HR: Workforce Management Don`t waste the opportunity to review

The latest news from Expense Reduction Analysts
Paperchase is the UK’s undisputed leader in innovative,
design-led stationery, cards and gift-wrap. The company
has been in business for over 40 years and is now firmly
established as the top destination for customers looking
for new and different gifts, cards and stationery.
Summary of savings
Merchant Card Fees
Contract Cleaning
In-Store Music
Andrew Lees of Expense Reduction
Analysts, Lead Consultant on the
Paperchase partnership, reviews
the project so far: “The categories
of expenditure that David Bateman
asked me to analyse were wideranging, so I was fortunate to
be able to call upon the expert
services of my colleagues, whose
Also in this issue
Business Rates: 31st March
Deadline fast approaching
Energy Savings:
Opportunity knocks
Benchmarking price:
The logical step
Logistics: Export
Time Wasting
Card processing fees for
merchants to change in 2015
HR: Workforce Management
Don’t waste the opportunity to
review your supplier
vast experience in their respective
areas was crucial to the analysis
of Paperchase’s existing spend
and the recommendations on its
“Hartley Jenkinson realised
savings on Merchant Card Fees;
Steve Clamp undertook Contract
Cleaning; Sue Carbin reviewed
In-Store Music and Cash-in-Transit;
Pete Bramhall worked on Waste;
and we also identified substantial
refunds due on double payments
for Lease Service Charges.
Music is an important part of
Paperchase’s in-store ambience and
their spend on it is split between
Issue No. 15.2
“Expense Reduction Analysts have delivered material savings
in most of the areas I have asked them to examine. Their
recommendations on our procurement of in-store music, in
particular, stand out and prove their ability to think
outside the box”
David Bateman, Chief Financial and Operating Officer,
Paperchase Products Ltd.
the licence fees payable to PRS
(Performing Right Society) and
PPL (Phonographic Performance
Limited), and the rental of players
and the provision of copyright
music. Sue Carbin recommended
upgrading the technology to a
network solution, tendering to the
market for more competitive rates
on players and music provision,
and, crucially, she suggested
Paperchase consider playing noncopyright music.
Paperchase accepted all of these
recommendations and realised a
huge 70.8% saving. An additional
benefit is that the system is flexible
enough for Paperchase to continue
ERA and Supply Management
survey CIPS members
ERA has teamed up with the good
folks at Supply Management –
the publication of the Chartered
Institute of Procurement and Supply
– to produce a White Paper based
on a survey of more than 350 CIPS
member procurement professionals.
The respondents were from a
variety of organisations small and
large, and we looked at a number
of different areas, including how
the procurement teams felt about
where improvements could be made
in their businesses and what might
have been some of the causes of
overspend on indirect costs.
Our White Paper makes for some
interesting reading; we will be
publishing it next month, so look
out for it. For more information,
or to reserve a copy please
contact [email protected]
UK call charge changes set to
catch businesses out
smarter spending >
to be able to play copyright
Christmas music in their busiest
month of December.
Only paying for the service
that they need
Cash-in-Transit also realised major
savings through Expense Reduction
Analysts introducing Paperchase to
a new, more flexible national player.
Previously, cash would be collected
from and delivered to each store
twice a week, whether this was
required or not; now there is the
option to modify this schedule
according to Paperchase’s needs
and trading patterns, and a lower
tariff per delivery into the bargain.
(Continued on back page)
Procurement Matters > Issue No. 15.2
Business Rates: 31st March
Deadline fast approaching
by Paul Giness
Due to a recent change to government policy
announced by Chancellor George Osborne during
December’s Autumn Statement from the Treasury,
Ratepayers’ appeals must be submitted by 31st
March 2015.
The government will change the rules so that alterations to rateable
values can only be backdated to the period between 1 April 2010 and
1 April 2015 for Valuation Office Agency (VOA) alterations made before
1 April 2016 and ratepayers’ appeals made before 1 April 2015.
Business rates are a property tax, and they are based on the hypothetical
annual rental value of any non-domestic property on a fixed valuation
date, using regulations fixed by statute. Sometimes these assumptions and
interpretations can be incorrect however and so businesses are due a rebate.
