norway norway and the eu - partners for europe Contents 1 Norway and the EU 3 2 A historical overview of Norway-EU relations 6 3 The EEA Agreement 8 4 The EEA and Norway Grants 11 5 Norway-EU cooperation at political level 14 6 Norway and the EU foreign and security policy 16 7 Justice and home affairs and the Schengen Agreement 18 8 Climate and energy 20 9 Other areas of cooperation 22 10 Norway’s participation in EU programmes and agencies 24 11 Mission of Norway to the EU 26 2 1 Norway and the EU Norway and the EU enjoy good and close relations, although Norway is not a member of the European Union. The Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) is the mainstay of our cooperation, and it ensures that Norway takes part in the EU internal market. We are also part of the Schengen Agreement and cooperate with the EU on foreign and security policy issues. Through the EEA Agreement, the three EFTA states Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein are equal partners in the EU internal market, on the same terms as the EU member states. This includes having access to the internal market’s four freedoms: the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital. The EEA Agreement is the most far-reaching economic agreement Norway has entered into, and by far the single most important agreement regulating the relationship between Norway and the EU. In fact, over 80 per cent of our exports go to the EU, and more than 60 per cent of our imports come from EU countries. Moreover, the Agreement also covers cooperation in other important areas such as research and development, education, social policy, the environment, consumer protection, tourism and culture. It also enables the three EEA EFTA states to participate in various EU programmes. Norway also participates in the activities of a number of EU agencies through provisions in the EEA Agreement or on the basis of bilateral agreements. 3 , FACTS ABOUT NORWAY • Official name: Kingdom of Norway • System of government: Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy • Population: 5 165 802 inhabitants as of 1 January 2015 • Capital: Oslo (647 676 inhabitants as of 1 January 2015) • Total land area: 385 170 km2 • Currency: Norwegian krone, NOK € 1 = NOK 8.62 (exchange rate February 2015) • Gross Domestic Product: NOK 3 151 483 million in 2014 • GDP per capita: NOK 613 366 in 2014 Source: Statistics Norway Norway and the EU also cooperate extensively in the field of justice and home affairs, for instance through the Schengen Agreement. Energy and climate, fisheries, maritime affairs, research and education are other important areas of cooperation. When it comes to foreign and security policy, Norway is engaged in a substantial policy dialogue with the EU, primarily with the European External Action Service (EEAS). Norway shares a common set of values with the EU and its member states, and we are working together to find joint solutions to common challenges. This brochure will tell you more about the areas in which Norway and the EU cooperate, and the extent of our cooperation. The scope and depth of our relations may surprise you. Did you know the following facts? • Norway provides funding to reduce • Almost 200 000 EU/EEA citizens are currently working in Norway. More than 7 % of the labour force in Norway are EU/EEA citizens. social and economic disparities in Europe. In the period 2009–14, the EEA and Norway Grants funded projects in 16 European countries, totalling EUR 1.8 billion. • In 2014 Norway contributed EUR 306 million to the EU programme budget. • Norway is a major long-term investor in the EU. As of January 2014, the Government Pension Fund Global has invested a total of EUR 235 billion in stocks and bonds in EU countries. Approx. 40 % of the Fund’s global stock and bond investments are in the EU. This comes in addition to considerable investments in real estate. 4 • Norway is the world’s third largest exporter of gas and tenth largest exporter of oil. Almost all Norwegian gas is sold on the European market. Norway is the EU’s second largest supplier of energy products (after Russia), including crude petroleum, natural gas and gas liquids. Oil Platform Draugen. Norway’s foreign trade, by region and country, 2014 IMPORTEXPORT NOK million % NOK million % Total 560 723 100 897 810 100 Nordic countries 118 293 21.1 104 315 11.6 EU 357 605 63.8 732 470 81.6 Europe 384 195 68.5 755 936 84.2 33 059 3.7 Denmark 34 254 6.1 France 19 327 3.4 54 196 6.0 United Kingdom 36 308 6.5 205 305 22.9 Sweden 68 967 12.3 51 249 5.7 Germany 66 450 11.9 151 848 16.9 9 795 1.7 12 717 1.4 10 0916 18.0 76 038 8.5 North America 51 990 9.3 40 343 4.5 South America 12 545 2.2 9 363 1.0 1 282 0.2 3 413 0.4 Africa Asia Oceania Source: Statistics Norway 5 2 A historical overview of Norway–EU relations The four countries’ membership applications are reactivated after the resignation of de Gaulle. Negotiations start in 1970. The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is established by Norway, Austria, Denmark, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. EFTA is later expanded to include Iceland in 1970, Finland in 1986 (associate member from 1961) and Liechtenstein in 1991. 