CHIN 201 Yan Gao Virginia Commonwealth University 1 Lesson 16

CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Lesson 16 Hobbies and Sports
-Describe how an action is performed;
-Talk about hobbies, sports, and exercise.
俩- liǎ- means two people and is used with pronouns. Eg. 我们俩, 你们俩
得- de -Particle word- used between a verb or an adjective and its complement to
indicate a result, possibility, or degree
- dé - to achieve
- děi is an optative verb meaning “have to” or “must”
打 – is used for sports that are played with the hands. For sports which are mainly
played with the foot, the verb 踢(tī -to kick)is used.
教- jiāo (n.) is used as a noun. 教师,教授,教练,教育
- jiào (v.) to tech
Key words
usage of 得
Degree of complement sentence tells how an action is performed (how fast, how
well, how soon, etc.). In these kinds of sentences, the verb is followed by the
particle 得 plus the information describing how the action is performed (usually
formed by an adverb and adjective together). Sentence pattern:
Single verb: Subject + V. + 得+ Adv . + Adj.
Verb + Object: Subject + V.O.+得+Adv. + Adj.
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture?
1. What are some popular sports in your country? Are there any sports that
are unique to your culture?
2. Are sports and physical exercise important in your culture? Do you think
physical training methods are different in different culture?
3. Do you or any of your friends practice martial arts? If so, what kinds of
martial arts do you or your friends practice?
4. Have you seen any martial arts movies? Which martial arts movies do you
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Lesson 17 天气和四季
Weather and Seasons
Key words
-Describe the weather.
-Talk about the four seasons.
-Say that something will happen in the near future.
春天, 久,时间, 过, 放, 春假,气候,夏,秋,冬,其中,最,暖
好久不见 is a common phrase meaning “long time no see.” It is usually used by
acquaintances to greet each other when they haven’t seen each other for a while.
When 和 is pronounced as “hé”, it means “and.” When used in 暖和,it is
pronounced as “huo”.
华氏 refers to the Fahrenheit system.
摄氏 refers to the Celsius system, which is used in Mainland China, Taiwan, and
Hong Kong.
As a verb can have several meanings, including “to blow” “to pare,” “to shave” or
“to scrape” Eg. 刮大风, 刮胡子, 刮掉
就要/快要„„了 the pattern that is used to indicate a certain action or event is
about to happen
最 the most, is used for the superlative. It occurs before a verb or an adjective
Adj.+极了, is an intensifier. It occurs after an adjective to indicate a very high
degree of the adjective
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture?
1.What is the climate of your hometown like? What type of weather do you
like the most and why?
2.What are the main holidays in your culture/community celebrate these
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Lesson 18 旅行和交通
Travel and Transportation
-Describe means of transportation
-Talk about travel plans
火车,旅行,离,学校, 远,只要,分钟,骑,自行车,公共汽车,走
-the verb 离 means “to be away from.” It is used in the following pattern
A + 离 + B + adjective phrase
Eg. 宿舍 离 学校 很近。
中国 离美国 很远。
Key words
Note that while English modifiers of distance such as “very close” and “very far”
are placed between the names of two places, Chinese modifiers of distance are
placed at the end of the sentence, as shown in the examples above.
坐, 骑,and 开 are used with different kinds of vehicles
Both 先 and 再 are adverbs, while 然后 is a conjunction. All three words are used
to show events in a sequence. When describing events in a sequences, use 先 first
and then 然后 or 再。
If there are more than two actions involved, another 再 or 然后 is used as well.
The order can be either “先„„,再„„,然后„„” or “先„„,然后„„
再„„”For example, for the sentences “Xiaomei will go to Beijing first, then to
Hong Kong, and then to Taiwan to visit for
Her Grandma,” the Chinese sentence can be either.
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture
1.What are the most popular/convenient means of transportation to get
around in your community?
2.Have you been to any other cities or countries? What interesting things
have you noticed while traveling in other cities/countries?
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Lesson 19 健康和医药
Health and Medicine
Key words
-Describe the symptoms of an illness
-Describe something that has happened
-Describe a changing situation
感冒, 饿,怎么了,好像,舒服,头疼,发烧,咳嗽,生病,考试,复
生病了“I am sick” can be expressed by either 我病了 (I am sick)or 我生病
了 (literally, “I produced sickness”).
几 can also be used to mean “a few.” In this context it does not function as a
question word. 这几天 means “the past few days.”
地 can be a noun meaning “ground earth” as in 地图 and 地址。地 can also be
attached to an adjective to transform the whole unit into an adverbs preceding a
verb, such as 慢慢地 (slowly).
送 as a verb has different meanings: “to give” “to deliver” or “to escort.”
Expressing Completed Action with 了
了 is a particle that is normally used to show the completion of an action or to
show that a situation or state has changed.
To indicate a completed action, 了 is placed after the verb or at the end of the
sentence. Note that 了 must not be regarded as a “past tense” marker. In Chinese,
to indicate the present, past, and future tenses, time words, such as 去年,现在,
and 明天, are often used instead.
To use 了 in question and in giving positive answers or statements, the following
patterns are used.
-In questions
V. + 了吗
-In positive answers V. + 了
Note that when 了 is not used, since a negative answer means that the action was
not completed. To answer a question in the negative, instead of 了, we use the
following patterns.
-to indicate that an action did not take place 没有+V.