The latest revaluation period runs from 2010-2017 and the bad news was
announced in the Autumn Statement that any appeals lodged after 1st April
will not be allowed to be backdated. So, in order to take this entire savings
period into account, businesses must get their appeals in now. Failure to do so
will mean losing all refunds and savings up to 31 March 2015.
For example, a property with a Rateable Value of £200,000, which is then
reduced to £160,000, would result in a savings exceeding £125,000 up to 31
March 2017 - assuming the appeal is lodged on time. However, if the appeal is
submitted after the 31st March deadline the savings are reduced substantially
resulting in potential lost savings approaching £90,000.
The good news is that Expense Reduction Analysts’ experienced property
and commercial rates specialists are highly skilled and well versed in this
particular issue, so are well placed to advise businesses what they need to do
before the deadline.
If you are already engaged with us, we can easily add business rates into the
project plan of categories to review; we will measure existing spends, monitor
actual savings and manage your ongoing liabilities after implementation
ensuring the value is delivered to the business. If you are new to ERA, one of
our new business team will discuss our success fee basis with you.
The steps we will adopt prior to the deadline are summarised below:
Send us your copy rates bill – Which helps us establish any rating
changes and prior appeals during this List.
Initial Assessment - Provides you with initial feedback on viability for us
to take this forwards for you.
Confirm Category Instruction – Confirm the instruction clarify
any questions.
Collate remaining documentation – Working with you to collate the
remaining property information required to move this forwards.
Rating experts determination – Pass to the rating team for their final
assessment prior to the end of March 2015 deadline.
Energy Savings: Opportunity knocks
by Ian Morrison
In order to comply with EU regulations on energy efficiency, all UK businesses either employ more than 250
people, or employ less, but turned over more than 50 million Euro last year, must take part in the Energy
Savings Opportunity Scheme.
It’s mandatory for qualifying companies to comply with Article 8 of the EU
Energy Efficiency directive and there will inevitably be costs attached to it for
businesses. In the UK, the scheme will be administered by The Environment
Agency and according to The Department For Energy and Climate Change
(DECC), the average cost for organisations will be in the region of £21,000 for
year one set-up and £13,000 per year thereafter.
We’re already starting to help clients with ESOS and the cost does vary hugely
depending on the size of the organisation and the amount of relevant data
and material that is already easily available. We’ve seen the audit costs vary
from £5,000 to £50,000.
Adapting our strategic approach though, can help you the client to gain real
benefits from this mandatory scheme.
Those that take a strategic view to compliance and look at the longer term,
will likely fare far better than those who leave it too late and are forced to
spend to comply.
The compliance deadline is 5th December but it is businesses that plan
ahead and view ESOS as not merely a compliance issue, but an opportunity
to develop a strategic plan to get the most out of their participation that will
provide real value and achieve significant savings.
There are clear steps to the process, but there is a significant workload,
including calculating your total overall energy consumption, identify any
areas where your consumption is significant, appoint a lead assessor, notify
The Environment Agency by 5th December and there are penalties for
There are complexities as well, size of operation, numbers of sites, fuel types,
headcount, data validity site visits and more.
ERA has been developing a plan to assist our clients in this area and engaging
our help in creating and implementing a robust strategy will not only ensure
compliance is met, but will also identify opportunities to save on energy bills,
and provide data to support a business case for investing in energy efficiency
measures for the organisation.
smarter spending >
Procurement Matters > Issue No. 15.2
Benchmarking price:
The logical step
by Nick Martindale
Applying a scientific approach to indirect spend can
ensure you receive the right levels of service and
quality at a competitive price, while ensuring this
does not slip over time.
When buying in products or services,
it’s always difficult to know what a
‘good’ price looks like. Any reduction
of a few pounds negotiated during
a contract renewal can feel like a
win, but unless you have visibility
of the entire market you can’t know
whether you are still paying 50%
more than the company next door.
Opportunity based pricing – pricing
according to what a supplier
believes the client can pay – is rife
across a whole range of different
areas. Most of us assume that if they
are purchasing the same volume of
product as their competitors next
door, they are also paying broadly
the same for it, but the truth is there
can be huge variance. You cannot
assume you’re on the same deal, it’s
about how well you can buy.
At ERA, we work in the supply
market across over 100 cost
categories, so we know what good
looks like – and we can tell whether
your newly negotiated rate really is
a matter for pride or not.
