Current Issue

March 2015
Budget 2015
NHS can’t afford
cheap alcohol to become cheaper
- but is anyone listening?
UK Alcohol Alert
Alliance News
become cheaper - but
is anyone listening?
[email protected]
Pressure builds for
related hospital
admissions cost
Public Health England
supports alcohol/drug
Anti binge drinking
Welsh NHS £109m a
campaigns should
CMA clarifies advice
promote benefits of
over super strength
Home Office decided
against locally set
Pressure mounts
licensing fees
to launch Scottish
Hidden harm:
Alcohol’s devastating
Alcohol ban to be
impact on children
introduced on railway
and families
UK aloohol deaths still
above 1990s levels
alcohol courts to be
extended in England
340,000 alcohol-
alcohol football ban
Family drug and
Rise of the young
[email protected]
Alcohol Alert
welcomes feedback
and contributions. If
you’re interested in
contributing a guest
editorial or article,
please first contact us
alcohol schemes
Tel: 020 7222 5880
Fax: 020 7799 2510
to be closed
a new EU Alcohol
Helen Murphy
Drink drive ‘loophole’
issn - 2056-8274
12 Caxton Street
NHS can’t afford
cheap alcohol to
March 2015
Alcohol Alert is
published by the
Institute of Alcohol
Studies, a Registered
Budget 2015:
Drink drive fatalities up
a fifth
Budget 2015:
NHS can’t afford cheap alcohol to become cheaper –
but is anyone listening?
ccording to
He said: “It [a cut in duty]
media reports,
seems to be sending all
the Chancellor
the wrong messages at
of the Exchequer
a time when the NHS is
will cave in to drinks industry
under enormous strain,
pressure and lower beer
A&E departments are full
duty in the 2015 Budget,
to bursting point, when we
a move that is seemingly
know that price is the single
supported by the Minister for
biggest determinant of how
Public Health Jane Ellison
much harm we see.”
MP. It would be the third cut
in as many years by George
Osborne MP, who also
Politicians put profit before
Public Health
announced the abolition of
the alcohol duty escalator for
Calls to Drop the Duty have
wine and spirits last year.
grown ever louder from the
industry in the run-up to the
Such a move would be
annual Budget. The British
another blow to public
Beer and Pub Association
health campaigners, who
and Wine and Spirits Trade
argue that the National
Association have led an
Health Service can’t afford
intense lobbying campaign
for cheap alcohol to get
aimed at convincing MPs
cheaper. According to
of the economic benefits of
Treasury figures, tax cuts
cutting alcohol excise duties.
announced in last year’s
Industry representatives
Budget will lead to a loss
have met with Treasury
of £1.5bn to the Exchequer
officials and Cabinet figures
over the next 5 years.
including Exchequer
This could fund the annual
Secretary Priti Patel MP and
salaries of 9,571 nurses, 5.7
Chancellor Osborne himself,
million hospital bed days,
who hosted receptions
or over 1.3m emergency
on behalf of the All Party
ambulance call-outs a year.
Parliamentary Group
duty cut. Members of the
Alliance, Professor Sir Ian
Alcohol Health Alliance have
Gilmore, argued that a duty
requested meetings with
cut “lacked practical sense”
Patel and Osborne but have
and warned against the
been unsuccessful.
AHA representatives have
also been denied meetings
NHS to ‘stand up and be
Minister Jane Ellison MP
counted’ in debates around
did however find the time to
alcohol pricing policies. With
lobby the Chancellor for a
no apparent representations
duty cut on behalf of alcohol
from health bodies made to
industry trade bodies. In her
the Chancellor, it looks likely
response to Richard Siddle,
that the profits of the drinks
editor of trade publication
industry will triumph over
Harpers, she wrote: “I
public health once again in
appreciate your concerns
this year’s Budget.
duty and the need to
Download Professor Sir
stimulate economic growth...
Ian Gilmore discussing the
To share your views on
effects of lower duties on
a further cut, I have, as
alcohol-related social and
you ask, written to the
health harms here:
of your correspondence. I do
hope that this is helpful.”
This move will likely generate
great concern amongst
Please read the Alcohol
health professionals. Simon
Health Alliance budget
Stevens, Chief Executive
briefing paper Our NHS can’t
of NHS England called on
afford for alcohol to get any
the government to prioritise
cheaper for the facts behind
urgent action on cheap
the cost to the UK of further
alcohol due to the enormous
cuts to alcohol duty.
strain currently placed on
with health ministers to
A&E units. In an interview
discuss the potential impact
the NHS. Public Health
Chancellor, enclosing a copy
Treasury “throwing money
away as a sop to the drinks
stated he wanted the
about the impact of alcohol
for Beer backing a beer
Chair of the Alcohol Health
of alcohol duty cuts on
with the Telegraph, Stevens
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Pressure builds for a new EU Alcohol Strategy
But will it be enough?
Member States are
Commission. In the paper,
(including alcohol
However, the prospects
calling on the European
CNAPA identifies a number
are uncertain for a renewal
Commission to develop
of principles that should
a new and ambitious EU
govern a comprehensive
Alcohol Strategy to prevent
alcohol strategy:
of a fully comprehensive
and reduce alcohol related
harm in Europe.
It should address all
EU definitions of
alcohol strategy at EU level.
alcoholic beverages
The pressure for renewal
that inhibit reduction of
from within the Commission
alcoholic content
appears to have diminished
types of harmful use of
The European Commission
alcohol and alcohol-
Committee on National
Alcohol Policy and Action
and there has always
Alcohol marketing
been opposition to a
related harm across all
and advertising,
strategy from non-health
population groups
including cross-border
stakeholders and sectors of
advertising and on-
the alcohol industry.
(CNAPA), which represents
Member States, has called
It should be coherent
line advertising, with
repeatedly for a new EU
and systematic,
particular regard to the
The European
Alcohol Strategy to replace
focused on both
exposure of youth
Parliament Committee
the former strategy, which
behavioural and
expired in 2012. Since
structural prevention of
then, there have been
alcohol harmful use
for Environment, Food
Labelling of alcohol
Safety and Public Health
is currently considering a
numerous calls for it to
be renewed including
resolution for the adoption
It should reflect a
Mariann Skar, Secretary
of a new EU Alcohol
from public health bodies,
‘health in all policies’
General of Eurocare, the
Strategy to be presented to
NGOs, MEPs and, more
approach, engaging
European Alcohol Policy
the European Parliament.
recently, the UK House of
the positive potential
Alliance, warmly welcomed
However, public health
of all relevant policy
the scoping paper from
bodies and NGOs have
sectors to help reduce
the Member States. She
written to MEPs expressing
harm from alcohol
said: “We now expect the
their concerns that
European Commission to
suggested amendments
It should be evidence-
be quick and follow up the
to the resolution appear
Member States’ request
to prioritise commercial
for increased action on
interests over public health.
