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Surah Luqman
An A-Z Glossary of Vocabulary and Expressions in Ramadan 2012 Audio CD (Quran_Surah Luqman)
Prepared by: M.S. Sharifirad (Brought to You by: www.Truthwise.Net)
In the Name of God
/ˈæb.sə.luːt/, /-ˈ-/ adj
• very great or to the largest degree possible
a man of absolute integrity/discretion
I have absolute faith in her judgment.
There was no absolute proof of fraud.
• [before noun] used when expressing a strong opinion
He's an absolute idiot!
That's absolute rubbish!
/əˈdres/ v [T]
formal to speak or write to someone
He addressed a few introductory remarks to the audience.
He likes to be addressed as 'Sir' or 'Mr Partridge'.
/ədˈmaɪər /
/-ˈmaɪr/ v [T]
to respect and approve of someone or their behaviour, or to find someone or something attractive and pleasant to look at
I admired him for his determination.
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I really admire people who can work in such difficult conditions.
We stood for a few moments, admiring the view.
I was just admiring your jacket, Delia.
/əˈfek.ʃən/ n
[C or U] a feeling of liking for a person or place
He had a deep affection for his aunt.
She felt no affection for the child.
/səˈfɪʃ.ənt/ adj
enough for a particular purpose
This recipe should be sufficient for five people.
It was thought that he'd committed the crime but there wasn't sufficient evidence toconvict him.
Opposite: insufficient
/ ːlˈmaɪ.t / adj
(of God) having the power to do everything
Almighty God
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/ ːmz/ n old use
clothing, food or money that is given to poor people
In the past, people thought it was their religious duty to give alms to the poor.
/əˈnaʊnt s/ v [T]
• to state or make known, especially publicly
They announced the death of their mother in the local paper.
She announced the winner of the competition to an excited audience.
[+ that ] The Prime Minister has announced that public spending will be increased next year.
• to show that something is going to happen
The first few leaves in the gutter announced the beginning of autumn.
/-ˈproʊ-/ adj
suitable or right for a particular situation or occasion
appropriate footwear for the country
Is this film appropriate for small children?
I didn't think his comments were very appropriate at the time.
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Is this an appropriate occasion to discuss finance?
Please complete the appropriate parts of this form (= the parts that are right or necessary for your particular situation) and return it as
soon as possible.
Opposite: inappropriate
/ˈer-/ adj
unpleasantly proud and behaving as if you are more important than, or know more than, other people
I found him arrogant and rude.
/ˈær.ə.gənt s/ /ˈer-/ n [U]
He has a self-confidence that is sometimes seen as arrogance.
/ˈær.ə.gə /ˈer-/ adv
The authorities had behaved arrogantly, she said.
phrasal verb formal
to believe or say that something is caused by something else
To what do you ascribe your phenomenal success?
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/ˈæs.pekt/ n
[C] one part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.
Which aspects of the job do you most enjoy?
His illness affects almost every aspect of his life.
That's the most worrying aspect of the situation.
Lighting is a vitally important aspect of film-making.
Have you thought about the problem from every aspect?
/æs/ n
[C] old use a donkey
/-ˈstr ː.nə-/ n [U]
the scientific study of the universe and of objects which exist naturally in space, such as the moon, the sun, planets and stars
/əˈteɪn/ v [T] formal
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to reach or succeed in getting something; to achieve
He has attained the highest grade in his music exams.
We need to identify the best ways of attaining our objectives/goals.
India attained independence in 1947, after decades of struggle.
/ˈben.ɪ.fɪt/ n [C or U]
• a helpful or good effect, or something intended to help
The discovery of oil brought many benefits to the town.
One of the many benefits of foreign travel is learning how to cope with the unexpected.
He's had the benefit of an expensive education and yet he continues to work as a waiter.
I didn't get/derive (much) benefit from school.
With the benefit of hindsight (= Helped by the knowledge since learned) it is easy for us to see where we went wrong.
/bɪˈtreɪ/ verb [T]
› to behave in a dishonest or cruel way to someone who trusts you:
When I heard what he had said about me, I felt betrayed.
› If you betray your country or an organization, you give secret information to its enemies or to other organizations.
› to show an emotion that you were trying to hide:
Her face was calm, but her hands betrayed her nervousness.
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/bɪd/ n [C]
• an offer of a particular amount of money for something which is for sale
I made a bid of $150 for the painting.
She made/put in a bid of £69 000 for the flat, which was accepted.
• an offer to do something when you are competing with other people to do it
[+ to infinitive] Sydney made a successful bid to host the Olympic Games.
I gave the job to the contractors who made/gave the lowest bid (= who offered to do the work for the lowest amount of money).
/bleɪm/ v [T]
to say or think that someone or something did something wrong or is responsible for something bad happening
Don't blame me (= It is not my fault) if you miss the bus!
Hugh blames his mother for his lack of confidence.
Hugh blames his lack of confidence on his mother.
You can't really blame Helen for not wanting to get involved.
/ˈbles.ɪŋ/ n
[C] something which is extremely lucky or makes you happy
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It was a blessing that no one was killed in the accident.
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/blɪs/ n [U]
perfect happiness
Lying on a sunny beach is my idea of sheer bliss.
wedded/domestic bliss
/ˈbəʊst .fəl/
/ˈboʊst -/ adj disapproving
praising yourself and what you have done
/breɪ/ v [I]
to make a loud, unpleasant noise like a donkey
The mules suddenly started braying.