1960 1961–67 A majority of Norwegians (53.5%) vote against European Community (EC) accession in a referendum. 1969 1972 1992 The EEA Agreement is signed between the EFTA states and the EC. Switzerland rejects participation in the EEA by referendum, but remains a member of EFTA. Norway, Ireland, Denmark and the UK apply twice to join the European Economic Community (EEC), but the accession negotiations are suspended both times when French President Charles de Gaulle vetoes the UK’s membership application. Norway, Sweden, Finland and Austria apply for membership of the EU. 6 The EU is enlarged to include 10 new member states. The EEA Enlargement Agreement establishes a European Economic Area consisting of 25 EU member states and the EEA EFTA states Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The EEA Agreement enters into force on 1 January 1994. A majority of Norwegians (52.2%) reject EU membership in a referendum. 1994 2001 The EEA is expanded to include Croatia, and now consists of 31 European countries. 2004 The Schengen Convention enters into force for Norway and the other Nordic countries. All passport controls between Norway and the fourteen Schengen countries are abolished. 2010 2014 The EU establishes its own foreign service, the European External Action Service (EEAS). In accordance with the Treaty of Lisbon, responsibility in the EU for coordinating EEA matters is moved from the European Commission to EEAS. 7 3 The EEA Agreement The Agreement on the European Economic Area EEA is the cornerstone of relations between Norway and the EU. It brings together the 28 EU member states and the three EEA EFTA states Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in an internal market governed by the same basic rules. It guarantees the internal market’s four freedoms, as well as nondiscrimination and equal rules of competition throughout the area. The internal market’s four freedoms are the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital. The EEA Agreement also covers cooperation in other important areas such as research and development, education, social policy, the environment, consumer protection, tourism and culture. It also enables the three EEA EFTA states to participate in various EU programmes. The EEA Agreement does not cover the EU common agriculture and fisheries policies, the customs union, the common trade policy, the common foreign and security policy, justice and home affairs or the monetary union. The principle of free movement of goods ensures that products originating in an EEA state may circulate freely within the internal market. Customs duties and quantitative restrictions on trade in such products are prohibited within the EEA. Through the free movement of persons, all EEA nationals have the right to work in any other EEA state. Students, pensioners and people not in paid employment also have the right to reside in another EEA state. Under the EEA Agreement individuals and companies enjoy freedom of establish- 8 ment and the right to provide services across the EEA on equal terms. Information about authorisation procedures and other matters is available from the Norwegian public reporting portal, Altinn, which is the single point of contact for service providers, www.altinn.no/en/. The free movement of capital enables cross-border investment by residents and companies in the EEA, without discrimination on grounds of nationality, place of residence or place of establishment. Citizens and companies have the right to transfer money between EEA states, and to open bank accounts, invest in shares and funds, and borrow money in other EEA states. A central principle of the EEA Agreement is homogeneity, which means that the same rules and conditions of competition apply to all economic operators within the EEA. To maintain homogeneity, the EEA Agreement is continuously updated and amened to ensure that the legislation of the EEA EFTA states is in line with EU internal market legislation. THE EEA INSTITUTIONS Substantive decisions relating to the EEA Agreement are a joint venture between the EEA EFTA states and the EU. Common bodies, such as the EEA Council and the EEA Joint Committee, have been established to administer the EEA Agreement. Because the EEA EFTA states are not members of the EU, they are constitutionally not able to accept direct decisions by the European Commission or the Court of Justice of the European Union. Separate EEA EFTA bodies that correspond to these EU bodies have therefore been set up. This is known as the two-pillar structure. EEA Agreement, and it also ensures that companies in these countries abide by the common rules of competition. The Authority can investigate possible infringements of EEA provisions, either on its own initiative, or on the basis of complaints. There is close contact and cooperation between the Commission and the Authority. The EFTA Court corresponds to the Court of Justice of the European Union in matters relating to the EEA EFTA states. The EFTA Court deals with infringement actions brought by the EFTA Surveillance Authority against an EEA EFTA state and handles disputes between two or more EEA EFTA states. The EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) plays a similar