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“O Brave New World!”
Chapter Overview
The Renaissance period and the subsequent Age of Expansion had far-reaching
effects. The desire for the wealth of the colonies led to greater competition
among European countries and the rise of powerful leaders. Expansionism
launched an era of imperialism that spread European beliefs, customs, and
ideas. The history of countless peoples around the world was changed forever.
Unit Links
This unit links well to Unit 2 on the Aztecs. Students will be able to explore in
greater depth the impact of the European worldview as the Europeans expanded
into the Aztec empire. It also links well to Unit 3 as students consider the role
that imperialism played in the development of Japanese society.
Chapter Assessment Suggestions
Have students create a poster of the Renaissance Code for Living
Have students assess their own learning for each of the points listed on
Line Master 12. They can use a five-point scale to represent their level of
knowledge and understanding of each point.
Students plan and refer to AM 19 Critical Thinking SelfAssessment to prepare for end of unit written assessment.
Students review rubric criteria. No marks should be provided to
students for this preparatory work for the end of unit written
assessment because research indicates that a mark tends to stop
students efforts to continue to improve.
Students complete multiple choice peer assessment for the end of
chapter multiple choice assessment to prepare for unit
assessment. Review AM 13 Unit One Knowledge and
Understanding Checklist completed in Chapter 4.
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
Chapter Snapshot
Worldview Inquiry
How can exploration and expansion affect the worldview of a society and the
societies it comes into contact with?
Values and Attitudes Outcomes
8.2.1 Appreciate how Renaissance Europe formed the basis for the worldview
of the western world (C, TCC).
8.2.2 Demonstrate a willingness to consider differing beliefs, values, and
worldviews (C, I).
8.2.3 Recognize how beliefs and values are shaped by time, geographic
location, and societal context (C, TCC).
European Imperialism
Strands: (I, CC, GC, TCC)
Build Your Skills:
Exploring Points of View
Inquiry Question:
What does the Europeans’
treatment of peoples they came
into contact with reveal about
their worldview?
Skill Power:
Labelling and colouring a map to
represent and interpret
A country’s identity was based,
in part, on land ownership.
Imperialism gave its citizens
the right to claim authority over
new territories.
Identity of Indigenous peoples
became one of slave.
Some Renaissance European
countries’ identities were
shaped by the desire for
wealth and power.
The identity of the people of
England became linked to the
accomplishments of their
The right of citizens to selfdetermination is entrenched in
the first article of the United
Nations charter.
The Indigenous people saw
equality and sharing as key
aspects of citizenship.
8.S.1.1, 8.S.1.2, 8.S.1.3, 8.S.1.4,
European Worldview and
Strands: (C, I, TCC)
Skill Power:
Using a T-chart to compare
Inquiry Question:
How did the Age of Exploration
affect Europeans’ lives and
8.S.1.3, 8.S.3.1, 8.S.4.8, 8.S.5.4,
8.S.7.3, 8.S.7.9, 8.S.7.15, 8.S.8.1
Many people today see
themselves as global citizens.
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource
Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes
x In what ways were the Age of Discovery and the rise of imperialism
expressions of an expansionist worldview? (TCC, PADM, LPP).
x In what ways did exploration and intercultural contact during the
Renaissance affect the citizenship and identity of Europeans? (C, I, GC, LPP,
Conflicting points of view about x
Columbus are presented for
students to respond to.
Points of view about economic
imperialism are provided for
student consideration (Fast
Forward, p. 134).
Renaissance European’s
treatment of Indigenous peoples
is presented through the eyes of
both Europeans and Indigenous
people (Zoom In, p. 135).
Renaissance Europeans
believed the world was theirs to
explore and have authority over.
Imperialism and expansionism
led to the expansion of the
European world and the
enslavement of Indigenous
Section contents link well to any
current events about:
x Unfair labour practices
x Economic imperialism
x Treatment of individuals from a
minority culture
Points of view about who owned x
the land in the Americas are
included by use of primary
source quotes.
Two points of view about
terraforming (Voices, p. 144)
are presented for students to
Different ways of life of
Europeans and Indigenous
peoples is discussed (p. 142).
Decolonization as a shift in
worldview is discussed (Fast
Forward, p. 140).
The Renaissance worldview
allowed it to impose its religion,
ideas, values and economic
systems on others.