Adopting a more evidence
based approach to buying can
deliver significant savings, and
benchmarking prices – using the last
price paid for a particular product as
the reference point – can be a good
start. However that only allows you
to judge your value based on your
own previous experience, so best
practice would dictate that you also
enter into a tender process, allowing
a number of other suppliers the
opportunity to tender on a like-forlike basis.
Tender Process
It’s not just prices that should be
benchmarked, but service levels too,
that way you can make sure that
everyone invited to the process has
the chance to meet or improve on
current service levels.
Typically you would invite 5 or 6
other suppliers plus the incumbent
to a tender process, but a third party
organisation like ours will have such
good visibility of the market that
they should be able to identify the
best alternate suppliers to approach.
In certain categories this can add
particular value, either because the
supplier market is large, or because
the particular requirements are
complex. When looking at packaging
for example, you would consider
volumes, required lead times and
stock handling requirements, to first
of all determine whether a merchant
or manufacturer would be the most
appropriate supplier.
Once complete, organisations can
see the kinds of potential savings on
offer, as well as some of the devil in
the detail. Whilst a Finance Director
may already know that (for example)
their business spends £20,000pa
on toner, the tender process may
uncover that half of it is being spent
on one particular printer, offering an
opportunity to change behaviours,
as well as suppliers in order to
reduce outgoings.
Post-Contract Management
Well managed, these tender
processes can produce great
headline savings, but they can
quickly be eroded by supplier
tactics to maximise margin and by
changing purchasing habits amongst
your own staff.
ERA works alongside our clients
for at least two years, in order to
regularly audit supplier invoices to
ensure that savings are maintained
for the longer term.
It’s similarly important to contract a
third party with full market visibility
when suppliers seek to increase
costs legitimately. Using printer
paper as an example; you may be
asked to agree to a price increase of
5%, because your supplier informs
you there has been a general rise in
the costs within the sector.
With access to a multitude
of suppliers, any third party
organisation could validate this
claim. Moreover, we would have
the experience to ask the right
questions; a 5% rise in the price of
raw materials need not translate to
a 5% price increase, raw material
costs are only a portion of the total
cost, with factors like delivery and
margin all also making up the total.
Taking a more thorough approach
to indirect costs can pay dividends.
And using a third party organisation
with access to more data, so you are
taking a true value of where you are
against the market represents the
most sensible option of all.
Logistics: Export
by Ken Rogers
“The economic recovery is unlikely to be export driven
as its biggest trading partner (Europe) is dead in the
water ... UK export growth is very disappointing as
demand in Eurozone is close to zero.” BBC news
Whilst UK businesses have been
tasked with delivering £1trillion of
export business in the years to 2020,
the target also asks for an additional
100,000 exporting firms.
But as the BBC recognises, the
European export market is dead in
the water, so firms need to look to
the wider global marketplace to
find opportunities. Recognising the
underlying problem, Government
has sought to intervene and has
doubled the 100% export tax
threshold to £500,000 as well as
extending it to the end of 2015;
and it may extend longer still.
Government credit to support
export sales has also been doubled
to £3billion.
All of this is great news if you
can find an export market. To
help grease the wheels, the
Logistics team at ERA has already
helped some of our clients to
reduce the cost of exporting by
using aggressive procurement of
transport; they have also been
solving problems around standard
export documentation and process
assistance whilst maintaining
service levels.
In ocean freight and European road
freight, opportunities to purchase at
fantastic rates exist for a number of
reasons; in ocean freight container
ships heading back to the Far East
can often do so carrying largely – or
only – empty containers, so the
substantial under capacity can result
in significant savings.
smarter spending >
In European road haulage,
utilisation of road freight is actually
far better, with regular services
between European cities and fast
transit times. Many firms unable
to meet the modern requirement
though have gone, leaving behind
a pool of highly regarded and
reliable transporters and a healthy
competitive market.
Having a great understanding of
this market has enabled Expense
Reduction Analysts to help its clients
receive excellent value for money,
whilst retaining outstanding
levels of service.
Procurement Matters > Issue No. 15.2
HR: Workforce Management
by David Hembery
Technological advancements within
the payroll and HR sector in recent
years have helped businesses to
revolutionise the way they manage
their employees.
The development of ‘software
as a service’ based solutions
and integration of smartphone
technology has empowered
companies to implement
sophisticated, and often more cost
effective solutions to the benefit of
both the business and its workforce.