surveillance role to that of the European Commission. The Authority ensures that Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein respect their obligations under the 9 The Two-Pillar EEA Structure ICELAND LIECHTENSTEIN NORWAY EEA COUNCIL Ministers of the EU and the EEA EFTA states THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE EFTA STATES* EFTA Secretariat EEA JOINT COMMITTEE European External Action Service, European Commission and EEA EFTA Representatives EFTA SURVEILLANCE AUTHORITY EU PRESIDENCY (TROIKA) and EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN EXTERNAL ACTION SERVICE (EEAS) EUROPEAN COMMISSION COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EFTA COURT EFTA PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE* EFTA Secretariat EEA JOINT PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE* MPs from EFTA Parliaments and MEPs EFTA CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE* EFTA Secretariat EEA CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE* EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EP Secretariat ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE (ECOSOC) ECOSOC Secretariat *Switzerland is an observer This figure illustrates the management of the EEA Agreement. The left pillar shows the EFTA states and their institutions, while the right pillar shows the EU side. The joint EEA bodies are in the middle. 10 4 The EEA and Norway Grants The EEA and Norway Grants are Norway’s contribution to reducing economic and social disparities within the European Economic Area (EEA). Our funding also provide a unique opportunity to promote cooperation and partnerships between Norway and the sixteen beneficiary states in Central and Southern Europe. FOCUS AREAS Our support is channelled through 150 programmes and targeted towards areas where there are clear needs in the beneficiary states, and it is in line with broader European policies. capacity of non-governmental organisations (NGOs). A minimum of 10 % of the funding in each country has been allocated to areas such as democracy-building, protection of human rights and promotion of social inclusion. Climate change, energy, research and green innovation are among the priority sectors that receive most funding. More than EUR 700 million – or around 40 % of the funding – is allocated to these sectors, creating better conditions for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in Europe. The Global Fund for Decent Work and Social Dialogue promotes cooperation on labour policies between workers, employers and government organisations. Norway gives priority to establishing tripartite dialogue structures and initiatives to promote work–life balance. Norway also provides support for improving health, safety and environment standards. We give special attention to strengthening civil society and improving the 11 Improving the living conditions for Europe’s Roma population is a priority for the EEA and Norway Grants. Research and innovation are important for economic growth in Europe. Researchers from the beneficiary countries and Norway cooperate in joint research projects worth around €130 million. various programmes, primarily following open calls for proposals in the beneficiary states. Country-specific priorities and programmes are negotiated between Norway and the beneficiary states. BENEFICIARY STATES Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain. Our social inclusion programmes seek to enhance public health services and tackle issues such as poverty, a lack of equal opportunities and discrimination. The inclusion of Roma is a special concern in several programmes. Gender equality is key to economic development and is a cross-cutting concern. BILATERAL RELATIONS Strengthening bilateral relations is a key objective. Strategic partnerships between organisations and institutions in Norway and the beneficiary states have been established, and new opportunities for cooperation are explored on an ongoing basis. Currently, 87 of our 150 programmes are being implemented through cooperation between donor and beneficiary states. A wide range of public authorities and institutions, organisations and businesses also participate in partnership projects. HOW DOES THE EEA AND NORWAY GRANTS SCHEME WORK? Applicants can apply for support under the 12 The eligibility criteria for the EEA and Norway Grants are the same as those set for the EU Cohesion Fund, which is aimed at member states whose per-capita GNI is less than 90 % of the EU average. A new fund for decent work and social dialogue will be established with a view to promoting cooperation on labour policies between workers, employers and government organisations. Strategies to achieve decent working standards and initiatives to promote work-life balance at the work place, as well as better health, safety and environment standards are prioritised. Gender equality is often seen as a key to economic development and will be a horizontal concern for all programmes. A total of EUR 1.8 billion has been made available over the current funding period 2009–14, in addition to the EUR 1.30 billion already provided under the 2004– 09 grants schemes. Research, scholarships and human and social