstly provide methodology of deriving the annual opium consumption expenditure in the Colony of Singapore. Based on this derived time-series data, elaborate its contributions to government revenue earnings and government portfolio financial investment.
Opium consumption in Singapore prior to World War II was not unlawful and data pertaining to household
consumption of opium could be obtained from various official sources. However, after World War II with
household opium consumption not being sanctioned by the government, there was no data available
whatsoever on the household consumption of opium.
The distribution and sale of opium in Singapore prior to World War II had experienced many transitions.
Purchases and sales of opium were entirely operated by Chinese revenue farms since the early nineteenth century. It was not until 1910 that the British colonial authority took over the right for purchasing
and selling opium from Chinese revenue farms. Nevertheless, a majority of retail shops that sold opium to
consumers were operated by licensed private (Chinese) retailers. At the same time, Singapore gradually
increased government-owned retail shops. Between 1910 and 1926, the proportion of government retail
shops increased significantly. Eventually, licensed private retail shops were abolished by 1926 and fully
monopolized by the government.
For the computation of the opium consumption in Singapore, three different procedures were applied
based on the availability of data on opium consumption. For the period 1880-1922, statistical information
on the quantity of opium sold to consumers and its retail price was utilized. Subsequently, due to the deficiencies of information on quantity sold and retail prices, government revenue figures on the sales of opium were utilized to estimate the opium consumption for the period 1923-25. The revenue figures for this
period were estimated using a combination of (i) government receipts from sales of opium to consumers
in retail prices and (ii) government receipts from sales of opium to licenced private retail shops at wholesale prices. The wholesale price was then adjusted to obtain the retail price. For the remaining period between 1926-39 the figures pertaining to government revenue from the sale of opium to household consumers were directly obtained from the Annual Report, Government Monopoly Department, Straits Settlements.
Unlike other British colonial territories which relied on export duties, Singapore as a free port relied heavily on trade for its economic activities. Under these circumstances, the colonial authority could not impose
any export duties as their revenue source. Alternatively, the colonial authority needed to rely on the reve-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
77
nue collection from the sales of opium. More than half of the entire revenue came from this single revenue source during the 1900-20’s. Nevertheless, its reliance on opium sales as a revenue source reduced
gradually over the period. The revenue from opium was paid into the “Opium Revenue Replacement
Fund” for each year and the money invested in securities abroad. More importantly, the British colonial
authority ceased to depend on opium revenue by abolishing the opium sales immediately after the end of
World War II.
The Invisible Negotiator: Portuguese Hands in British Hong Kong, 1842-1941
Login Lok-yin Law (Hong Kong University), [email protected]
Catherine S. Chan (Hong Kong Baptist University), [email protected]
In the first century that Hong Kong came under British rule, the colony underwent endless transformation:
the British had had to deal with a population dominated by non-English speaking subjects. By the second
half of the 19th century, interaction between the two races became inevitable as the British found nonintervention an impossible policy and Chinese elites rose to prominence within the Chinese community.
The involvement of Chinese leaders in colonial politics is witnessed further in the turn of the 20th century
but left out of the common picture is the neglected presence and significant participation of a racial minority- the Portuguese.
Working as invisible hands in the British administration of Hong Kong, the Portuguese (fluent in both Chinese and English), served as intermediaries that bridged the gap between the Chinese and the British.
For one, the Portuguese lived in closer proximity to the Chinese subjects, particularly that they were excluded from some European communities; for another, they gained the trust of the British who continued
to be suspicious of the Chinese elites. This pattern extended to the 20th century; as Chinese elites entered the Legislative Council, Portuguese leaders like J.P. Braga came to be appointed in the Sanitary
Board. By analyzing Portuguese role in British Hong Kong from 1842-1941, this study attempts to highlight the importance of a commonly ignored “partner” of the British in her administration and control of
Hong Kong in hopes of further identifying of Hong Kong as not only a colony ruled by a multi-racial government of transnational input, but also a unique society that sheltered and shaped a community of Portuguese minorities that found a third identity in the colony- never inferior, not dominant yet finding their
own convenient spot under the sun.
3.7 Post-war migration
Chair: Charlotte Setijadi (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
From “the morally degenerated” to “the excellent communist fighters”: the Vietnamese students
and interns in the GDR (1964-1977)
Tao Chen (Tongji University), [email protected]
As the Soviet Union’s super ally in the eastern bloc,The GDR(German Democratic Republic)maintained a
good party and state relationship with the DRV(Democratic Republic of Vietnam) since the middle of the
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
78
1950s.According to the bilateral treaty,the GDR began to receive and help train the Vietnamese students
and interns from the late 1950s,which was considered to be a great assistance to the DRV and its domestic socialist construction. However, with the outbreak of the Sino-Soviet split in the early 1960s, the bilateral relations deteriorated both in party and state cooperation fields. In the shadow of the Sino-Soviet
split, the so-called “Cold War in the communist world”, the Vietnamese students and interns in the GDR
came to be a destabilizing factor to the East German society and the SED(Sozialistische Einheitspartei
Deutschlands)’s rule. Most of these young Vietnamese were deeply influenced by China both mentally
and physically. Ideological political debates in and outside the campus, strict disciplinary measures from
at home and directly from the Vietnam Embassy in Berlin, the Vietnamese “Republikflucht”.The Vietnamese students and interns in the GDR caused enough problems to the SED and its security watchdog: the
Stasi. Notwithstanding, the East German government continued to help train the Vietnamese students
and interns until the end of the Vietnam War.
Why did the Vietnamese students and interns remain in the GDR despite the Sino-Soviet split? To what
extent did the ideological debates among the students influence the East German policy towards the DRV
and the bilateral relations? How did the East German government react to the request of DRV dealing
with these Vietnamese young people in GDR? And at last, in the shadow of the Sino-Soviet split, did and
how the GDR successfully pull the DRV out of China’s influence and accept the cause of the Soviet camp
and East German interests? Drawing from the newly declassified multilateral archival sources, such as
the former East German Archive sources in Berlin and the archival sources from Vietnam and China, this
paper tries to describe the most important cultural cooperation between the DRV and the socialist bloc in
the Cold War period and shed light on the inner mechanism and problems of the social-cultural exchange
in the socialist bloc during the Cold War.
From students-to-work: Sri Lankan student migrants in Singapore
THARUKA PREMATILLAKE THIBBOTUWAWA (National Institute of Education, Singapore), [email protected]
Ivy Maria Lim (National Institute of Education, Singapore), [email protected]
Singapore, well reputed for its high education standards, safety and public order, infrastructure, and the
English speaking environment, is an attractive education hub for many international students across the
globe, including those from Sri Lanka. In addition to the above aspects, Singapore’s close proximity (approximately a 3-3.5 hour flight), visa-on-arrival (until a student visa is processed), and attractive financialaid schemes (e.g. the Tuition Grant) could also be major pull-factors for Sri Lankan students to migrate to
Singapore to pursue higher studies.
Students and parents seem to believe that studying in a reputable university in an English speaking country would be beneficial in finding better jobs later-on. According to Popdiuk and Arthur (2014: 123) “many
international students express the desire to stay in the host country and pursue the possibility of securing
employment and permanent immigration”. Likewise, many Sri Lankan student migrants also seem to
show such desires upon their graduation. Nonetheless, Singapore government’s social policy measures
may have a direct impact on migrant students’ decision making factors and experiences with regards to
their student-to-work transition and settlement in Singapore.
To date, the literature related to international students, have mainly focused on the immediate settlement
experiences of their first-year of study. Despite the significance of international student migrants’ experiences on student-to-work transition and settlement, there is scant research available on this, although
some studies have focused on local students’ experiences. Given that the background of international
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
79
students’—in terms of experiences, decision making factors, policies/visa—are different to that of locals’,
it is important to extend current research to explore student migrants’ transition and post-transition experiences too. Much of the research available on international students’ transition is mainly focused on the
US, Australia or the UK, and hardly on Singapore. To the author’s knowledge, there is no research being
done to date on Sri Lankan students’ transition from student-to-work in Singapore.
Hence, this paper intends to explore international students’ experiences of the aforementioned student-towork transition, using Sri Lankan student migrants as a case study. In so doing, narrative interviews of Sri
Lankan migrants—who are currently working, but initially migrated to Singapore with a student visa to
study full-time—will be used for crucial content analysis and discussion. Their experiences, in terms of
issues/challenges, opportunities, decision- making factors and coping strategies with regards to social
policies will be explored for the above purpose. These findings will be useful for potential Sri Lankan students who wish to pursue their studies and subsequently work in Singapore in future.
In addition, such research would not only benefit policymakers and other stakeholders to understand
gaps and opportunities in current policies and to adapt their laws, but also to better understand what encourages international students to be successful throughout their transition process and how to overcome/ minimize various challenges. It also provides a platform to understand questions related to international student migration and relate them more effectively to the aspirations and expectations of educational institutions and nation-states to shape international education spaces.
The ASEAN - Pacific Alliance: Opportunities and Obstacles
Chaowarit Chaowsangrat (Thammasat University), [email protected]
The year 2014 brought much attention to the Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico), the most recent regional integration initiative in Latin America. Building on the existing free trade agreements between them,
the four members of the Alliance – Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru – have set the goal of advancing
towards the free movement of goods, services, capitals and people, with the objective of creating an ‘area
of deep integration’ to stimulate economic growth and competitiveness.
Since it was formally constituted in June 2012, the Pacific Alliance has come to seen as the most promising and dynamic regional group in Latin America. Adopting a free-market approach to regional integration,
it is widely perceived as an alternative to the ‘stagnating’ and ‘increasingly protectionist’ Mercosur bloc. In
this regard, the Pacific Alliance has led to hopes for a new momentum for regional integration and cooperation in Latin America, as well as to concerns about a possible fracture in the region.
The ASEAN, which has long-standing institutionalized links, liberalized trade and good relations with the
members of the Pacific Alliance, has welcomed the Alliance as a promising initiative. The evolution of the
Alliance could have direct or indirect consequences for the ASEAN’s relations with other regional blocs in
Latin America.
Interregional engagement between Asia and Latin America has largely taken on a bilateral approach. To
deepen interregional trade, it may be best for both regions to transcend country- level engagements and
consider connecting on a wider process, which is on a regional front. In this respect, the ASEAN – Pacific
Alliance connection offers an option for linking both regions.
Closer ASEAN-Pacific Alliance sub-interregional cooperation may in fact be an excellent start to stronger
interregional cooperation for the following reasons. First, engagement of the economies within both blocs
is already somewhat underway. The Pacific Alliance comprises Chile and Peru, two Latin American
economies that have already been actively engaged in a number of FTAs with individual ASEAN member
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
80
countries. Further, four ASEAN economies (Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam) are
already linked to three Pacific Alliance economies (Mexico, Chile, and Peru) through the Trans-Pacific
Partnership agreement. Second, from the Latin American perspective, the lack of integration within the
Latin American region is explained by poor connectivity, amongst other factors. Coordination at the subregional level is often considered crucial, as interoperability lies at the very heart of such initiatives, particularly when the region is characterized by marked heterogeneity and growing asymmetries. Subregional cooperation in the form of the Pacific Alliance can therefore be considered a pragmatic solution
for Latin America to increase their trade connectivity and subsequently their trade momentum with Asia
through ASEAN. Third, from the Asian perspective, the leading regional trade agreement in Asia is the
ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). Despite the debate on the centrality of ASEAN, the presence of ASEAN
is clearly established in the context of the alternative economic configurations in Asia, ASEAN+1 (ASEAN
plus China), ASEAN+3 (ASEAN plus China, Japan, and South Korea) and ASEAN+6 (ASEAN+3 plus
Australia, New Zealand, and India).
Chinese in Africa: an analysis of Chinese restaurants’ employers and employees in Lusaka, Zambia
Zhang Zhongwen, [email protected]
While much attention has been focused on the presence of Chinese in Africa, relatively little research has
taken a close look at the small and mediumsized private Chinese enterprises. Through a subgroup analysis of the Chinese restaurants in Lusaka, Zambia, this paper presents a picture which contrasts some
widespread perceptions, such as the employment of extensive Chinese labour force in Chinese enterprises. It will show the fact that the number of Chinese employees in the restaurants is small and will discuss the four obstacles for these restaurants to recruit Chinese staff. Furthermore, combined with the
findings, the paper will discuss three patterns of entry paths of Chinese restaurants’ entrepreneurs into
Zambia and further demonstrate the significant variety in each pattern.
Through a close look at this group of Chinese in Zambia, the research seeks to answer the following
questions:
1) What difficulties do these firms confront in relation to recruiting Chinese workers?
2) How do Chinese entrepreneurs come to Zambia and live there during the initial period? Do they have
the help of a network? If so, how does this network develop?
3.8 Welfare, Diseases and States
Chair: Jiang Lijing (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Migration, refugeedom and child welfare in colonial Hong Kong (1950s-early 1960s)
Rosaria Franco (The University of Nottingham Ningbo), [email protected]
After the end of the Second World War Hong Kong, a city-port under British colonial rule, was the destination of a major migratory movement from the mainland. In the past migration had mostly had economic
causes, while this new movement included people that planned to stay or possibly move on. However,
only part of them was accepted by other countries and Hong Kong, an island, had to keep eventually up
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
81
to one million people and become partly a urban refugee camp. This, in turn, caused the colonial government to coordinate relief and eventually welfare schemes, in large part funded by international donors,
with some input from the local Chinese community.
There is small body of literature on the ‘refugee’ character on this population flow, which included both
Chinese and non-Chinese migrants. The single major work on migrant children is on the initiative of foreign relief organizations in facilitating the intercountry adoption of Chinese children for humanitarian purposes, especially in the United States. However, there remains much to say about the local and international politics behind such development, which ultimately allowed so many children to be sent abroad rather than trying to give them assistance locally. The paper will explores issues of identity, gender, and
race, as well as the power relations between local colonial government, British government, and the local
Chinese community. It will also look at the influence of external factors (the Cold War) and the long-term
meaning of this initiative in relation to the development of colonial (child) welfare system in Hong Kong
and possibly in other colonies (e.g. Singapore).
“Cholera in the late 19th Century’s Manila: Global Contexts and Local Life”
Yoshihiro Chiba (Health Sciences University of Hokkaido), [email protected]
The Philippines experienced two serious cholera epidemics in the 1880s. Spanish colonial government
extensively launched the maritime quarantine and the modernization of local sanitary administration
through those epidemics. This paper discusses the quarantine and the institutionalization of public health
in Manila, dealing with the global contexts. Finally, the modern society for Manila inhabitants is signified,
compared to American colonialism.
In Spanish colonial Philippines, the external trade expanded through the opening of Manila port in 1834.
As a result, the Philippine residents were put at the risk of contagious decease that flew in from abroad. In
addition to Manila, Sulu and Mindanao were also an entrance for inflow of contagious decease. Although
the plundering of Muslims of Sulu had disappeared in Luzon island until the mid-19th century, the Sultanate of Sulu maintained the political independence until 1886 and kept the trading networks with the Bay of
Bengal, Macao, Canton, Singapore and Manila, in which the western traders had an interest. Spain had
not controlled the trading of Sulu that had the possibilities to take in the contagious diseases.
Since the early 19th century, Manila had been remarkably urbanized. The water pollution of Pasig river
also proceeded and its inhabitants had the difficulty to drink it. The damping of garbage and the stagnant
mud made four estuaries of Pasig river shallow. The drainage of Manila had been established since the
latter 19th century on a large scale. At the same time, the odor caused inhabitants a great deal of trouble,
because the filthy water lay stagnant in the drainage. In the center of Manila, the water stored in a pot
called tinaja was retailed. Besides, many inhabitants drank the water taken directly from the river and the
rainwater. In 1878, a water supply work based on an inheritance from Don Francisco Carriedo started.
After the completion of water supply work in 1882, many inhabitants of Manila could take a pipe water
from the Mariquina river.
Sanitary administration gradually changed, arranging the demographics after cholera epidemics. The
medicos municipales were established at districts of Manila, in order to care for the poor, free. Medicos
titulares also were set for the introduction of Spanish medicine and the measures for public health in provinces. Up to the 1890s, some native physicians, educated in the Universidad de Santo Tomas, took the
responsibility of those posts. Some measures on cholera epidemics and sanitary systems were passed to
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
82
American governance, but the discretion of local societies was still large under Spanish control. The local
societies directed by the parish priests concerned about the religious practices. Although the public health
policies on bio-medicine partly launched in the 1890s, the imperial medicine developed in Manila under
American control. The governance by scientific medicine was carried out with racism, in particular, after
1905 when the public health policies became more efficient through school education and improvement of
urban space.
Plague, People and Boundary: 1894 Bubonic Plague in Hong Kong
Law Yuen Han (Hong Kong Baptist University), [email protected]
Throughout the ages, humans have served as a vital tool in spreading diseases from one place to another, sometimes encompassing national boundaries. In controlling epidemics, historical experience has
found limiting human mobilization to be the best measure. The down side of this is the immediate challenges imposed on governments- quarantine policies, possible outcries and the social unrest that may
follow. This paper uses the Hong Kong colonial government’s enforcement of anti-plague measures during the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 to highlight the control over and mobilization of people in
times of widespread epidemic.
Under colonial rule, Hong Kong quickly became an international trading port in the 19th century. Every
day, thousands of travelers and goods entered and exited Hong Kong. In March 1894, the bubonic plague
arrived in Hong Kong through a junk from Canton that carried Chinese people ready to offer sacrifice to
their ancestors during the Ching Ming Festival. On May 8, 1894, the first case was confirmed and immediately, anti-plague measures were enforced where the Chinese population was prohibited from leaving
Hong Kong. This policy became widely unpopular within the local community; in view of their dependence
on traditional Chinese medicine, the Chinese fought to travel back to Canton to visit trusted medical practitioners. But considering international quarantine standards and claiming to be a civilized government,
the colony reiterated limiting the mobilization of Hong Kong people under two main objectives: first, to
protect the people of Hong Kong and second, to defend the reputation of the trading port. Owing to the
under-defined geographic boundary between China and Hong Kong, the mobilization of illegal subjects
quickly emerged as another problem.
Through an examination of archival materials, Colonial Surgeons’ reports and newspaper articles, this
study aims to shed light on the enforcement of anti-plague measures and the conflict between the local
Chinese and the foreign rulers. Moreover, Chinese archival materials will be used to demonstrate the
medical customs of the Chinese community, of which acted as a crucial point of contention between the
two races. In the end, this paper hopes to bring light to the following aspects: first, the relationship between the movement of people and plague; second, the enforcement of Hong Kong anti-plague
measures; third, the contradiction between the government and Chinese and fourth, the policies of
boundary control in Hong Kong during the 19th century.