She had a loud, braying laugh.
/ˈbrest .f ːd/ v [I or T] (breast-fed, breast-fed)
When a mother breast-feeds her baby, she feeds it with milk directly from her breasts rather than with artificial or cow's milk from a
/tʃæsˈtaɪz/ v [T] formal
to criticize someone severely
Charity organizations have chastised the Government for not doing enough to prevent the latest famine in Africa.
chastisement noun
/tʃæsˈtaɪz.mənt/ n [U]
/kleɪm/ v
• [T] to say that something is true or is a fact, although you cannot prove it and other people might not believe it
[+ (that)] The company claims (that)it is not responsible for the pollution in the river.
[+ to infinitive] He claims to have met the President, but I don't believe him.
All parties have claimed success in yesterday's elections.
An unknown terrorist group has claimed responsibility for this morning's bomb attack.
/kəmˈpeər /
/-per/ v [T]
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to examine or look for the difference between two or more things
If you compare house prices in the two areas, it's quite amazing how different they are.
That seems expensive - have you compared prices in other shops?
Compare some recent work with your older stuff and you'll see how much you've improved.
This road is quite busy compared to/with ours.
Children seem to learn more interesting things compared to/with when we were at school.
/ˌkɒm.prɪˈhent .sɪv/
/ˌk ːm-/ adj
complete and including everything that is necessary
We offer you a comprehensive training in all aspects of the business.
Is this list comprehensive or are there some names missing?
He has written a fully comprehensive guide to Rome.
/kənˈs ː.tɪd/
/-t ɪd/ adj disapproving
too proud of yourself and your actions and abilities
Without wishing to sound conceited, I am the best salesperson in the company.
/kənˈdʌkt/ v
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[T] to organize and perform a particular activity
We are conducting a survey to find out what our customers think of their local bus service.
The experiments were conducted by scientists in New York.
How you choose to conduct your private life is your own business!
/-pə.rer-/ adj
existing or happening now
contemporary music/literature/art/fashion
Although it was written hundreds of years ago, it still has a contemporary (= modern) feel to it.
/ˈkr ː.tʃər /
/-tʃɚ/ n [C]
• any large or small living thing which can move independently; an animal
Rain forests are filled with amazing creatures.
Don't all living creatures have certain rights?
Blue whales are the largest creatures ever to have lived.
• used to refer to a life form that is unusual or imaginary
The unicorn is a mythical creature.
The film was about creatures from outer space.
The duck-billed platypus is a truly bizarre creature.
• used to refer to a person when an opinion is being expressed about them
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John is a strange/weak/pathetic creature.
A lovely blonde creature (= a beautiful blonde woman) walked into the room.
(UK usually criticise) /ˈkrɪt.ɪ.saɪz/
/ˈkrɪt -/ v
• [I T often passive] to express disapproval of someone or something
The government is being widely criticized in the press for failing to limit air pollution.
We'll get nowhere if all you can do is criticize.
• [T] to give an opinion or judgment about a book, film, etc.
We're a group of artists who meet to discuss things and criticize each other's work.
/def/ adj
• unable to hear, either completely or partly
He's been totally/partially deaf since birth.
• disapproving unwilling to listen
The local council has remained deaf to all the objections to its proposals.
deafness noun
/ˈdef.nəs/ n [U]
/dɪər /
/dɪr/ adj
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• loved or liked very much
She was a very dear friend.
He was very dear to me.
This place is very dear to me - we came here on our honeymoon.
What a dear (= very attractive) little kitten!
My dear Gina - how lovely to see you!
• used at the beginning of a letter to greet the person you are writing to
Dear Kerry/Mum and Dad/Ms Smith/Sir
/dɪˈbeɪt/ n [C or U]
(a) serious discussion of a subject in which many people take part
Education is the current focus of public debate.
How we proceed from here is a matter for debate.
Over the year we have had several debates about future policy.
/dɪˈs ːv/ v [T]
to persuade someone that something false is the truth; to keep the truth hidden from someone for your own advantage; to trick
The company deceived customers by selling old computers as new ones.
The sound of the door closing deceived me into thinking they had gone out.
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/dɪˈp ː.tʃər /
/-ˈp ːr.tʃɚ/ n [C or U]
• when a person or vehicle, etc. leaves somewhere
There are several departures (= buses, trains, ships or aircraft leaving) for Paris every day.
Our departure was delayed because of bad weather.
departure time
• when someone leaves a job
Everyone in the office was surprised by Graham's sudden departure.
/-ˈskɝː-/ v [T]
to make someone feel less confident, enthusiastic and positive about something, or less willing to do something
The thought of how much work she had to do discouraged her.
Opposite: encourage
/-ˈspoʊz/ v formal
dispose sb to/towards sb/sth
to make someone feel a particular way towards someone or something
His rudeness when we first met didn't dispose me very kindly to/towards him.
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/dɪˈstɪŋ.gwɪʃ/ v
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[I or T not continuous] to notice or understand the difference between two things, or to make one person or thing seem different from 15
He's colour-blind and can't distinguish (the difference) between red and green easily.
I sometimes have difficulty distinguishing Spanish from Portuguese.
It's important to distinguish between business and pleasure.
It's not the beauty so much as the range of his voice that distinguishes him from other tenors.