However, the nearest the
Commission has come
to agreeing to renew the
strategy was to adopt, in
2014, an Action Plan on
Youth Drinking and Heavy
It should foster synergy
preventing and reducing
Episodic Drinking. CNAPA
across the global,
alcohol-related harm.
has said that this Action
European and national
As the scoping paper
Plan “cannot be considered
as well as regional
explains, there are several
as a substitute to a new
and local levels, while
issues which need to be
consolidated EU strategy
respecting subsidiarity
addressed at EU level,
to prevent and reduce
Lords call for a new EU
Alcohol Strategy with
effective legislation at
Commission level
such as advertisement and
A report published by
alcohol-related harm” and
The scoping paper
information to consumers,
the House of Lords EU
reaffirmed the latter, being,
emphasises the importance
and it is important
Committee supports the
in their view, a priority
of actions at EU level in
that the European
European Union acting in
addressing cross-border
Commission includes the
its own power to combat
issues, especially:
recommendations from
alcohol-related harm. A
EU rules on the
the Member States in their
New EU Alcohol Strategy?
presented in a scoping
mechanisms to
future work.”
argues that any new action
paper to the European
influence prices
CNAPA’s views are
by the EU should focus on
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
measures within its powers,
include, as a
and not rely just on action
minimum, the
by Member States, or
strength, the
voluntary commitments
calorie content,
from industry.
guidelines on safe
drinking levels,
The report reaches three
and a warning
main conclusions from its
about the dangers
inquiry into the previous
of drinking
when pregnant.
The 2006-12 strategy,
while well-intentioned, did
commitments are
not enough.
not concentrate on what
The European Commission launched in 2006 an EU strategy
to support Member States in reducing alcohol-related harm.
The Institute of Alcohol Studies was commissioned to compile
the evidence-base for the Strategy: it was published in a
PERSPECTIVE, written by Peter Anderson and Ben Baumberg.
The priority themes of the Strategy, identified as relevant in all
Member States and for which action at EU level added value,
were: (1) protecting young people, children and the unborn child;
the EU itself can act on.
Committee Chair,
(2) reducing alcohol-related injuries and death in road traffic; (3)
Consequently it achieved
Baroness Prashar,
little. In developing any
said that the
preventing alcohol-related harm among adults and reducing the
new action the EU should
inquiry identified
therefore concentrate on
the need for the
what it can do, over and
EU to conduct
above any initiatives the
more satisfactory
Member States can take
on their own. In particular,
research on
the EU should ensure that
alcohol abuse, its
its own policies contribute
effects, and what
to the reduction of alcohol-
works to prevent
related harm and excessive
it. The inquiry
also suggested
negative impact on the workplace; (4) informing, educating and
raising awareness of the impact of harmful alcohol consumption
and of appropriate consumption patterns; (5) developing and
maintaining a common evidence base. The strategy also called
for further actions at three levels: measures implemented by
Member States at national level; coordination of national policies
at EU level; and actions by the European Commission, including through
projects, research and stakeholder cooperation.
that the UK
The current EU alcohol
Government “should
taxation regime prevents
honour the commitment
Member States from raising
it gave in 2012” by
duties on the most harmful
introducing minimum
substances, and provides
unit pricing if it proved
incentives to purchase
successful in bringing
drinks with higher alcohol
health benefits to the
contents. This illogical
heaviest drinkers in
taxation structure must be
Responding to the report,
Katherine Brown, Director
labelling must be amended
of the Institute of Alcohol
to include alcoholic drinks.
Studies said: “We welcome
These labels should
the recommendations
Strategy. We cannot afford
sense at a time when
any further delays, so
the EU Alcohol Strategy
let’s hope that this report
appears to be the victim
provides impetus for
of bureaucratic blunders
use the third leading cause
A new EU alcohol strategy?
of death and disability in
was published by the
Europe, the absence of
EU Sub-Committee on
a comprehensive policy
Home Affairs, Health and
to tackle this issue is
“The European Commission
has repeatedly ignored calls
from Member States and
made by the House of
for a new EU Alcohol
much needed common
in Brussels. With alcohol
The EU rules on food
Lords. They provide some
public health professionals
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
CMA clarifies advice over super-strength alcohol schemes
he Competition
Markets Authority
(CMA) has
produced a
statement in the wake of
the press coverage of the
meeting held by the All
Parliamentary Party Group
for Beer in January. Then,
Dan Moore, Director of
Competition and Markets at
the CMA, spoke about the
potential for some schemes
to carry competition law
risks. This was interpreted
in an Off Licence News
article as an admission of
knowledge that some local
authorities had breached
competition law in
promoting the schemes.
The CMA has since
declared its position in its
guidance to organisations
(see text box). This
indicates clearly that the
CMA is not able to say
whether or not an individual
scheme is lawful or
As the Local Government
Association states,
Reducing the Strength
refers to initiatives designed
to tackle the problems
associated with street
drinking by removing from
sale low price high-strength
alcohol products through
voluntary agreements with
local retailers. Suffolk was
approach back in 2012
The LGA commented:
for councils that are
and since then a number of
“Over the last fifteen
considering introducing
other places have followed.
months, the Competition
Reducing the Strength
and Markets Authority
schemes. The guidance
The models used vary from
(CMA) have provided clear
was published at the
place-to-place, but tend
and consistent guidance on
end of 2014, and we are
to target alcohol products
the competition law risks
continuing to work with the
above 6.5% alcohol by
associated with Reducing
CMA to ensure it is kept up
volume (ABV), although
the Strength schemes.
to date and reflects best
some have focused on a
The LGA worked with the
slightly lower ABV or lower
CMA, councils and industry
cost products.
