The Circulatory System ► make a clenched fist with your right hand. “What organ in your body is the size of your fist?” ► hold your fists on your chests next to the left of the sternum “What is under your fist?” ► place two fingers on your neck below your ear to feel the rhythmic flow of blood “What is this that we are feeling?” Where the Heart is located An Overview of the Circulatory System ► The Circulatory System moves nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body to feed them and help them fight disease. ► The circulatory system removes the waste materials and the carbon dioxide from the cells. ► The main parts of the Circulatory System are the heart, blood and blood vessels. An Overview of the Circulatory System ► Arteries carry blood from the lungs to all of the other cells of the body. ► Veins carry the blood back to the heart. ► Inside the heart are four chambers. Each chamber is a little pump that pushes the blood through the body. ► It takes 1-2 minutes for blood to circulate all around your body. The Heart - is divided into FOUR Chambers ► The blood is pumped from one chamber to the other The septum of the heart is the dividing wall between the right and left sides of the heart. Three Kinds of Blood Vessels Arteries – Carries blood away from the heart Veins – Carries blood back to the heart Capillaries – connection between the arteries and the veins Red x Blue ► Vessels ( veins or arteries) that carry blood rich in Oxygen are usually shown in ► Vessels Red ( veins or arteries) that carry blood poor in Oxygen are usually shown in Blue Arteries ► Arteries carry blood from the heart to the body – usually oxygenated except for the pulmonary artery Pulmonary Artery – Carries blood containing carbon dioxide from your heart to your lungs, so the carbon dioxide can be eliminated Aorta – Largest blood vessel and leaves the the heart Veins ► Veins carry blood with carbon dioxide back to the heart except for the pulmonary vein. Pulmonary Vein – Carries blood-containing oxygen from your lungs to your heart. Inferior Vena Cava – brings blood to the heart from the lower part of body. Superior Vena Cava – brings blood to the heart from the upper body. Veins Veins have valves that close and keep blood from flowing backwards due to gravity Exchange of nutrients and gases happens in the capillaries (smallest veins) Diffusion from the blood to the cells and from the cells to the blood. Exchange of nutrients happens and gases happens in the capillaries ► The blood with oxygen and nutrients come with the arteries , enters the capillaries and the nutrients and oxygen diffuses into the cell. ► The blood carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell into capillaries to the veins to be sent back to the heart, pumped to the lungs where it is eliminated Connection of the Circulatory System with the Respiratory System to exchange gases Exchange of gas is at the alveoli level Connection of the Circulatory System with the Digestive System for the exchange of nutrients and wastes ► The small intestine is lined with tiny fingerlike projections called villi. ► The connection between the digestive system and the circulatory system happens through the walls of the villi. The absorption of nutrients is made by the cells in the walls of the villi 3 Types of Circulation I - Coronary Circulation – it is the circulation of the blood to and from the tissues OF THE HEART It takes oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove wasted and carbon dioxide 3 Types of Circulation II - Systemic Circulation – blood leaves the heart goes to your body in the arteries, reaches all the cells and comes back by the veins . The blood leaves the heart by the Aorta and enters the heart by the Inferior and Superior Vena Cava 3 Types of Circulation III - Pulmonary Circulation – blood moves from the heart to your lungs and after the gas exchange takes place, moves back from the lungs to your heart. Pulmonary artery carries blood containing carbon dioxide from your heart to your lungs, so the carbon dioxide can be eliminated Pulmonary Vein Carries blood-containing oxygen from your lungs to your heart, so the oxygen can be distributed to the rest of the body The Lymphatic System ► The Lymphatic System, similar to the Circulatory system, is made up of thin tubes, called lymph vessels that branch throughout all parts of the body just below your skin surface. Along this network of vessels are groups of small, bean-shaped organs called lymph nodes. The Lymphatic System ► What is Lymph: Lymph is a watery fluid made up of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes identify foreign material (antigens) in the body and attack the antigens it determines to be harmful. They are carried in the lymph to the lymph nodes where the unwanted materials are trapped and eliminated. The Lymphatic System ► Lymph nodes are mostly found in the underarm, pelvis, neck, abdomen, and behind your knee. ► Function of the lymphatic system is to protect the body against diseases. The Lymphatic System ► Function of the lymphatic system is to protect the body against diseases. The lymph nodes filter the lymph and trap foreign substances, which are destroyed by white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow and in the lymph nodes. The Lymphatic System ► Doctors check your heartbeat and your lymph nodes below your ears or in the groin area. ► Swollen lymph nodes are a sign of infection in your body. ► Lymph nodes swollen because there are a lot of lymphocytes trying to battle the antigens causing the infection. Antibodies X Lymphocytes ► Antibodies and proteins that will fight antigens ► Lymphocytes are cells that will fight antigens ► Antibodies can be synthetized by lymphocites Blood Pressure ► The heart pumps blood to the vessels through the circulatory system ► The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called blood pressure. ► This pressure is highest in arteries and lowest in veins. Blood Pressure – Two Distinct pressures that are measured!! Systolic: pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts Diastolic: pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes Controlling Blood Pressure ► When pressure in the vessels is higher or lower than normal, nerve cells send messages to your brain. ► Then the brain sends messages that speed up or slow the heart rate. Blood Diseases Anemia and the Sickle Cell disease Leukemia Hemophilia Some of the Cardiovascular Diseases are: High Blood Pressure Hypertension or high blood pressure When blood pressure is higher than normal the heart must work harder to keep blood flowing. The heart muscles become thicker and stiffer, which can make the heart become enlarged. An enlarged heart will not pump blood properly. An enlarged heart is a common cause of heart failure ( heart can’t pump and nutrients and oxygen will not be distributed to the body) Arteriosclerosis ► In this condition, fatty deposits build up on arterial walls. The walls will harden and can even be blocked. ► If a coronary artery is blocked, a heart attack can occur. ( coronary artery is a vessel that circulates blood inside the heart) Arteriosclerosis ► Causes: Smoking Diabetes High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol Overweight ► Heart Attack: Stoppage in the flow of blood to the heart. Heart stops pumping. ► Stroke: Happens when a cluster of blood cells blocks blood vessels in the brain. Brain does not receive oxygen. Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System ► Prevention: Don’t Smoke Drink in moderation (21) Get cholesterol checked Exercise 30 minutes daily Consume a low fat diet ► Treatment: Medication Rehabilitation Smoking ► Smoking causes blood vessels to contract and makes the heart beat faster and harder. ► Smoking also increases carbon monoxide levels in the blood.
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