development are other focus areas under the grants. Social inclusion programmes involve measures to enhance public health services and tackle issues such as poverty, lack of equal opportunities, discrimination or exclusion from the labour market. Norway contributes around 97 % of the pledged amount. Contributions 2009–2014 (million EUR) Programmes and projects may be implemented until 2016. Beneficiary state Amount Poland578.1 Romania306.0 Hungary153.3 Czech Republic 131.8 Bulgaria126.6 Slovakia80.8 Lithuania84.0 Latvia73.0 Greece63.4 Portugal58.0 Estonia48.6 BACKGROUND Norway has provided funding to reduce social and economic disparities through various mechanisms since the EEA was Spain**45.9 first established in 1994. Malta4.5 EEA members Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein established the EEA and Norway Grants in conjunction with the enlargement of the European Union and the EEA in 2004. * Croatia has been eligible for funding since joining the the EEA in 2014. Slovenia26.9 Croatia*9.6 Cyprus7.8 **Spain received transitional support in the period 1 May 2009–31 December 2013. 13 5 Norway-EU cooperation at political level Norway and the EU share the same fundamental values, and face many of the same challenges. Close cooperation at political level is essential to find joint solutions to these challenges. The EEA and other agreements with the EU shape domestic policies at most levels and in most areas of Norwegian society. It is therefore in our national interest to cooperate closely with the EU and to participate actively in policy debates at European level. In this way, Norway seeks to promote its interests and to contribute to a positive development in Europe. The EEA Agreement provides the main platform for political cooperation between Norway and the EU. The EEA has its own council, which establishes political priorities for implementing and developing the Agreement. The EEA Council meets twice a year at ministerial level to assess the overall functioning of the EEA Agreement and to discuss matters of common concern. In connection with these meetings, a separate political dialogue meeting is held to discuss foreign and security policy issues. In addition to the established structure provided for by the EEA Agreement, various bilateral high-level meetings take place. The Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of EEA and EU Affairs meet with various EU leaders such as the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, the High Representative of the Union for 14 Top: Norwegian Minister of Finance Siv Jensen with European Commission Vice-President for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness Jyrki Katainen. Below: Norwegian Minister of EEA and EU Affairs Vidar Helgesen with European Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström. Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Børge Brende and Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, and the EU Presidency to discuss issues of common interest. There are also regular meetings between the other members of the Government and members of the Commission and the European Parliament. Based on a long-standing tradition between the EFTA states and the EU Presidency, various Norwegian ministers are invited to informal ministerial meetings and conferences organised by the rotating EU Presidency. The European Parliament also invites Norway to present its views on topical Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg with Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission. issues, such as Norway’s involvement in the Middle East, the Arctic and the High North, and Norway’s energy policy. There is close parliamentary cooperation between Norway and the European Parliament. Norway is the only non-EU country with a designated liaison officer to the European Parliament. Members of the European Parliament’s delegation to Switzerland, Iceland, Norway and the EEA meet regularly with Norwegian parliamentarians both in a bilateral and in an EEA EFTA context, as well as within the framework of other arenas for international cooperation, notably the Arctic Parliamentary Assembly. Standing committees of the European Parliament 15 often invite Norwegian parliamentarians to take part in inter-parliamentary meetings, and Norway is invited on a regular basis to parliamentary meetings hosted by the parliament of the country holding the rotating EU Presidency. Although the EEA Agreement is the mainstay of Norway’s political cooperation with the EU, Norway has chosen to collaborate with its European partners in more areas than those covered by the Agreement. You can read more about cooperation under the Schengen Agreement, cooperation on foreign and security policy and other areas of cooperation in the following chapters. 