/ retail associations over
several months to develop
the first area to adopt the
best practice guidance
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Pressure mounts to lift Scottish alcohol football ban
campaign to
Mr Murphy, a Celtic fan who
lift the ban on
is himself teetotal, said:
sales of alcohol
“We know there has been
at football
a problem in the past but
Scotland that
the sale of
alcohol would
threaten the
grounds in Scotland is
this group of supporters
gaining momentum. The
shouldn’t have to pay
Scottish Labour Party is
for the mistakes of their
leading the campaign, with
grandfather’s generation…
the Scottish Conservative
I think we should stop
Party and the Scottish
criminalising football fans
Football Association (SFA)
and stop treating them
also in support. The SFA is
as uniquely incapable of
seeking the views of fans
drinking in moderation
on whether alcohol should
and enjoying a sporting
be sold at stadiums during
occasion. It’s about treating
matches, and it has said
football fans as adults
it wants to “build a case”
and done properly, it can
in favour of lifting the ban.
improve the experience of
However, the Scottish
the stands.” But Mr Murphy
police have expressed
added that ending the ban
reservations, and the
“shouldn’t be driven by a
Scottish National Party
desire of football clubs to
Government has said it has
boost their income or fleece
no plans to end the ban,
matches there were many
a riot at the 1980 Scottish
However, there is not a
crowd behaviour than there
Cup final between Rangers
complete consensus on the
and Celtic.
issue. The head of Police
game’s status
as a “family
event” and
could lead
to a rise in
He said: “ We
don’t believe
now is the
right time to
alcohol into
football. The
fact is that when we were
selling alcohol at football
more problems in terms of
initially imposed following
are today.
However, alcohol can
Sir Stephen House, has
be served in corporate
said he would be “extremely
hospitality areas of football
concerned by any proposal
to amend legislation in
progress so let’s not turn
the clock back. Let’s keep
with that progress, keep it
a family game and if people
then want to go for a drink
respect of alcohol at football
Jim Murphy, leader of the
matches in Scotland”. But,
Scottish Labour Party, has
he said, if the outcome
attacked the ban as being a
of an independent public
form of class prejudice. He
consultation backed the
said that football supporters
idea, then “we will of
should not be treated
course enter into formal
differently from rugby
discussions with the
fans at Murrayfield, where
footballing authorities.”
after the game then they are
have seen the eradication of
football-related violence. In
fact I think we see it still far
too much.”
Public health organisations
voiced their concerns over
Scottish Health Secretary
newspaper. The signatories
- which included SHAAP,
BMA Scotland, and
Alcohol Focus Scotland
“Scotland has a difficult
disappointment at not being
- also expressed their
relationship with alcohol
wrong direction.
to the Herald Scotland
Alex Neil told BBC
this goes in completely the
lifting the ban in a letter
criticised the campaign. She
Social Justice Secretary
consumption. I just think
free to do so.”
Shona Robison also
drinking is permitted.
been to reduce alcohol
“I am not convinced we
“We have made a lot of
Scotland, Chief Constable
and our position has
Alcohol Alert
involved in the consultations
taking place over the issue.
March 2015
Alcohol ban to be introduced on railway trains?
here is uncertainty
in regard to
whether or not
the rail safety
authorities are considering
banning the drinking of
alcohol on trains to prevent
the deaths of drunken
passengers. The measure
is mooted by the rail safety
watchdog, the Rail Safety
and Standards Board, in
a Platform Train Interface
Strategy reviewing the
whole issue of passenger
safety in relation to stations,
platforms and getting on and
disembarking from trains, and
behaviour on trains. However,
spokesmen for the Board
later denied that there was
intention of introducing an
alcohol ban.
Drunkenness factor in twothirds of incidents
The review states that 48%
of the passenger-fatality risk
Tube strike called over failed alcohol breath test
A strike has been called on the London Underground in protest at the sacking of a tube train driver
who twice failed an alcohol breath test before starting work on the Northern Line. Union officials
insisted that the driver was not drunk and had not been drinking at work and that the positive breath
test was due to the driver suffering from diabetes. However, London Underground said the breath
tests were unaffected by diabetes and the case had gone through a full disciplinary hearing and
appeals process, as well as a separate independent director’s review.
As reported by the BBC, the transport authority said it had explored in detail the suggestion that
diabetes could affect the breathalyser result, but concluded that the type of test it used was not
affected by acetone, which is produced in the bloodstream of people with the condition.
However, Mick Cash, General Secretary of the Rail, Maritime and Transport (RMT) Union which
has called the strike, said there had been a campaign of “misinformation and smears” against his
He said: “This action is the first stage as part of a rolling programme of industrial action and I urge
all RMT London Underground train operators and instructor operators to stand firm together against
this and any future injustices against RMT members.”
Nick Brown, Chief Operating Officer of London Underground (LU), said: “This indefensible strike is
about one RMT member dismissed for failing two alcohol breath tests. We will not be swayed by it
as we will never compromise on the safety of our customers and staff. You wouldn’t let someone
who had been drinking alcohol drive your family in a car, and we don’t let people who have been
drinking alcohol drive people’s families in Tube trains.
“For the RMT leadership to announce a strike regardless shows how completely out of touch they
are, just as the timing demonstrates that they know they have very little support from their members
on this issue.”
Members voted by 299 votes to 221 to take action. The turnout was 42%. LU said the number of
drivers who had voted to take strike action represented 8% of all drivers.
In December, RMT workers held a 24-hour strike on the Northern line over the same issue.
on the rail network happens
when passengers are getting
review explains. Altogether,
on or off trains, and in 21 of
intoxication is stated to be the
the 32 such deaths in the
fourth biggest incident factor
past 10 years, drunkenness
by number of incidents and a
was a factor. Intoxication is
feature of 9% of all incidents.
associated with the potential
for passengers to fall from
The strategy review contains
the platform, be struck by a
a section titled ‘Advancing the
train while on the platform,
management of intoxicated
fall between the platform
passengers’. This says that to
and the train or slip, trip, or
support the management of
fall across the platform train
intoxicated passengers, the
interface. Men are involved
feasibility and effectiveness
in more alcohol-related
of enhancing station facilities
incidents than females, the
(informed by good practice)
will be assessed, along with
good practice on the
the potential to advance
management of intoxicated
co-ordinated support
passengers, which will include
between station staff, train
guidance to staff on how to
staff, Network Rail, and the
apply it.