Two key areas are payroll and
pensions auto-enrollment.
There are tangible opportunities
to reduce outgoings and increase
efficiencies within the broad HR
arena. Changes to legislation around
company pensions and technical
solutions around payroll can change
the way businesses operate for
the better.
18% 2%
Increase in cost of processing payroll
in-house compared to outsourcing.
Cost for companies with <50 empolyees to
maintain compliance with UK tax legislation.
Cost is percentage of companies PAYE/NI bill.
Auto-Enrolment Pensions
45% £15
of companies are not confident they will be
compliant in time.
Don’t waste the opportunity
to review your supplier
by Pete Bramhall
Landfill Tax increases again on 1st April 2015 and
will trigger a round of price increases within the
waste and recycling sector.
Introduced in the UK in 1996, Landfill Tax was aimed at encouraging waste
reduction, re-use and recycling within businesses and households and has
been a major factor in subsequent improvements in recycling rates and
reduced reliance on landfill.
An escalator or £8 per tonne per annum which commenced in 2008
resulted in the tax hitting £80 per tonne by 2014. Unsurprisingly, this has
caused the costs associated with waste collection and disposal to increase
well above the rate of inflation during this period, typically by 8-15%
per annum. Whilst the Landfill Tax increase this year has been pegged at an
RPI-based 3.25%, there are a number of other factors which have conspired
to cause many suppliers to seek above-inflation price increases again
this year:
The cost to UK companies of setting up,
administering and funding auto-enrolment
pensions between 2012 and 2017.
Depleting landfill availability in many regions is allowing landfill
operators to increase their gate fees, over and above the landfill
tax rise.
Therefore, for 2015, annual price reviews are now expected to be typically
in the 4-12% range, with a few local exceptions. Suppliers will be paying
particular attention to accounts which were signed up at rock bottom prices
24-36 months ago as they may well be charging less than their current
selling price and so will seek to recover some lost margin.
The other key issue which has been lurking in the background for some time
now is that of bin weights. As processing and disposal costs have risen to
an ever higher proportion of suppliers’ direct costs, investment has been
made in sophisticated on-board weighing equipment which can accurately
measure the weight of each customer’s bins. Suppliers are increasingly using
this data to identify those with above average weights and implementing
their (long standing but hitherto dormant) contract clauses which allow
them to surcharge or increase their pricing accordingly. Sectors which
have traditionally had heavier bins, such as food establishments, care
homes, charity shops, etc, can expect costs to significantly increase in the
near future once the waste companies become more confident with their
weighing technology.
Falling market values for recyclable materials mean that the revenues
banked by waste companies on the “output side” of their business have
dropped over the last 12 months, with no upturn on the horizon.
New regulations which took effect in October 2014 impacted upon
the productivity of MRFs (Material Recovery Facilities) where waste
materials are sorted in order to extract the recyclable components.
Finally, one note of caution when reviewing waste and recycling collection
arrangements is the need to consider the terms and conditions relating to
existing supplier contracts. Typically, waste contracts are “evergreen”, ie,
renewing on an annual basis unless action is taken to terminate them within
a given window each year, usually 3 months in advance of the anniversary of
their original commencement date. Failure to observe these terms is likely to
result in penalties being imposed. Advance planning is therefore required in
order to minimise the cost of changing suppliers or arrangements.
Mergers and acquisitions within the sector, notably Biffa acquiring both
Shanks and PHS in 2014, appear to have reduced pressure on suppliers
to slash margins to the bone when bidding for new business as had
often been the case in recent years.
All things considered, now is good time for organisations to be reviewing
their waste handling procedures and contracts to mitigate against cost
increases and maximise revenues from recyclables, as well as ensuring
compliance with latest legislative requirements and internal CSR objectives.
smarter spending >
Procurement Matters > Issue No. 15.2
Time Wasting
by Brian Holmes
A recent survey conducted by a company marketing
small cell solutions to improve mobile signals found
that UK businesses are losing over £30 million a week
as employees waste time hunting for mobile phone
reception in the workplace to take business calls.
UK office workers are collectively
spending 2.53 million hours a
week searching for better mobile
coverage, which comes from 61
per cent of company employees
claiming to have poor or variable
mobile reception at their place of
work. Even 50 per cent of telecoms
professionals responded that the
mobile signal in their offices
was inadequate.