4.1 Travelling Plants and Transnational Impacts
Chair: Lisa Onaga (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Migration and their Ecological Consequences: The Case of Kerala, India in Historical Perspective
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
83
V P Raghavan (Kannur University), [email protected]
Kerala, the southernmost state in India, has been witnessing massive migration of its population to the
developed nations in the West and to the oil rich countries of the Middle East over the years. We are not
confining the migration process to movements out of the country as large segment of the people were
moving to other places within the country as well for numerous reasons. Migration has also been taking
place within the state from one region to another. Such movements seem to have begun in the state of
Kerala in 1920s and continued till the end of 1960s. The present study is about the movement of people
that occurred in Kerala during the early period of the 20th century and their influences on its rural economy with a changing dimension of ecology and environment
Migration becomes a socio-economic phenomenon of Kerala. The peasant farmers in the central region
of Kerala called Travancore have massively moved to the northern region called Malabar in 1920s and
the exodus continued till 1960s. Migration opens opportunities, but they also pose problems: the economic, cultural, demographic and ecological/environmental. The present study aims at examining the environmental and ecological consequences of peasant migration from Travancore to Malabar on the rural
economy and society of the region of destination in a historical perspective.
As the peasants from Travancore came and settled in the large scale forest areas, it caused to reduce the
area of land under forest. Migration caused to the wide spread transformation of thick forests into agricultural fields, which necessarily changed the climatic situation in the region of Malabar.
The intraregional migration from Travancore to Malabar that favoured the cultivation of planatation crops,
especially rubber, which necessarily extract underground water of the region to make it more water deficient in summer.
The settlers were mainly interested in cultivating plantation crops such as rubber, pepper tea, coffee, ginger, etc. Widespread cultivation of rubber in the humid areas and also the unprecedented expansion of
rubber plantations over the paddy fields and other humid areas, caused to dry up the land and to deplete
the natural water logging systems. The end result is the wide spread drought during summer seasons
which was unknown to the natives in the distant past.
Migration resulted in the large scale deforestation that led to the severe ecological imbalances in the region of Malabar and resultantly soil erosion becomes severe.
The near total deforestation of the region of Malabar resulted in the loss of vegetation cover providing
insulation to the soil surface. It caused to increase the amplitude of fluctuations of the temperature of the
soil and the lower layer of atmosphere and removed soil organic content through speeding up of oxidation.
The migration of peasants of Travancore to Malabar adversely affected the life and livelihood of tribals in
the region. The Adivasis, the indigenous people, who were the real owners of land become the refugees
in their own land: As the migrants grabbed their lands they lost their livelihoods. Adivasis become landless poor. Adivasis were uprooted from their traditional cultures and settlements as their ancestral lands
were alienated from them.
Virginia in India: The 'improvement' of Indian tobacco, 1920-1948
CJ Kuncheria (Jawaharlal Nehru University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
84
From the 1920s onwards, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the Indian government began a series of
attempts to grow Virginia tobacco in India. These independent but interlinked endeavours to introduce
into the subcontinent a tobacco cultivar originating in the United States were only the latest in a chain of
plans to 'improve' Indian tobacco so that it would be attractive to the export market. Multiple objectives
informed these schemes. For BAT, India was yet another region to source raw material for cigarettes, the
tobacco product on the ascend worldwide. For the Indian government, encouraging the cultivation highvalue crops like tobacco was attractive owing to the prospect of higher export revenues, improvement of
the peasantry and agriculture, as well as its role in aiding the imperial ideal of the Empire as a selfsufficient zone. Transplanting a plant into a new region however, was not a simple matter: it required the
transfer of a whole range of technologies of cultivation, processing and pedagogy into India. It also required the deployment of material, literary and social technologies to get the cultivator produce tobacco
that fit the precise needs of the global tobacco industry and the London tobacco market. In growing an
exotic crop for a world market largely controlled by BAR, the cultivator was brought into new forms of
economic relationships. He was also made a consumer of new forms of agricultural inputs such as seeds
and fertilisers, but also of new agricultural practices emerging from research laboratories and from agribusinesses. The farm was also being brought closer to the factory, as the processing of leaf tobacco on
the field was critical to the production of cigarettes in the manufacturing unit.
My paper will look at the ways in which Virginia tobacco was introduced into India and the attendant shifts
in cultivating practices, technologies and economic relations. Through tobacco, I intend to explore questions of technology transfer, of the deployment of agricultural science and the role of humans and institutions in the making of the 'natural' plant. In considering the modes by which Virginia tobacco migrated
from the United States to India, my paper will explore the ways in which an Indian tobacco was discursively produced and was sought to be remade. It integrates the history of Indian tobacco with a global
history of changing tastes, of agricultural technology, and of capitalism.
Traveling Seeds and Transnational Botanies: Divergent Research on the “living Fossil” Metasequoia in China and the United States, 1944-1960
Jiang Lijing (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
How do transnational travels and related sciences of certain plants reveal about shared yet divergent cultural paths of Chinese and American sciences of the mid- twentieth century? For this question, the botanical practices in both countries revolving around Metasequoia glyptostroboides, commonly known as the
dawn redwood tree, offer a productive lens to compare how scientific credits, cultural stakes of native materials, and the relations of botany to national identities functioned.
In 1944, a plant specimen collected by Zheng Wangjun (郑万钧, 1904-1983) in Wan County, Sichuan
Province was identified as M. glyptostroboides, a form previously believed to exist only in fossil forms.
The identifier Hu Xiansu (胡先骕, 1894-1968) was
Harvard-trained and a literati-scientist who insisted that Chinese biology should be established with attention to native plants and histories. After finishing his PhD study in 1925, Hu returned to Nanjing and
trained a number of students working on botany of plants native to China. At the same time, he kept active correspondence with his advisor John G. Jack (1961-1949) and colleagues at Harvard and sent a
number of plant specimens to the Arnold Arboretum. Through these exchange of specimens, Hu’s aims
were to identify new species from China as well as to establish plant collections at local institutions. Elmer
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
85
D. Merrill (1876-1956), a Harvard botanist who kept sending small funds to American-trained Chinese
botanists to subsidize their plant expeditions, shared these aims. After the discovery, Hu started to advertise Metasequoia research and tried to raise the public profile of this “living fossil” plant through establishing the Society for Preservation of Metasequoia and sending a number of seeds to foreign researchers.
Hu’s actions appealed to a rising nationalism during the war as well as increasing emphasis on native
organisms in Chinese botany. After the 1949 communist revolution, however, Hu was persecuted due to
the Lysenkoist take-over of Chinese biology and partially because Hu insisted in sending more seeds to
foreign institutions. The situation was nevertheless improved after he published a poem in 1960 suggesting the Metasequoia trees grown from the seeds sent overseas served as symbols for the superiority and
persistence of Chinese culture and history.
In the United States, the Chinese discovery of Metasequoia and the seeds mailed from Hu set a number
of botanists and later, environmentalists in motion. American botanists debated about the correct naming
of the species as well as its evolutionary status. Berkeley botanist Ralph W. Chaney (1890-1971) traveled
to Gansu Province to inspect the plant and its environs in 1948 during the Civil War. A priority controversy
about who first introduced the tree to the United States eventually broke out between Merrill and Chaney
in the mid-1950s. With the claim that the Metasequoia was the ancestor of the redwood trees that are
popular to Americans, these seeds were widely distributed for experimentation and gardening within the
United States and eventually became important for reestablishing Sino-American diplomacy in the 1970s.
The Transnational Life of Plants in the Age of Decolonization: Dutch-Indonesian Scientific Cooperation and the Flora Malesiana
Andrew Goss (Georgia Regents University), [email protected]
This paper examines the origin and development of the Flora Malesiana, the life work of Kees van Steenis, in the context of post-World War II international science. The Flora Malesiana, a project intended to
create an exhaustive taxonomy of the flora between the Asian and Australian continents, originated while
Van Steenis worked at 's Lands Plantentuin in Buitenzorg, the Netherlands East Indies, in the 1930s, but
it was not until the collapse of the Dutch empire that he found willing collaborators and sponsors. On the
basis of archival records from Van Steenis' papers at the National Archives in The Hague, I examine the
development of this project in the 1940s and early 1950, and analyze the reasons it attracted Dutch colonial, then Indonesian and finally international support. In addition, I argue that this history of the Flora
Malesiana and Van Steenis sheds important light on two important questions about the history of mid20th century science: the transition between imperial and post-colonial science, and the development of
international collaboration as the model organization of expert knowledge and science.
The energy return on investment of the English coal industry in the Modern Age
Yu Ohnishi (Osaka University), [email protected]
It has recently been shown by N.E.R. Crafts and his colleagues that the Industrial Revolution was not a
‘revolution’ but ‘evolution’. According to their research, the economic growth rate during the Industrial
Revolution was much lower than has been assumed. They claim that the increase in productivity mainly
occurred in intermediate goods, for example, steel and textile, while productivity in the coal industry remained low throughout the Industrial Revolution.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
86
Coal was the locomotive of the Industrial Revolution. From the view of ecological economics based on
thermodynamics, coal not only plays a crucial role in economic growth, but is also an important factor in
explaining the Industrial Revolution. Ecological economists downplay the role of technological change,
arguing that increased energy use accounts for most apparent growth in productivity.
From the point of view of thermodynamics, the ‘real’ economy can be regarded as a material processing
system. This system consists of processing stages, starting with the extraction, the conversion of energy
into useful energy, the production of finished goods and services by consuming useful energy, and the
final consumption.
In other words, in order to produce something, useful energy is essential. Economic growth means increased production of goods and services, and therefore increased production of useful energy.
However, productivity in the coal industry remained low. The reason was that the coal industry is a labour-intensive industry. Because it cannot be mechanized, technological progress did not play a major
role in the increase of labour productivity, as compared to cotton.
Nevertheless, from the view of increased production of useful energy, the English coal industry achieved
an extremely high performance. Even more importantly, this high efficiency continued for many years,
and the steam engine played a decisive role in continuing high efficiency.
In the Middle Ages, the English coal deposits were exposed to the surface of the earth, and extraction
costs remained low. But, as mining progressed, mines became deeper and water extraction became a
problem. As a result, with the exception of mines located on riverbanks, which could be drained by water
power, many deep coal mines were abandoned. This led to the appearance of marginal production of
coal. Only the steam engine could overcome this constraint, and this steam engine was driven by coal
produced from the mine where it operated. This is the increased production of useful energy.
To quantify it, it is appropriate to use the energy return on investment (EROI). The EROI is the ratio of the
amount of useful energy acquired from a particular energy source to the amount of energy expended in
obtaining it.
I have calculated the EROI of some coal mines in England by the calorific value of coal produced to the
amount of useful energy acquired, and relating the energy consumed by miners and steam engines to the
amount of energy expended in obtaining the resource. In this way, I quantify the increased production of
useful energy in the Modern Age.
4.2 Japanese Prisoners of War in Post War Soviet Union
The research on the Japanese former servicemen and civilians interned in Soviet labour camps in the
aftermath of World War II is approaching a new stage nowadays. As one of the greatest forced migrations
in recorded history, this tale of captivity, exploitation and indoctrination has presented historians and other
researchers with both opportunities, and dilemmas. Recently, new paths have been emerging within the
topic in addition to the study of testimonies or recollections of the POWs and investigations of the real
state of affairs in the Soviet prisoner-of-war (POW) camps based on Russian archival sources. These
new avenues of research concern the ways in which the Japanese returnees from the Soviet camps were
thrust into the US-Soviet ideological confrontation and often became its victims, the participation of these
returnees in interest groups and movements in post war Japanese society, and the impact their presence
had on the new, ‘peaceful and democratic’ and anti-communist Japan.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
87
This panel aims to present a comprehensive look at the Japanese captives’ experiences in both the Soviet camps and, upon return, in the post war Japanese society. It is, in this respect, a collaboration of
scholars who aim to reconsider the history of the immediate post war by looking at movements of people,
and the impact these migrations had on the societies involved. The panel, consisting of four presentations, can be divided, chronologically, into two parts: the first two presentations are on the Internment and
the other two focus on the captives’ lives after repatriation. We start with a look at the Soviet camp system, its history, organisation and peculiar features, as well as the treatment of and attitudes towards the
Japanese POWs within this system. The panel then analyses the so-called ‘democratic movement’
(communist campaign) of propaganda education that originated in the camps, based on declassified Soviet archival documents. The last two papers analyse, on the example of social movements and the ideological battles between left and right, the impact the former POWs/internees had on the Japanese society.
Panel Organizer: Akina Kobayashi (Hosei University), [email protected]
Chair: Shingo Minamizuka (Hosei University), [email protected]
Discussant: -
The Soviet System of POW labour camps and the Japanese captive experience
Sergey Kim (Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences), [email protected]
While the history of labor camps in Russia dates back to tsarist years, it was in the 1930s that the campindustrial complex became the central pillar of the burgeoning Soviet economy. Within this system, the
first prisoner-of-war camps were founded in 1939 but it was not until the latter stages and the aftermath of
World War II that these camps started to play any meaningful role as places of detention and exploitation.
By the end of 1945 the Soviet interior ministry (NKVD) faced the formidable challenge of accommodating,
feeding and exploiting close to four million foreign POWs in its camps.
In this presentation, I trace the history of the GUPVI, the Chief Directorate for POWs and Internees of the
NKVD, during the 1940s with an emphasis on the treatment of around 639,776 Japanese POWs who
were captured in August 1945 in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, on Sakhalin and Kuril islands.
I focus on the movements of the people - the transportation of the former Japanese servicemen first from
northeast China to transit camps along the Soviet-Manchukuo border, and from there to dozens of camps
and its branches scattered across the vast spaces of Siberia and Far East of the Soviet Union. Based on
Soviet archival documents on the period - hundreds of decrees, orders, reports, and other intra- and interagency correspondence - I try to retrace the complex processes of transportation, accommodation, and
labor exploitation of hundreds of thousands of foreign POWs within 5 years – from the August of 1945 to
the April of 1950, when the majority of POW’s and internees were repatriated.
Based on extensive Soviet archival evidence, I view the Japanese captivity within the greater framework
of the Soviet camp system and against the background of the experiences of other foreign POWs: hundreds of thousands of Germans, Austrians, Italians, Hungarians and other Axis POWs. In doing so, I analyze the forced migration of Japanese former soldiers - first to, and a few years later, from the Soviet Union - and the importance of this for the Soviet economy and the camp system.
Political education and cultural activities in the Soviet POW camps
Akina Kobayashi (Hosei University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
88
This study shows how the Soviet NKVD (later MVD) indoctrinated Japanese prisoners of war in the
USSR. Nowadays Russian archives indicate that about 600,000 Japanese POWs were transported to the
USSR and Mongolia in compliance to Stalin’s order No.9898 on 23 August 1945 and the Soviet indoctrination started on September 4th.The indoctrination, similar to that of German POWs (about 2,500,000
people), was characterized by a variety of ideologies such as Marxism-Leninism, anti-Japanese militarism
and anti-American feelings.
The aim of the Soviet indoctrination of Japanese POWs was to train them as communists or pro-Soviet
sympathizers before repatriation. The Soviet policy of indoctrination strengthened due to the high tension
between the United States and the USSR. Then, to create “a new democratic nation”, they would be sent
back to Japan, which was occupied by GHQ. Almost all the POWs except for war criminals had been repatriated by 1949. In 1956, the last surviving Japanese war criminals repatriated from the USSR. This
study analyzes through the use of the Russian archives and Japanese testimonies and will consider the
propaganda and cultural activities under the Cold War.
Post-repatriation activities of the returnees: from a musical standpoint
Risa Moriya (Moscow P.I. Tchaikovsky Conservatory), [email protected]
In the USSR, after WWII, Japanese soldiers and officers were interned in Siberian camps as POWs, having to do forced labor for several years. However, during the internment, they experienced a variety of
cultural activities, including from a musical point of view, which ironically brought an opportunity to introduce the “Russian folk song” in post war Japan through the musical-cultural movement of the 1960s
known as “Singing voice (Utagoe)”, which at that time had been growing gradually all over Japan among
ordinary Japanese people. Japanese musicians who returned from internment spread Russian songs
throughout Japan as “Returnees orchestras” or as music lovers. They became the main subjects for constructing the image of the “Russian folk song” in Japan.
This is a case study of the “objectification of culture”, this report focuses on data which I collected from
interviews with musicians of the last generation of internment, and on the results of my fieldwork related
to the musical activities of the “Beryozka (Shirakaba)” choir in Japan, which for over 60 years has been
singing only Russian songs with Japanese text, which they translated themselves, as well as the history
concerning the activities of musicians that became the pioneers of the Japanese “Russian folk song”.
The Japanese returnees from the Soviet Union and their impact on postwar Japanese society,
1949-1952
Sherzod Muminov (University of Cambridge), [email protected]
The repatriation from the Soviet Union of the thousands of Japanese POWs and internees was a long
awaited event for many Japanese citizens. Since August 1945, when close to 600,000 former Japanese
servicemen were taken prisoner by the Red Army and transported to the Soviet Union, their families,
supported by the Japanese government and US Occupation, interest groups, and some nongovernmental organisations, lobbied tirelessly for their quick return. Rallies were held and hunger strikes
staged, and petitions were addressed to the United Nations. Yet when the majority of the remaining Japanese captives returned to Japan in 1949, it was policemen and officials from the US Occupation Administration (GHQ) who often greeted them, besides their family members. The reason for this was the alarm
in Japanese society about the possible subversive acts which the returnees were allegedly instructed by
their Soviet hosts to stage once back in Japan. In other words, the hundreds of thousand returnees came
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
89
back to a Japan that was different from the one they had left during the war: unwelcoming, suspicious and
increasingly anti-communist.
The story of how the returnees fitted into this new society, and the impact they had on the turbulent era of
the early 1950s, when the Cold War arrived in East Asia in earnest, is the focus of this presentation. Analysing a number of personal memoirs written by the returnees about life after repatriation and based on a
wide range of other original sources (transcripts of Diet sessions, newspaper and magazine articles, interviews and so on), I attempt to measure and summarize the influence and involvement of the former
internees in the postwar Japanese society. I argue that upon return they had to take on multiple identities
- of a victim, witness (of the Soviet Union), alleged Soviet spy or a potential agent of subversion - in the
society that was becoming increasingly anti-communist and anti-Soviet. Faced with the challenges of new
life, where they were often discriminated against, the returnees from the Soviet Union struggled to inscribe their subjectivity as fully Japanese citizens, and these struggles to re-gain their (political) voice are
a fascinating way to reconsider the history of the period.
4.3 Pax Romana and Pax Mongolica: New Approaches to the Anatomy of Pre‐modern Martitime
Networks
In the World/Global History genre, the periods of the Roman and Mongol empires are often described as
characterized by contact and integration between distant regions of the old world. It has long been known
from historical/literary sources that port cities on the southern seaboard of the Eurasian landmass were
connected by a wide‐stretching maritime network or series of networks, but despite recent advances in
our knowledge of the material aspect of this exchange by means of archaeology, deeper analysis of the
structure and characteristics of the maritime network has been hampered by the comparably sparse and
fragmented nature of our data.