British Transport Police (BTP)
to improve implementation
The alcohol ban
of existing legislation and
promote “responsible
In terms of the strategic
drinking” on the railway.
response to intoxicated
passengers, the review
Based on the work achieved
states that a range of
in the immediate term,
resources to support the safe
consideration will be given to
management of intoxicated
the development of additional
passengers will be piloted
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
UK alcohol deaths still above 1990s levels
at all staffed stations and,
where successful, will
be implemented across
the network. Work will
also be undertaken to
incorporate requirements
ff i c e f o r
A l c o h o l - re l a t e d D e a t h s
L o n g e r- t e r m t re n d s
in the United Kingdom,
show that the
R e g i s t e re d i n 2 0 1 3
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d a g e -
p ro v i d e s a re l a t i v e l y
s t a n d a rd i s e d d e a t h
data show a small
conservative estimate
r a t e h a s f a l l e n i n re c e n t
i n c re a s e i n t h e n u m b e r
for the number of
y e a r s . H o w e v e r, i t
for such resources into the
o f a l c o h o l - re l a t e d
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d d e a t h s
re m a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y
design standards for new
d e a t h s c o m p a re d w i t h
in the UK. An updated
higher than 20 years
stations. The exploration
t h e p re v i o u s y e a r.
method for estimating
a g o , w h e n t h e re w e re
of potential advancements
I n 2 0 1 3 , t h e re w e re
the impact of alcohol
9 . 1 a l c o h o l - re l a t e d
in co-ordinated support
8 , 4 1 6 a l c o h o l - re l a t e d
on population health
deaths per 100,000
between station staff, train
d e a t h s re g i s t e re d i n
b y re s e a rc h e r s a t
population (illustrated
staff, Network Rail, and
t h e U K , 4 9 m o re t h a n
t h e C e n t re f o r P u b l i c
the BTP will be turned into
i n 2 0 1 2 , w h e n t h e re
Health, Liverpool John
formalised agreements of
w e re 8 , 3 6 7 d e a t h s .
M o o re s U n i v e r s i t y,
Death rates have
roles, responsibilities, and
T h e a g e - s t a n d a rd i s e d
found that in England
re m a i n e d re l a t i v e l y
processes for managing
r a t e re m a i n e d t h e
over 21,000 deaths
stable for the past
intoxicated passengers. This
same (14.0 deaths per
w e re c a u s e d b y a l c o h o l
ten years following a
formalised agreement will be
100,000 population).
consumption in 2010.
l a r g e i n c re a s e d u r i n g
supported by investigation
t h e p re v i o u s d e c a d e .
into additional legislation and
policy that could be used to
support the management
of intoxicated passengers;
for example, banning the
sale and consumption of
alcohol on trains, similar to
the ban already in operation
by Transport for London
(TFL) in relation to buses and
underground trains.
However, spokesmen for the
Board later insisted that the
idea of a similar alcohol ban
on the railways was totally
wrong, and that the strategy
document was referring only
to existing bans and by-laws,
such as the Scottish ban
on alcohol consumption on
night-time train services and
the localised restrictions on
some trains carrying football
Alcohol-related death rates, United Kingdom, registered in 1994-2013
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Between 2003–2013
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d d e a t h
r a t e s f e l l f ro m 1 5 t o 1 4
per 100,000 population;
h o w e v e r, b e t w e e n
1994–2003 these rates
h a d r i s e n f ro m 9 t o 1 5
per 100,000.
For both sexes, UK
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d d e a t h
r a t e s w e re h i g h e s t
among those aged 60 64 years (45.3 deaths
per 100,000 males
and 22.4 per 100,000
females), alcoholic liver
disease being the most
common cause. Among
t h a t a g e g ro u p , t h e
n u m b e r o f d e a t h s f ro m
alcoholic liver disease
alone in England and
Wa l e s h a s i n c re a s e d b y
over 50% since 2003.
H o w e v e r, i m p o r t a n t l y,
these statistics show
that 43% of alcoholre l a t e d d e a t h s a m o n g s t
men and 41% amongst
females occur among
those aged under 55,
indicating that alcoholre l a t e d i l l h e a l t h i s a
m a j o r b u rd e n o n a d u l t s
economic and gender
inequalities in
and lawyers, with 7.3
occupations tended
deaths and 5.2 deaths
to have higher death
per 100,000 men and
r a t e s a n d l o s e m o re
w o m e n re s p e c t i v e l y ) .
potential years of
working life because of
In 2011, the largest
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d d e a t h s
significant gender
t h a n t h o s e i n m o re
d i ff e re n c e w a s f o u n d
advantaged socioeconomic classes.
i n s e m i - ro u t i n e
Using the 2011 Census
v e t e r i n a r y n u r s e s , t r a ff i c
occupations (e.g.
w a rd e n s a n d s e c u r i t y
data, the ONS found
Does your occupation
examining the socio-
p l a n n i n g p ro f e s s i o n a l s
t h a t t h o s e i n ro u t i n e
i n ro u t i n e o c c u p a t i o n s
a c c o m p a n y i n g re p o r t
doctors, IT strategy and
The analysis showed
of working age.
T h e O N S p ro d u c e d a n
p ro f e s s i o n a l ro l e s ( e . g .
working age adults.
t h a t a l c o h o l - re l a t e d
women, than those in
re l a t e d d e a t h s a m o n g
g u a rd s ) , w h e re t h e r a t e
w a s a l m o s t t h re e t i m e s
death rates for those
g re a t e r f o r m e n t h a n
women. In contrast,
( e . g . b a r s t a ff , c l e a n e r s
the higher managerial
a n d l a b o u re r s , w i t h
a n d p ro f e s s i o n a l
29.5 deaths per
o c c u p a t i o n s w e re t h e
100,000 men and 12.6
only class without
deaths per 100,000
a significant gender
w o m e n ) w e re f o u r t i m e s
d i ff e re n c e i n t h e
g re a t e r f o r m e n a n d
a l c o h o l - re l a t e d d e a t h
rates (illustrated).