6 Norway and the EU foreign and security policy Norway cooperates closely with the EU on foreign and security policy issues. It is in our interest to find common solutions to shared global and regional challenges. By acting together, we can strengthen our influence internationally. Europe is experiencing times of change. We are facing complex and multidimensional challenges that require joint European coordination and action. Cooperation with the EU is crucial for safeguarding Norwegian interests in priority areas. The political dialogue between Norway and the EU on foreign and security policy issues is part of the EEA Agreement. Biannual foreign policy consultations are held in the margins of EEA Council meetings. Moreover, policy coordination and consultation take place on a daily basis, primarily with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and the member states. The goal is to safeguard common positions and seek to make a difference in international affairs. The EU invites Norway and the EFTA partners to consultations with the Council Working Groups on topics of common concern. Norway frequently aligns itself with the restrictive measures imposed by the EU against third countries. In addition, Norway is often invited to align itself with EU foreign policy statements, or with EU interventions in international organisations. Norway and the EU enjoy close coopera- 16 tion on many topical areas, such as the Middle East peace process and the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee (AHLC) for development assistance to the Palestinian people; policy in the High North; and common challenges regarding energy and climate change. We also cooperate, for example, in the areas of counter-terrorism, development cooperation, human rights, disarmament and non-proliferation, as well as in the OSCE and the Council of Europe. Migration is a particular issue of common concern. Norway and the EU are working to find common solutions to the challenges created by migration. This also means addressing the underlying causes of migration. Together with the EU, Norway seeks to strengthen cooperation with the countries of origin and transit. The aim is to promote human rights, democracy, peace and economic development in these countries. A Super Lynx helicopter from EU Naval Force flagship NRP Álvares Cabral arriving at HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen. The EU’s neighbouring regions are also Norway’s, and we have a common interest in maintaining the highest possible degree of security and stability in these areas. Norway’s cooperation with the EU in North Africa is a key element in the development of an integrated Norwegian Mediterranean policy. Norway supports the European Neighbourhood Policy, designed to promote economic, political and social development to the south and east of the EU’s borders. Norway will provide standby troops for EU battle groups in 2015, and is already part of the Nordic Battle Group under the auspices of the EU. Improved European crisis management capability would benefit both Europe and the rest of the international community. Norway seeks to play an active part in EU Norway will intensify its cooperation with the EU on preparedness and response with regard to terrorist attacks, natural disasters and other serious threats. It is crucial that efforts to develop and strengthen military capabilities. Within the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), Norway has entered into a separate agreement with the EU for participating in EU civilian and military operations. we can easily give and receive help across national borders if a serious incident occurs. Norway has participated in several EU-led operations in the Balkans, the Horn of Africa and in the Middle East. Furthermore, Norway has signed an agreement which enables Norwegian participation in the activities of the European Defence Agency. Norwegian Naval Special Operation Forces Command during their mission on the frigate HNoMS Fridtjof Nansen in Gulf of Aden. 17 7 Justice and home affairs and the Schengen Agreement The EU’s priorities in the area of justice and home affairs largely coincide with those of Norway. Challenges facing EU member states relating to cross-border crime, illegal immigration and managing streams of refugees apply to Norway as well. Therefore, Norway is associated with the EU justice and home affairs cooperation through various agreements. The most important of these is the Schengen Agreement. Norway joined the Schengen cooperation in 2001, and applies the Schengen acquis (the common set of Schengen rules) in full. This means that Norway applies the harmonised policies on visas and external border control. Norway and the other Schengen states have abolished internal border control between them. To compensate for this, the Schengen cooperation includes parts of EU police cooperation, in which Norway participates actively. This cooperation is key to safeguarding internal security and fighting cross-border crime. Norway is involved in the development of the Schengen acquis at all levels of the EU Council decision-making system, and has the right to speak, but not to vote. Those parts of the EU’s Justice and Home Affairs Council meetings in which Norway and other non-EU states participate are called meetings of the Mixed Committee. It is important to ensure that all Schengen countries take on their share of the responsibility for effective control of the external borders. Norway participates in the 18 European Borders Agency, Frontex, which aims to coordinate the management of the common external borders. Other parts of EU justice and