/da ɪˈvɜː.sɪ.ti/
/dɪˈvɝː.sə.t / n [S or U]
when many different types of things or people are included in something
Does television adequately reflect the ethnic and cultural diversity of the country?
There is a wide diversity of opinion on the question of unilateral disarmament.
/ˈdjuː.t /
/ˈduː.t / n [C or U]
something that you have to do because it is part of your job, or something that you feel is the right thing to do
The duty of the agency is to act in the best interests of the child.
[+ to infinitive] I felt it was my duty to tell them the truth.
You have a duty to yourself to take a holiday now and then.
He only went to see her out of duty (= because he thought he should).
You should report for duty (= arrive at work)at 8 am on Monday.
What time are you off/on duty (= When do you finish/start work)tomorrow?
(UK usually emphasise) /ˈemp .fə.saɪz/ v [T]
• to show or state that something is very important or worth giving attention to
[+ question word] I'd just like to emphasize how important it is for people to learn foreign languages.
[+ that ] He emphasized that all the people taking part in the research were volunteers.
You can use italics or capitals to emphasize a word in a piece of writing.
• to make something more obvious
Tight jeans will only emphasize any extra weight that you are carrying.
/-ˈkɝː-/ v [T]
• to make someone more likely to do something, or to make something more likely to happen
[T + to infinitive] We were encouraged to learn foreign languages at school.
The council is encouraging the development of the property for both employment and recreation.
• to talk or behave in a way that gives someone confidence to do something
They've always encouraged me in everything I've wanted to do.
/ɪnˈdjʊər /
/-ˈdʊr/ v
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[T] to suffer something difficult, unpleasant or painful
We had to endure a nine-hour delay at the airport.
She's already had to endure three painful operations on her leg.
endurable adjective
/ɪnˈdjʊə.rə.bl /
/ɪnˈdʒɔɪn/ v [T]
• formal to tell someone to do something or to behave in a particular way
[+ to infinitive] We were all enjoined to be on our best behaviour.
He enjoined (= suggested) caution.
• US legal to legally force someone to do something or stop doing something
/ɪˈven.tju.əl.i/ adv
in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc
Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a shock when she eventually died.
It might take him ages but he'll do it eventually.
/ˌev.əˈl ː.stɪŋ/
/-ɚˈlæs.tɪŋ/ adj
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lasting forever or for a long time
I wish someone would invent an everlasting light bulb.
Their contributions to science have earned them an everlasting place in history.
/ˈev.ɪ.dənt s/ n [U]
one or more reasons for believing that something is or is not true
The police have found no evidence of a terrorist link with the murder.
[+ to infinitive] There is no scientific evidence to suggest that underwater births are dangerous.
[+ that ] Is there any scientific evidence that a person's character is reflected in their handwriting?
Several experts are to give evidence on the subject.
/ɪgˈz l.tɪd/
/-ˈz ːl.t ɪd/ adj
An exalted position in an organization is a very important one
She rose to the exalted post of Foreign Secretary.
/-ˈz ːst/ v [T]
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to use something completely
How long will it be before the world's fuel supplies are exhausted?
I'm afraid he's exhausted my patience.
We seem to have exhausted this topic of conversation (= we have nothing new to say about it).
/ɪgˈzɪs.tənt s/ n
• [U] when something or someone exists
Many people question the existence of God.
Modern cosmology believes the Universe to have come into existence about fifteen billion years ago.
The theatre company that they started is still in existence today.
• [C usually singular] a particular way of life
She has a miserable existence living with him.
/ɪkˈstrækt/ v [T]
• to remove or take out something
They used to extract iron ore from this site.
The oil which is extracted from olives is used for cooking.
The tooth was eventually extracted.
• to make someone give you something when they do not want to
After much persuasion they managed to extract the information from him.
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/ɪgˈzʌl.tənt/ adj formal
very happy, especially at someone else's defeat or failure
an exultant cheer
an exultant crowd
exultantly adverb
/ɪgˈzʌl.tə adv formal
UK (US favor) /ˈfeɪ.vər /
/-vɚ/ n
[U] the support or approval of something or someone
These plans are unlikely to find favour unless the cost is reduced.
The Council voted in favour of a £200 million housing development.
She is out of favour (= unpopular) with her colleagues.
Her economic theories are in favour (= popular) with the current government.
He sent her presents in an attempt to win her favour.
/fɚ-/ v [T] (forbidding, forbade or old use forbad, forbidden) old use
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to refuse to allow something, especially officially, or to prevent a particular plan of action by making it impossible
The law forbids the sale of cigarettes to people under the age of 16.
[+ to infinitive] He's obviously quite embarrassed about it because he forbade me to tell anyone.
He is forbidden from leaving the country.
/fɚ-/ adj
often forgetting things
She's getting very forgetful in her old age.
forgetfully adverb
/fəˈget.fəl.i/ /fɚ-/ adv
forgetfulness noun
/fəˈget.fəl.nəs/ /fɚ-/ n [U]
/ˈgreɪt.fəl/ adj
showing or expressing thanks, especially to another person
I'm so grateful (to you) for all that you've done.
If you could get that report finished by Thursday I'd be very grateful.
After the earthquake we felt grateful to be alive.
I'm just grateful that I'm not still working for him.
formal I would be most grateful if you would send me the book immediately.