T h e O N S f i g u re s a d d t o
the established body
of evidence indicating
t h a t t h e re i s a n i n v e r s e
re l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n
socioeconomic status
a n d a l c o h o l - re l a t e d
harms, despite people
f ro m h i g h e r i n c o m e
g ro u p s d r i n k i n g
m o re . T h e I n s t i t u t e o f
Alcohol Studies 2014
re p o r t A l c o h o l , H e a l t h
Inequalities and the
Harm Paradox evaluated
the evidence base,
concluding that the
p o o re r h e a l t h o f l o w e r
s o c i o e c o n o m i c g ro u p s
w a s m o re l i k e l y t o b e
l i n k e d t o a l c o h o l ’s
interaction with other
unhealthy behaviours.
t w o t i m e s g re a t e r f o r
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Drink-drive ‘loophole’
to be closed
Drink-drive fatalities up a fifth
Number of accidents in 2013 may be the
highest since 2009; drink-driving a problem
among younger drivers
Young drivers most likely to
estimates from a
be “under the influence”
new release by
the Department
In 2013/14, 5.9% of drivers
for Transport indicate that
admitted to driving when
between 230 and 290
they thought that they might
people (central estimate 260)
have been over the drink-
were killed in drink-drive
accidents in Great Britain.
he legal provision
of the law; to ensure that
allowing motorists
people who are driving above
suspected of drink-
the prescribed limits for drink
driving offences to
are prosecuted successfully;
demand a blood or urine test after
to increase the efficiency and
having provided a positive breath
effectiveness of enforcement
test at the roadside is to be
activity using current equipment;
drive limit. Self-reporting
rescinded by the Deregulation Act
to increase the efficiency and
figures also revealed drink-
now going through Parliament.
effectiveness of enforcement
Drink-drive deaths now
driving problems among
The reform is expected to come
activity using mobile evidential
account for around 15% of
young drivers, with nearly
into force in April 2015.
breath testing equipment; and to
all road fatalities.
a tenth (9.1%) of drivers
contribute towards more credible
in their 20s admitting to
The move is in response to
There were also an
drink-driving compared with
ministerial concerns that many
estimated 250 fatal drink-
around 5.6% of drivers aged
drivers are attempting to buy time
Additionally, police will have more
drive accidents in 2013,
40 or older.
to sober up by asking for a blood
powers to prosecute suspected
or urine sample to be taken by
drug-drivers - motorists under the
an increase of 19% (40) on
and effective drink-driving law.
2012 (210). If this figure is
These figures indicate that
a doctor. This takes place at a
influence of illegal substances or
confirmed in the final figures
driving under the influence
police station and there can be a
high levels of prescribed drugs.
later this year, it will be the
of alcohol or drugs is mostly
delay of some hours before the
highest number of fatal
a problem in younger, rather
additional tests are carried out.
Edmund King, president of the
drink-drive accidents since
than older, drivers. However,
Currently, the results of the blood
Automobile Association (the AA),
continuous monitoring of the
or urine test replace those of the
supported the move. He said that
figures will be required to
roadside breath test.
tightening the legislation around
In contrast, the total number
assess whether the problem
of drink-drive accidents of
remains in the cohorts (i.e.
The bill also requires convicted
the loopholes that some drivers
all severities fell by 14%
whether young drivers who
drink-drivers to take medical tests
exploit to play for time when they
to 5,710 in 2013. This
offend today continue to
to prove that they are not alcohol-
know they have drunk close to
means that around 4%
offend when they get into
dependent before being allowed
the limit. Our advice to drivers
of all reported road traffic
the older age groups) or
to drive.
remains constant: if you are going
accidents in 2013 involved
whether it is an age-related
at least one driver over the
problem (i.e. whilst drivers
The official impact assessment
you are going to drink then don’t
drink limit. It is also the
offend at younger ages, they
of the measure states that the
lowest number of drink-drive
then stop offending as they
blood/urine test option “is a
accidents on record.
get older).
redundant provision, which
However, the UK Government
uses significant resources”. It
has so far declined the
Men are more likely to drink
Historically, figures showing
states that the overall policy aim
opportunity to reduce the
and drive than women.
the number of drink-drive
is to contribute to streamlining
permitted blood alcohol level for
In 2013/14, 8.1% of men
fatalities in drink-drive
the enforcement process for
drivers to the level applying in
admitted to driving when
accidents today are more
drink-driving to ensure the more
almost all other European Union
over the limit at least once.
than six times lower than in
efficient use of police resources;
countries, despite Scotland doing
In comparison, 3.5% of
1979, when records began.
to make the application of
so at the end of last year (2014).
women admitted to the
The total number of drink-
the drink-driving law fairer to
same offence.
drive casualties has fallen by
suspects, regardless of how they
74% since.
are tested and their knowledge
alcohol testing would “help close
to drive then don’t drink and if
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Rise of the young teetotaller
of young
people are
behind the lower
consumption levels
among Britons
today compared
with a decade ago,
according to the
Office for National
Statistics (ONS).
The Adult Drinking
Habits in Great
Britain survey
shows that more than a
fifth (21%) of adults have
now cut alcohol from
their diets. The ONS
named a fall in binge
drinking levels since
2005 and a rise in the
proportion of 16 to 24year-olds going teetotal
as influential factors
fell from 18% to 15%,
behind the changes in
although there has been
Binge drinking – defined
This was partly because
little change since 2011.
fewer adults chose to
as exceeding eight
drink alcohol and partly
units of alcohol on their
because when people
heaviest drinking day in
did drink they consumed
the week for men and
less”, said the ONS.
six units for women, and
2-3 units for women –
The report also stated
that the falls in drinking
between 2005 and
2013 “were a result of
changes among younger
adults, with little or no
change in older groups”.
This was demonstrated
by the 40% rise in the
proportion of teetotal
16 to 24-year-olds over
the period. This
age group is now
just as likely to
abstain from alcohol
as those aged 65
and over (27%;
Young adults
are also mainly
responsible for the
fall in binge drinking
since 2005; the
proportion that had
binged decreased
by more than a
third from 29% to
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
18% in 2013. However,
those who did drink
remained the most likely
group to have binged.
Although far lower, the
proportion of those aged
65 and over who binge
drink is on the rise again
(illustrated below).
Almost a third of adults
in London (32%) said
that they do not drink
alcohol, considerably
more than anywhere
else in Great Britain. By
contrast, adults in the
North East of England
and in Scotland who
due to the change in
single cause of death in
the ethnic makeup of
under-60s in the UK and
the country, with many
globally, more alarmingly,
Britons (36%).
people abstaining from
people are dying at a far
drinking altogether. Data
younger age.