Section contents link well to any
current events about:
x The increasing gap between the
haves and the have-nots.
x Conflicts between Indigenous
peoples and governments over
self-determination, land claims,
education, resources and
economic issues.
x Global issues that have an
impact on the planet, e.g.,
global warming, population,
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
Introduce the Chapter
(Pages 128–129)
Ask students if they can think of people in the world today who are considered
by some people to be heroes and considered by others to be outlaws or
criminals. Discuss the reasons for the two different perspectives.
Read aloud the chapter opener and stop after “The King of Spain has asked
you for your head, and we have a weapon here with which to remove it.” Have
students turn to an elbow partner and predict what will happen next and then
share their prediction(s) with the class. Finish reading the opener to find out
what happened. Point out that the Spanish wanted Drake’s head because he
raided so many of their ships and seized treasures for England, and Queen
Elizabeth knighted him for his accomplishments. Have students suggest other
possible reasons for the two perspectives.
Worldview Inquiry
• Instructional time: 1 period
of 40–45 minutes.
• Activity and research time
will vary.
Explain to students that in this chapter they will consider the following
worldview question: How can exploration and expansion affect the worldview
of a society and the societies it comes into contact with? Read aloud the “In
This Chapter” feature, which provides an overview of the chapter in terms of
the worldview inquiry.
Discuss with students why the worldviews icon elements society, values,
and economy might be highlighted and record student suggestions. If desired,
when students have completed working through the chapter, revisit the icon to
check their predictions. Students should also feel free to suggest whether other
elements of the icon should be highlighted, and why.
Figure 6-1
What does this act suggest about her attitude toward Drake?
Queen Elizabeth approved of Drake and wanted to honour and reward him for
his services.
Pronunciation of foreign words
is provided in brackets the first
time the word appears within
each chapter. You may wish
to remind students that a
Pronunciation Guide is also
provided on page 376 of their
You may also wish to remind
students that words printed in
bold are defined in the
Glossary at the back of their
Chapter Opener Activities
1. Being knighted is a very high honour in English society. Have students work in
small groups and generate a list of criteria they feel a country should consider
when choosing a citizen(s) to honour. Students may also wish to research
contemporary English citizens who have been knighted, for example, Bob
Geldof, Paul McCartney.
2. Ask students to scan newspapers to identify stories in which people are being
heralded or criticized and for which there may be another perspective. Have
them suggest possible or confirmed alternative perspectives.
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource
Section 1: European Imperialism
Section Overview
(Pages 130–138)
In this section, students examine how Europeans treated the Indigenous peoples
they came into contact with in the Americas. Students are asked to consider
what the actions of the Europeans say about their worldview. They examine
events that reflect how European expansion developed into imperialism and the
dire effects it had.
Read aloud the inquiry focus question on page 130: What does the Europeans’
treatment of peoples they came into contact with reveal about their
worldview? Explain to students that they will examine in this section how
Europeans treated the people with whom they came into contact and consider
what their actions say about their worldview. Discuss with students whether
they think how people treat others is a reflection of their worldview.
Have students work in small groups to discuss what each of the following
scenarios suggests about the worldview of the people involved:
Scenario A: A new family moves into the neighbourhood. They have
four children, including a five-year-old who is autistic. Several
neighbours come to their house and introduce themselves. They
explain that they want to be able to recognize the autistic child in case
he wanders. They offer to help in any way they can.
Scenario B: A new convenience store opens across the street from
Nick’s junior high. The owners play classical music outside the store
and have a large sign posted on the door stating that they limit the
number of students in the store at one time to five. Nick and his friends
are not happy with these expectations.
Scenario C: Sarah’s parents sign their family up to help serve one meal
a month at a local soup kitchen. At first Sarah is nervous about going
and tries to get out of it. Her parents insist though, and after serving a
couple of meals, Sarah feels quite comfortable and looks forward to
learning more about the disadvantaged people who live in her
community and the ways in which she can help them.
Scenario D: Andrea leaves her small hometown and moves to a larger
city. She is excited because she will get to meet and work with people
from many different cultures in the city. She joins a multicultural
association as soon as she arrives in the city.
View Figure 6-2 on page 130 and discuss the questions posed. Read aloud
the text on page 130 and have students share how the new information
presented affects their thinking about the painting. Have students thinkpair-share their responses to the questions posed in “Think It Through.”
Line Master LM G-10
Differentiated Learning Activities,
later in this section
• Instructional time: 4 periods of
40–45 minutes.