This panel introduces new perspectives on the maritime movement of people, commodities and ideas
during the periods known as “Pax Romana” and “Pax Mongolica”.
Methodological advances, such as that represented by the introduction of Social Network Analysis to the
historical sciences, as well as new finds and advances in the fields of Epigraphy and Paleography make it
possible to obtain a new picture of maritime history. Such studies have the potential of raising the standard of our knowledge on seaborne network of the Pre‐Modern period, and contribute with materials as
well as methodological perspectives for the comparative study of continuity and discontinuity of the maritime network in the longer perspective from ancient to modern times.
Panel Organizer: Masaki MUKAI (Doshisha University), [email protected]
Chair: Yihao QIU (Fudan University), [email protected]
Discussant: -
People, Plants, and Ports: A Network Analysis of the Periplus Maris Erythraei
Eivind Heldaas SELAND (The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
90
The Periplus Maris Erythraei is an anonymous, Greek‐language guide to trade and navigation in the Indian Ocean in the first century CE. It outlines how to sail, what to buy, what to sell, and how to relate to local rulers, from Egypt in the west to the Malay Peninsula in the East.
The Periplus is justly famous in being an eyewitness account of early Indian Ocean trade, and has been
subject to numerous studies. Its extensive influence on scholarship has, however, also been criticised, as
it is the work of a single person with limited knowledge and cultural bias, and arguably this might have led
scholars to overemphasise so‐called western or Roman participation in early Indian Ocean trade.
The present study employs methodologies and software from Network Analysis to map, visualize and
measure interconnectedness in the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Many of these connections are not explicitly
mentioned in the text, but by connecting not only ports with ports, but also products with ports that export
and import them, a different impression of Indian Ocean trade from that conventionally gathered from the
Periplus arises. It allows us to ask questions about the relationship between coastal cabotage and transoceanic shipping, to identify regional trading circuits, and to identify unexpected centres of long‐distance
exchange.
Byzantine Oikoumene Reconsidered: Post‐Roman, Byzantine, and the Early Ottoman Weltanschauung 700‐1500 CE.
Hisatsugu KUSABU (Osaka City University), [email protected]‐cu.ac.jp
Originally, as a concept of historical geography, the classical term of Oikoumene represents a type of
World‐view, the universality of the living sphere of human being. However, Oikoumene has long been
thought until today as a type of representation of the Greco‐Roman world‐view based on Civilized‐Cosmopolitanism (N. McNeil), later the Orthodox Christendom. Today, historians hardly refer to the
term in its original wording as the description of a united view of the world. Furthermore, they tend to regard the term as outdated in the post‐Roman eras. Although the Byzantine‐ Orthodox authors whose Patriarchs of Constantinople were entitled the “ecumenical,” employed the concept of Oikoumene in order to
mean the (Orthodox) Christendom, the usage of the term remained christian oriented and was not accepted by the other people in the the East‐Mediterranean and the North‐West Eurasian areas.
However, apart from its Greco‐Roman and later Christian connotation, considering its continuous influence in the Byzantine world, still Oikoumene is to be reviewed as a geo‐political as well as socio‐religious
concept of the unity of the World. This paper argues the “Ecumenical” thought survived after the Late Antiquity and through the Byzantine / Ottoman eras. The historical concept Oikoumene covered significant
issues related to the human living phases in the East Mediterranean and North West Eurasian lands. Its
unity composed of multiple people and culture was heavily depending on universal networking in inter‐regional trades and socio‐political activities such as nomadic or forced migration, and following naturalization and urbanization of people. Also, the concept of Oikoumene was an important socio‐political
concept in the East‐Mediterranean and the North‐West Eurasian areas especially in the Byzantine Era
(ca. 500‐1453).
The investigation of the textual and visual representation of Oikoumene after the Late Antiquity gives the
common characteristics of the living phases of Byzantines (Romans), Slavs (ethnic groups, including nomads), and Muslims in which migrations and inter‐religious networking were activated. With the examination of the Christian World‐view of Cosmas Indicopleustes (ca. 6th century), and the trade networking described on the Tabula Peutingeriana, and inhabitant description of so‐called TO maps, this paper examines contemporary documentation such as of the Emperor Constantinus VII (905‐959)' De Administrando
imperio and multiple contemporary travel reports from Ibn Fadlān to John Mandeville is going to be ana-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
91
lyzed. Through the investigation of Medieval and Byzantine representations of Oikoumene, this paper
argues that the Oikoumene as Weltanschauung in the East‐Mediterranean and the North‐West Eurasian
areas, kept being active after the Late Antiquity. Contemporary authors did not simply assume the concept as the political title of Constantinople Patriarch, but the still an integrated living sphere from the days
of Alexandrian Cosmopolitanism to the Ottoman hegemony over the East Mediterranean.
A Historical Study of Islamic Connections in the Chinese Coastal Region under Mongol Rule:
Based upon Periodic and Geographic Data from Epigraphic Sources
Masaki MUKAI (Doshisha University), [email protected]
This study aims to discover the linkages among the Islamic communities dispersed over wide areas,
which cover the South China Sea and Southeast Asian Archipelago around the 13‐14th centuries, covering later Song, Yuan, and early Ming in Chinese history.
Because this field of historical study lacked efficient textual sources, this study uses epigraphic source
data and examines the details of their trans‐regional connections. Through research on the periodic and
geographic data obtained from the Islamic inscriptions in the Chinese coastal region.
According to the text from the Arabic tombstones, the hometowns of buried persons were in regions such
as Xinjiang, Transoxiana, Northern Iran, Khurasan, Khwarazm, Armenia, Syria, and Arabia. A large number of the buried persons were local Muslim elites from former Khwarazm empire.
The religious verses “Whoso hath died a stranger hath died a martyr” or “Dying as a stranger is dying as a
martyr” are commonly used on these tombstones, and these phrases are reported to be the words of the
prophet. Interestingly, an Islamic tombstone dated from the Southern Song period (1290) bearing the only
example of a similar verse about the “stranger martyr” was found in Quanzhou. Its inscription shows that
the buried person was a member of the Khwarazm Shah family. A researcher must now ask what new
story these findings will reveal when placed in the historical context.
Iranian-Islamic and Mongolian-Chinese Aspects of the Ardabīl Documents in Ilkhanid Iran
Yasuhiro YOKKAICHI (Waseda University), [email protected]
The Ardabil documents of the Ilkhanid dynasty in Iran, were written by Persian, Arabic, Turkic, Mongolian
and Chinese, in which codependent or adversary relationships of multiethnic and multireligious societies
were reflected.
We can observe similar styles in the existing official documents from east and west Eurasia, which were
ruled by the Mongol empire and its succession regimes. In particular, the opening and closing formulae of
the Mongol official documents have a typical feature. The official documents of the Ilkhanid dynasty also
exhibited a style similar to that of the Mongol regime. While Mongolian language was used at the upper
level of the Ilkhanid administration, both Turkic and Persian were used at the level of amīrs or wazīrs.
It is noteworthy that among several types of seals used on these documents, some adopted the style of
Chinese official seal. It is highly possible that such seals were bestowed by the Yuan Emperor. In Addition, the Ilkhans and the nobilities in Iran seemingly imitated them and made new ones by themselves.
Through the process of the “migration” of design and culture of Chinese-style seal into Iran, we should
pay attention to frequent exchanges of official embassies between the two Mongolian dynasties from Toluid family. It can be also pointed out that significant number of embassies which were not recorded in
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
92
either Chinese nor Persian chronicles had sailed across the Indian Ocean between two Toluid dynasties
and made a role on these cultural “migration”.
4.4 The End of the Charter Era in Eastern Eurasia: Social and Economic Changes in Japan, Korea
and Đại Việt during the 14th to 15th Centuries
This panel aims at a comparison among three “small empires” in the Sinic World focusing on such topics
as the general crisis in the 14th century, and the different impacts of the Yuan and Ming world orders. It is
well known that Japan, Korea and Vietnam (Đại Việt) all developed as smaller empires within the Sinic
World. However, traditional nation-state oriented historiography tended to overemphasize the uniqueness
of respective countries. Moreover, the theoretical and linguistic barriers between Southeast Asian and
East Asian (Sinic) studies hindered comparative research in depth between Vietnam with Japan and Korea. Yet, such restraints have recently been overcome both in Asian and Western academia, with broader
comparisons of made by Victor Lieberman in his Strange Parallels, for instance. Recent dramatic development of Mongol and Ming studies in global context of early-modernization also provides favorable conditions for such comparisons than conventional China-centric regional historiography did.
The comparison relies on the overviews, with special reference to the family and household, made by the
three presenters of respective histories regarding long-term social and economic changes. Such topics as
village society and social status, land holding and taxation systems, gender, and religions will be also
taken into consideration, against wider backgrounds including the regional flow of people, goods and currencies, and information, and ecological changes as well. Comments from the viewpoints of China and
Continental Southeast Asia will stimulate discussion among different academic traditions on the end of
Lieberman’s “charter era” (from the end of the first millennium to the period 1280-1450).
Panel Organizer: MOMOKI Shiro (Osaka University), [email protected]
Chair: John K. Whitmore (University of Michigan)
Discussants:
Michael Aung-Thwin (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
David Robinson (Colgate University)
Change in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century Japanese Society: The Formation of the “Ie”
KURUSHIMA Noriko (University of Tokyo),[email protected]
In this paper, I will explore the “ie” (household) which is often taken as characteristic of Japan. In traditional Japan, the “ie,” with its associated name, fortune, and business (generally inherited through the
paternal line) had been a fundamental social unit. For this reason, scholars have produced a great
amount of scholarship about it. According to the popular theory, the ancient society of Japan had a bilateral family and kinship systems.
However, the “ie” of the nobility started its formation from the end of the ninth century and established
itself by the end of the eleventh century, while the “ie” of the warriors had also been formed by the twelfth
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
93
century. The typical “ie” became prevailing in the entire society, including that of commoners, after the
1750’s.
However, the theory that “ie” was formed successively in different social classes should be reviewed. In
defining “ie” as a hereditary body of a set of family name, fortune, and business as well as ancestor worship, it is also argued that the “ie” among the nobility was formed in the fourteenth century. Reliable family
genealogies were produced only from the end of the fourteenth century on. It is likely that the modern research on the formation of “ie” was influenced by images of the nobles and warriors depicted in such genealogies.
Therefore, comparing the images of warriors in documents and records before the twelfth century with the
genealogies that were compiled at the earliest in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries can lead to a rethinking of the problems. One can find a number of “ie” that endured after the compilation of genealogies
but which could not be directly linked with the earlier generations. Together with this may be considered
the large number of local warrior houses which suddenly appeared during the civil war between the
northern and southern courts in the fourteenth century.
A large number of documentary evidence for villages appears also in the fourteenth through fifteenth centuries. Many of these villages lack the evidence of autonomous nature as “so-son”, but it is clear that
those villages did not simply mean territorial units. Rather, they were social bodies composed of settlements and inhabitants. The records of “so-son” show the nucleus of these villages was formed by powerful peasants who had an “ie.”
Therefore the formation of the “ie” of nobles, warriors, and commoners may have all occurred simultaneously in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. It implies a fundamental change of Japanese society. The
changes of Japanese society in those centuries themselves have been well known, with turning points
such as the civil war between the northern and southern courts in the fourteenth century and the Ônin
War in the late fifteenth century.
However whether these kinds of changes occurred in Japan alone or not has hardly been discussed.
Comparisons with Korea and Vietnam should be made but not in a simplistic and slipshod way. I will present the concrete example of Japan for deepened comparisons.
Changes of family relationship in Koryŏ and Chosŏn society and the influence of China
TOYOSHIMA Yuka (Kanda University of International Studies),[email protected]
The Korean peninsula was both directly and indirectly influenced throughout its history by political changes in China. It is well known that the transition from the Koryŏ dynasty (918-1392) to the Chosŏn dynasty
(1392-1897), a great dynasty change in the Korean history, was also influenced to a great extent by a
dynastic change in the 14th century China, the shift from the Yuan to the Ming dynasty. In this presentation I will discuss how the Yuan-Ming transition and the institutions in the Early Ming China influenced the
change and development of institutions in Korea and how these changes in China were reflected in the
society on the Korean peninsula, by taking a general view of the situation of family and kinship in Korean
society before and after the 14th century. As part of that I also intend to analyze a few examples of family
registers from the Koryŏ and Chosŏn dynasty.
In the family relationship and kinship of the Koryŏ society both the patrilineal kinship and the nonpatrilineal kinship (kinship based on matrilineal descent or descent of the wife the 14th were of great importance. The consciousness that the patrilineal line is more important than the non-patrilineal line, was in
the Koryŏ society much weaker than in the later period. This fact can be quite clearly observed for exam-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
94
ple in the wedding customs, in the inheritance of property and in the ritual practices for the ancestors.
This situation of family relationship and kinship began to change in the Late Chosŏn period, after the 17th
century, with the gradual formation of family groups based on patrilineal blood relationship and the formation of patriarchal families. This change might be observed after the establishment of the new Chosŏn
Dynasty, when the rising literati-officials, who settled Neo-Confucianism as official state ideology, took
over the political control and began to conduct state affairs. These officials also intended to promote various measures based on Neo-Confucian standards in the basic social system of family and village. These
measures, however, had no essential effect on the Korean society immediately. It took a certain period of
time until Neo-Confucianism spread into the society and changed the social customs.
After Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions at the end of the 16th century and the Jürchen campaigns Korea in
the first half of the 17th century, we can discover such changes in the Korean society. After the massive
disturbances of war and the many years of social disorder and economic crisis, Korea, based on the NeoConfucian ideology, began with the reconstruction of the country including the restoration of social order
and finance. In this process Koreans, both ruling yangbans and rising commoners, intended to maintain
family line and succession of property more effectively. This lead to new developments during which Koreans began to consider patrilineal line more seriously than before and family groups based on patrilineal
blood relationship began their formation. These changes in family relationship were linked with the
change of villages, including the formation of consanguineous villages (dongjok-maŭl).
What Epigraphic Sources Tell about the Social Change in Đại Việt during the 14th-15th Centuries
MOMOKI Shiro (Osaka University), [email protected]
In the political history of Việt Nam (Đại Việt), the 14th to 15th centuries are often regarded as a watershed, through which a mandala-like loose polity (based on bilateral family/kinship syatem) transformed
itself into a more confucianised early modern empire. However, the social and economic background of
the transformation has not been studied closely yet due to the scarcity of sources combined with conventional theoretical frameworks. In order to improve such a situation, this paper will exploit new sources
such as late-Tran (14th century) inscriptions on the one hand, and make comparative analysis with other
“smaller empires” in the Sinic World on the other.
While other two papers of this panel will focus closely on the single topic of family and household, through
which they will pursue a general view of the period under discussion, this paper will deal with broader
frameworks. First, it will review the basic issues of pre-14th century Đại Việt such as the definitions of public land (công điền), and the taxation system imposed on them. Judged from the contemporary system of
Korea, Japan and China, the conventional image of the public land as a remnant of the primitive village
community can no longer be supported. The majority of peasants held their own land as a category of
public land and were burdened with “two-tax” (liangshui) system.
In the second part, this paper will examine late-Trần epigraphic sources which recorded more than 300
small-scale donations to Buddhist temples (and to some shrines as well). Besides aristocrats who had
monopolized the right to make donations in earlier centuries, now villagers (mainly the upper class who
served the court as secretariats, palace guards and other servants), including a considerable numbers of
females (wives, widows and other individuals), gained the right to pray salvation. This socio-religious advance of villagers appears to have coincided with frequent uprisings of dependent farmers of the estates
of aristocrats in the same period. Both phenomena imply the stabilization of the property rights of villagers, based on which “private lands (tư điền)” seem to have begun to include private properties of villagers
since the end of the 14th century.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
95
Finallly this paper will try to synthesize the fundamental change of the society of Đại Việt which took place
from the 14th on. The socio-economic advance of villagers was likely to have been accompanied by a too
rapid population growth and the shrinkage of the scale of land-holdings. The situation was worsened not
only with external threats of Champa and the Ming but also with natural disasters caused by unfavorable
climatic change. When it regained independence after two decades of guerrilla warfare against the Ming
occupation, Đại Việt couldn’t help but be influenced strongly by the Neo-Confucianistic and bureaucratic
statecraft of the Ming. However, Đại Việt imposed a new land-control system through administrative villages (xã), which villagers would appropriate to crystalize their “traditional” male-centric communalities
and patrilineal family/kinship (dòng họ) systems in the late early modern period.
4.5 Revisiting Chinese Migration in World History: China, Southeast Asia, and Transnational Chinese Identities in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
The study of long-distance migration has been largely Atlantic-centric instead of truly global. Indeed, Adam McKeown argued in a Journal of World History article (2004) that “Asian and African migrations... are
usually described only as indentured migration subject to the needs of Europeans or as peasants fleeing
overpopulation pressures.” This panel aims to contribute to the ongoing conversation on migration in
world history by analyzing the migration of ethnic Chinese to Southeast Asia, historically the main destination for Chinese migrants. Whereas studies of Chinese migration to Southeast Asia have often focused
on destination countries, the papers in this panel place emphasis on transnational connections, doing so
through the theme of identity. Ong Soon Keong questions the conventional interpretation of huaqiao as
“overseas Chinese” or “Chinese sojourners.” Ong argues that their connection with the homeland during
the first half of the twentieth century was complicated: they were Chinese while beyond China but their
Chineseness was questioned while in China. Jack Chia focuses on the creation of a Malaysian Chinese
Buddhist identity by studying the transnational career of Chuk Mor, the “Father of Malaysia’s Chinese
Buddhism.” Chia suggests that this individual’s career is representative of “diasporic monks” who spread
Chinese Buddhism throughout maritime Southeast Asia. Leander Seah explores connections between
Republican China and the Nanyang (Southeast Asia). Through examining National Jinan University and
Nanyang Chinese identity during the Nanjing Decade, Seah argues that studies on Chinese migration can
shed light on modern Chinese history and not just events in destination countries.
Panel Organizer: Leander Seah (Stetson University), [email protected]
Chair: Koh Keng We (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Discussant: Koh Keng We (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Contesting Chineseness: Huaqiao and the Politics of Identity, 1900-1937
Ong Soon Keong (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
For much of the Qing Dynasty, Chinese migrants had been branded by the state as “traitors,” “deserters,”
and “criminals,” since overseas travel was forbidden by law. The lifting of the ban on overseas migration
in the late nineteenth century and the subsequent use of the term huaqiao, or Chinese sojourner, as the
catchall label for the overseas Chinese represented a major turning point in the relationship between the
Chinese state and its emigrants. Not only were they now considered as legal emigrants, they were also
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
96
welcomed – and expected – to return to their homeland. But what has attracted less attention is the fact
that the upgrading of Chinese emigrants from “rejects” to “huaqiao” also crystallized our perceptions and
representations of the China-overseas Chinese relationship. On the one hand, scholars and laymen alike
celebrate China’s official recognition and concern for its dispersed sons; on the other hand, they hail the
contributions huaqiao made to the political and economic advancement of the country as evidence of their
everlasting tie to their place of origin.