Responding to the
on alcohol consumption
drank in the last week
were more likely to
have binged than other
is also unreliable; many
“The overall numbers
people under-report how
of alcohol-related
much they drink and
deaths may be down
UK said:
self-reported data on
but the numbers are
consumption does not
still far higher than
“These results today
correlate with sales data.
they were twenty years
data, Professor Sir Ian
Gilmore, Chair of the
Alcohol Health Alliance
ago. W ithout effective
are an encouraging
sign; however, there is
absolutely no room for
complacency. Whilst
the average level of
consumption has fallen,
“Enough alcohol is
action from Gover nment
sold in the UK for
on pricing, marketing
all consumers to be
and availability, we
drinking above the low
are storing up major
risk guidelines. Alcohol
problems for the future.”
remains the biggest
this may be, in part,
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
34,000 alcohol-related hospital admissions cost Welsh NHS
£109m a year
he Welsh
associated with both alcohol
government is to
and drug misuse.
work to improve
the country’s
The investment made since
response to alcohol harm
the Welsh Government’s
with a specific aim being
substance misuse strategy,
to reduce the negative
Working Together to Reduce
impact on the health service.
Harm, was launched in
Deputy Health Minister
2008 has enabled significant
Vaughan Gething revealed
progress to be made.
figures showing that
there are 34,000 hospital
There has been clear
admissions caused by
progress on reducing waiting
alcohol misuse every year
times for treatment, with the
costing the Welsh NHS
percentage of clients starting
£109m annually.
treatment within 20 working
days increasing from 73% in
Speaking at a conference
2009-10 to 87% in 2013-
about alcohol-related brain
14, continuing the trend of
damage, the Deputy Minister
improvement over the five-
said that figures show 42%
year period.
of adults in Wales report
Mr Gething said:
“Each of these deaths is
recommended guideline
amount of alcohol at least
“Alcohol misuse is leading
once in the last week. New
to a range of well-evidenced
statistics for alcohol-related
health and social harms,
deaths show there were 467
particularly for the significant
deaths in Wales in 2013.
minority of people who
a personal tragedy for the
individuals and their family
and friends and illustrates
the importance of having
good-quality, responsive
local alcohol treatment
drink to excess and do not
“I am determined that we
must not be complacent and
we must explore the use of
all the policy levers available
to us to tackle and reduce
the harms that substance
misuse causes to society as
a whole.”
“Since 2008, there has
Alongside a range of
there were around 21,700
“While there has been an
in waiting times for both
males and 12,300 females
overall downward decline
admitted to hospitals
in the number of alcohol-
in Wales with alcohol-
related deaths in Wales
attributable conditions.
since 2008, that people die
The Public Health
recognise the harm they are
Observatory report Alcohol
doing to themselves and
and Health in Wales 2014
been general reduction
revealed that in 2012-13
assessment and treatment.
Today’s conference on
alcohol-related brain
damage is also important
so that we can improve
as a result of consuming too
The Deputy Minister
much alcohol is still a stark
confirmed that the Welsh
reminder of the challenges
Government will invest
we still face in tackling
almost £50m in 2015-16 in
the causes and impact of
initiatives to tackle the harms
substance misuse.
education and prevention
initiatives, the Welsh
Government is also
currently taking forward the
preparatory work necessary
to introduce a minimum unit
price for alcohol in Wales.
diagnosis and continue to
develop evidence-based
treatment responses to the
implications of excessive
alcohol misuse.
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Photograph courtesy of Wikipedia under Creative Commons attribution 2.0 generic license
drinking more than the
Home Office decides against locally set liensing fees
icensing fees have
Responding for
been contentious
the LGA, Cllr Ann
ever since the
Lucas OBE, chair
introduction of
of the LGA’s Safer
the 2003 Licensing Act,
and Stronger
which failed to address
Communities Board,
the issue adequately. Last
said the licensed
year’s consultation on the
trade had benefited
issue came after continued
from around £170m
pressure, but was criticised
of taxpayers’ money
for its narrow scope.
in the past decade.
Now, after a 10-month
“At a time when every
wait, the Home Office has
penny is needed to
formally responded to the
protect services,
consultation, but the wait
this money would
for answers and effective
help patch up our
action continues.
crumbling roads and
on squeezed social
Minister of State for Crime
care budgets,” she
Prevention, announced
said. “The Home
that the government would
Office has accepted
not proceed with locally
the principle of
set fees, but that they did
locally-set licensing
want further evidence from
fees by introducing
the LGA on the issue. She
them as part of
stated that: “Fee payers
the recent Scrap
were strongly opposed
Metal Dealers Act.
to locally-set fees and
It makes little sense
concerned that fees would
to then decide they
rise significantly without
can’t be introduced
justification. Many were
for the Licensing
particularly critical of the
Act.” As part of
evidence base.”
the consultation, the
Government had asked
However, the LGA
local authorities to provide
described the decision as
evidence of their licensing
‘hugely disappointing’ given
costs. However, only a
the fact that many councils
small number responded
are currently unable to
to this, and as a result the
cover their costs using the
Home Office described the
nationally set licensing fee
information it received as
system, having instead to
providing only a “limited
subsidise the licensed trade
and contradictory picture
to significant amounts.
of the relationship between
licensing authority costs
On-going research into the
and income.” As a result
licensing system by IAS
it was “not in a position to
has identified a range of
determine the details of the
views from local authorities
proposed new fees regime
on the issue of locally set
or predict its consequences
fees. Not all authorities are
with confidence,” and so
in favour, although all agree
have invited the LGA to
that there is a pressing
provide better evidence of
need to ensure that
licensing authorities’ costs.
licensing costs can be fully
recovered via fees.
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Photograph courtesy of Wikipedia under Creative Commons
attribution 2.0 generic license
ease the pressure
Lynne Featherstone MP,
Hidden harm: Alcohol’s devastating impact on children and
new study has
child protection system
Research and Education
The study is a further
revealed the
because of a carer’s
(FARE) and undertaken
example of the increasing
full extent of
by the Centre for Alcohol
attention being paid
Policy Research (CAPR),
internationally to the
family and domestic
The new study was
the study, ‘The hidden
adverse effects of alcohol
violence in Australia.
officially launched
harm: Alcohol’s impact
on people other than
More than one million
at New South Wales
on children and families’,
the drinkers themselves,
children are estimated
Parliament House by
examined the prevalence
particularly family
to be affected in some
Rosie Batty, family
and effects of heavy
members and children,
way by others drinking,
violence campaigner
drinking on families and
the phenomenon
140,000 are substantially
and 2015 Australian of
children and the extent to
sometimes referred to
affected and more
the Year. Funded by the
which they persisted or
as ‘passive drinking’.
than 10,000 are in the
Foundation for Alcohol
changed over time.