• Activity and research time
will vary.
imperialism the expansion of
power over a territory, including its
resources and people
immunity natural resistance to a
quipu a system of knotted strings
used by the Incas and other South
American cultures to communicate
and keep records
This activity can also be done
as a jigsaw. (See TR
See TR Overview
Link the discussions about Drake’s knighting by Queen Elizabeth and
Figure 6-2 to “Building Your Skills—Exploring Points of View” on page
131. Have students work independently or in partners to complete the “Try
It!” activity. The news article activity could be completed at home and
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
students’ chosen articles and their responses to the questions discussed in a
small group format the next day.
Some students may
benefit from having
the Try It! activity
modelled in a small
group or with the
whole class. They can
then use that model
to assist them in
completing the news
article assignment.
Some students may wish to
research companies that
manufacture their clothing in
an ethical fashion, e.g., April
Cornell, or stores that choose
to sell only clothing that is
manufactured ethically, e.g.,
Mountain Equipment Co-op
Have students complete the “Skill Power” activity on page 132. Have
students read page 132. Ask them to work in partners to create a flow chart
or other visual representation that shows the relationships among
exploration, expansion, and imperialism. Then have students write a brief
summary of what they think are the consequences of an imperialist
Have students read “Taking Charge” on page 133. Read aloud “Exploring
Sources: Imperialist Attitudes.” Use bullet 1 to set the purpose for reading
and have students jot down details, words, and phrases as the two views are
read. Have students work in small groups to respond to the question posed
in bullet 2. Students can use a T-chart on a transparency to record their
thinking and then present their ideas to the class using the overhead.
View Figure 6-6 and discuss students’ responses to the question posed.
Read “Fast Forward: Economic Imperialism.” Have students work
independently to complete “Think It Through” Question 1. Remind
students to include the point of view expressed in Figure 6-7. Students can
work in independently or in pairs to complete activities 2 and 3.
Have students read “Zoom In: Bartolomé de las Casas” on page 135 and
discuss as a class possible answers to the first question posed. Have
students work in small groups and respond to the remaining questions.
Groups can then pair up and share, discuss and add to their responses. Key
ideas can be shared with the whole class.
Read aloud “Imperialist Treasure” on pages 135 and 136. Discuss how the
gold and silver imports might have changed life for those in Europe and
how they would have created competition among European countries.
Highlight “Think It Through” and have students share their responses to
the questions using think-pair-share.
Have students read “The Terrible Cost of Imperialism” and “Telling the
Indigenous Story” on pages 136 and 137. Ask students to come up with
newspaper headlines about the events in Central and South America that
they would share with Europeans if they could go back in time. Have them
share their headlines and discuss them as a class.
Read “Exploring Sources: Spanish Injustice” on page 138. Discuss the idea
of one person taking 30 years of his or her life to produce a document that
chronicles injustice. Is there anyone who has undertaken a similar goal in
contemporary Canada or the world? Have students form groups based on
their initial response to the question posed. Have each small group discuss
its position and present its explanation to the class.
See TR Overview
Reflect and Respond
As a review of the information presented in this section, have students
work in partners to complete the “Over to You” Activity 2. Allow students
to choose either Activity 1 or 3 and share their responses to their chosen
activity with the class.
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource
Differentiated Learning
Here are suggestions to differentiate learning for students in the classroom who
may benefit from an alternate approach.
1. Students can research ways that various countries honour their citizens.
Create a poster representing several people who have been honoured from
around the world and briefly describe their accomplishments.
2. Have students search for examples of other paintings done by European
artists that deal with European contact and Indigenous peoples in the
Americas. Choose one painting and critique the artist’s point of view.
3. Students can research companies that promote fair labour practices.
Section 2: European Worldview and Identity
Section Overview
(Pages 139–145)
In this final section of the chapter and the unit, students examine the impact
that the Age of Exploration had on Europeans. They examine how the growing
hunger for power and profit resulted in centuries of imperialistic activity by
European countries. Students are asked to reflect on how the rise to power of
certain individuals in a society reflects the values of that society. They consider
this in both the historical context of Elizabethan England and Canadian society
They also learn about the influences that Indigenous peoples of the
Americas had on Europeans. They consider how, in spite of the rich way of life
of the Indigenous peoples and all the new products and goods they introduced
to Europeans, Europe continued to see itself as superior.
Throughout this section, students are called on to consolidate their
understanding of the great change that occurred during the Renaissance and the
Age of Exploration. They reflect on the impact of these changes on the
citizenship, identity, and worldview of Europeans and ultimately on our way of
life today.