While such portrayals are largely true, I would argue that they over-emphasized the primordial connections and natural affinity between the homeland and the émigré, and thus assumed that the new relationship was necessarily an amicable one welcomed by both parties. This paper seeks to complicate this romanticized image by first arguing that the Chinese political activists’ espousal of the diasporas, rather
than a showing of their newfound amity towards their overseas brethrens, stemmed largely from their
pragmatic goal of soliciting huaqiao contributions to China’s state-building projects. Moreover, even
though huaqiao were imbued with certain positives attributes, the truth is, prejudices against the emigrants have persisted and Chinese within China continue to view huaqiao as uncouth, uncultured, and
even “unChinese.” I argue that this development actually ensnared the overseas Chinese in a quagmire
where they were defined as Chinese while abroad and thus permanently tied to China, and yet deemed
not Chinese enough to be allowed to fully reintegrate into Chinese society when they returned to China.
The rest of the paper will explore the political, economic, and psychological burdens on the overseas Chinese after they were redefined as huaqiao, and their varied response to the Chinese state’s courtship,
including suspicion, disregard, and rejection.
Teaching Dharma Across the Seas: Chuk Mor and the Making of Malaysian Chinese Buddhist
Identity
Jack Meng-Tat Chia (Cornell University), [email protected]
Master Chuk Mor (Zhumo 竺摩, 1913-2002), often called the “ Buddhism,” was Father of Malaysia’s Chinese born in 1913 in Zhejiang province of China. He was ordained at the age of sixteen, and thereafter
received his monastic education at the Minnan Buddhist Institute (Minnan foxueyuan 閩南佛學院) under
the tutelage of renowned Buddhist reformer Taixu 太 虛. When the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937,
Chuk Mor, together with Buddhist nationalists of the time, took part in fundraising and war relief efforts.
After the war, he moved to Macau, then a Portuguese colony, where he established Buddhist associations, delivered sermons, and founded a popular and widely circulated magazine called Endless Light
(Wujindeng 無盡燈). In 1953, Chuk Mor made his way to Southeast Asia to propagate
Buddhism among the overseas Chinese community. Subsequently, the migrant monk settled in Penang,
Malaysia, and played a pivotal role in the formation of Malaysian Buddhist Association (Malaixiya fojiao
zonghui 馬來西亞佛教總會) to unite Buddhist monasteries, associations, sangha and laity into a panBuddhist national federation. The visionary monk also founded the Malaysian Buddhist Institute (Malaixiya foxuanyuan 馬來西亞佛學院) in 1970 to train Buddhist educators in postcolonial Malaysia. In 1998,
Chuk Mor became the first Buddhist monk to be conferred the title of Datuk (an honorific title akin to
knighthood) in the Muslim-majority country.
This paper examines the transnational religious career of Chuk Mor in the movements, exchanges, and
innovation of Buddhist knowledge and institutions within and without Southeast Asia. My research on the
transnational religious activities of Chuk Mor is propelled by three questions. First, how did Chinese mi-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
97
gration contribute to the emergence of trans- Asian Buddhist networks, and how did these connections
play a role in the circulations of religious ideas, people, and resources within and without maritime Southeast Asia? Second, how did diasporic monks transform Chinese Buddhism and contribute to the process
of Buddhist modernization and globalization? Third, how can the study of Buddhist modernity contribute
to the understanding of complex issues surrounding diasporic identity, nationalism, and decolonization in
Southeast Asia? I argue that diasporic monks, such as Chuk Mor, were cosmopolitan geniuses in the
transnational religious circuits, drew upon Buddhist knowledge to Buddhicize modern principles and new
imported discourses in the Chinese diaspora and made maritime Southeast Asia a new center for Chinese Buddhism. Drawing on Buddhist periodicals, collected works, and fieldwork in Malaysia and Singapore, I will reveal that Chuk Mor made Malaysia a Buddhist “cultural center” in three important ways:
propagating Taixu’s reformist Buddhist ideas; promoting Buddhism through traditional Chinese calligraphy
and painting; and creating a new Malaysian Chinese Buddhist identity.
Bridging Republican China with Southeast Asia: National Jinan University and Nanyang Chinese
Identity during the Nanjing Decade, 1927-1937
Leander Seah (Stetson University), [email protected]
Recent studies on the migration of ethnic Chinese have often focused on developments in destination
countries rather than events in China. This despite the pioneering work of historians of regions such as
Southeast Asia who published in other languages besides English. The preoccupation with case studies
revolving around destination countries is especially ironic considering that the dominant conceptual
framework in the more recent scholarship on Chinese migration has been the Sino-centric term, “Chinese
diaspora.” This paper avoids the use of “Chinese diaspora,” preferring instead the more neutral alternative, “Chinese migration.” The main focus of this paper is the lack of connectivity between scholarship on
Chinese migration and research on modern Chinese history. In contrast to the emphasis on destination
countries in Chinese migration studies, the historiography on modern China has taken a continental China-centred turn in recent decades, especially in North America. Such emphasis on developments on the
Chinese mainland, especially those which occurred during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
emerged as a revisionist response to the initial Western-centric perspectives of pioneering North American scholarship on modern Chinese history. Chinese migration therefore remains under-examined in the
field of modern Chinese history.
This paper aims to contribute towards the bridging of Chinese migration studies and the historiography on
modern China by exploring connections between China and Southeast Asia during the Republican period
in modern Chinese history. My case study revolves around National Jinan University and Nanyang Chinese identity during the Nanjing Decade (1927- 1937). Older works on the Nanjing Decade often debated
the success and failure of Kuomintang rule, especially in relation to political history. More recent scholarship has shifted the emphasis to less traditional topics such as sport, physical culture, and geology. Nevertheless, the study of Chinese migration remains largely under-explored. My paper addresses this lacuna. Founded in 1906, Jinan was the first school in China for Chinese migrants and their offspring in the
Nanyang (the old Chinese name for Southeast Asia) who wished to return to the mainland for their studies. The school subsequently formed the cornerstone of successive Chinese governments’ policies on
Chinese migration. This was especially so for the first half of the twentieth century since most ethnic Chinese who emigrated from China chose the Nanyang as their destination during that period. My paper focuses on the Nanjing Decade, during which Jinan was known as “National Jinan University.” It discusses,
for example, a 1929 Jinan project, the Conference on Nanyang Chinese Education. This was held on the
school’s campus at Zhenru, a Shanghai suburb. The conference led to a Kuomintang initiative, the Conference on Overseas Chinese Education, which took place later the same year (1929) in Nanjing. My
study also examines other Jinan outreach efforts to the Nanyang Chinese, including a 1928 Nanyang tour
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
98
by the school’s football (soccer) team. Through analyzing National Jinan University and Nanyang Chinese
identity during the Nanjing Decade, this paper thus argues that studies on Chinese migration can provide
fresh insight into both modern Chinese history and events in destination countries.
4.6 Circumventing Exclusion: Chinese and Japanese Migrant Laborers in New Caledonia, California, and Cuba
Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, following the abolition of slavery in the British Empire and the
gold rushes in Australia and North America, Chinese laborers began emigrating in large numbers to the
Caribbean, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. After 1885, significant numbers of Japanese laborers emigrated overseas to Hawai'i, Thursday Island, Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Peru, and the west
coast of the United States and Canada. These Japanese and Chinese migrants faced a series of legal
barriers that limited their rights. In Spanish Cuba, legislation like the Royal Decrees of 1854 and 1860
placed the Chinese laborers in a system of perpetual bondage. In the French empire, an 1874 law regulating laborers from “Asia, Africa, and Oceania” strictly controlled their movements and stipulated harsh
punishments for “repeated insubordination.” In the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and
the “Gentlemen's Agreement” of 1907, banned migration of Chinese and Japanese workers, and the Immigration Act of 1924 limited the rights of those migrants living on US territory. The Canadian government
passed similar legislation with its Chinese Immigration Acts of 1885, 1900, 1903, and 1923, and the Australian government codified its “White Australia” policy with the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The
papers in this panel will show how Chinese and Japanese migrants circumvented or opposed this legislation through strikes, mutual aid associations, diplomatic representation and interracial marriages.
Panel Organizer: Chad B. Denton (Yonsei University), [email protected]
Chair: Seung-joon Lee (National University of Singapore)
Discussant: Michael Ratnapalan (Yonsei University), [email protected]
Mementos of Solidarity: An Association for Chinese Contract Laborers in Cuba, 1872
Margaret Tillman (Purdue University), [email protected]
Contract laborers from South China often faced difficult circumstances on board ships to Cuba and on
sugar plantations in Cuba. In contrast to those who mutinied on board coolie ships or joined the revolt
against the colonial Spanish government after arrival in Cuba, some Chinese in Cuba actively adapted to
new legal requirements by applying for long-term residency permits (cartas de domicilio) that required
them to register with the Spanish colonial government. When existing laws failed to defend them from
violent exploitation, Chinese laborers formed a mutual-aid association (huiguan) to finance fellow Chinese
laborers’ efforts to attain the protection of free legal status. With historical material from the James and
Ana Melikian Collection at Arizona State University, this article documents that Chinese laborers exhibited
agency and solidarity in the face of economic and political exploitation. If contract labor was meant to be
an intermediary step to transition from slave labor to free labor, the obstacles that these laborers faced
indicate the limits of the contention. Given these problems in Cuba, during its occupation, the US responded by extending the anti-Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 to Cuba.
How the Japanese became “White’”in New Caledonia, 1892-1941
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
99
Chad B. Denton (Yonsei University), [email protected]
After the discovery of nickel on the main island of the French colony of New Caledonia in 1864 and the
subsequent mining boom in the 1880s, local mining operations began recruiting contract laborers from
the Dutch East Indies, Indochina, and Japan. Initially, an 1874 law strictly regulated the work of these migrants. Severe conditions, disease, and accidents made life in New Caledonia difficult for all of these
workers, but the Japanese were the only ones to organize a strike in an effort to improve their conditions.
After the strike was broken and the workers were disciplined word of their treatment reached the Japanese government. In 1899 the Japanese foreign ministry granted a request for additional workers on the
condition that the men be given the same legal status as “European workers” and in 1911 the official census counted the Japanese in the category of “White population” and they gained the right to live and work
wherever they wished. By the early 1930s Japanese immigrants ran nearly all of the small businesses in
the capital city of Nouméa and nearly every village in New Caledonia had a Japanese-owned general
store. Because French immigration laws made it difficult for Japanese immigrants to marry Japanese
women and bring them to the colony, most of these Japanese men settled down with local Kanak, Indochinese, Javanese, or European women. Many of these men became naturalized French citizens—
renouncing their Japanese nationality—in part to avoid an onerous head tax on resident foreigners. This
seemingly successful integration of a migrant Japanese community occurred at the same time that Australia and the United States were imposing harsh measures excluding Japanese and Chinese migrants.
Using a combination of diplomatic and consular correspondence from archives in Japan and New Caledonia, this paper uses this exceptional case of Japanese integration to show how inter-imperial rivalry, as
well as a peculiar confluence of local economic development and social relations, contributed to this surprising outcome.
Interracial Intimacy as a Way of Getting Around Asian Exclusion: Chinese and Japanese Migrants’
Marriage to Women of White and Other Non-Asian Ancestry in California
Eunhye Kwon (Chung Ang University) [email protected]
This paper addresses the way that a marriage to women of white and other non- Asian ancestry helped
Chinese and Japanese migrants circumscribe Asian exclusion in terms of property ownership and social
belonging in the first half of the twentieth century. It uses some published biographies of Chinese and
Japanese migrants, life stories of early Asian immigrants on the Pacific Coast collected by the Survey of
Race Relations, 1924-1927, and the case files of the World War II Internment of Japanese Americans.
Marrying women of white and Mexican ancestry allowed Chinese and Japanese migrants to secure land
through their wives and to circumvent California’s Alien Land Law, which prohibited “aliens ineligible for
citizenship” to own land. Chinese and Japanese men married to women of non- Asian ancestry experienced varying degrees of inclusion in the social world of their spouse. In most cases, a marriage to a
white woman did not facilitate Chinese and Japanese men’s access to their wife’s community. Chinese
and Japanese men who chose a marital partner among women of Mexican or American Indian ancestry
often found themselves settling among their wife’s people. Although only a handful of early Chinese and
Japanese male migrants married across racial and ethnic line, their life choice subtly disrupted the racial
order that exclusionary policies targeting Asians made.
4.7 Long-term movements and early settlements
Chair: NAM, Jong Kuk (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
100
A European community in Yangzhou during the Mongol period
NAM, Jong Kuk (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
A tombstone was discovered in Yangzhou in 1951 by the People’s Liberation Army. On its lower part is
engraved the funerary inscription that reads as follows: “In nomine Domini Amen. Hic jacet Katerina filia
quondam Domini Dominici de Vilionis que obit in anno Domini mileximo CCC XXXXII de mense Junii.” Or
Katerina, daughter of Domenico de Vilioni, died in June 1342. Two years later in 1344 her brother called
Antonio also departed (“In nomine Domini Amen. Hic jacet Antonius fili quondam Domini Dominici de
Vilionis qui migravit anno Domini MCCCIIII de mense novembris.”)1
We can find also iconographies on the upper parts of the tombstones. The iconography of Katerina’s
gravestone shows the life of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, that of her brother’s gravestone depicting
scenes from the life of Saint Anthony. While those iconographies deal with Christian stories, their appearance and style reflect traditional Chinese motifs during the Yuan dynasty. It means that they were made
by local Asian artisans. In addition, Moslem styles have influenced the shape of the tombstones.2 They
represent the mixture of diverse religions and cultures of the East and the West.
These two gravestones are unusual and very interesting above their historical implications. Their Christian names, iconographies and Latin inscription make us imagine that they were certainly Christians and
probably Europeans. Naturally arise following questions: Who were Katerina and Antonio? Were they local Chinese people or foreign dwellers living temporarily in Yangzhou for the reasons of commerce or
religion?
At first, Francis A. Rouleau concluded that Katerina’s father, Domenico de Viglione, was a merchant of
Sale, a city in the neighborhood of Genoa.3 But Olschki identifies Katerina and Antonio as granddaughter
of Pietro Viglioni, a Venetian merchant residing in Tabriz under Mongol rule for the sake of profit about a
century before their death in Yangzhou.4 De Rachewiltz similarly argues that she was a daughter of the
Venetian merchant, Domenico Vilioni.5 But Robert Lopez claims that their family name should be Ilioni in
Italian (Yllionis in Latin) and that Katerina was a daughter of Domenico Ilioni, who wrote the testament of
Jacopo de Oliverio, a merchant of Genoa, in China (in partibus Catagii) in 1348.6 Although there still exists a debate about their identity, it is generally agreed upon that they were Italians installed in an Asian
city under Mongol rule.
1
Richard C. Rudolph, “A second fourteenth-century Italian tombstone in Yangchou”, Journal of Oriental Studies,
13:2(1975), p. 134.
2
Richard C. Rudolph, “A second fourteenth-century Italian tombstone in Yangchou”, Journal of Oriental Studies,
13:2(1975), p. 134.
3
Francis A. Rouleau, “The Yangchow Latin tombstone as a landmark of medieval Christian in China”, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 17(1954), pp. 360-361.
4
His testament dated 10 December 1264 was written in medieval Italian with Latin expressions and Venetian dialect.
This document shows that he did commerce in Tabriz under Mongol rule at the time. Leonardo Olschki, Marco Polo’s
Asia (Berkeley, 1960), p. 15.
5
I. de Rachewiltz, Papal envoys to the great Khans (London: Faber & Faber, 1971), p. 182.
6
Robert S. Lopez, “Nouveaux documents sur les marchands italiens en Chine àl’époque mongole”, Comptes rendus
des séances de l'académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, series 4(1997), p. 456.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
101
While many previous researches have focused mainly on the tombstones and their owners, this article
has an interest in a little longer history which is related to the death of two Europeans in a Chinese city
under Mongol rule. In other words, it inquires further into the formation of a European community in
Yangzhou during the Mongol period, its members, their motifs of displacement, their jobs, and so on, beginning with the analysis of these tombstones. It is inevitably necessary to go back to the middle thirteenth century in order to understand the story of how two young Italians established themselves and
died in such a far-away and unfamiliar country.
The Opening Phase of Japan – Vietnam Diplomacy in the Maritime Asian World: Through Introducing a Newly Discovered Letter from Vietnam to “King of Japan”
Hasuda Takashi (Niigata University), [email protected]
This presentation has two aims: 1) Introduce a newly discovered letter sent from Vietnam to Japan dated
1591 that is the oldest source material concerning on the Japan – Vietnam diplomatic relationship. 2)
Give this letter a place in the Maritime Asian context.
The addresser is Phuc Nghia hau Nguyen, someone discusses that he is an official under the Nguyen
lord (Cochinchina). I argue that he is a local military officer under the Trinh regime (Tonkin) and a member
of the Nguyen Canh family. The Nguyen Canh family is a local ruling family at Nghe An province and has
strong tie with the Trinh lord. Some members of the family engaged the Red Seal ship trade (Shuin-sen
trade) with Japan in the early seventeenth century.
The address of the letter is “King of Japan” though there was no person who proclaims oneself “King of
Japan” at that time. This indicates that Vietnamese officials did not have information on political situation
of contemporary Japan. Two maritime merchants (Chen Liang Shan and Long Yen) who propose Vietnamese official to send a letter to Japan are descendant of Wakō (Wōkòu: maritime pirates - merchants).
They are maritime entrepreneurs planning to launch a business by using a lack of information on Japan in
Vietnam. In the late sixteenth century, Ming China lifted its maritime seclusion policy, Japanese began to
sail to South China Sea and to immigrate to Southeast Asia with a certain size. Both give a stage to maritime merchants to launch their new business like Chen Liang Shan and Long Yen.
Political situation both in Japan and Vietnam are also another important factors. Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified Japan in 1590, and then The Mac – Le war in Vietnam is brought to the final stage in 1592. Strong
governments can provide safety to maritime merchants, merchants propose to the government to establish “diplomatic” relationship. This letter shows a opening phase that relationship between Japan and
Southeast Asia enter into a new stage, from private or illegal trade to official and controled trade.