In 1998, The Institute
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
of Alcohol Studies,
of alcohol-related
50% of adult respondents
can be implemented
in association with
domestic violence in just
harmed in 2008 also
across the community,
Eurocare, prepared
the States and Territories
harmed in 2011 and
that focus on preventing
for the European
where such data is
35% of children harmed
violence before it
Commission a report
available, with the figure
in 2008 also harmed in
happens, intervening
on alcohol and harm to
excluding alcohol-related
early to prevent further
families in the European
assaults in Queensland,
Union, and in the UK
South Australia, Tasmania
The study follows the
violence and ensuring
there have been a large
and the Australian Capital
release of the report ‘The
that service responses
number of subsequent
Range and Magnitude of
are appropriate. Mr Thorn
Alcohol’s Harm to Others’
said there was no one
harms for victims of
reports on the subject,
and some political action,
The new study draws on
(2010), which was the
single solution to reduce
with improvements being
two national surveys of
first Australian study to
alcohol-related family
made to the national
alcohol’s harm to others,
examine the harms from
response to family
service system data
alcohol consumption on
members damaged by
from policy and child
people other than the
“If we are serious about
the harmful drinking
protection services and
reducing alcohol-
of another, normally
information gained from
a parent. In 2011,
qualitative interviews
W ith approximately half
we have to consider a
in furtherance of a
with families affected by
of reported domestic
wider range of policy
commitment by the
others’ drinking, which
violence incidents
measures,” he said. “We
Coalition Government,
revealed that children
and up to 47% of
need national public
the National Treatment
experienced a range of
child protection cases
education campaigns
Agency for Substance
involving alcohol, FARE
that acknowledge and
Chief Executive Michael
address the role of
related family violence,
Misuse in England
issued guidance
The harms reported by
Thorn said the need
alcohol in family violence;
to improve service
families varied. Children
was to understand
we need targeted
were verbally abused, left
alcohol’s role in family
screening of young
information for the
unsupervised, physically
and domestic violence
people at greater risk of
development of joint
hurt or exposed to
and use this information
harm; and measures that
local protocols between
domestic violence as a
to act to prevent this
reduce the availability,
drug and alcohol
result of others’ drinking.
violence from occurring.
target the price, and
partnerships, children
Most commonly, children
and family services’, and
witnessed verbal or
FARE has developed a
of alcohol; together
a pioneering alcohol and
physical conflict or
policy options paper, in
with efforts to improve
drug family court had
inappropriate behaviour.
consultation with public
the way in which the
health, domestic violence
alcohol and other drugs
More than one quarter
and family services, to
sector collaborates with
of respondents reported
propose a framework for
domestic violence, child
harm from the drinking
action to prevent and
protection and mental
of family members in at
reduce alcohol-related
health services.”
The Australian study
least one of the surveys
family and domestic
found that, in 2011,
undertaken in 2008 and
violence. The policy
there were almost 30,000
2011. These harms often
options paper proposes a
police-reported incidents
persisted over time, with
range of measures which
regulate the promotion
already been established
in 2008.
Australian findings
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Family Drug and Alcohol Courts to be extended in England
pecial courts
violence and financial
set up to help
parents with
drug or alcohol
They undergo regular
addiction overcome their
testing to make sure they
problems so that they can
are not secretly drinking or
keep their children are to
taking drugs.
be opened in more areas
of England. The expansion
The Nuffield Foundation
is being funded by a £2.5
funded Brunel University to
million grant from the
carry out an independent
Department for Education.
evaluation of the pilot
Family Drug and Alcohol
A pioneering Family Drug
Court. This ran from
and Alcohol Court (FDAC)
January 2008 to March
was opened in London
2012 at the Inner London
in 2008, and courts have
Family Proceedings Court.
opened more recently in
The multi-disciplinary
Gloucestershire and Milton
team was provided by the
Keynes. More will now
Tavistock and Portman
open in areas including
NHS Foundation Trust, in
East Sussex, Kent and
partnership with children’s
Medway, Plymouth, Torbay
charity, Coram. The pilot
and Exeter, and West
was based on a successful
US model and began with
compared to 25% of
comparison mothers,
Boroughs – Camden,
which come into care
Islington and Westminster.
proceedings have at
Hammersmith and Fulham
least one parent with a
and Southwark joined the
drink or drug problem
pilot in 2012.
The main findings of the
Unlike conventional care
evaluation were that the
proceedings, parents in
pilot was successful in
FDAC see the same judge
achieving its objectives:
higher rates of
a multi-disciplinary team,
substance misuse
which helps them access
cessation than
substance misuse services
those who had been
and provides assistance
through ordinary care
in tackling other problems
proceedings: 40%
such as housing, domestic
of FDAC mothers
placement than
data on fathers was
ordinary proceedings
less complete than for
(62 weeks)
FDAC families had
higher rates of family
reunification: 35%
of FDAC mothers
stopped misusing
and were reunited
with their children,
compared to 19% of
mothers who had been
through ordinary care
The rate of neglect
or abuse one year
FDAC families had
also receive support from
alternative permanent
fathers, although the
throughout and meet with
them every fortnight. They
no quicker in achieving
5% of comparison
thought to be causing
harm to the children.
possible, FDAC was
fathers compared to
after children returned
home was lower for
FDAC parents than
parents who had been
through ordinary care
proceedings: 25%
compared to 56%
Alcohol Alert
In cases where
reunification was not
and 25% of FDAC
three participating London
The majority of families
In addition to receiving
the intensive service
from the FDAC team,
a higher proportion of
FDAC mothers (95%
v 55%) and fathers
(58% v 27%) were
offered help from other
agencies for their
substance misuse.
The success of the
FDAC has been widely
acknowledged, notably by
Sir James Munby, president
of the Family Division of the
High Court.