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/greɪv/ n [C]
a place in the ground where a dead person is buried
a mass grave
an unmarked grave
a grave digger
He visits his mother's grave every Sunday.
/gr ːv/ v
• [I] to feel or express great sadness, especially when someone dies
He is still grieving for/over his wife.
• [T] formal to make you feel sad and angry
[+ object + to infinitive] It grieves me to see all this food going to waste.
/ˈgaɪd.laɪn/ n [C usually plural]
information intended to advise people on how something should be done or what something should be
The EU has issued guidelines on appropriate levels of pay for part-time manual workers.
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/h ːʃ/
/h ːrʃ/ adj
unpleasant, unkind, cruel or unnecessarily severe
harsh criticism
The children had had a harsh upbringing.
We thought the punishment was rather harsh for such a minor offence.
"There is no alternative, " she said in a harsh voice.
He said some harsh words (= spoke unkindly) about his brother.
/ˈheɪ.sti/ adj
describes something that is done in a hurry, sometimes without the necessary care or thought
He warned against making hasty decisions.
Now let's not leap to any hasty conclusions.
We saw the rain and made a hasty retreat into the bar.
I think perhaps we were a little hasty in judging him.
hastily adverb
/ˈheɪ.stɪ.li/ adv
"He's looks good for his age. Not that 55 is old, " she hastily added.
/ˌhɪəˈr ːf.tər/
/ˌhɪrˈæf.tɚ/ adv (also hereinafter) formal or legal
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starting from this time; in the future
Elizabeth Gaskell's novel 'Ruth' will hereafter be cited within the text as EG.
/-dɚ/ v [T]
to limit the ability of someone to do something, or to limit the development of something
High winds have hindered firefighters in their efforts to put out the blaze.
Her progress certainly hasn't been hindered by her lack of experience.
/ˈh ː.b / n [C]
an activity which someone does for pleasure when they are not working
Ben's hobby is restoring vintage motorcycles.
/ˈhʌ / adj
• not proud or not believing that you are important
He's very humble about his success.
formal Please accept our humble apologies for the error.
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In my humble opinion (= I want to emphasize that I think that)we should never have bought the car in the first place.
• poor or of a low social rank
Even when she became rich and famous, she never forgot her humble background.
• ordinary; not special or very important
At that time she was just a humble mechanic.
humorous Welcome to our humble abode (= our home).
/-t ɪŋ/ adj
making you feel ashamed or stupid
Losing my job was the most humiliating thing that ever happened to me.
The government suffered a humiliating defeat in yesterday's debate.
He found it humiliating to have to ask for money.
/ˈaɪ.dl / adj
[before noun] without any particular purpose
idle chatter/gossip/speculation
an idle glance
This is no idle threat.
/ˈaɪ.dəl/ n [C]
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• someone who is admired and respected very much
a pop/sporting idol
The Hollywood film idols of the 1940s were glamorous figures, adored by millions.
• a picture or object that people pray to as part of their religion
The ancient people of this area worshipped a huge bronze idol in the shape of an elephant.
/ˈɪg.nər.ənt s/
/-nɚ-/ n [U]
lack of knowledge, understanding or information about something
Public ignorance about the disease is still a cause for concern.
Patients, it is claimed, were kept/left in ignorance of what was wrong with them.
/ˈɪm.ɪ.teɪt/ v [T]
to behave in a similar way to someone or something else, or to copy the speech or behaviour, etc. of someone or something
Some of the younger pop bands try to imitate their musical heroes from the past.
They produce artificial chemicals which exactly imitate particular natural ones.
/ɪnˈdɪf.ər.ənt/, /-rənt/
/-ɚ-/ adj
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not thinking about or interested in someone or something
Why don't you vote - how can you be so indifferent (to what is going on)!
He found it very hard teaching a class full of indifferent teenagers.
indifferently adverb
/ɪnˈdɪf.ər.ə, /-rənt-/
/ˌɪn.dɪˈvɪd.ju.əl/ n [C]
a single person or thing, especially when compared to the group or set to which they belong
Every individual has rights which must never be taken away.
Like many creative individuals, she can be very bad-tempered.
We try to treat our students as individuals.
/-fə.del/ n [C or U] old use disapproving
(used especially between Christians and Muslims) someone who does not have the same religious beliefs as the person speaking
He lived among infidels/the infidel.
infidel armies
/ɪnˈhæb.ɪ.tənt/ n [C]
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a person or animal that lives in a particular place
a city of 5 million inhabitants
/ˈɪn.stənt s/ n [C]
a particular situation, event or fact, especially an example of something that happens generally
There have been several instances of violence at the school.
I don't usually side with the management, but in this instance I agree with what they're saying.
/-t ɚ-/ n [C or U]
when two or more people or things communicate with or react to each other
There's not enough interaction between the management and the workers.
Language games are usually intended to encourage student interaction.
The play follows the interactions of three very different characters.
/-ˌtɝː.prɪˈt eɪ-/ n [C or U]
an explanation or opinion of what something means
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The dispute is based on two widely differing interpretations of the law.
The rules are vague and open to interpretation.
It is difficult for many people to accept a literal interpretation of the Bible.
/-wɚd/ adj
• on or towards the inside
Compare: outward
• inside your mind and not expressed to other people
inward feelings
/ˈdʒʌs.tɪ.faɪ/ v [T]
to give or to be a good reason for
[+ -ing verb] I can't really justify taking another day off work.