The research, which surveyed 2,000
UK office workers at junior and
senior levels from varying company
sizes also revealed that 62 per cent
of employees in the finance sector
were suffering from poor or variable
mobile phone reception and 59 per
cent of government or public service
professionals face the
same problem.
There’s two important points here.
Firstly, if you work in the financial
sector the best practice is to not
use mobile phones but if you do
make sure the call is recorded for
compliance. Secondly, why on earth
are you using 3G/4G signals to make
calls in the office when you have a
perfectly serviceable landline phone
sitting on your desk where calls will
be cheaper?
Yes people use mobiles for ease of
use and the telephone directory, we
all do. But these were mid market
firms here that were surveyed. None
of this should be too much of a
surprise, mobile signals are not good
at penetrating concrete and steel.
The latest Ofcom report from Oct 14
showed EE leading with 4G coverage
in 70% of UK premises with O2 and
Vodafone both lagging behind
with 51%.
And finally the research data also
showed that 42% of enterprise
users are not aware that there are
technologies available that can cure
the plight of poor mobile phone
signal in their place of work, with
only 15 per cent having heard of
small cells as a viable solution.
Card processing fees for
merchants to change in 2015
by Paul Davidson & Steve Whitlam
Many businesses, not just retailers and restaurants,
take card payments these days. If you take card
payments within your business, you’re classified
as a merchant.
As a merchant, you face major changes to the cost of processing your
card payments as of March 1st this year. The changes are being phased
in throughout 2015 and 2016, with Visa going first from 1st March and
MasterCard following on for some of their card types on the 1st April, then
quarterly thereafter.
A major component of card payment costs is ‘Interchange’. Driven by EU
regulations, the aim of the legislation is to cap interchange fees throughout
Europe; for debit cards the cap will be 0.2% (currently 8p) and for credit
cards 0.3% (currently 0.77 – 0.8%) for chip and pin UK-based consumer
transactions. But will it mean lower card processing fees for
UK businesses?
Establishing how these changes are going to affect your business can
require additional data and lots of complicated analysis, but there are a
number of things you can do to help your case;
Look out for non-secure payment surcharges on your invoices.
Although Visa has withdrawn the pricing differential for telephone
and mail order based payments on debit cards from 1st March, many
acquirers continue to charge a premium where the 3 digit CVV code is
not processed.
Read any notification you receive advising you of your rate change
(remember that this could be attached as a note within your
monthly invoices):
Recent tenders have shown, supported by conversations with both clients
and suppliers that some major suppliers are unlikely to pass on savings to
their customers in the foreseeable future.
The reality is that whilst there will be some winners, there are likely to be
losers as well. For example we’ve already demonstrated potential savings
ranging from 30% for some clients and increases of 30% for others, so it is
important to understand the likely impact before approaching your supplier
to seek a change.
Merchants tend to be on blended rates with the suppliers, meaning that
transaction charges are levied against their account based on perhaps 5
to 15 rates, as opposed to the many hundreds of variations faced by their
supplier; so it’s a complicated picture.
Am I being given the full reduction?
Is my increase fair?
Am I on a fair rate to begin with?
If you have not heard from your supplier by April, assess whether
they are taking increased margin, rather than passing on savings.
smarter spending >
Procurement Matters > Issue No. 15.2
UK call charge changes set
to catch businesses out
by Nigel Rosehill
We are sure by you’ve all started to notice the near
ubiquitous ‘UK Calling’ campaign, which seeks to
educate and inform the UK public and business
owners about the changes due this summer.
Yes, after myriad complaints over
the years, it seems we’re finally
going to have some clarity over
call charges across various number
groups – though the plethora of
mobile phone companies and
service providers means the picture
is still not quite crystal clear. What
will clarify things is familiarity with
your mobile operator’s (new) ‘Access
Charge’ which will be combined with
the receiving network’s
“Service Charge”.
Whereas historically call charges
have featured charges like ‘Calls
will cost 10p/minute from a BT
landline, other operators and mobile
charges may vary”, which is really
neither use, nor ornament, from this
summer the ‘Service Charge’ will
be a specified cost by the receiving
network (selected from about 80
different price points), plus your
network’s ‘Access Charge’. So Service
Charge + Access Charge = Total Cost.