-to indicate a planned action (the action ahs not take palce yet) 还没有„„呢。
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Expressing a change of state/new situation with 了
了 is also used at the end of a sentence to express that a situation has changed
Sentence ends with 了
你会开车了吗? 我会开车了。
Note that when 了 is placed at the end of a sentence, it may be an indication of a
completed action or of a situation that has changed. The meaning of the sentence
would thus be determined by the context of the sentence. For example, the
sentence “他去北京了”
的,得,地 are all pronounced as [de] but have different grammatical functions,
as shown below
Used with a noun to show
possessive case or as a
structural 的 to describe the 他是一个认真的学生。
noun that follows
Used in degree of
V. + 得 + Adv. +
complement sentences to
show how an action is
Used in combination with
Adj. + 地 + V.
an adjective, or preceding a 他认真地写汉字。
verb to indicate that attitude
or manner of an action;
similar to –ly in English
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture
1. Does your culture have any traditional medicine practice? Have you heard
of traditional medicine in other cultures? Have you heard of traditional
medicine in other cultures? What are some common remedies?
2. What is the medical system like in your culture or community? Is medical
care affordable?
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Lesson 20 看房和租房
Renting and Apartment
Key words
-Talk about renting an apartment
-Indicate the direction of a movement
-Specify the effects or results of an action on an object
把, 带来,啊, 搬,出, 出去, 过来,做饭,没关系,以前,但
但是/可是 mean “but”. 可是 is more colloquial than 但是。
必须 is an optative verb meaning “must” or “be required to.”
第 is used for ordinal numbers. For example, 第一,第二,第一天
Simple Directional Complements
A directional complement is a word or phrase that follows a motion or action
verb to show the direction of the motion or action. There are two kinds of
directional complements: simple directional complements and compound
directional complements.
Simple directional complements are formed by adding 来 or 去 to a motion verb.
In this construction, 来 and 去 indicate the direction of the motion. 来 indicates a
motion coming toward the speaker and 去 indicates a motion that is going away
from the speaker. For example, 进来 means to enter, coming toward the speaker
who is inside. 进去 means to enter, going in and away from the speaker who is
When using a simple directional complements with a verb that has an object, the
object comes after the motion verb and before the complement. Note that the
object is usually a place or a person.
Pattern: Verb + Object + 来/去
Compound Directional Complements
To form a compound directional complement, use a simple directional
complements (as detailed above) together with an action verb. In this
construction, the action verb expresses the action. The simple Directional
Complement indicates the direction of the action relative to a location or the
direction of motion toward or away from the speaker.
Eg. 我哥哥想搬过来。
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
把 sentence are used to indicate the effects of an action upon its object. The
structure used is as follows: Subject + 把 + Object + Verb + complement.
把 is used most often with action verbs. When 把 is used with action verbs, the
object of the verb must be definite and the verb must incorporate a complement.
Some of the common complements involved with 把 structures are as follows:
-degree of complement: 他把这个字写得很好。
-used as a complement to show a completed action: 我把汤喝了。
-Directional complement: 我要把那张桌子搬过去。
- is also commonly used in imperative sentences such as 把饭吃了。
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture?
1. Are there many different kinds of housing in your community? What
are some of these different kinds?
2. Have you ever been to any other countries? What was the housing
situation like there?
Lesson 21 未来计画
Future Plans
-Talk about future plans
-Express blessings and wishes
暑假, 毕业,决定,可能,申请,研究生院,国外,留学,找,打工,
家,公司,实习,电脑,班,一面, 有意思,愉快,一路平安,好运
Key words
研究生院- 研究生 means “graduate students” to refere to “graduate school” 研究
生院 is used in Mainland China, while 研究所 is used in Taiwan.
打工 is used to refer to work, or part-time work.
工读 is another common term, meaning “work-study” .
实习 means “intern” or “internship”
暑假实习 means “summer internship.”
这么/那么 + adj. is used to indicate a sense of surprise.
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
Eg. 这么快,这么多,这么小,那么贵
一面„„一面„„ is a conjunction used to show two actions being down at the
same time.
Similarly, 一边„„一边„„is also a conjunction that is used to show
simultaneous actions.
Note that the “一”in 一边 can be omitted, as in 边„„边„„while the “一”
in 一面 must be present
Types of verbal aspects:
- The progressive aspects of an action 在/正在 indicating that someone is
currently in the process of doing something
- Imminent action expressed by 就要/快要„„了
- Completion of an action expressed with 了
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture
1. What do most students do after graduation in your culture?
2. Have you ever thought about studying abroad in China? What places in
China would you like to visit and why?
Lesson 22 艺术和文化
Arts and Culture
Key words
-Give examples
-Describe cause and effect
-Describe your current situation
等等 means “et cetera,” and is usually used after a list of people or things.
Sometimes one character 等 is used instead of two.
还有 means “furthermore” “also” “in addition”. It is used to introduce additional
来信 is a V.O. that means “ a letter coming from ….” 来 is used here to indicate
CHIN 201
Yan Gao
Virginia Commonwealth University
that this is said from the speaker’s point of view, which means the letter is
coming to the speaker.
比如 is an expression equivalent to “for example,” “for instance,” or “such as” in
English. It is used to introduce specific examples.
As we previously learned, 所以 is used to indicate causality, meaning “so” or
“therefore.” 所以 is often used with 因为 as a pair of conjunctions. Note that
while in English because and so are not used together, in Chinese 因为 and 所以
are often used together in one sentence. Sometimes 因为 can be omitted if the
cause-effect relationship between first and the second clauses is clear.
Note also that though one usually doesn’t start a sentence with because in
English, in Chinese 因为 comes at the beginning of the sentence.
What similarities and differences do you think there might be between Chinese
culture and American Culture?
1. What are the most representative arts and cultural practices in your
cultural practices in your culture or community?
2. Have you studied any traditional cultural art of your own or other
cultures? What did you study?