North-South Migration Between Asia and Australasia: A Long-Term Perspective
Malcolm Campbell (The University of Aukland), [email protected]
In January 1815 the English traveller John Liddiard Nicholas unexpectedly encountered a ‘native of Hindostan’ living in New Zealand’s Bay of Islands. Having been resident on the North Island since his escape
from the ship City of Edinburgh seven years earlier, the man told Nicholas he ‘preferred by much residing
here, to returning to his own country.’ How do we explain this surprising meeting? What is its signifi-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
102
cance? Rather than attempting to answer these questions within the framework of a conventional national, world, or oceanic history, this paper proposes as an alternative the adoption of a long-term perspective
on migration along the seam of lands and islands stretching north-south from mainland Asia to Australia
and New Zealand.
Historians of the British colonies of settlement have tended to conceive of migration principally in EastWest terms, reflecting the legacy of the nineteenth experience of immigration from Europe. However, the
spatial turn in the humanities and social sciences encourages us to rethink the orientation of our work and
explore the longitudinal movements of peoples between Asia and Australasia. This paper highlights the
often overlooked history of this north-south migration and begins to explore the ways its ebbs and flows
have shaped interactions along this seam since the since the end of the eighteenth century.
4.8 Environmental and cultural experiences in Yunnan
Chair: Els van Dongen (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
The eucalyptus into the impact on the ecological environment of Yunnan in 20th Century
Zhou Qiong (Yunnan University), [email protected]
The eucalypt tree was introduced to Kunming in 1896. A new species of Eucalyptus as an immigrant, initially used as an ornamental plant in gardens, planting expanded gradually. By 1964, about ten species of
eucalypts were present, but as the planted area was small, so was the ecological effect. Between 1964
and 1982, a further 37 species were introduced, and eucalypts came to be planted on an increasing scale
in greening projects and along roads. The development of a market for eucalypt oil and its usefulness for
the paper industry changed the situation from 1983 through the present. The tree was not planted in increasingly large plantations. By 2013, it was found in 109 of 129 counties of the province, covering a total
area of over two million square kilometres.
Eucalypt plantations have massive effects on ground water. The tree is highly efficient in absorbing
ground water even from relatively dry soils. It has been shown to reduce water retention in the soil capillaries by between 20 and 5%, while water content not bound in capillaries rises between 7 and 3%. This
effect increases evaporation while harming the soil’s capacity in water retention.
As a result of this effect, lowered ground water levels and reduced ground water flows are in evidence in
the vicinity of plantations. The drying out of the soils has serious consequences for water systems and
native ecosystems.
State Bioprospecting, Global Network and Cinchona Cultivation in Yunnan, 19321948
Yubin Shen (Georgetown University), [email protected]
Cinchona, quinine’s raw material, was firstly introduced to China as a wondrous antimalarial drug in the
late 18th century. But it was not until the early 20th century that Chinese began to cultivate this tropical
medicinal plant in southern China. Based on firsthand sources in Yunnan Provincial Archives, this paper
reconstructs the history of China’s first successful cinchona cultivation program in Yunnan’s southwest
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
103
borderlands, especially the Hekou County Experimental Farm for Tropical Plants, from 1932 to 1948. It
argues that cinchona cultivation program in Republican Yunnan was not a pure scientific agricultural experiment, but part of the Chinese Nationalist, especially the Yunnan provincial government’s state building and developmentalsit projects within a global context.
This program was initiated in the early 1930s by “the developmental state” of Yunnan province to develop
and control its semiautonomous southwest frontiers (part of the so called Zomia), as well as to eliminate
endemic malaria in Yunnan. Later on, during the Sino Japanese War (193745) , together with other programs of state led bio prospecting medicinal plants in Yunnan, it then became part of the Chinese state’s
national defense project to control epidemics in southwest China. After the war, this program continued to
be supported by the Central and provincial governments until 1948, mainly to promote national selfsufficiency and international competition in cinchona and quinine production. A closer examination on this
process indicates that it was undertaken within a global network of knowledge, practice and personnel on
cinchona cultivation, and the plant cinchona itself.
The Similarities and Differences in Modern Medical and Health: Summer Health Campaign in
Kunming
during Nanjing Central Government
Xu Zhengrong (Yunnan University), [email protected]
The development of medical and health during Nanjing Central Government had changed the dirty and
messy situation of China, and Nanjing Central Government played an important part. The summer health
campaign in Kunming during Nanjing Central Government was local government obeyed order of the
Nanjing Central Government, there were also some changes about the measures of orders. To reduce
the prevalence of disease, the content of health campaign has changed from eradication of pests to in a
race with medical and health. Summer health campaign in Kunming, has obeyed the superior government’s orders, there also had different results because of different measures. And the measures was
formulated with natural and social conditions .On the one hand, the environmental conditions of Kunming
was easy to produce and spread the disease , on the other hand, Kunming has a poor medical and health
condition, that were reasons why health campaign in Kunming was efficacious and characteristic.
4.9 Transnational Movement of Capital, Peoples and Goods
Chair: Charlotte Setijadi (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
The Silk Artisan Migrants of Singapore: “entangled” histories of sago, silk, and the problems of
death and dying
Chin-Siew Ang (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Migrant stories are pivotal in Singapore’s urban legends and history, but more importantly, in discourses
about the nation-state’s origins1, heritage as well as how the Singaporean collective memory, sense of
values, ethics and of self have been, or are envisioned and curated2. Early women immigrants, like the
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
104
female construction laborers or samsui women, have become Singaporean trope representations of “hard
work, frugality, adaptability and perseverance . . . [values] that the state often emphasizes for its citizens”3. Likewise, the ma jies, or “black and white” servants, have become reverenced as examples of
uncompromising standards, loyalty, sense of duty and fearlessness of authority4. While such representations may serve individual family pedagogic, even state-sponsored pedagogic agenda, they fail to consider the nuances that underlie the migration narratives of these groups. In an eighteenth- century, highly
patriarchal, highly patrilineal Chinese society, many other factors such as the regard of daughters-in-law
as extra farm labor, the nature of silk production itself as well as Confucian principles of family responsibility, all constitute the historical palette from which Cantonese women migration narratives draw their
tones and forms. Starting from the early twentieth century, groups of these Kwantung women began arriving into Singapore and Malaya from China. Approximately 190,000, mainly aged 18-40, arrived between
1933 and 19385 in Malaya, not as partners to male migrants, but as employees in their own right - as
domestic workers for expatriate and affluent Chinese families in colonial Singapore and Penang, or as
workers in rubber factories, mining and plantations. This study focuses on the women who worked as
domestic help or amahs, and in particular, a sub-group that acquired distinction as the legendary ma jies,
whose black satin trousers and white samfu tops and hair styles – the sartorial expressions of their
avowed spinsterhood – earned them the name “black and white servants.” “Ma jies” demand attention for
two reasons. The first is, like their co-migrants, the samsui women, they have impacted Singapore’s collective memory. Second, their avowed spinsterhood collided with, and hence forced them to negotiate key
precepts of Chinese culture – notions of the afterlife and its reliance on a male descent line. Current work
on the ma jies have treated these women as urban legends, but have not considered the matrix of “multiple convergent forces of historical contingencies, structural economic relations, as well as cultural forms”6
that shaped these early Chinese female migrant workers’ existences first in their Cantonese home villages, then in Singapore. Using Kelvin Low’s idea of “entangled histories”7, I examine the connectedness
and “relational basis”8 as well as the sense of “shared history”9 between the rise of mechanized silk reeling in Canton, the marriage systems these women espoused, their economic roles as “female sons”, their
statuses in Cantonese society, their migration, and finally how these are reflected in the death houses
that existed in Singapore’s Sago Lane till 1961. I also demonstrate that the narratives of these migrant
women are truly transnational: they involve sago, and silk, while geographically, they cut across Kwantung, Singapore, Sumatra, Indonesia and Turkey as well as several European countries. Temporally, the
narratives concern how these migrants negotiate issues of the living and netherworlds, but they also tie
the pasts of their native Canton to Singapore’s present in terms of how Singapore views and seeks to
define its history.
The Cotton and Wheat Loan of 1933 and its aftermath: China, U.S. and Japan relations on American export of raw cotton
Asami AKITA (Kyoto University), [email protected]
This paper focuses on the analysis Chinese economic diplomacy and its influence to China, U.S. and Japan in the 1930s. In particular, I analyze interaction between the export of American cotton and finance
thorough a complicated negotiation of the Cotton and Wheat Loan between the National Government of
the Republic of China and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (R.F.C.) in the U.S. on May 29, 1933.
The R.F.C. agreed to China a credit of $50,000,000 (cotton: $40,000,000). But it seemed to violate clauses of an international agreement on the China Consortium of 1920.
Usually, the Cotton and Wheat Loan was interpreted as a failure due to the following three reasons. First,
Chinese domestic cotton production was in good harvest in 1933. Second, Japanese cotton mills in China, “Zaikabo”, couldn’t buy these cheap and high quality American loan-cottons due to Japanese Gov-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
105
ernment’s objection. Third, Chinese Government had piles of stock cotton which imported from the U.S.
Therefore, the $40,000,000 portion of the aforementioned credit, which was earmarked for the purchase
of cotton, was reduced in amount to $10,000,000.
What kind of strategy did the U.S. pursue, and how did China take advantage of the U.S. policies for their
own benefits? The National Government of the Republic China utilized the cotton exchange market in
New York for sale of loan-cotton, so I divide three deferent stages of loan negotiations and disposal. At
the first stage, Japanese Government boycotted loan-cotton, but cotton market price tended to rise. At the
second stage, when cotton market price tended to go down, the Volkart Brothers of syndicate members
and the
American Cotton Cooperative Association took over Chinese business, and bought all loan -cotton to contribute for the Chinese Cooperation. At the third stage, when cotton market price slightly tended to rise
and stable, after the official announcement of expiration of credit by a chairman of the R.F.C. in 1935,
Zaikabo started to buy piles of stock cotton, including Chinese domestic raw cotton. It means that the
Japanese cotton companies were waiting for chances which could purchase this surplus loan-cotton for
their own businesses.
Fortunately, the Chinese Government made huge profits through hedge sale of future contracts in New
York and subsequent repurchases after the decline of cotton price, and did not suffer any financial losses.
Although Japanese Government caused problems of disturbing the purchase of loan-cotton, business
communities in Japan and China, especially the Japanese Cotton Mills Association in China, tried to keep
good relationship beyond the national borders. On the other hand, the U.S. Government successfully
gave economic aid to China through the export of surplus raw cotton, which gave stimulus to Chinese
industrialization in the late 1930s.
Therefore, such a kind of economic cooperation was formed not only in China-the U.S. but also in ChinaJapan relationships through the Cotton and Wheat Loan in 1933.
CHANGING MIGRATION PATTERNS OF TRISHAW RIDERS IN JAKARTA
YOSHIFUMI AZUMA (RITSUMEIKAN UNIVERSITY), [email protected]
The becak (Trishaw) had been not only a feature of Jakarta's tourist fabric but also a popular form of public transport for the lower and lower‐middle class people of Jakarta until its disappearance in 1990. Almost
all tour guidebooks on Indonesia contained illustrations of beca and directions on how to use them. Yet,
due largely to a famous speech by former President Sukarno that included the statement "Do not be a
becak driver (tukang becak);if anything, be a coolie, because becak driving is humiliating work”, operating
a trishaw has come to be regarded as a dead‐end occupation for males, in the same way as prostitu-tion
is viewed for females in Indonesia. After complete disappearance in 1990, the sudden economic crisis
associated with Soeharto’s resignation brought about a fundamental change in Indonesia. With this regime change, becak drivers returned to Jakarta. This paper argues based on the primary data sources in
1989, 1998 and 2011-15, the change and continuity of their migration patterns in order to investigate the
extent to which historical forces affects their migration patterns over 25 years. Many changes take place
in their socio-economic aspects, such as growing population of elderly, number of children and landless
peasants, especially between 1998 and 2011-15. Whereas, several continuities are evident. For example,
place of their origin as well as the nature of rural-urban circular migration are persist. Furthermore, this
paper forecast, briefly, the future prospect of becak drivers migration pattern from rural West and Central
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
106
Java under the policy change of the former Governor (=the current President), Joko Widodo, towards the
poor.
Circulation of firearms along the Northeastern borderlands of British India
Lipokmar Dzüvichü (Jawaharlal Nehru University), [email protected]
In the 1850s and 1860s, firearms began to appear among the “wild hill tribes” in the Northeastern borderlands of British India. This was a cause of much worry for British frontier officials, who subsequently
pushed for various measures to block the flow of firearms in the hill tracts. However, colonial attempts to
stop the circulation of firearms often proved ineffective and the period between 1860s and 1900s saw the
spilling over of this commodity among the various hill people along the Northeast borderlands. This article
examines the significance of firearms circulation along the Northeastern borderlands of the British Raj, a
phenomenon that historians have largely neglected. It will explore not just the challenges, but also the
new opportunities, which this “illegal” traffic in firearms opened for the colonial state and its subjects. It will
study the supply and demand for firearms, the role of various actors involved in this trade and the various
strategies employed by the colonial state to contain this “illegal” trade in firearms. A focus on firearms further reveals how the trade in firearms linked the hills in the Northeastern borderlands to the international
trade through commodity exchange. The spread of guns into the hill tracts also began to change everyday practices such as hunting among the hill societies. Moreover, these commodities could also be subsequently modified by the hill communities, in the process, changing the technology to suit local needs
and contexts.
5.1 Middle Eastern Immigration to Latin America: History, Memory and New Approaches
Middle Eastern emigration to Latin America began in the mid-nineteenth century and has continued until
today, with recent waves of refugees from Syria. However, it reached its peak in 1880-1920, in the late
Ottoman period when the Empire finally collapsed. Hundreds of thousands of Christians, Jews, and Muslims, mainly from Lebanon, Syria and Palestine, but also from cities such as Salonica, Safed, Istanbul and
Alexandria, spread all over Latin America and established large communities in metropolis such as Rio de
Janeiro, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Santiago and Mexico City.
There is a growing literature in Latin America on the past and present of this immigration, with new approaches using the concepts of transnationalism, diasporas and migratory circulation. The goal of this
panel is to gather some of the most recent empirical researches and address some theoretical and methodological dilemmas. How did those immigration waves become diasporas acting as bridges between
Latin America and their regions of origin? What kind of multi-archive research is necessary for getting a
broader look at the functioning of these networks? What is common and what are the interconnections
between the different Middle Eastern diasporas in Latin America?
Panel Organizer: Cecilia
[email protected]
Baeza
(Getulio
Vargas
Foundation
(FGV),
São
Paulo),
cecil-
Chair: Camila Pastor de Maria Campos (CIDE, Mexico), [email protected]
Discussant: Paulo Gabriel Hilu da Rocha Pinto (Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
107
Middle Eastern immigrants in Brazil and the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire (1898-1923)
Monique Sochaczewski (Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), Rio de Janeiro), [email protected]
The final stages of the Ottoman Empire and of the early Republic of Turkey involved immigration and emigration waves, massacres, wars, and exchanges of population. The massive influx of Muslims expelled
from lands taken by the Russians and by the Balkans conflicts, massacres suffered by Christians and
compulsory general military service were some of the reasons why many Ottoman subjects decided to
migrate to the Americas.
Nearly one hundred thousand Greeks, Armenians and Arabs Christians, Sephardi and Mizrahim Jews, as
well as Sunni and Shiite Muslims, all originating from the Ottoman Empire, moved to Brazil at the turn of
the nineteenth to the twentieth century helping to shape the multiethnic state that Brazil has proudly become. The intent of this communication is precisely to shed more light on a remarkable feature of the Ottoman final phase -emigration-and its impact on the conformation of the Brazilian state, which at that
moment was undergoing reorganization with the end of black slavery and the transition from Empire to
Republic.
It is hereby proposed to deal with the relations between these immigrants and their respective regions of
origin in four phases: 1898-1908, 1908-1914, 1914-1918 and 1918-1923. In the first one, from the appearance of the first Ottoman consul real working in Brazil until the Young Turk Revolution, the goal is to
report and analyze the large number of cases of violence occurred against Ottoman immigrants and how
the Ottoman Government dealt with it. In the second phase, between the Young Turk Revolution (1908)
and the beginning of the First World War (1914), it is worth checking to what extent these groups maintained some degree of Ottoman identity, dialoguing with diplomatic representation in Brazilian soil. In the
third phase, during the First World War (1914-1918), the intent is to look into the clearest departure of the
immigrants from the Ottoman authority, at a moment when the Ottoman Empire and Brazil found themselves on opposite sides of the war, and amidst revelations of massacres of Ottoman Christians. Finally,
in the fourth phase (1918-1923), how immigrant population increasingly organized and founded institutions on Brazilian soil, as well as these groups’ relations with Syria and Lebanon under French mandate,
and with the Republic of Turkey that emerged in the context of its war of independence.
Palestinian circulations between South America and the Middle East: The Lama brothers and the
rise of cinema industry in the Middle East
Cecilia Baeza (Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV), São Paulo), [email protected]
Geraldo Campos (ESPM, Brazil), [email protected]
Our paper traces the trajectory of the Lama brothers, two Chilean-born Palestinians of the first wave of
Ottoman immigration to the Americas (1880-1920), who came back to the Middle East in the 1920s and
settled in Egypt, where they started a pioneering venture that contributed to the rise of the Arab cinema
industry and was behind the first Arabic narrative film – Kiss in the Desert (Qoublah fi-l-Sahrâ’) of 1927.
Abraham and Pedro – who chose to be renamed Ibrahim and Badr once in Egypt – were born and raised
in Santiago, Chile, at the beginning of the 20th century. Both were in their twenties when they decided to
return to their hometown, Bethlehem in Palestine, from which most Ottoman migrants to Chile originated.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
108
During their journey, however, they made a stop in the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria where they finally
decided to settle.
Drawing on their previous experience as amateur photographer and assistant director in short films in
Chile, they quickly got involved in the local artistic sphere, especially the cinema which was gathering
momentum in Alexandria. Soon, they established their own production company, Condor Film, while
regularly returning to South America for buying equipment for their studio. Working with the leading lights
of silent and early sound cinema, the Lama brothers completed a succession of commercial films that had
been acclaimed in the cinema halls of Alexandria, Jaffa, and Jerusalem. In 1936, they became the first
Palestinian filmmakers to produce a fiction film in Palestine with their Ottoman-era drama The Fugitive (El
Hâribah), filmed on the outskirts of their hometown Bethlehem.
While shedding light on a little-known founding episode of Palestinian/Egyptian cinema, our paper aims at
showing how the back-and-forth of Palestinian migrants between the Middle East and South America
from the late 19th century until the 1940s played a significant role in the emergence of new artistic styles
and techniques in the Middle East. We analyze the main factors that explain the migration dynamics from
Palestine to Chile – which hosts today the largest Palestinian diaspora outside the Arab world –, and
show that emigration was not thought as a one-way project, but often led to temporary or definitive returns.
We explore how South American and Arab/Palestinian values, representations, and esthetics are intertwined in Lama’s films, and argue that this cosmopolitan/transnational dimension has been invisibilized in
the historiography of Egyptian cinema. We conclude by bringing the concept of “transnational cinema”
(Ezra and Rowden, 2006; Lu, 1997) into the discussion.