home affairs cooperation also have implications for Norway. Therefore, Norway and the EU have entered into cooperation within various areas, including the following: Border control at Zaventem Airport. Top: Border Control Frontex/Schengen. Below: Control Activities at the Greek-Turkish border near Alexandroupolis, organized by Frontex, with the Rapid Border Intervention Teams (RABIT). • The Dublin cooperation, which establishes the criteria and • The European Asylum Support Office (EASO), which aims mechanisms for determining which state is responsible for examining an asylum application; at enhancing practical cooperation on asylum matters and helping member states fulfil their European and international obligations to give protection to people in need. • The European Migration Network, which contributes to policy development on migration and asylum; • An agreement on mutual legal assistance (exchange of • Europol, the European Law Enforcement Organisation, which aims at improving cooperation between the competent authorities in EU member states and their effectiveness in preventing and combating terrorism, drug trafficking and other forms of organised crime. Three Norwegian liaison officers are posted to the organisation’s headquarters in The Hague; information between law-enforcement and prosecution services); • A surrender agreement based on the principles of the European Arrest Warrant*; • An agreement on the Prüm Treaty on enhanced police cooperation in order to combat terrorism and international crime*. • Eurojust, a cooperation network set up to encourage and coordinate the investigation and prosecution of serious cross-border crime. A Norwegian public prosecutor and a Norwegian police prosecutor are currently working for Eurojust in The Hague; *Upon entry into force 19 8 Climate and energy Action to secure energy supplies and mitigate climate change is at the top of the European agenda. Norway and the EU share high ambitions in the field of climate policy. As one of the world’s largest energy exporters, Norway plays a significant role in European energy security. CLIMATE CHANGE Norway and the EU are working together in the battle against global warming. Together with the EU, Norway plays an active role in support of a strong international climate agreement to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in line with the two-degree target. In February 2015, the Norwegian gov- ENERGY Norway is fully integrated into the internal energy market under the EEA Agreement. Approximately one third of the natural gas imported to the EU originates from the Norwegian continental shelf, second in volume only to Russian gas. Norway is also one of the world’s largest producers of hydropower. There is extensive power trade between Norway and the neighbouring Nordic countries, as well as with continental Europe. Building cross-border gas pipelines and high-voltage power lines between European countries can make the energy market more efficient, improve the security of energy supplies and help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Cross-border power lines have advantages for all the countries involved. They give better use of electricity supply systems, more effective use of resources, greater security of supply and opportunities for greater integration of renewable energy into the supply system. ernment presented a White Paper on a New Norwegian Commitment for the Period After 2020 proposing a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 per cent by 2030, compared to the 1990 level. Norway will seek to join the EU 2030 framework for climate policies in order for Norway and the EU to jointly fulfil their climate targets. Norwegian natural gas can play an important role in Europe in the transition to a low-carbon economy. CO2 emissions can be reduced by replacing coal with gas. Gas can also be an important supplement to solar and wind power on days with little sun or wind. Norway is fully integrated into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). This is our main climate policy tool, covering almost 50 % of Norway’s greenhouse gas emissions (mostly industry). The ETS cap 20 must be sufficiently tight and predictable in order to provide the necessary incentives for a low-emission future, spurring technology development and innovation. An agreement between Norway and the EU on joint fulfilment of climate targets will imply cooperation on emissions also in the non-ETS sectors (like transport and agriculture). The EU is Norway’s most important collaborator and partner. A joint fulfilment with the EU allows for a more efficient climate policy and more predictable conditions for Norwegian businesses. Norway is committed to promoting technology development and cost reductions in order to make carbon capture and storage (CCS) an economically viable option for mitigating climate change. The Norwegian strategy encompasses a wide range of activities, including the development of a large-scale carbon capture demonstration facility by 2020. Norway also stands ready to consider how the EEA and Norway Grants can fund CCS projects in Europe. 