Are you sure that these measures are justified?
justify yourself
If you justify yourself, you give a good reason for what you have done
It was the only thing that I could do - I don't have to justify myself to anyone.
/ˈledʒ.ənd/ n
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[C or U] a very old story or set of stories from ancient times, or the stories, not always true, that people tell about a famous event or
The dance was based on several Hindu legends.
She is writing a thesis on Irish legend and mythology.
Legend has it (= People say) that he always wore his boots in bed.
This match will go into tennis legend (= it will always be remembered).
/ˈl ː.ʒɚ/ n [U]
the time when you are not working or doing other duties
leisure activities
Most people only have a limited amount of leisure time.
The town lacks leisure facilities such as a swimming pool or squash courts.
/ˈl ː.dʒɪk/ n [U]
a particular way of thinking, especially one which is reasonable and based on good judgment
I fail to see the logic behind his argument.
If prices go up, wages will go up too - that's just logic.
There's no logic in the decision to reduce staff when orders are the highest for years.
The internal logic of her argument is undeniable.
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/l ːs/ n
• [C or U] when you no longer have something or have less of something
Many parents feel a sense of loss when their children leave home.
He suffered a gradual loss of memory.
There will be substantial job losses if the factory closes down.
blood/hair/weight loss
• [S] a disadvantage caused by someone leaving an organization
It would be a great loss to the department if you left.
• [C or U] the death of a person
They never got over the loss of their son.
• [C] when a business spends more money than it earns
The company announced a pre-tax loss of three million pounds.
/mɝːdʒ/ v
• [I or T] to combine or join together, or to cause things to do this
They decided to merge the two companies into one.
The country's two biggest banks are planning to merge.
After a while the narrow track merges with a wider path.
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/ˈmɪr.ɪ.kl / n [C]
an unusual and mysterious event that is thought to have been caused by a god, or any very surprising and unexpected event
[+ (that)] Looking at the state of his car, it's a miracle (that) he wasn't killed!
I can't promise a miracle cure, but I think we can improve things.
/ˈmɪz.ər.ə.bl /
/-ɚ-/ adj
• very unhappy
She's miserable living on her own.
• unpleasant and causing unhappiness
miserable weather
What a miserable existence! How could anyone live in such dreadful conditions.
/ˌmɪsˈl ːd/ v [T] (misled, misled)
to cause someone to believe something that is not true
He has admitted misleading the police about his movements on the night of the murder.
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/ˈm ː.kɚ-/ n
• [U] when you mock someone or something
Bill's mockery of his dad's twitch was a bit cruel, but it made us laugh.
• [S] an action or event which is a failure and makes the people involved in or affected by it appear silly
The trial was a mockery - the judge had decided the verdict before it began.
/ˌm ː.dəˈreɪ-/ n [U]
the quality of doing something within reasonable limits
You can eat whatever you like as long as it's inmoderation.
All parties will have to show great moderation during these very difficult negotiations.
/ˈm ː.dɪ-/ n [U]
approving when someone doesn't usually talk about or make obvious their abilities and achievements
She does a lot of work for charities, but her modesty forbids her from talking about it.
in all modesty approving
said when you want to say something good about yourself, but do not want to seem to think you are too important
Quite frankly, and in all modesty, we'd probably have lost the game if I hadn't been playing.
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/-tɚd/ n [U]
a thick yellow or brown sauce that tastes spicy and is eaten cold in small amounts, especially with meat
/mɪθ/ n
[C or U] an ancient story or set of stories, especially explaining in a literary way the early history of a group of people or about natural
events and facts
ancient myths
The children enjoyed the stories about the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman myth.
Most societies have their own creation myths.
/nærˈeɪ-/ n
• [U] the act of telling a story
• [C or U] a spoken description of events given during a film or television programme
Dame Judi Dench did the narration for the documentary.
/-ə.t / n
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• [U] the need for something
You can come early if you want to, but there's no necessity for it.
[+ to infinitive] Is there any necessity to reply to her letter?
The report stresses the necessity of eating plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
With a personal fortune of six million pounds, she certainly doesn't work out of necessity (= because she needs to).
We'll employ extra staff to help out as and when the necessity arises (= when we need to).
/nɪˈglekt/ v [T]
to give not enough care or attention to people or things that are your responsibility
to neglect your appearance/the garden
He neglects that poor dog - he never takes him for walks or gives him any attention.
I'm afraid I've rather neglected my studies this week.
/ˈneg.lɪ.dʒənt s/ n [U]
when you do not give enough care or attention to someone or something
My mother accuses me of negligence unless I phone her every day.
medical negligence
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/ˈnəʊtˌwɜː.ð /
/ˈnoʊtˌwɝː-/ adj slightly formal
deserving attention because important or interesting
a noteworthy example/event
It is noteworthy that one-third of students do not pay any tuition fees.
King Darius I is noteworthy for his administrative reforms, military conquests, and religious toleration.
/ˈnuː-/ adj
We have discussed these plans on numerous occasions.
Shops of this type, once rare, are now numerous (= there are many of them).
/əʊ ˈbeɪ/
/oʊ-/ v
• [I or T] to act according to what you have been asked or ordered to do by someone in authority or to behave according to a rule, law
or instruction
The soldiers refused to obey (orders).
to obey the rules of international law
Falling objects obey the law of gravity.