Line Masters LM-12, LM-13
(Explore the Big Ideas), LM G-10
Differentiated Learning Activities,
later in this section
• Instructional time: 4 periods
of 40–45 minutes.
• Activity and research time
will vary.
Refer students to the inquiry focus question on page 139: How did the Age
of Exploration affect Europeans’ lives and worldviews? Explain that in
this section they will reflect on the impact that the Age of Exploration had
on the Europeans. They will also be asked to reflect on some of the big
ideas that have developed throughout the unit.
decolonization granting
independence to a former colony
terraforming changing a planet to
make it resemble Earth
Ask students to read page 139 and design a symbol that represents the
changes that occurred from the beginning of the Renaissance to the Age of
Exploration. Host a gallery walk of symbols as a way for students to share
and discuss their thinking.
Read “Fast Forward: Shifting Worldviews” (page 140). Divide the class
into three groups and have each group find the answer to one of the
questions posed. Gather together as a class and report on the answers.
Allow students to discuss their
ideas for symbols with each
other and/or work in partners
to create a symbol.
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
Discuss any ideas and information that struck students and any links to
current events in Canada or the world that relate to the United Nations.
Ask students to work with a partner to read and discuss the questions posed
in “For Queen and Country” on pages 140 and 141. Ask each pair to join
with another pair and share their ideas. As a whole group, have students
bring up any points that need clarification or that they wish to discuss
further. Revisit the question posed in the opening sentence. What evidence
do students see in contemporary Canadian society that our heroes reflect
our values and attitudes? Have them consider Wayne Gretzky and Roméo
Dallaire, two individuals viewed as Canadian heroes by different groups of
people for different reasons. After this, ask students to discuss the “Think It
Through” with an elbow partner. Have each pair share with the class one
thing they would change about Canada. Keep a list of suggestions and at
the end of the sharing have students note any patterns or commonalities
they observe.
Read “Zoom In: Shakespeare,” page 141. Have students work in pairs to
respond to the questions. For some students it might be helpful to write out
the highlighted passages only.
Ask students to read “Making Contact” on page 142 and have them
identify one or two points they find interesting and want to discuss further.
Discuss the points as a class. Have students complete “Skill Power”
independently or with a partner. Discuss, as a class, students’ response to
the question posed.
Read and discuss as a class “Exploring Sources: The Tupinamba
Perspective.” If someone from another place were to observe the students’
community, what might they find most amazing? Is the criticism given by
the Tupinamba still valid in their community and/or today’s society?
Have students read “Expansionism and Imperialism”. Both the “Think It
Through” question and the questions posed in Figure 6-15 give students the
opportunity to apply what they have been thinking to the present world
context. Begin with a whole class discussion of the “Think It Through”
question and then assign small groups of three or four to discuss and
respond to the questions in Figure 6-15. Consider seating students in a
large circle and having a roundtable discussion of their responses.
Read “Voices: Terraforming: Should We or Shouldn’t We?” on page 144.
Have students work in small groups to complete the “Think It Through”
questions and present their answers in a visual format, such as a tri-fold
display, PowerPoint presentation, or poster.
Read aloud “Citizens of the World” on page 144. Ask students to review
the symbols they designed at the beginning of this section. Discuss whether
those symbols represent the overall impact of Renaissance Europe and
whether they would make any changes to their original designs. Why or
why not?
Consider having students pose
the same questions to their
parents and report back to the
class with their responses. What
similarities and differences are
evident in the responses? What
observations might students
Consider turning “Over to
You” Question 3 into a class
discussion. Give students an
opportunity, over the course of
24 hours, to talk with each
other about their responses
and gather any relevant news
articles to support their
thinking. Then have a class
discussion in which students
address Questions 3a and
then 3b, relating answers to
their understanding of the
world in which they live.
Reflect and Respond
Have students complete “Over to You” Question 1 independently or with a
partner. Offer students a choice of Questions 2 or 3. Students may work
individually, in partners, or in small groups based on their choice.
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource
Differentiated Learning
Here are suggestions to differentiate learning for students in the classroom who
may benefit from an alternate approach.
1. Students can research and chronicle the imperialistic actions of a nation
during or since the Age of Exploration. They can present their accounts in
visual or written format.
2. Students can do further research on the impact the imperialism has had on
the peoples of Africa. They can choose one African country and create a
poster that symbolizes the effects of imperialism on that country’s people.