From the Palestinian Caribbean to Latino Palestinians: Transnational practice of Mexican mahjar
Palestinians, 1893-1948 and 1990-2014
Camila Pastor de Maria Campos (CIDE, Mexico), [email protected]
Palestinian migrations have clustered in northern Mexico; in and around the bustling commercial hub city
of Monterrey and its urban and rural hinterlands in the Laguna region - the cities of Saltillo, Torreón, and
smaller towns like San Pedro de los Pinos, Parras and San Pedro de las Colonias. This paper will contrast the trajectories and projects of established migrant families, the descendants of migrants who arrived between 1893 and 1948, and the new migrations, from 1990 to 2014. A cosmopolitan, polyglot population according to archival sources, I will argue that early migrants, who initially engaged in retail and as
brokers in cotton agriculture and trade, had established themselves as model citizens in Northern Mexico
by 1913.
Migrants classified by Mexican authorities as Palestinian included an important proportion of Eastern European Jewish families who decided to move on and join the growing Ashkenazi presence in Mexico after
trying out life in Ottoman Palestine. Arab
Palestinian families in Mexico cultivated ties to a broader American mahjar, with families arriving from
Haiti to settle in Torreón and Torreón and Monterrey families marrying into Palestinian networks in San
Pedro Sula, Honduras. In Northern Honduras, Palestinians transitioned into industry and established an
important presence that came under the jurisdiction of the Greek Catholic Church headquarters established in the 1940’s in Mexico City. Their descendants today constitute a comfortable middle class and
are in some cases very wealthy, they display and celebrate family memory and current business
achievements and accumulations both in the private space of their homes and public sites.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
109
The community in Honduras has continued to attract a trickle of homeland spouses for its youth and
homeland staff for the Trilingual school and the heritage food industry. The new generation of the wealthier families marries into the North American mahjar in Miami and San Antonio Texas, and some of the
more enterprising youth is beginning to settle temporarily in China in order to develop solid Pacific business networks. New migrants, arriving in Northern Mexico from marginal spaces of a Palestinian diaspora- from Jordan and Kuwait, are very few, and increasingly Muslim. When they arrive as spouses or manage to marry into the established Christian Palestinian community, their trajectories are more stable.
This paper is based on the 1932-1952 National Registry of Migrants housed at the Archivo General de la
Nación in Mexico City, on the regional archives of the state of Cohauila in Ramos Arizpe and the city archives of Saltillo and Torreón, oral history interviews with migrant families throughout Mexico and family
archives. Analysis is informed by archive visits to the Archive du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères archives housed in La Courneuve and Nantes, as well as fieldwork in Honduras and participant observation
in demonstration contexts in Mexico City since 1998.
5.2 Historical Contextualization of the East Asian Region through the Lens of ‘Exchange of Ideas’,
‘Migration of People’ and ‘Intervention of the State’
This panel explores the exchange of ideas, migration of people and attitude and intervention of the state
in Korean and Chinese history through which to historically contextualizes East Asia as ‘one region.’ Exchange of ideas and migration of people were differentiated by different time periods: pre- modern, modern and the 21st century. The ways in which the state had intervened were also different in each period.
In the 12-15th century, corresponding to the late Goryeo period in Korea and Song- Yuan period in China,
two countries were sharing a similar pool of folk religion though there were some modifications and transformations. Joseon’s perception on castaways who belonged to Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga)’s maritime
power in the 17th century reveals vulnerability of ‘little sinocentricism.’ The particular position Joseon was
situated at that time made the castaways’ status very critical. In the process of constructing the nationstate, there were communist war prisoners when the state power in the post-war era of the Korean peninsula exerted strict thought control. The struggle of the communist war prisoners in Koje-do elucidates the
circumstances in which the East Asian region had to go through during the cold war period. The tension
between the interchanges of ideas and the state’s gaze towards them also appears in the contemporary
era of cyber culture and the state power is continuously being exerted for the sake of security. Through
four papers dealing with different time periods, this penal intends to shed light on the exchange of ideas,
migration and interplays among people, and the state’s attitude toward them in a historical context from
pre-modern to early modern, modern to contemporary in order to contemplate the history and the present
of East Asia.
Panel Organizers:
Choi Hae Byoul (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Jee Ha Yang (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Chair: Discussant: -
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
110
Trends in the Faith of Gongdeokso-gyoung (功德疏經) in the 12-15th Centuries East Asia
Park, Young Eun (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
Gongdeokso-gyoung (功德疏經 the Sutra of Merit Commentary) is a kind of the recollection (mainly by
chanting) manual for wishing the merit of recollecting buddhas, bodhisattvas, heavenly gods, the human
and dead souls such as the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung (二十六分功德疏經 the Sutra of Twenty-six
Merit Objects Commentaries), Samsipbun Gongdeokso-gyoung (三十分功 德疏經 the Sutra of Thirty Merit
Objects Commentaries) and Samsippalbun Gongdeokso-gyoung (三 十八分功德疏經 the Sutra of Thirty
Merit Objects Commentaries). The Isipyukbun Gongdeokso- gyoung is the original text of the other two
sutras.
The existing studies are not sufficient for the understanding of Gongdeokso-gyoung as a whole because
they examined only the Samsippalbun Gongdeokso-gyoung. Thus, this paper restored Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung, focusing on the recent discovery, the Samsipbun Gongdeokso- gyoung and grasped the
popularized faith in the Gongdeokso-gyoung in the Goryeo Dynasty.
The Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung expounds that, if we chant the name of buddhas and bodhisattvas
to the officials of the Taoist underworld, we will reborn in the heavenly realm and also we will never catch
the contagious disease and fortunate in this world. Through the several features, the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung is considered as the sutra which was compiled from the end 11 A.D. to the early period of
12 A.D. in the Song (宋) Dynasty, China. And it is brought into the Goryeo Dynasty and the faith was established before the year 1211. Later, some contents which were required to be added by the society
were supplemented and then appeared and practiced as the Samsipbun Gongdeokso-gyoung and the
Samsippalbun Gongdeokso-gyoung in the early 14 century.
Also we can confirm such spiritual efficacies in the ceremony of the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso- gyoung
practice in the year 1211 (King Huijong, Goryeo Dynasty). The episodes of the spiritual efficacies in the
Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung show the fact that the faith was established at the first among the intellectuals or the ruling class of the central and provincial officials who could read sutras. However, later, the
spiritual efficacies appeared in the relatively easy practice such as not only in the ceremony of reading
and chanting of the sutra by ordinary people but also in the praising and keeping of sutras. Accordingly,
even though the original text was compiled in China, the additionally compiled Gongdeokso-gyoung in
Korea are a reflection of the faith of the latter part of Goryeo Dynasty which desired the spiritual efficacy
in times of the hardship.
Meanwhile, the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung was recently discovered in the National Library of China
and the study has been conducted by a Korean researcher. However, the contents and the composition
between the Chinese text of the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung and that of the Goryeo Dynasty are
slightly different. Through this, we can ensure that there are at least two or more Isipyukbun Gongdeoksogyoung in China. One of them was brought into the Goryeo Dynasty and published as the Samsipbun
Gongdeokso-gyoung and the Samsippalbun Gongdeokso-gyoung with additions and up-to-date corrections. Another one is considered as the 1st edition of the Isipyukbun Gongdeokso-gyoung, which is now
housed in the National Library of China. Moreover, we can assume that there is the faith towards Gongdeokso-gyoung and its popularity based on a record in another research in China, reporting Samsipgubun
Gongdeokso-gyoung existed.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
111
Accordingly, the original text of the Gongdeokso-gyoung was compiled in China and brought to the
Goryeo Dynasty, the additionally compiled Gongdeokso-gyoung in Korea are a reflection of the faith of
the latter part of Goryeo Dynasty and China and of the exchange of Buddhist sutras between East Asia.
Revealed Vulnerability of Little China(小中華): An Analysis of Dialogues between Joseon literati
and Castaways from China in the late Seventeenth Century Joseon, Korea
Jee Ha Yang (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
The family of Zheng Chenggong(鄭成功, Koxinga) was a maritime trading force in the seventeenth century based on southern coast of China encompassing South Asia and Japan and ultimately became a Ming
loyalist resisting the conquest of Manchus and settling in Formosa(Taiwan). The emergence of Zheng’s
power was taking advantage of the rupture during this transitional period from Ming to Qing. It seems that
Joseon was alienated from the trading network connecting South Asia, Southern China and Japan that
Zheng established. In the early seventeenth century, Joseon was more desperate to maintain the regime
and reconstruct their worldview after devastating wars with Japan and Manchus. Revenge towards Qing
for the sake of Ming was one of the main political discourses for Joseon to overcome their crisis of representation. At first, the revenge meant a physical one appeared as a discourse of “North Expedition(北伐)”
but gradually transformed into an ideological one by claiming
Joseon as “Little China(小中華).” Under these circumstances, the existence of Zheng was informed fragmentarily to Joseon through varied routes and castaways claiming to be part of Zhengs’ force who were
shipwrecked on the way to Nagasaki, Japan and were more of an immediate source of information.
On one hand, the castaways could be welcomed by many Confucian literati in terms of making possible
for Joseon to imagine the restoration of Ming. Joseon people did not intend to consider the castaways as
pirates or sea merchants but rather a symbol of Ming loyalists who should be protected by Joseon, the
Little China. On the other hand, Joseon court was embarrassed to deal with these castaways claiming as
Ming loyalists because the court should consider the reality of the oppressive relation with Qing. The
court mostly decided to send them back to Qing court in order to avoid the diplomatic conflict with Qing
where they would be ultimately executed. That is, the rupture of the court’s representation as “Little China” is revealed through the physicality of the castaways. Through the analysis of sources based on the
dialogues between Joseon literati and the castaways(漂人問答) , I intend to elucidate the anxiety and
complexities of Joseon’s reconstruction of the worldview and their identity under the changing world order
in the seventeenth century.
1952, Koje-do: the ‘Communist War’ in Prisoners of War Camps in Koje-do during the Korean war
Sunwoo LEE (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
This paper explores the ‘communist war’ in Koje-do prisoners of war camps in order to illustrate how prisoners of Korean War came into conflict in the prisoners camps and why the communist prisoners fought
desperately in Koje-do 1952. First, this paper examines how the ‘pro-communist’ pow society worked and
organized in and outside of the camps, especially by the leader called ‘Park Sang Hyon’ or ‘Ro-sunseng’
who was appointed by the US as a ‘high ranking’ communist agent. Second, what ‘pro-communist’ POWs
had constantly argued during the conflict- mostly in 1952- was mainly related to secure their risky identity.
I argue that the Koje-do POW camps in 1952, which was followed by the bloody civil war, epitomize the
way how both combat sides misunderstood and propagated each other during the Korean war, also revealing its story helps narrowing the gap between the truth and rumor of prisoners camp during the Kore-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
112
an war. To elaborate this argument, I mainly examine the Captured Korean Documents that reveals vivid
voices of POWs, though most researchers have been ignored. Through the analysis of these documents,
I intend to contextualize the sources with the US Military reports and the North Korean Government Document which had been submitted to UN. I demonstrate that the ‘pro-communist’ POW society in the Kojedo camps had nothing to do with the high command of North Korean or Soviet Military, but they were only
eager to fight for their own rights since they had a vulnerable identity for being a POW. Having no understanding of communist POWs’ mentality, the US military thought the communist would start another war
in POW camps, so they artificially categorized the POWs into two easily-divided groups, “Pro-Communist”
and “Anti-Communist” in Koje-do, which changed the rest of 170,000 pows’ lives and home ground.
The Political Implication of Google’s Exit: Cyberspace and the role of state
Jiyoon Lim (Ewha Womans University), [email protected]
In January 2010, Google announced that it was closing its China-based Internet search service due to
hacking and censorship concerns. It instead directed Chinese users to a Hong-Kong based uncensored
version of its search engine. Google’s decision to withdraw operations in China generated a controversy
in a world society and escalated diplomatic and political tensions between the U.S. and China. Nearly five
years after pulling out of China, Google is now looking to return in order to tap the world’s largest mobile
phone market. Why Google reversed its decision and what is its political implication? This paper argues
that the Google incident could be a case to understand the U.S.-China hegemonic competition in the 21th
century. Both states recognize cyberspace is the most important resources for national security. Conflict
over establishing norm in cyberspace is becoming more serious and evident. This paper seeks to explain
that the Realist view on international politics still remains strong in Information era. Although technolibertarianists have argued that Internet frees people, eliminates borders, and finally could bring democracy everywhere, even in cyberspace border exists, and state sovereignty plays a key role in dissolving
conflicts.
5.3 Historical Patterns of Migration in the Pre-modern World of East Asia
In the pre-modern world of East Asia, people left their homeland community and moved to a new location
long distance away. These migrations continued to create historical patterns which were complex and
diverse. We may classify these ones according to the types and motivations involved in migration as follows: free migration, forced migration (prisoner of war), coerced migration (laborer) and mass movements. In the pre-modern world, free migration was relatively uncommon, while most of the migrations
had been fueled by war and conflict. Therefore, the majority of the migrants were unwilling ones.
During the long time of pre-modern era, those who lived in the Korean Peninsula crossed on and off their
boundaries to settle down abroad, whether voluntarily or not. Migrants of the Silla Kingdom traveled to the
Tang Dynasty of China and set up their communities there; migrants of the Goryeo Dynasty moved to the
Yuan Dynasty of China and settled down in Daedo (Beijing today) and Yodong region; prisoners of war of
the Joseon Dynasty were obliged to move to the Qing Dynasty and stayed there for a while. Overseas
Chinese laborers in Southeast Asia in the early 19th century will provide a complementary case to these
patterns of migration.
Panel Organizer: Hwangbo Yeong-jo (Kyungpook National University), [email protected]
Chair: Hwangbo Yeong-jo (Kyungpook National University), [email protected]
Discussant: Youngin Jang (Ewha Woman University)
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
113
Reconsidering the Migrant Communities of the Silla People in the Tang Dynasty of China
Jeon Kyunghyo (Kyungpook National University), [email protected]
Silla People could settle their communities in the Tang Dynasty as a result of the open-door policy of the
Tang Dynasty. The reason why Silla people moved to the Tang Dynasty was diverse. Some moved for
political or economic reasons, while the others migrated as an ambassador or a student. Some of them
returned to their home country after a certain period of time, while the others stayed there forever.
Silla people in the Tang Dynasty were scattered along the coast, river, canal zone, etc., where the transportation was so convenient that people might enjoy a vigorous interchange of goods. They set up their
own administrative organizations under the control of the Tang Dynasty. It is well known that these organizations might make a great contribution to strengthen the solidarity of Silla people.
As we all know, Silla communities in the Tang Dynasty have been well studied in some respects. However, there are also other problems which are not easy to explain. First of all, what were the origins and processes of the formation and dissolution of the communities? Secondly, were there also the communities
in the inland area of China? Thirdly, how was the relationship of the communities with the Silla Dynasty?
Fourthly, how did Silla people make an influence on the politics, economy and culture of the Tang Dynasty? Lastly, it is often said the communities had autonomy. What did it really mean?
Here we put a great emphasis on what the motives or purposes of the migrants of Silla people were.
There are some scholars who maintain they were obliged to leave their home country for political or personal reason. However, there are also cases that some of them migrated there voluntarily. We may find
these cases in Samguksagi (History of the Three Kingdoms) and Samgukyusa (Memorabilia of the Three
Kingdoms). Here is the reason why we should reconsider this theme. We may make a conjecture on the
time when the communities were formed in the Tang Dynasty because these cases came on the scene
before the unification of Three Kingdoms. In addition, we also find some documents that refer to some
seaways in which the migrants crossed in the Ennis’s Diary(入唐求法巡禮行記) and Illustrated record of
the Xuanhe embassy to Goryeo (高麗圖經).
Secondly, the migrants of the Silla people who moved there willingly made a great influence on the Tang
Dynasty. We can trace their footprints in such a field as politics, economy, culture, etc. There are some
epitaphs on which their descendents wrote down some stories of silla women who got married Tang official. These epitaphs will let us know their perception of their ancestor and their past. Therefore, we can
imagine their identity as a Silla people and their relationship with the Silla Dynasty.
Migrants of the Goryeo People in the Yuan Dynasty of China in the 13th and the 14th Centuries
Im Ji-won (Kyungpook National University), [email protected]
In this paper we deal with the reality and characteristics of Goryeo people who moved from the Goryeo
Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty during the 13th and the 14th centuries. For a long time Historians have paid
much attention to human exchange between the two countries. There were many different kinds of
Goryeo people in the Yuan China: prisoners of war, drifting people, people requisitioned by Yuan government's demand, emigrants dispatched by Goryeo government, etc. Among these, people such as
Gongnyeo (貢女), eunuch, surrendered general, etc., left their marks in the Yuan Dynasty.
As a matter of fact, many Goryeo people began to move to the Yuan Dynasty since 1231, when the Mongols invaded the Goryeo Dynasty. It seems that most of them settled down in Daedo (Beijing today), capital of the Yuan Dynasty, and Yodong region. The number of migrants is supposed to reach hundreds of
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
114
thousands roughly. According to Yuansa (History of Yuan) and Goryosa (History of Goryeo), some
Goryeo people who lived in Daedo and Yodong region were mobilized to serve in a military unit that was
in the forefront when the Yuan Dynasty dispatched military forces to suppress the Red Turban Rebellion
in 1354. This shed some light on the existence of the migrants’ family registers. We may suppose the Yuan government filled out the family registers with a view to controlling them.
The Goryeo Dynasty also seemed to consider the emigrants as their own people. After the invasion of the
Mongols was over, the Goryeo Dynasty consistently made an effort to repatriate them. In 1297, the
Goryeo Dynasty made a request for their people’s extradition and the Yuan Dynasty allowed 350 families
of the migrants of the Goryeo people to return to their home country. Besides, the Goryeo Dynasty, sending their people to the Yuan China, was willing to provide them with basic commodities they needed.
How did the migrants of the Goryeo people live in the Yuan Dynasty? How did they perceive themselves?
These are the main points we try to investigate in this paper. Even though there is not enough historical
materials left, we may make a mosaic with small pieces of historical documents.
Prisoners of War of the Joseon People in the Qing Dynasty of China
Lee Jae-hyeon (Kyungpook National University), [email protected]
In this paper we try to investigate the realities and identity of Joseon people who were taken to the Qing
Dynasty after the Manchu war (1636-7). The Joseon Dynasty was in existence for a long time. However,
there was nearly no immigration caused by economic motive or refugee caused by war. But there were
some exceptions. Many people were taken to Japan and Manchuria due to Imjinwaeran (1592-8) and the
Manchu war. Among them, more than five hundred thousand people were estimated to be taken to the
Qing Dynasty, and most of them could not return to their home country.