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/ˈɒb.stɪ.kl /
/ˈ ːb-/ n [C]
something that blocks you so that movement, going forward or action are prevented or made more difficult
The biggest obstacle in our way was a tree trunk in the road.
This decision has removed the last obstacle to the hostages' release.
/ˈ ːb-/ adj
clear; easy to see, recognize or understand
[+ (that)] It's obvious (that)she doesn't like him.
They have a small child so for obvious reasons they need money.
I know you don't like her, but do you have to make it so obvious?
Am I stating the obvious (= saying what everyone already knows)?
There is no obvious solution.
/-ˈpoʊ-/ n [C]
• a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it or tries to change it
a political opponent
Leading opponents of the proposed cuts in defence spending will meet later today.
• a person being competed against in a sports event
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In the second game, her opponent hurt her leg and had to retire.
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/ˈaʊt.lʊk/ n
[S] the likely future situation
The outlook for the economy is bleak.
The outlook for today is cloudy and dry at first with showers later.
/-wɚd/ adj
[before noun] relating to how people, situations or things seem to be, rather than how they are inside
The outward appearance of the building has not changed at all in 200 years.
If he is suffering, he certainly shows no outward sign of it.
To all outward appearances everything was fine, but under the surface the marriage was very shaky.
/ˈper-/ adj
If two or more lines, streets, etc. are parallel, the distance between them is the same all along their length
Draw a pair of parallel lines.
Hills Road is parallel to Mill Road.
/ˈp ːt.nər/
/ˈp ːrt.nɚ/ n [C]
• a person or organization you are closely involved with in some way
He gave up his job as a police officer after his partner was killed.
The two companies are partners in a contract to build a new power station.
• one of the owners of a company
He's a partner in an insurance company/a law firm.
• the person you are married to or living with as if you were married to them, or the person you are having a sexual relationship with
• one of a pair of dancers or one of a pair who are playing a sport or a game together, especially when the pair are playing as a team
/peg/ n
• [C] a small stick or hook which sticks out from a surface and from which objects, especially clothes, can hang
He took off his coat/hat and hung it on the peg.
• [S] a reason for discussing something further
They decided to use the anniversary as the peg for/a peg on which to hang a TV documentary.
/pɚ-/ n [U]
the state of being complete and correct in every way
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In his quest for physical perfection, he spends hours in the gym.
to perfection
extremely well
The fish was cooked to perfection.
/-ɚ/ n [C]
a strong column made of stone, metal or wood which supports part of a building
A row of reinforced concrete pillars supports the bridge.
figurative a pillar of smoke/flame
/ˈpaɪ.əs/ adj
strongly believing in religion, and living in a way which shows this belief
She is a pious follower of the faith, never missing her prayers.
/pəˈzeʃ.ən/ n
• [U] when you have or own something
The possession of large amounts of money does not ensure happiness.
formal I have in my possession a letter which may be of interest to you.
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/preɪz/ v [T]
to express admiration or approval about the achievements or characteristics of a person or thing
He should be praised for his honesty.
My parents always praised me when I did well at school.
He was highly praised for his research on heart disease.
/ˈpreɪzˌwɜː.ð /
/-ˌwɝː-/ adj
deserving praise
His actions during the crisis were truly praiseworthy.
/ˈpreʃ.əs/ adj
of great value because of being rare, expensive or important
a precious gift
a precious moment/memory
Clean water is a precious commodity in many parts of the world.
You're so precious to me.
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/prɪˈskraɪb/ v
[T often passive] (of a doctor) to say what medical treatment someone should have
The drug is often prescribed for ulcers.
[+ two objects] I've been prescribed painkillers.
/-ˈɔːr.ə.t / n [C or U]
something that is very important and must be dealt with before other things
The management did not seem to consider office safety to be a priority.
My first/top priority is to find somewhere to live.
You have to learn to get your priorities right/straight (= decide which are the most important jobs or problems and deal with them
/prəˈhɪb.ɪt/ v
• [T often passive] to officially forbid (= refuse to allow)something
Motor vehicles are prohibited from driving in the town centre.
The government introduced a law prohibiting tobacco advertisements on TV.
Parking is strictly prohibited between these gates.
• [T] to prevent a particular activity by making it impossible
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The loudness of the music prohibits serious conversation in most nightclubs.
/ˈpr ː.mɪs/ v
[I or T] to tell someone that you will certainly do something
[+ to infinitive] He promised faithfully to call me every week.
[+ that] The government have promised that they'll reduce taxes.
[+ (that)] Promise me (that) you won't tell him.
I'll have a look for some while I'm at the shops but I'm not promising anything.
Can I have that book back when you've finished because I've promised it (= I have said I will give it) to Sara.
/ˈpr ː.pɚ.t / n
• [U] an object or objects that belong to someone
The club does not accept responsibility for loss of or damage to club members' personal property.
Both books have 'Property of Her Majesty's Government' stamped inside them.
Children need to be taught to have respect for other people's property.
• [C or U] a building or area of land, or both together
He owns a number of properties in the centre of London.
The notice said 'Private Property, Keep Off.
Yes, I've bought my own house - I'm now a man/woman of property!
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/praʊd/ adj
feeling pleasure and satisfaction because you or people connected with you have done or got something good
You must be very proud of your son.
We're particularly proud of our company's environmental record.
When she received her prize I think I was the proudest parent on the face of the Earth.