3. Have students write a biography of one of the individuals who gained
recognition or became a powerful ruler during the Age of Exploration.
They should include ideas about this person’s worldview.
Unit 1 Resources
Note: Resources listed here are in addition to those credited in the Student Edition on pp. 392.
Books and Articles
Black, Jeremy, ed. Atlas of World History. London, New York and Sydney: Dorling Kindersley, 2000.
Blanch, Gregory and Roberta Stathis. Renaissance Artists Who Inspired the World. Ballard & Tighe, 2004
Cahill, Thomas. Desire of the Everlasting Hills: The World Before and After Jesus. Nan A.
Talese/Doubleday, 1999.
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks
and Feels. Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 1998.
Cahill, Thomas. How the Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland's Heroic Role from the Fall
of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe. Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 1995.
Cahill, Thomas. Mysteries of the Middle Ages: The Rise of Feminism, Science, and Art from the Cults of
Catholic Europe. Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 2006.
Cahill, Thomas. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: Why the Greeks Matter. Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 2003.
Day, Nancy. Your Travel Guide to Renaissance Europe. Lerner Publications, 2001
Edmonton Council of Muslim Communities (ECMC) “Towards Understanding Muslims in Canada,”
available at www.theecmc.com
Greer, Thomas H., Lewis, Gavin, A Brief History of the Western World, seventh edition, Harcourt Brace,
Jensen, De Lamar, Renaissance Europe: Age of Recovery and Reconciliation, D.C. Heath and Company,
Jotischky, Andrew and Caroline Hull. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. Strand, London:
Penguin Books, 2005.
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
Kinder, Hermann and Werner Hilgemann. The Penguin Atlas of World History Volume 1: From Prehistory
to the Eve of the French Revolution. Trans. Ernest A. Menze. Strand, London: Penguin Books, 1978, 2003.
McKay, John P., Bennett D. Hill and John Buckler. A History of Western Society, Volume B: From the
Renaissance to 1815. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Shuter, Jane. The Renaissance. Heinemann Library, 2000
Stewart, Gail B. The Renaissance. Thomson Gale, 2006
Wallbank, Walter T., Arnold Schrier, Donna Maier, Patricia Guttierrez-Smith, and Philip A. Roden. History
and Life. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1993.
Wood, Frances. The Silk Road. London: Folio Society Edition, 2005
Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. London: Folio Society Edition, 1997.
Web Sites
Note that Web links may need to be cut and pasted into your Web browser.
The Black Death:
Insecta Inspecta World: <http://www.insecta-inspecta.com/fleas/bdeath/bdeath.html>
This site, prepared by students under the supervision of experts, is student-friendly and has a wealth of
information on the different forms of the Black Death. There are photos of people with symptoms and a
map of the path the disease took through Europe, as well as an illustration of a doctors’ protective
Centers for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague
This site includes a map showing all areas still affected by the bubonic plague.
Snopes.com: http://www.snopes.com/language/literary/rosie.htm
This site has information debunking the myth that the nursery rhyme “Ring Around the Rosie” is about
the Black Plague.
Limburg Brothers
Brothers Limburg: <http://www.gebroedersvanlimburg.nl/english/content/3.php>
This site has brief descriptions of the lives of the Limbourg (or Limburg) Brothers and the town they
lived in. There are numerous beautiful, enlargeable illuminations from Les belles heures, Les très riches
heures, and Les petites heures. Click on the title of the book you want to see, and the subhead
“Paintings” will appear. The paintings here are different from those shown on other sites.
Limbourg Brothers’ Weekend:
This site features images from the Limbourg Brothers parade, including other famous historical figures
from that time. Photos of some re-enactors, including a woodcarver, spinner are featured.
University of Chicago: <http://humanities.uchicago.edu/images/heures/heures.html>
This site has enlargeable photos of the illuminations from the book Les tres riches heures Du Duc De
Abbey Church of St. Denis:
Church Monument Society <http://www.churchmonumentssociety.org/newfile8.htm>
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource
This site has dozens of photos of tombs contained in the Abbey Church of St. Denis. Scroll down the
page to St. Denis, where the section starts with a basic history of the church and its tombs. Below that
is a list of the royalty buried there. Below that are lots of good photos of the tombs, with some closeups of the effigies.