21 9 Other areas of cooperation Research and education Research and education are important elements of Norway’s cooperation with the EU. Through the EEA Agreement, Norway participates in the EU’s education programme Erasmus+ and the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (Horizon 2020). Norway’s contributions to the major EU programmes for research, innovation and education will total around EUR 2.7 billion in the period 2014–20. Investments in these areas will help to secure the basis for competitiveness and employment in the future. Norway and the EU cannot compete on the basis of labour costs; rather, they need to compete on the basis of innovation and knowledge. World-leading research forms the foundation for tomorrow’s jobs, technologies and welfare. Increasing the knowledge content in products, services and processes gives a competitive advantage and increases productivity. Cross-border mobility and cooperation help to raise the quality of education and research, and make an important contribution to the competitiveness of our businesses. Erasmus students at campus. 22 Maritime Affairs Fisheries Norway is a seafaring nation, with much of its population living along the coast and depending on the sea (whether in the areas of fisheries, petroleum or shipping). Norway and the EU therefore share the ambition of maintaining the European maritime industries’ world-leading position and competitiveness. Norway is one of the world’s largest exporters of fish. Around 60 % of total Norwegian seafood exports go to the EU. A protocol to the EEA Agreement regulates trade between Norway and the EU in the area of fish and seafood. Management of living marine resources is not included in the EEA Agreement itself, but Norwegian and EU fishing vessels harvest fish and seafood from the same oceans. Taking as their basis a separate framework agreement, Norway and the EU negotiate annual quota agreements on joint stocks in the North Sea, as well as quota exchanges for stocks in other sea areas. An integrated approach to ocean management and maritime affairs, as represented by the EU maritime policy, is in line with Norwegian thinking and policy. The EU launched its Integrated Maritime Policy in December 2007. Norway cooperates closely with the EU in this field. New EU legislation in this area may also apply to Norway, through the EEA Agreement. In general, Norway and the EU cooperate closely on the management of marine resources, including on the monitoring and enforcement of regulations. Common efforts to combat the problem of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) have produced encouraging results. Furthermore, Norway cooperates closely with the EU on resource management and protection of the marine environment. Norway participates in relevant EU programmes and acts Fish farming. as a partner in the development of European marine policies. 23 10 Norway’s participation in EU programmes and agencies The EU has established several programmes in order to help implement EU policy. These programmes and related activities strengthen cooperation in areas not covered by the internal market, and support further development of the four freedoms. The programmes cover areas such as research, education, social policy and culture. Through the EEA Agreement, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein participate in a wide range of these programmes and activities. This participation creates a wealth of opportunities in the areas of innovation, research, cultural exchanges and education, of benefit for all EEA states. The EU has also set up several decentralised agencies to carry out technical, scientific or administrative tasks relating to the internal market and the EU programmes. Norway participates in a number of these agencies through provisions in the EEA Agreement or on the basis of bilateral agreements with the EU. When the EEA Joint Committee agrees to incorporate programmes and agencies into the EEA Agreement, Norway commits to making an annual financial contribution to the relevant EU budget. EEA EFTA states fund their participation in programmes and agencies by paying an amount calculated on the basis of the relative size of their gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the GDP of the EEA as a whole. The EEA EFTA states thereby participate on an equal footing with EU member states. In addition, the EEA EFTA 24 states send a number of national experts on secondment to the European Commission. These posts are fully financed by the EEA EFTA states themselves. The total EEA EFTA commitment contributions amount to 3.03% of the overall EU programme budget. In 2014, Norway’s contribution was EUR 306 million. This constitutes 97 % of the total EEA EFTA contributions. During the programme period 2014–20, the Norwegian contribution will increase substantially, in parallel with the EU programme budget, from EUR 306 million in 2014 to EUR 550 million in 2020. During the EU programme period 2014–20 Norway will participate in the following programmes: • Horizon 2020 • Erasmus + •Galileo • Creative Europe • Connecting Europe Facility (ICT part) • European Statistical Programme • Health for Growth • Union Civil Protection Mechanism • Interoperability Solutions for Public Administrations (ISA) Programme • Employment and Social