[+ to infinitive] I'm very proud to have been involved in this project.
[+ (that)] I was so proud (that) my son had been chosen for the national team.
/ˈpʌn.ɪʃ.mənt/ n
[C or U] when someone is punished
Many people think that the death penalty is too severe a punishment for any crime.
formal It was always our father who administered/meted out punishments.
Drink-driving is one case where severe punishment seems to work as a deterrent.
phrasal verb [M] (US put sth/sb forth)
to state an idea or opinion, or to suggest a plan or person, for other people to consider
The proposals that you have put forward deserve serious consideration.
I wasn't convinced by any of the arguments that he put forward.
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Many suggestions have been put forward, but a decision is unlikely until after next year's general election.
The peace plan put forward last August has been revived for the latest round of negotiations.
/kwəʊ ˈteɪ.ʃən/
/kwoʊ-/ n [C] (informal quote)
a phrase or short piece of writing taken from a longer work of literature, poetry, etc. or what someone else has said
At the beginning of the book there's a quotation from Abraham Lincoln.
/kwoʊt/ v
• [I or T] to repeat the words that someone else has said or written
He's always quoting from the Bible.
"If they're flexible, we're flexible", the official was quoted as saying.
She worked, to quote her daughter, "as if there was no tomorrow".
Can I quote you on that (= Can I repeat to other people what you have just said)?
/ˌrek.əˈmend/ v [T]
to suggest that someone or something would be good or suitable for a particular job or purpose, or to suggest that a particular action
should be done
I can recommend the chicken in mushroom sauce - it's delicious.
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She has been recommended for promotion.
/ˈref.ər.ənt s/
/-ɚ-/ n
[C or U] a mention of something
Knowing what had happened, I avoided making any reference to (= mentioning) weddings.
formal I am writing with/in reference to (= in connection with) your letter of 15 March.
/rɪˈg ː.dɪŋ/
/-ˈg ːr-/ prep formal
The company is being questioned regarding its employment policy.
/rɪˈg ːd.ləs/
/-ˈg ːrd-/ adv
despite; not being affected by something
The plan for a new office tower went ahead regardless of local opposition.
She knew it was dangerous to visit him except at night, but she set out regardless (of the risk).
This job is open to all, regardless of previous experience.
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/-lɚ/ adj
happening or doing something often
a regular customer/churchgoer/reader/user
Top footballers make regular appearances on TV.
regularity noun
/ˌreg.jʊˈlær.ə.ti/ /-ˈler.ə.t / n [U]
regularly adverb
/ˈreg.jʊ.lə.li/ /-lɚ-/
/rɪˈp ː.tɪ
/-t ɪd-/ adv
many times
He telephoned repeatedly, begging her to return.
/rɪˈspekt/ n
[U] admiration felt or shown for someone or something that you believe has good ideas or qualities
I have great/the greatest respect for his ideas, although I don't agree with them.
She is a formidable figure who commands a great deal of respect (= who is greatly admired by others).
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/rɪˈspɒnt .sɪ.bl /
/-ˈsp ːnt -/ adj
be responsible for sb/sth/doing sth
to have control and authority over something or someone and the duty of taking care of it or them
Paul is directly responsible for the efficient running of the office.
Her department is responsible for overseeing the councils.
/-əˈrek-/ n [U]
when something that had disappeared or ended is brought back into use or existence
/ˈrɪtʃ.u-/ n [C or U]
a set of fixed actions and sometimes words performed regularly, especially as part of a ceremony
Coffee and the newspaper are part of my morning ritual.
The birds were performing a complex mating ritual.
n [C]
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a person who someone admires and whose behaviour they try to copy
Sports stars are role models for thousands of youngsters.
/sælˈveɪ.ʃən/ n
• [S or U] (a way of) being saved from danger, loss or harm
After the diagnosis, getting to know Mary was his salvation.
a marriage beyond salvation
• [U] In the Christian religion, salvation of a person or their spirit is the state of being saved from evil and its effects by the death of
Jesus Christon a cross
The Gospel message is one of personal salvation.
/səˈtæn.ɪk/ adj
• connected with worshipping Satan
a satanic cult/practice/rite
• very evil
He gave a satanic smile.
(US self-centered) /ˌselfˈsen.təd/
/-t ɚd/ adj disapproving
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only interested in yourself and your own activities
Robert is a self-centred, ambitious and bigoted man.
/ˈsel.fɪʃ/ adj
disapproving Someone who is selfish only thinks of their own advantage
The judge told him: "Your attitude shows a selfish disregard for others."
/-ˈvɪr/ adj
• causing very great pain, difficulty, worry, damage, etc; very serious
a severe chest infection/leg injury/toothache
This is a school for children with severe learning difficulties.
In parts of Africa there is a severe food/water shortage.
There is expected to be a severe frost tonight.
Severe cutbacks in public spending have been announced.
• extreme or very difficult
This will be a severe test of our strength.
/ˈsaɪtˌs ː.ɪŋ/ n [U]
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the visiting of interesting places, especially by people on holiday
We did a bit of sightseeing in Paris.
There was no time to go sightseeing in Rome.
/ˈsɔːr.oʊ/ n [C or U] formal
(a cause of) a feeling of great sadness
The sorrow she felt over/at the death of her husband was almost too much to bear.
The sorrows of her earlier years gave way to joy in later life.