The Mezquita
Dozens of beautiful photos of The Mezquita’s exterior and almost 100 photos of the spectacular
Abraham Ortelius, Mapmaker
Library of Congress: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum
An entire edition of Theatrum Orbis Terrarum from the collection of the Library of Congress has been
scanned and made available online. To get to the photos, click on the hyperlink above the photo of the
book cover. On the next page, click on the book cover and on the next page, click Maps Only. That will
take you to pages and pages of enlargeable photos of the scanned maps. Click Next Group to go to
subsequent pages.
Ortelius Atlas: <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gnrlort.html>
This site has images from editions of Ortelius’s Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.
Leonardo da Vinci
The Museum of Science: <http://www.mos.org/leonardo/>
This web site shows some of Leonardo’s inventions in their current form and in his drawings. There is
also a small section on his artworks, and videos of the museum and his work. There are several pages,
under many interactive. It has good plain-language discussions of his works, his life, and his
contributions to art and science.
François I (King Francis I)
Chateau de Chambord <http://www.all-free-photos.com/show/showgal.php?idgal=chateauchambord&lang=fr>
Some nice photos of the exterior.
Holbien, Elder and Younger
Web Gallery of Art <http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/h/holbein/hans_y/biograph.html>
On this site, click on the hyperlinks, starting in the third paragraph, to see portraits, woodcuts, title
pages, book illustrations, and sketches from the artist. In the second paragraph, the hyperlinks for Hans
Holbein the Elder and Ambrosius lead to a painting and sketch of them.
Web Museum: <http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/holbein/>
This site features portraits by Hans Holbein the Younger.
The Colosseum
This site is filled with useful information about the Colosseum. It includes drawings of the plans from
the top, side, and below the ground (the cages). There are numerous pictures of Roman artifacts and
paintings. The drop-down menus at the top of the page contain links to the games that were held at the
Colosseum, discussions of the architecture, and the history of building and its construction. There is
also a link to FAQs, where experts who experimented with recreating the awning and other parts of the
Colosseum answer questions about the creation of the building.
Chapter 6: “O Brave New World!”
Bluffton University: http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/romancolosseum/romancolosseum.html This
site has many photos of the interior and exterior of the Colosseum.
The Taino
El Museo del Barrio, New York City <http://www.elmuseo.org/taino/tainoworld.html>
This site by el Museo has lots of historical information on the Taíno people, their customs, beliefs,
daily life, tools, and ceremonies. There are photos of artifacts such as an axe, cacique’s stool, jewelry,
turtle, vomiting spatula, zemis, a stone belt worn during a ball game, and spiritual figurines. To
navigate the site, click on the hyperlinks on the first page, or at the top of each page.
Theodor de Brys
University of Virginia Abraham Cowley Text & Image Archive
These engravings from the Abraham Cowley Text and Image Archive show how far off de Brys was in
his depiction of indigenous Americans in the books. Note: There are some nudes in these engravings.
Christine de Pisan
This site has some translated poems and excerpts from some of Christine de Pisan’s works.
The Medieval Cog
Belgium: http://users.pandora.be/urbiehome/KOGGE.html This site features some good examples of
cog models and drawings, and a recently unearthed cog found in a riverbank in Doel, Belgium.
Pennsylvania State University: <http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/george/vitruvius.html>
This site has some illustrations from Marcus Vitruvius Pollio’s book, De Architectura.
Web Gallery of Art: <http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/bio/m/masaccio/biograph.html>
This site features works by Masaccio.
Lorenzetti (Good Government/Bad Government)
Web Gallery of Art: <http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/l/lorenzet/ambrogio/index.html>
This site has religious works of Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Click on the hyperlink at the bottom of that page
to see close-ups of parts of the Allegory paintings.
The Slave Kingdoms: Confronting the Legacy of the African Slave Trade
PBS’s insightful look at African slave trade within Africa, by Africans. Contains short overviews of the
Dahomey and Ashanti empires; cultural closeups of the all-female Gbeto warriors and Kente cloth
(once worn only by the elite of Africa and what it symbolizes). “Retelling” contains several interviews,
stories, and videos by descendents of African slave traders and slaves. They describe their memories,
stories told by relatives, and how they are treated due to their ancestors’ betrayal of their countrymen.
People who have gone to Africa to seek answers tell what disappointment and encouragement they
African Slave Trade & European Imperialism
This page has dozens of links to sites covering various aspects of the African slave trade. Some are no
longer working, but most are good.
Worldviews: Contact and Change, Teacher Resource