In the existing researches, migration of prisoners of war and their repatriation to their home country after
paying a ransom for them were intensively investigated. With these studies we got the picture of the
backgrounds and processes that the prisoners of war were taken in a large scale to the Qing Dynasty, the
pains
that they suffered, the conflicts involved in their ransoms and the problem of the women that returned
home from the Qing Dynasty, etc.
Those who were taken from the Joseon Dynasty were exchanged in the prisoner market in Shenyang,
capital of the Qing Dynasty at that time. Some of them could return home when their family in the Joseon
Dynasty paid a ransom for them. But many of them could not return. Besides, some returned to their
home country by escaping secretly. However, there was a regulation between two countries that the Joseon Dynasty should send back the fugitives to the Qing Dynasty. Therefore, the problem of dealing with
the fugitives often developed into a factor of political conflicts between both countries.
The Yeonhaengnok (燕行錄), The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty (朝鮮王朝實錄) and Munjip (文集) tell us
some stories concerning to the prisoners of war taken by the Qing Dynasty in the regimes of Injo (162349) and Hyojong (1649-59). In these literatures we may find some traces of the prisoners of war of the
Joseon people who lived in the Qing China unwillingly. Was there any change in their ways of life and
mentalities while they had been staying long abroad? In this paper we are going to make an analysis of
this interesting issue.
Identity of Overseas Chinese Laborers in Southeast Asia in the early 19th Century
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
115
Kim Jong Ho (National University of Singapore), [email protected]
In the late imperial China, Chinese who tried to depart imperial territory across the South China Sea and
make a living overseas were regarded as criminals or useless people by the Qing government. Therefore,
they were often executed by Qing government. This kind of perspective by Qing dynasty had been
changed from the mid-1870s as Qing government had begun to realize the economic potential of Chinese
abroad, a so-called overseas Chinese. Before this change of perspective by Qing government, various
kinds of harsh circumstances like Taiping revolution, corruptions of the officials, and natural disasters
pushed the numerous populations of Chinese to cross the sea. Externally, there had been the creation of
new demands for Chinese laborers as the plantation economics of Western imperial countries in Southeast Asia had developed.
Due to those internal and external reasons, from the early-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century, a significant number of Chinese departed their hometowns in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. Normally, because the main reason of their departure was economic poverty, their major purpose was working and supporting their family such as living necessaries, education of their children, and cash gifts for
family. Therefore, the increase of Chinese immigration means the increase of remittances from Southeast
Asia to China.
With the money returning back to their hometown, the numerous letters written by Chinese laborers in
Southeast Asia were also sent to the hometown in China. The combination of letters and remittances was
called as ‘Qiaopi (侨批)’ and, especially, in the case of letter, it reveals the real life and conditions of them.
Due to the importance of ‘Qiaopi’ in Fujian and Guangdong provinces, it was nominated by UNESCO to
be listed in the Asia-Pacific Memory of the World Register in May 2012.
As noted above, Chinese who were working or searching for the living overseas were not regarded as the
subjects under the protection of Qing government until the 1875 when the Qing government decided to
treat them as the people should be protected and to send the consuls to Western countries. Finally, in
1877, Qing government could establish the consulate in Singapore to protect overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia after negotiating with British government. However, it means they were working in overseas
countries as foreign laborers who were not accepted by their home country until 1877. As migrant workers who were left stateless until 1877, how did overseas Chinese perceive themselves? What kind of factors formed their identity instead of nationality?
To answer those questions regarding overseas Chinese identity before 1877, this article will examine
their thoughts, perspectives, and ideas on the environment surrounding them via remittance letters from
Southeast Asia to China. Those letters to their parents or wife and children would be a good method to
reveal their perspectives on themselves. In this regard, with the investigation on the processes of sending
letters and money back to their hometown, this article will identify what the letters of overseas Chinese
laborers shows us on their identity, which could be the root of contemporary overseas Chinese identity.
5.4 Migration of Women between Urban and Rural Areas in Asia and the Transformation of Patriarchy
In many regions of Asia in the late twentieth century, the social and psychological gaps between the urban and the rural areas have become less, and women’s lifestyles and consciousness have changed. In
this panel, we discuss the transformation of gender structures in societies that accompany change in relationships between the urban and the rural in China and India. Awaya’s presentation takes up the autobi-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
116
ographies of Dalit women, whose activities and organizations have become prominent in recent years,
and analyses the relationships between their migration from a village/town to a small town/large city and
their consciousness and political participation. Tokita-Tanabe’s presentation examines migrant women’s
conditions under patriarchy based on fieldwork in rurban areas located in between the urban and the rural
in a coastal region of Eastern India. Kohama’s presentation considers how family structures and women’s
consciousness have changed due to birth planning in rural China by comparing them with conditions in
offshore cities. The panel aims to discuss the migration of women between the urban and the rural in contemporary Asia and the transformation of patriarchy in societies in question from perspectives of comparative history.
Panel Organizer: Masako KOHAMA (Nihon University), [email protected]
Chair: Masako KOHAMA (Nihon University), [email protected]
Discussant: Keiko Tamura (The University of Kitakyushu)
The Meaning of Migration for Dalit Women in Modern India: Perspectives drawn from the Women’s
Autobiographies
Toshie AWAYA (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), [email protected]
One of the most conspicuous developments in recent Indian Feminist movement is the advent of “Dalit
Feminism” in the 1990s. The National Federation of Dalit Women established in Delhi (1995) represents
such a trend.
This paper explores how Dalit women participated in the Dalit movement led by Dr. B.R.Ambedkar (18911956), which challenged the caste order dominated by higher castes, especially Brahmans, and at same
time, how the women developed their own criticisms of not only the caste discrimination but also the patriarchal structure among the Dalit communities. In order to examine the women’s involvement, the paper
focuses on the meaning of migration (in this case, migration from a village/town to a small town/large city)
for Dalit women by examining two autobiographies written by Dalit women: The Prisons We Broke (2008,
first published in 1986) by Baby Kamble (1929-2012), and The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Women’s Memoirs (2008, first published in 2003) by Urmila Pawar (b. 1945).
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, stated the following in his
speech introducing the draft Constitution to the Constituent Assembly on 4 November 1948, “What is the
village but a sink of localism, a den of ignorance, narrow-mindedness and communalism? I am glad that
the Draft Constitution has discarded the village and adopted the individual as its unit.”
Baby Kamble and Urmila Pawar are from quite different educational, occupational and family backgrounds. For instance, Kamble’s education was terminated at the 4th grade, whereas Pawar gained a M.
A. degree. Yet, both of them had in common their experience of shift in residence from a village to a small
town/large city. Kambke left her maternal grandparents’ village, Veergaon, to a small town, Phaltan, located 110 kilometers from Pune, while Pawar moved out a local town, Ratnagiri, to Mumbai. Their autobiographies show that their migration provided them with chances to be exposed to wider experiences, as
well as more complex relations with the outer world. In the process, each of them acquired and trained
their critical consciousness regarding caste and patriarchal oppression.
Migration and Settlement in Rurban Areas of Coastal Odisha, India, from 1980s to 2010s
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
117
Yumiko TOKITA-TANABE (Osaka University), [email protected]
This paper looks at patterns of migration and settlement in so-called ‘rurban’ areas in coastal Odisha, India. By, rurban, I refer to newly developing residential areas which are spatially located in-between rural
and urban zones. In the paper, I give qualitative accounts of migration and settlement of people of diverse
age, caste, and class in a particular rurban area from the late 1970s to early 2010s based on my ongoing
fieldwork research. Rurban areas are characterized by absence of structured space based on caste affiliation and kinship relations. That is to say, residence is not based along caste lines, and extended kin
groups do not necessarily live next to each other as they do in village contexts. This does not mean to
say, however, that caste distinctions and kin relations have disappeared altogether. Rather, there is a
reassembling of caste and kin, as well as class relations, based on networks created by the residents and
potential residents of the rurban areas who create new opportunities for upward mobility in terms of socioeconomic and political status, and at the same time, build safety nets for care of the elderly and the
young. Another interesting feature of the rurban is that it mediates the rural and the urban in terms of values, forming hybrid sets of values that combine village elements and city aspects. Rurban residents do
not have to contend with blatant caste discrimination as they would in villages where everyone knows
each other. At the same time, they are not faced with problems of alienation and loneliness of city life
where no one knows or dares find out what their neighbors are up to. Rurban residents live in a convivial
atmosphere by maintaining a mutually understood, comfortable distance with each other. It is interesting
too that it is precisely this kind of distance which allows women to exercise agency that counters conventional patriarchal, patrilineal, patrilocal ideas and practices. Rurban women are free to stay physically and
emotionally close to their natal homes and exercise agency in making choices about where to buy property and build houses after a few years of marriage. There also develops a long-standing relationship of
care between daughters and their parents, which is not found in patrilineal rural areas and rare in cities
since the housing space is often too small and housing too expensive for middle to lower class women to
take care of their aged parents. I describe and analyze how migration into rurban areas empowers women to negotiate and tackle problems of socio-economic and cultural marginalization under patriarchal settings of the rural and the urban.
Birth Planning and Transformation of Rural Families in China
Masako KOHAMA (Nihon University), [email protected]
Family planning in China is renowned for its “one child policy” since 1979, but in fact the promotion of
birth planning in China began in the late 1950s. It was reinforced intermittently before actually leading to
the "one-child policy" in 1979. In this presentation, I analyze how family structures and women’s consciousness changed in the process of introduction and dissemination of birth planning in rural China in
comparison with offshore cities, based on fieldwork conducted by my research group in several locations.
Q Village in Liaoning Province, Northeastern China, can be called a “model village” from the viewpoint of
birth control advocates. In this village, the number of births decreased as contraception methods were
introduced to and disseminated among women in the 1960s, and sterilization came to be universally recommended to women of reproductive age in the 1970s. Birth planning was based on development of primary health care provided by the village cooperative medical system where a female “barefoot doctor”
equipped with basic medical technologies was allocated to each village. There was also a female head of
the production brigade allocated as the female cadre to carry out policies at the grass root level in each
village resulting in a gender sensitive system of recruitment. The fact that the female cadre allocated to Q
Village was particularly good at her work resulted in the “successful” birth planning there, and the rate in
decrease of number of births is not so different from that in the offshore cities. However, in B Village in
Hunan Province, Central China, birth rates did not decrease as quickly as in Q Village. In B Village, the
village leader was not enthusiastic about birth planning, and the modernization of childbirth was not pro-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
118
gressing in a straightforward manner. In the context of the poor economic conditions of the time, some
villagers who considered bringing up children as a burden welcomed the introduction of birth planning. At
the same time, some villagers rejected birth planning and tried to run away from being mobilized. Mobilization into birth planning schemes took place in contexts of power relations in concrete human relationships. The regional variation was due to the fact that the means of mobilization in the villages were more
dependent upon the human relationships on the ground compared with those in urban areas.
5.5 World Maps as Knowledge Aggregators: from Renaissance Italy Fra Mauro to Web Search Engines
Medieval and Renaissance maps of the world were and worked as knowledge aggregators. The cosmographers identified, selected, and re-edited information about hundreds of places from a variety of literary,
iconographic, and oral sources, and synoptically re-organized them in place names, cartouches, and
drawings to be put on a map. This selection/aggregation process transformed the mappa mundi into a
visual encyclopaedia (i.e. an all-around learning and thinking tool), where each geo- graphical entry was
able to generate narratives as a data gateway and an information hub for customs, commodities, and rulers of different peoples of the world. If we infer that the Renaissance people asked to the cosmographers
to learn about the world as we go to search engines to find what we want, the reverse engineering of
these works (as exemplified in this panel by Angelo Cattaneo for the mid-fifteenth-century world map by
Fra Mauro Camaldolese and by Anna Guarducci for Ignazio Danti in Florence and Rome) can help to
draw the connection between the traditional way to aggregate knowledge as a product (e.g. Fra Mauro's
mappa mundi) and the modern way of using search engines and related internet services (i.e. their map
services as presented by Lin Chin-Yew) to serve a similar purpose but in a better and more dynamic
manner, placing crucial question, such as: How the same networks/people can bring new wealth and development, or war and poverty? Which are the dynamics of sustainability in international mechanisms?
This last answers will be addressed in Cheong Siew Ann paper.
Panel Organizer: Andrea Nanetti (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Chair: Andrea Nanetti (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Discussant: Andrea Nanetti (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Medieval and Renaissance representations of the world
Angelo Cattaneo (The Portuguese Centre for Global History - Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities,
New University of Lisbon), [email protected]
Places names in Medieval and Renaissance representations of the world were understood as loci (i.e.
topics and gateways to topics linked one to the others from a variety of literary, visual, and oral sources)
that provided the intellectual structure through which the user could gain access to all sort of information
and narratives: from the shape and structure of the celestial and sublunary worlds, to ethnographical descriptions of people, cities, regions, animals and wonders, but also world trade of commodities, in particular spices, gold, silver, pearls, and precious stones, including the terrestrial and maritime routes, on which
and through which they circulated. The paper reasons what Fra Mauro's intentions might be in producing
the mappa mundi, which shows itself to be a document of great value and importance for unpacking the
three principal social and cultural processes that characterize the history of Venice in this period: the de-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
119
velopment of long-distance information networks; the foundation of a global economy in which Venice
served as one of the leading protagonists; and, finally, an expansion—both physically and epistemologically—into the spaces and seas that earlier were not believed to be accessible to man. These are processes in which Venice played a determining role, with con- sequences for all of Europe, and for the
oikoumenē of the fifteenth century.
Map based aggregated information: from re- naissance Italy to web based search engines
Chin-Yew Lin (Microsoft Research), [email protected]
This paper presents the results of a research project on "Augmenting Microsoft Bing Search through Automatic Narratives in the Interactive Global Histories" developed in an NTU and Microsoft Research project (PI, Assoc. Prof. Andrea Nanetti). Built on top of online maps such as Bing Maps, the future
knowledge aggregators will use place names as gateways. This allows the user to view the full contents
of the information widgets, as well as interact with other information widgets that might be embedded.
Contents are not proprietary, but are drawn from various online sources. Using this example, we illustrate
what a map-based knowledge aggregator would look like, and how it presents aggregated information to
the user in the form of interrelated narratives. More importantly, not all information is made available to
the user, because they would be overwhelming. Instead, the user navigates the information widgets one
at a time, and as his/her course of action becomes more consistent, more relevant information would be
presented to him/her. By consolidating courses of actions by previous users, the map-based knowledge
aggregator will increasingly be able to predict the interests of the current user (i.e. what a recommendation engine does).
Digital maps and automatic narratives in the interactive global histories
Siew Ann Cheong (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
In the knowledge management literature, we find the classification of human awareness into a data, information, knowledge, and wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy. Data are merely symbols that we associate with
specific features in the outside world, information is contextualized data that allows us to answer questions, knowledge is proceduralised information that al- lows us to act on and solve problems, and wisdom
is knowing under which situations to act. To do well in the world we must move up this hierarchy of knowing, and the greatest challenge we (and Fra Mauro too, in his days) face is the fragmentation of
knowledge and information. In other words, the problem we have to overcome is the problem of
knowledge aggregation, encountered in decision science, organizational learning, and even bioinformatics, and medicine. The chief limitations of Fra Mauro’s mappa mundi as a knowledge aggregator are that
firstly, the map has to be ‘finished’ be- fore it can be useful to someone else. Once it is ‘finished’ it cannot
be up- dated to reflect new information. This is the paradox facing old media: the product becomes outdated the moment it is produced. Secondly, the map- pa mundi cannot adapt to its user. In contrast,
online maps like Google Maps and Bing Maps are always works in progress. This allows new information
to be added as they become available, and ultimately all old information stored in a timeline. However,
they do not provide narratives produced by experts or drawn from Wikipedia.
Mapping the Premodern Malay world: Texts, Mobility, and Networks
Koh Keng We (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
This paper is a study on mobility and the making of the premodern Malay world region, by examining
court and other histories compiled in the region before the twentieth century. Through the mobility of their
protagonists, and the circulation of objects, commodities, people, and ideas represented in them, be they
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
120
real or fictional, texts like the Hikayat Pasai, Sulalatus al-Salatin, the Misa Melayu, and the Tuhfat alNafis, allow us to map the geopolitical and cultural imaginaries within the Malay world region, of the region itself, and the broader worlds in which they are located.
Focusing on the theme of mobility in these sources provides important insights into the creation not only
of maritime polities, diasporic networks, and regional communities, but also the structural dynamics of a
socio-political order in the western archipelago shaped by these maritime environments. Rather than following the abstract lens imposed by colonial knowledge formations and their post-colonial successors,
and their categories, assumptions, and stereotypes, the mobilities, connections, and stories charted in
these histories provide us with perspectives inside-out that also locate the Malay world region within
broader spatial frames of significance.
5.6 The Praxis of Teaching World History to Secondary Students: The Philippine Science High
School-Main Campus Experience
The panel is comprised of three paper presenters. In general, this panel will discuss the new methodologies, techniques and guiding frameworks in teaching World History, drawn from the experiences as Social
Science Teachers of Philippine Science High School-Main Campus (PSHS-MC).
The first paper will discuss the different teaching strategies that can be used for teaching World History to
secondary students, specifically for the mentally gifted ones. It will focus on teaching strategies suited for
the mathematically and scientifically- inclined students. It will also highlight the relevance of studying history in a science- oriented school.
The second paper will construct a comparative study on two guiding frameworks in teaching World History. In particular, it will explore and identify the valuable features which can be of use to teachers and educators whose aim is to discuss global history by using a comparative and integrative approach.
Lastly, the third paper will discuss the use of digital tools in teaching World History. It will also explore the
techniques of integrating lessons and projects from World History to other subjects like Computer Science
or Mathematics. This research paper will point out the importance of using variations in teaching World
History, particularly with the social media generation.
Panel Organizer: Ma. Donna S. Rebong (The Philippine Science High School – Main Campus), [email protected]
Chair: Discussant: -
World History & the Social Media Generation: Teaching World History and Making sense out of it
to Secondary Students
Charles Joseph Garcia De Guzman (The Philippine Science High School – Main Campus),
[email protected]
The advent of internet has ushered a new era for education. It greatly helped educators around the world
to access more information, particularly when looking for illustration, graphs, charts and other things that
can aid them in their subject areas. Moreover, it also helped learners of today to take charge in their own
learning by just browsing the internet.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
121
The cyberspace became a big classroom that everyone can learn and is free to learn what they want,
where they want and how they want to learn. This has become a major challenge and at the same time
an opportunity for educators these days. The challenge lies on how to guide the students on where they
can get their information and what information to get.
With the internet becoming a big marketplace for information and data, one can get easily lost and be
drowned in it. While there are challenges that many educators have to face in this age of internet, it can
also be a good opportunity to enhance our teaching methodologies to our students. The power of the internet can help teachers to explore ideas of teaching lessons unconventionally which can give the students new classroom learning experiences.