Telecoms businesses will be
contacting all their customers in the
(Continued from front page)
Steve Clamp reviewed Contract
Cleaning, where one supplier was
providing three-quarters of the
work. Putting this out to tender,
Expense Reduction Analysts
insisted that all of the prospective
suppliers make site visits, so that
they could understand Paperchase’s
needs in detail and therefore have
the maximum opportunity for
efficiencies that could be made.
In the end, it was decided to give
the major incumbent the whole
contract, a move which has resulted
in a smooth transition, significant
savings and administrative
The final category was Waste. Pete
Bramhall outlines what happened:
run-up to the changeover in order
to provide the information they
need to work out their future call
charges. In future those call charge
disclaimers will read more along the
lines of “Calls cost xp per minute
(ie the Service Charge), plus your
network’s Access Charge.” So still
some maths to do, but a great deal
simpler than it has been.
Freefone Numbers
In addition, all 0800 and 0808
numbers will also be free from a
mobile phone. Holders of these
numbers, who pay to receive calls,
will see their costs rise though, and
this is likely to be quite considerable,
as a split pricing structure will
come into being reflecting higher
rates for calls originating from
payphones or mobiles compared
to landlines. The concern must be
the percentage of calls originating
from mobiles is likely to increase as
a result. 0845 numbers will remain
unchanged; however businesses
will be encouraged to move to the
equivalent 0345 number, since the
“I was able to save Paperchase
15.7% on Waste even though
they decided to stay with the
incumbent supplier. One important
recommendation I did make was
to change the contract renewal
date. It used to be 1st December –
Paperchase’s busiest time – which
impacted on their willingness
to consider alternatives to the
incumbent. I arranged an 18-month
initial contract, so that the renewal
will now fall in the summer, when
the business will have more time to
consider the best way forward.”
Reduced waste, added value
Expense Reduction Analysts also
helped Paperchase to develop
their back-hauling system whereby
trucks delivering to the stores take
0845 number will be phased out
by 2017.
Data Roaming
There is also change afoot in the EU
regarding the provision of data, text
and voice for international roaming
within the EU, set to be agreed
during 2015 and implemented in
2016. Advanced by the European
Commission, the new regulations
include a commitment to treat all
28 EU member states in the same
way, meaning all voice calls, data
downloads and SMS message usage
by EU citizens will be treated the
same in all other EU countries as it
will be in their own.
Mobile network operators have
indicated that this will mean a
significant drop in income for them,
and that they will look to regain this
lost revenue in other areas; we’re
anticipating a hike in monthly fees
and a decrease in the amount of
bolted on extras available in the
average user package.
recyclable materials – cardboard,
paper, polythene – back to the
distribution centre where it is
baled and sold. By identifying
improvements in the way in which
these materials are captured and
stored, and by helping Paperchase
to procure a more efficient baler,
Expense Reduction Analysts has
enabled the system to be rolled out
to a much wider range of stores
than was previously possible.
Andrew Lees summarises the
Paperchase partnership: “It is not
just the savings that are important
in a relationship like this, but
also the added value that we can
bring. Sue’s recommendation to
consider noncopyright music, Steve
streamlining Contract Cleaning,
From our perspective, the changes
look significant – and businesses
running ‘08xx’ can certainly expect
higher charges in the future. Mobile
contracts are also likely to change in
structure and complexity to account
for the shortfall in income from
the current International Roaming
charges, and that will also likely
mean increased cost for businesses.
It’s vital for businesses without
the in-depth knowledge of the
telecommunications market to
engage with third parties for
support at times like this, where the
issues really warrant consultancy
rather than employment as it’s one
unlikely to be understood in-depth
by many businesses (unless you
happen to be a mobile network
Potential changes in phone
numbers and usage habits require
planning and contracts currently
being negotiated need to have the
necessary safeguards.
Pete negotiating the contract
renewal away from Paperchase’s
busiest time of year and helping
the company to develop their
invaluable backhauling initiative
– all of these activities prove that
Expense Reduction Analysts is
about a lot more than
squeezing margins.
David Bateman, Chief Financial and
Operating Officer at Paperchase,
agrees: “I believe that the Expense
Reduction Analysts team are
experts in their own fields and
they bring an impressive attention
to detail and market insight to
the task. They have contributed
significantly to the transformation
of a number of aspects of our
business and I’m grateful for that.”