Innovation • Consumer Programme • Copernicus programme Norway also has a bilateral arrangement for participation in interregional programmes under the EU’s Regional Policy. AS OF 2014, NORWAY PARTICIPATES IN THE FOLLOWING EU AGENCIES: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA)*** European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders (FRONTEX)** European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA) European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) European Defence Agency (EDA)* European Environment Agency (EEA) European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EUROFUND) European GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) Supervisory Authority European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) European Medicines Agency (EMA) European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)* European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) Europol (the EU’s law enforcement agency)* European Railway Agency (ERA) European Research Council Executive Agency (ERC)*** European Union Satellite Centre (EUSC)* European Union’s Judicial Cooperation Unit (EUROJUST)* Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI)*** Executive Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC)*** Research Executive Agency (REA)*** European Police College (CEPOL) * Bilateral agreement between the EU and Norway ** Norway participates through its Schengen membership *** Norway participates through related programmes 25 11 Mission of Norway to the EU To learn more about Norway’s relations with the EU, please visit: www.eu-norway.org The Mission of Norway to the European Union plays an essential role in the development and implementation of Norway’s policy on Europe. The Mission is also an important centre of expertise on EU and EEA affairs for the Norwegian public administration. Some of the Mission’s main tasks are: • represent the Norwegian Government in Brussels and promote the Government’s policies and positions vis-à-vis the European Union; • identify at the earliest stage possible issues related to the EEA and Schengen cooperation that are of political or economic importance to Norway; • safeguard Norwegian interests in negotiations with the European Commission, the European External Action Service and the Council of the European Union in areas covered by the EEA and Schengen agreements; • work closely with the EU institutions on the further development of the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the Common Security and Defence Policy; and • increase awareness of Norway’s close ties with the EU, in particular our participation in the internal market. All Norwegian ministries are represented at the Mission, reflecting the broad scope of Norway’s relations with the EU. The Mission has a staff of around 60, of which two thirds are diplomats. 26 The Mission receives around 8 000 visitors annually, ranging from school classes and student groups to business delegations and parliamentary committees. Each year the Mission holds a broad range of seminars and conferences at Norway House, often in cooperation with the EU institutions or think tanks in Brussels. Iceland EEA-EFTA: Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein Norway EU EFTA: Switzerland Liechtenstein Switzerland 27 More information about Norway Information from the Government and the Ministries: www.government.no The Mission of Norway to the EU: www.eu-norway.org The European Free Trade Association (EFTA): www.efta.int The official travel guide to Norway: www.visitnorway.com Published by: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Public institutions may order additional copies from: Norwegian Government Security and Service Organisation E-mail: [email protected] Internet: www.publikasjoner.dep.no Telephone: + 47 22 24 20 00 Publication number: E-948 E ISBN 978-82-7177-993-1 Design: Gjerholm Design Print: Andvord Grafisk 02/2015 - Impression 10 000 Cover: 1) Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg and President of the European Council Donald Tusk. Photo: Juha ROININEN / EUP-IMAGES / Prime Minister´s Office. 2) Fishing boat in Lofoten, Nordland. Photo: Pål Bugge/inn/Innovation Norway. 3) Norwegian flag in the EU-Commission with the EU flag. Photo: Juha ROININEN / EUP-IMAGES / Prime Ministers Office. Page 4) Nancy Bundt Visitnorway.com. Page 5) Harald Valderhaug/Innovation Norway. Sushi by the sea. Photo: Yngve Ask/Innovation Norway. Page 9) Colourbox. Page 11) Christian G. Halvorsen, MFA Norway. Page 12, 13) Christophe Vander Eecken. Page 14) Top: Anders Aalbu/ Mission of Norway to the EU. Below: Stian Mathisen, Mission of Norway to the EU. Page 15) Left: European External Action Service. Right: Juha ROININEN / EUP-IMAGES / Prime Ministers Office. Page 17) Top: Jon Vaag Eikeland/Norwegian Armed Forces. Below: MJK/Norwegian Armed Forces. Page 18) Top: Frontex. Below: EC audiovisual services. Page 19) European Union 2013. Page 21) Arne Nævra/ NTB scanpix. Page 22) European Commission / Alain Schroeder. Page 23) Hallvard Stensland/ MFA Norway. Page 26) The Mission of Norway to the EU. Photo: Anders Aalbu/ Mission of Norway to the EU.
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