He said: “I consider
FDAC as one of the most
important and innovative
March 2015
Public Health England supports
alcohol/drug services
developments in public
“Importantly, FDAC has
family law in decades.
the support of parents
(The FDAC model) appeals
themselves, which is crucial
to both the heart and to
to its success.”
the head. It is a mix of
ublic Health
services, following a
England (PHE)
successful programme in
has announced
2013-14, in which a range
the successful
of innovative recovery-
applicants for £10 million of
focused projects received
capital funding for services
compassion, firmness and
This extension should
clear-eyed assessment
mean about a quarter
that are helping people
of the parent’s realistic
of English family courts
in England with drug or
Rosanna O’Connor,
chances of achieving
have an FDAC. However,
alcohol problems to recover
Director of Alcohol, Drugs
rehabilitation. The process
there is concern that while
from their addiction.
and Tobacco at Public
delivers better outcomes
hundreds of families may
Over 50 projects across
Health England said:
for the children and the
now go through FDAC
England, in partnership
parents subject to it and
every year, this will still
with local authorities, will
“I’m delighted that for
achieves this in a manner
represent only a very
receive grants from PHE.
a second year we can
which respects the
small proportion of the
humanity of the parents.”
total number who could
PHE says that people
range of exciting and
benefit.According to the
recovering from addiction
innovative local projects.
Announcing the expansion
court service Cafcass,
can have extremely limited
of the scheme, Children
more than 18,000 children
skills or employment
“Drug and alcohol misuse
and Families Minister
were involved in care
experience, and often have
is a complex issue that
Edward Timpson MP said
proceedings in England in
significant problems with
causes significant harm
that since 2008, the FDAC
unstable accommodation.
to society. I am hugely
Increasing evidence shows
encouraged by the level of
support an outstanding
had thrown an invaluable
lifeline to hundreds upon
Cathy Ashley, Chief
jobs and houses play a
commitment to improving
hundreds of families and
Executive of Family Rights
major role in successfully
recovery services, both
that extending its work
Group, a charity which
completing treatment
from within the sector and
would deliver life-changing
supports families whose
from addiction. Out of the
among local authorities.
results for families across
children are the subject of
designated £10m capital
These services will make a
the country.
local authority involvement,
funding, PHE has awarded
real difference to people in
said she was a “big fan” of
a substantial proportion
recovery, and communities
The court’s founder, District
FDAC but that her concern
to projects that provide
across the country. I am
Judge Nicholas Crichton,
was that “the numbers
tailored education, training,
particularly pleased that
said: “In the FDAC, we
who will benefit from this
skills and employment
Public Health England is
have seen some parents
roll out will be minuscule
support to people in
able to invest in services
demonstrate a remarkable
compared to the thousands
recovery, and to projects
that will help people in
capacity to change in
of families going through
that provide safe and
recovery into work and to
response to our more
care proceedings.”
secure accommodation
have a safe, supportive
from which it’s possible to
place to live.”
constructive, empathetic
She said she was
also concerned that
The full list of successful
“Harnessing the fairness
Government funding is only
This is the second year
applications is available
and authority of the
for one year, and progress
that Public Health England
to view via the National
court has shown that it is
might not be sustained.
has led a programme of
Treatment Agency website,
possible to break the cycle
£10m capital investment in
part of Public Health
of drug and alcohol misuse.
drug and alcohol recovery
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Anti-binge drinking campaigns
should promote benefits of abstinence
ointing out the
an exercise relating to non-
outcomes and required
episodes a week to 0.73
advantages and
strategies; or completing a
episodes a week on average.
achievability of
staying sober is
drinks diary task.
Dr Conroy says: “We focused
At the start of the study,
Interestingly, the research
more effective than traditional
on students because, in the
participants in the outcome
indicates that perceptions of
approaches that warn of
UK, they remain a group who
group were asked to list
non-drinkers were also more
the risks of heavy drinking,
drink heavily relative to their
positive outcomes of not
favourable after taking part
according to the research
non-student peers of the
drinking and those in the
in the study. Dr Conroy says
carried out at the University
same age. Similarly, attitudes
process group listed what
this could not be directly
of Sussex, by researcher Dr
about the acceptability of
strategies they might use to
linked to the intervention but
Dominic Conroy.
heavy drinking are relatively
reduce their drinking. Those
was an interesting additional
lenient among students.
in the combined group did
feature of the study. He says:
“Studies have suggested
The study, published in the
British Journal of Health
“Recent campaigns, such
Psychology, found that
as the NHS Change4Life
They were reminded of their
that holding negative views
of non-drinkers may be
university students were
initiative, give good online
answers via email during the
closely linked to personal
more likely to reduce their
guidance as to how many
one-month course of the
drinking behaviour and we
overall drinking levels if they
units you should be drinking
study and asked to continue
were interested to see in
focused on the benefits of
and how many units are in
practising this mental
the current study that these
abstaining, such as more
specific drinks.
views may have improved
money and better health.
as a result of taking part in a
“Our research contributes
All groups completed an
They were also less likely
to existing health promotion
online survey at various
non-drinking exercise.
to binge drink if they had
advice, which seeks to
points, indicating how much
“I think this shows that
imagined strategies for
encourage young people to
they had drunk the previous
health campaigns need
how non-drinking might
consider taking ‘dry days’ yet
to be targeted and easy
be achieved - for example,
does not always indicate the
being direct but polite when
range of benefits nor suggest
Over the course of one
also help support people
declining a drink, or choosing
how non-drinking can be
month, Dr Conroy found
to accomplish changes
to spend time with supportive
more successfully ‘managed’
that students who imagined
in behaviour that might
in social situations.”
positive outcomes of non-
sometimes involve ‘going
drinking reduced their weekly
against the grain’, such as
Typical promotions around
Dr Conroy studied 211
alcohol consumption from 20
periodically not drinking
healthy drinking focus on
English university students
units to 14 units on average.
even when in the company
the risks of high alcohol
aged 18-25 over the course
consumption and encourage
of a month. Participants in
Similarly, students who
people to monitor their
the study completed one
imagined required strategies
drinking behaviour (e.g.
of four exercises involving
for non-drinking reduced the
Dr Conroy collaborated on
by keeping a drinks diary).
either: imagining positive
frequency of binge drinking
the paper with University of
However, the current study
outcomes of non-drinking
episodes – classified as six or
Sussex colleagues Dr Paul
found that completing a
during a social occasion;
more units in one session for
Sparks and Dr Richard de
drinks diary was less effective
imagining strategies required
women, and eight or more
in encouraging safer drinking
successfully to avoid drinking
units for men – from 1.05
behaviour than completing
during a social occasion;
to fit into daily life but
of other people who are
imagining both positive
Alcohol Alert
March 2015
Alcohol Alert is published by
The Institute of Alcohol Studies
a Registered Charity
12 Caxton Street
Telephone: 020 7222 5880
Fax: 020 7799 2510
Email: [email protected]