This paper will explore the use and power of internet along with the new digital tools in teaching the concepts of world history to secondary students. In particular, the paper will tackle how the author applies
interdisciplinary studies in discussing lessons in World History. It significantly helps both the teacher and
the students to make sense of what they learn from their history class. The techniques that are used in
the classroom are combination of old and new methods which consider the context of today’s learners.
Stirring the Minds of the Gifted Youth: Strategy in Teaching World History at Philippine Science
High School – Main Campus
Erin L. Dela Cruz (The Philippine Science High School – Main Campus), [email protected]
Students of the Philippine Science High School have been recognized as having high aptitude in science
and mathematics. Having been provided with stipends from the government, the students of the aforementioned secondary school are mandated to apply to any of the science, math, and engineering courses
when they reach the tertiary level. Taking up a non-natural science course is strictly not allowed. Despite
this, the school still requires its students to take Humanities courses during their secondary level, one of
those is World History.
Because of this condition, it is a great challenge then for the Social Science teachers to engage these
scientifically-inclined students in learning about history. Presently, the PSHS-MC Social Science teachers
have been very diligent in creating activities that strive to capture the students’ interest in history without
sacrificing the Social Science Unit’s main goal – to emphasize the significance of history to the contemporary time. Such activities as The Amazing Greek Race, Athos, Medieval Song Writing, and Fashtory:
Where Fashion Meets History, along with role-plays, class dioramas, and quarterly talks on social issues,
both national and global, are made for the students to enjoy and learn from. However, several factors still
have to be considered in creating activities: appropriateness, students’ safety, and time, to name a few.
In line with this context, this paper has the following aims: to enumerate the activities the World History
teachers of the PSHS-MC apply to students; to identify which among the activities are effective tools in
enhancing the historical knowledge of the students; and lastly, to give recommendations that could further
hone the students’ skills on history.
World History for Us All or Big History? A Comparative Study of Two World History Curricula used
in PSHS-MC
Ma. Donna S. Rebong (The Philippine Science High School – Main Campus), [email protected]
Currently, there is an emerging trend in creating an integrative curriculum of World History. Two of the
popular curricula are the World History for Us All and Big History. These curricula aim to provide a systematic approach in teaching global history. They both share the same objective of dividing world history
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
122
into manageable unit of analysis to construct a meaningful and organized narrative of the global past. For
example, the World History for Us All curriculum divided world history in nine eras while the Big History
curriculum divided world history in eight thresholds.
Though these two curricula share the same objective, they still differ on their approach of dividing world
history on themes and time periods. This paper aims to construct a comparative study of these two world
history curricula which are borrowed and used as guiding frameworks in the teaching of global history in
Philippine Science High School-Main Campus (PSHS-MC). It will identify and explore valuable features of
these curricula which can be of use to teachers and educators whose aim is to discuss global history by
using a comparative and integrative approach.
Moreover, it will discuss how useful these two curricula in the teaching of global history in PSHS-MC. It
will also particularly highlight the significant processes emphasized in these curricula like migration, expansion of networks and the development of collective learning. Lastly, this study will provide recommendations on how to maximize these resources in creating one’s approach in teaching global history by
combining several elements of the two curricula.
5.7 Objects and memories
Chair: Satoshi Masutani (Nanyang Technological University/Rikkyo University), [email protected]
Study of brick and tile in Le so dynasty (1428-1527) from Northern Vietnam and its effects from
Ming China architecture
Ngo Thi Lan (Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences), [email protected]
The paper introduces the brick, tile and components decorations on tile in Le so period (15th to early 16th
century) in architecture site from Northern Vietnam aims to understand the production, processing technique as well as decorations on brick and tiles in this period. According to the archaeological sources, the
brick and tile in Le so period has been discovered in the types of buildings such as Thang Long Imperial
Palace, Hanoi (Dong Kinh-Eastern Capital) and Lam Kinh tomb, Thanh Hoa (Tay Kinh -Western capital).
They are related to the Imperial Palace architecture. On the basis of the set of resources from the findings
of the French scholar, the discovery and study of the Vietnamese archaeologists, the paper content refers
to the characteristics brick, tile and decoration on brick and tile progress over time in terms of material,
color, form, decorative and techniques. Functional forms and use of different types of decorative tiles will
also be mentioned in this study.
The study also compared in the broader context of the brick and tile in the region such as Chinese Imperial Palace architecture on the type, decorations, forms and techniques of some types from Ming dynasty.
Research results show that the tradition and development of brick and tile in Vietnam as well as the exchange of culture and characteristics of Vietnam’s culture in region.
Milan-Madrid-Mexico: Global Urban network and cities in Spanish Empire
ZHU Ming (East China Normal University), [email protected]
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
123
In recent years, the research on global history from the perspective of network and circulation has received more and more attention, especially that on the connected world which has the cities as important
nodes. This article is to explore the cities in Spanish Empire through the study of their urban planning and
layouts. It also attempts to discuss how the cities have interacted with each other. Milan is an Italian city
whose medieval urban form was changed in Renaissance times; Madrid is the center of Spanish Empire
and also a new city since 16th century, whose original Islamic form was transformed; Mexico city is a former Indian city and was reconstructed by the Spanish conquerer, while it has preserved some traditional
elements. These cities share many common points: grand rectangular squares became the city centers;
the concept of ideal city produced rectilinear form and grid-plan geometry. These changes were not only
owing to the flow from Empire center to the periphery, but also the counterflow in the web created by the
Empire. The ideas of Italian urban planners such as Alberti, Firalette spread to America, while the American urban layout tradition had an unnegligible impact upon the old world. Other cities such as Manila city
reflect the same trend too. This article concludes that the cities are changing one another by the circulating ideas in the global network.
Changing Funeral Practices in Eighteenth-Century England: Why exotic oriental goods were not
popular for funeral?
Teerapa Pirohakul (London School of Economics and Political Science), [email protected]
In the eighteenth-century England, luxurious consumption among the middle classes was widely popular.
Commodities and lifestyles defined one’s social standing in society. Due to the expansion of international
trade and the period of colonialism in the two centuries before, the middle classes, who were searching
for their own identity, used imported goods, known as ‘exotic’ items, such as china, silk, and spices as
their way to display their social and economic status. McKendrick coins the term “Consumer Revolution”
to describe the middle classes’ consumption where they emulated the upper classes’ behavior on consumption. It’s been observed that the Consumer Revolution had penetrated the middle-class groups
throughout the eighteenth century including funeral and that the exotic items brought from the oriental
countries were the symbol of luxury.
Based on 3,000 Prerogative Court of Canterbury probate accounts collected from the National Archives in
London for my PhD thesis, “The Funeral in the Long Eighteenth Century”, submitted to the London
School of Economics (2015), my study on funeral consumption in the long eighteenth century suggests
that there was Consumer Revolution in funeral in a sense that it was more conspicuous. A shift from placing an importance on feasting activity to a consumption of materialistic goods. The middle classes, especially in London, paid large amount of money for items such as mourning, gloves and scarves, rings and
other accessories, coffins, memorials, and other decorations. However, imported goods did not seem to
play any important role in this except for the garments for the mourning. This paper will examine the reasons why the desire for consuming imported goods was not spread to the funeral since it was becoming a
ritual to show people’s wealth and their social position in this century. It will further explore whether this
consumption pattern did occur in somewhere else, especially in Asia. This can reflect cultural similarities
and differences across countries and possibly between the Eastern and the Western world.
War Memory and National History: from Dark Tourism Dimension
Satoshi Masutani (Nanyang Technological University/Rikkyo University), [email protected]
Structuring National identity is important work of rising countries. For instance, Singapore makes concreted national history and identity under SG50. War memory is one of value content of national history by
nation. What and how do make war memory? Now still past 70 years, it is a process from people oriented
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
124
succession to material oriented succession. In tourism studies, “Dark Tourism” is one of interesting idea
for such making national identity by war memory. It is the phenomenon of sites associated with war, genocide, assassination and other tragic events have become significant people destinations. In this paper, I
analyze Southeast Asian rising countries experience in Japanese Occupation History as Dark Tourism
phenomenon for national history and identity.
5.8 Immigration in colonial Burma
Chair: Li Yi (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
Indian Labour Emigration to Burma under Maistry system: Critical appraisal of Indian migratory
trends (c. 1880-1940)
RITESH JAISWAL (University of Delhi), [email protected]
In the Indian scenario there has been an strong tendency to view the migratory trends during the 19th20th
century colonial period as largely Indentured in its form, coercive and unfree in nature, Colonial Europeans as its stimulator, predominantly Northern Indian or Bhojpuri region as its source, plantation labourer
as its composition and as steering towards colonial landmasses in Caribbean, Pacific and Indian oceans
as its region of production/destination. Such an approach completely disregards the multidimensional nature of the systems of Indian Emigration.
One of the key reasons for generation of such a tendency was that the colonial state was explicitly involved in regulating the Indenture system, resulting in copious documentation of the system. While the
‘other’ system of Indian emigration Kangani and Maistry systems remained rather lesser formally regulated, especially Maistry system, and thus relatively less documented. The documentary sparseness and
incongruities also explains to a great extent the scholarly neglect of study of the systems of migration to
Burma and Ceylon. However, this should not convey that these systems were lesser important. One can
understand its significance in terms of sheer mobility accounted by the Kangani and Maistry system of
migration. The total Emigration from India, Indentured and ‘others’ from 18341937 was estimated at 30
million people, out of which Emigrations to Burma, Ceylon, Malay, which largely involved the labourers
emigrating through Kangani and Maistry system, accounted for over 90 percent of the total.
This paper will attempt to challenge the parameters which conventionally define the characteristics of Indian migration during the colonial period by exploring the intricate pattern and nature of Maistry system of
labour emigration to Burma that gained prominence in the late nineteenth century alongside the Indentured system. On a broader level it will also attempt to complicate the Eurocentric perceptions on the
Asian/Indian migration system in the studies of Global migration framework.
The studies on global migration patterns have ‘otherised’ and largely undermined the immense significance and the phenomenal mobility of Indian and broadly Non European/Asian migration that occurred
during the colonial phase at three broad levels Unlike the transatlantic flows, the non Atlantic migrations
are seen as not much significant both quantitatively as well as qualitatively. At the second level we notice
‘otherization’ of the Non European or Asian migration patterns during the colonial times as Indentured,
unfree, and bonded in its nature as distinct from the European ‘free’ migration. Thirdly, we notice overarching significance accorded to transatlantic migrations which was seen as integral to the expansion and
integration of the world economy while Non European migration was seen it as a direct product of Euro-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
125
pean intervention and expansion. My aim is not merely to present counterpoising arguments against
those displaying a Eurocentric tilt, or to develop a particularistic view of Indian migration trends, but instead to complicate the given narratives which creates the basis for establishing a dichotomy of distinctive
forms and characteristics of migratory trends by providing an in dept analysis of the complex structure
and nature of Maistry system of migration.
Eurasians in Rangoon 1852-1942: Half or Double?
Simon Duncan (Tokyo Notice Board), [email protected]
When the British took control of Rangoon in1852 it was a town of modest size, famous for religious pilgrimage to the Shwedagon Pagoda with a small Eurasian population. By 1942 when the Japanese attacked the city it had become a modern metropolis with a population of over 400,000 people fueled by
exports of rice and teak and had immigration to rival New York.
Even before 1942 Rangoon was a foreign city, with the numbers of Burmese smaller than the Indian population. The Eurasian population also exploded during this time, by 1931, the last time a full census was
conducted, there were close to 10,000 Eurasians, thought to be the highest concentration in Asia. Between 1881 and 1901 the Eurasian population of Rangoon tripled, helped by immigration of Eurasians
from Malaya and India.
The Eurasians, sometimes called Anglo-Indians almost always had a European father and Asian mother,
the mother as often as not Indian rather than Burmese.
How and why did this happen? What problems and prejudices did Eurasians in colonial Rangoon face?
Although they had some advantages in the work place compared to Burmese they were often socially
ostracized by both Burmese and British communities. What were their contributions to the building of the
city and why did many Eurasians leave their homes in other Asian countries to settle in Rangoon?
These issues will be looked at in depth for this paper.
In search of greener pastures: Migration of Setti Balijas to Burma
K. Arjun Rao (Osmania University), [email protected]
Before the advent of civilized form of living, man was a barbarian and led a nomadic life. He moved from
place to place in search of food. Thus migrations were seen and experienced by man since pre-historic
period. While migrations in ancient times were purely based on sustenance, the dawn of civilization has
changed and expanded the concept of migration. World has seen many types of migrations; broadly, they
are internal and external migrations. This makes us to rethink the general definition of migration. Many
theories have emerged over a period of time on human migration. E.G. Ravenstein formulated first laws
on migrations, which were based on his generalization on empirical studies of inter country monuments
within Britain in the 19th century, using census data. However, the United Nations Organization (UNO)
has recommened that “in the national census the term “Migration” should be used only to describe those
movements which involve people moving from an administrative area to another, and which result in permanent change of residence.
Migrations generally bring demographic change and this influences political and eco-cultural arena of
both adopted and left areas. Indians in general and Telugus/Andhras in particular have migrated and settled in many corners of the world over the years. As Indian society is a fragmented society based on
caste, it enables us to study even caste wise migration. Setti Balija (Goud) community is one among
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
126
many communities which has migrated to foreign lands. It is well known that Burma was “the Land of
Gold” (Swarna Bhoomi). The above word Swarna Bhoomi explains that Burma was economically well
developed in those days. New avenues of employment pulled up migrations in a big way.
Members of Setti Balija Caste who migrated to Burma, for sustenance have not only changed their life,
but also the life of the members of their community in Coastal Andhra. They once went to seek employment in Burma, but emerged as providers of employment. Due to the effort and services extended by
these migrants new generations of educationists and politicians emerged. Immigrants have pooled their
sources for the development of their community in terms of health, education and employment. The present paper is an attempt at tracing migration of Setti Balijas to Burma and their subsequent socioeconomic development.
5.9 Reviewing the Global History
Chair: Jiang Lijing (Nanyang Technological University), [email protected]
The controversy about Asia’s contribution to the Rise of the West – An overview of recent debates
on Europe’s debt to East, South and West Asia
Kaveh Yazdani, [email protected]
The question whether modernity emerged through a dialogical and multicultural process or, on the contrary, due to internal European dynamics exclusively, has been discussed controversially, especially after
the works of Joseph Needham and Marshall Hodgson were published. Recently, Eurocentric scholars
such as Toby Huff, David Landes, Ricardo Duchesne and others have denied that Asia played an important role in Europe’s ascension to world domination. On the other hand, academics such as Jack
Goody, John Hobson, Arun Bala etc. claim that Asia’s role was crucial in the formation of the Great Divergence. In this paper, I intend to give an overview of some recent debates surveying Europe’s debt to
Asian core areas i.e. China, India and the Islamic world during the periods known as the Middle Ages and
Early Modernity. I shall place special emphasis on Asia’s contribution to the Rise of the West in the context of an increasingly interdependent ‘medieval’ and ‘early modern’ world. For this purpose, I will examine possible processes of diffusion from East to West concerning ideas, institutions, resources and goods,
in diverse fields such as agriculture, art, commerce, science and technology that were conducive to Europe’s dynamic advancements.
Reorienting Reorienting the 19th Century: Reappraisal of the 19th Korea
Kang Sungho (Sunchon National University), [email protected]
This paper looks carefully at A. G. Frank's views about the 19th China in his Reorienting the 19th Century
as a starting point. His ReOrient(1998) insisted that China continued its rapid eighteenth-century growth
into the beginning of the nineteenth century. His Reorienting the 19th Century suggests that a date for
Chinese ‘decline’ should be after 1860. This view is based mainly on his treatment of the 19th China. In
order to insist that East Asian ‘decline’ should be after 1860, we need to examine the history of Korea and
Japan in the 19th century.
Frank did not write systematically about the 19th Korea and treat the 19th Korea as an independent player in the history of East Asia. In order to overcome Frank's limitation on the 19th Korea, this paper exam-
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
127
ines concretely what Frank recognizes about the 19th Korea. Thereafter it will approach the 19th Korea
from the perspective of quantities (population, production, productivity, and trade). When it compares the
19th Korea and the 19th China, we will know the typical developmental trajectories of the 19th East Asia
including China and Korea.
Reconsideration of A. G. Frank's Works in Global History
Sho Higaki (Osaka University), [email protected]
In this presentation, I’d like to reconsider A. G. Frank’s works, concentrating on his last work, “Reorienting
the 19th Century: Global Economy in the Continuing Asian Age” (2014) from Asian perspectives.
The previous book “Reorient: Global Economy in the Asian Age” (1998) was a research about the eighteenth century and its nineteenth century version is “Reorienting the 19th Century”. Frank criticizes the
traditional euro-centric perspectives of the nineteenth century and the approaches concentrating on small
unit such as nations. This book draws a new nineteenth century from his global perspective, especially
about what was “the Great Divergence”.
What was "the Gap"? The main point is what location each country or region occupied on the world-wide
network. The location led to accumulation of goods, or a resulting import-surplus or export-surplus of
each country. In this context, Frank uses his original expression, "im/balance". It showed a feature of the
contemporary network that remained for a long time even though the distribution of goods was definitely
imbalanced. In other words, the West kept its import-surplus while the other parts kept its export-surplus.
Frank recognizes this uneven property location through the trade network as "the Gap” of the East and
West.
What "balanced" this imbalance network? It was the invisible trade network, or the network of service and
finance. It appeared as the balance on service and on interest and dividends which showed the surplus of
the West and the deficit of the East. It was this income from the invisible trade that leveled the monetary
instability made by the imbalanced merchandise trade.
When and how this network was formed? According to Frank, this network was a network as a result of
“the West’s”, especially Britain's manipulation and management of the traditional network rather than a
newly formed network. Britain reconstructed the network through various methods such as diplomacy,
finance and shipping and then located herself on the top of the network structure. Any country was integrated into this network locating itself upper or lower of the structure. This difference of the location, or
“the Gap” of the East and the West became crucial in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, when a
general decrease of price occurred. It decreased the terms of trade of the East encouraging the underdevelopment in “the East” and development in “the West.”
His researches should be referred to construct a global picture of the world with relativizing the eurocentrism and the historical framework of nation-state. Frank recognizes the world as a single globe and
draws the contemporary world within a certain frame to suggest a new perspective emphasizing on the
network covering the world. On the other hand, the argument that “the Great Divergence” happened in
the 1870s is not enough persuasive and the some conclusions, including about entropy, are incomplete.
Nonetheless, Frank provides us with much more suggestions and perspectives. It is definitely worth reconsidering again his provocative works from new Asian perspectives.
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
Map of NTU
128
The Third Congress of AAWH, NTU, Singapore, 29-31 May 2015
129