/ˈspɪr.ɪ.tju.əl/ adj
relating to deep feelings and beliefs, especially religious beliefs
Traditional ways of life fulfilled both economic and spiritual needs.
/spred/ v [I or T] (spread, spread)
to (cause to) cover, reach or have an effect on a wider or increasing area
The fire spread very rapidly because of the strong wind.
It started off as cancer of the liver but it spread to other areas of the body.
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The redundancies are spread across the clothing, banking and building industries.
We spread the picnic rug out on the ground and sat down to eat.
The AIDS virus is spread (= given to other people) through contact with blood and other body fluids.
Are you spreading (= telling a lot of people) gossip/rumours again?
If we spread (= divide) the work between us, it won't seem so bad.
She spread her toast with a thick layer of butter./She spread a thick layer of butter on her toast.
It's a special sort of butter that spreads easily even when cold.
The suburbs spread (out) for miles to either side of the city.
Slowly a smile spread across her face.
/ˈsted.f ːst/, /-fəst/
/-fæst/ adj approving
staying the same for a long time and not changing quickly or unexpectedly
a steadfast friend/ally
steadfast loyalty
The group remained steadfast in its support for the new system, even when it was criticized in the newspapers.
steadfastness noun
/ˈsted.f ːst .nəs/, /-fəst -/ /-fæst -/ n [U]
/streŋθ/ n
• [U] the ability to do things that need a lot of physical or mental effort
She had the strength and stamina to take the lead and win the gold medal.
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Admitting you've made a mistake is a sign of strength, not weakness.
He showed great strength of character when he refused to accept the bribes.
We shall struggle on, drawing our strength from the courage of others.
Much of the country's military strength lies in its missile force.
• [C usually singular] the degree to which something is strong or powerful
Opinion polls put the combined strength of the two ecology parties at 15% nationwide.
You can gauge (= measure) the strength of a democracy by the way it treats its minorities.
/səbˈdʒekt/ v [T]
to defeat people or a country and then control them against their wishes and limit their freedom
The invaders quickly subjected the local tribes.
/-ˈpɪr.i.ɚ/ adj
• better than average or better than other people or things of the same type
This is clearly the work of a superior artist.
She was chosen for the job because she was the superior candidate.
For all babies, breastfeeding is far superior to bottle feeding.
The government troops were superior in numbers (= There were more of them).
/ˈsɪm.pə.θ / n
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[U] (an expression of) understanding and care for someone else's suffering
The president has sent a message of sympathy to the relatives of the dead soldiers.
I don't have much sympathy for her - I think she's brought her troubles on herself.
/ˈðer.fɔːr/ adv
for that reason
We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project.
/ˈθret.ən/ v
• [T] to tell someone that you will kill or hurt them, or cause problems for them if they do not do what you want
They threatened the shopkeeper with a gun.
[+ to infinitive] They threatened to kill him unless he did as they asked.
• [T] to be likely to cause harm or damage to something or someone
Changing patterns of agriculture are threatening the countryside.
• [I] If something bad threatens to happen, it is likely to happen
Look at those clouds! There's a storm threatening.
/tr ːt/ v
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[T usually + adverb or preposition] to behave towards someone or deal with something in a particular way
My parents treated us all the same when we were kids.
He treated his wife very badly.
It's wrong to treat animals as if they had no feelings.
I treat remarks like that with the contempt that they deserve.
/-ˈwer/ adj [after verb]
not understanding or realising something
[+ that] He was unaware that the police were watching him.
I was quite unaware of the problem.
/jʊˈn ːk/ adj
being the only existing one of its type or, more generally, unusual or special in some way
Each person's genetic code is unique except in the case of identical twins.
I'd recognise your handwriting anywhere - it's unique.
Do not miss this unique opportunity to buy all six pans at half the recommended price.
As many as 100 species of fish, some unique to (= only found in) these waters, may have been affected by the pollution.
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/ˈʌ.t ɚmoʊst/ adj [before noun] (formal uttermost)
used to emphasize how important or serious something is
a matter of the utmost importance
The situation needs to be handled with the utmost care.
/vaʊ/ v [T]
to make a determined decision or promise to do something
[+ (that)] The guerillas vowed (that) they would overthrow the government.
[+ to infinitive] After the awful meals we had last Christmas, I vowed to do more of the cooking myself.
/werˈɪn/ adv conj old use or formal
in which, or in which part
He gazed once more around the room, wherein were assembled his entire family.
He was certainly a pleasant man but wherein lay his charms, she wondered.
/ˈwɪz.dəm/ n [U]
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the ability to use your knowledge and experience to make good decisions and judgments
One certainly hopes to gain a little wisdom as one grows older.
He's got a weekly radio programme in which he dispenses wisdom (= gives his opinions) on a variety of subjects.
I tend to doubt the wisdom of separating a child from its family whatever the circumstances.
/wuːm/ n [C] (specialized uterus)
the organ in the body of a woman or other female mammal in which a baby develops before birth
Researchers are looking at how a mother's health can affect the baby in the womb.
/ˈwɝː-/ v (-pp- or US ALSO -p-)
• [T] to have or show a strong feeling of respect and admiration for God or a god
In the various regions of India, Hindus worship different gods and observe different religious festivals.
• [I] to go to a religious ceremony
They work for the same company, socialise together and worship in the same mosque.
The poll showed that over 40% of Americans worship on a weekly basis.
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