Integrating Unmanned Aircraft into Society

Integrating Unmanned Aircraft into Society
Jim Coyne
Technical Director - UAS International
AAUS Conference
Monday 23 February 2015
Unmanned aircraft system
Remotely-piloted aircraft
Remote pilot station
Remotely-piloted aircraft system
Remote pilot
Remote Pilot License
Remote crew member
RPA observer
UAS operator certificate
Detect and avoid
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
(Umbrella Term)
(AOC equiv.)
(Generic Term)
History of UAS
• The development of UAS started in the 50's and has matured rapidly
over the years, thanks to the military.
• UAS are now entering the civil market in more countries and being
used in a variety of applications, opening up a promising new chapter
in the history of aviation.
• Civil UAS present a huge potential for developing innovative
applications in a wide variety of sectors to the benefit of society, and
have the potential to create new jobs.
Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) integration
into civil airspace
• It is coming!!!! – read all the literature.
• Need the technologies to be developed…
• Need the standards, procedures, policies and regulations in place to
make this a smooth transition...
ADF - AAP 7001.048 Sect 2 Chap 7
Defence Aviation Safety Program Manual
• - MILAVREG 7 address the Airworthiness Management of UAS
• Categories:
• 1 – Catastrophic failure expected to result in death or serious injury - Operations
over populous areas
• 2 - Catastrophic failure may result in death or serious injury – limited flight over
populous areas
• 3 - Catastrophic failure is unlikely to result in death or serious injury – Segregated
airspace and sparsely populated areas
• 4 - Catastrophic failure expected NOT to result in death or serious injury – KE < 42 J, <
400’, > 3nm from aerodrome
ADF - AAP 8000.010
Defence Operational Airworthiness Manual
• Section 1 – Presents ADFs operational airworthiness framework and promulgates
the OAREGs.
• Section 2 – Operational Airworthiness Regulations (OAREGs)
• Chapter 7 – Unmanned Aircraft Systems – OAREG 7 UAS Policy
• 4 Categories of UAS Ops + Cat 4 UAS Manager
• Section 10 Chapter 1 – Unmanned Aircraft Systems
• OAREG 7: To regulate UAS to ensure operations are conducted at an acceptable
level of safety to achieve ALARP
• OAREG 7.1 UAS Management
• OAREG 7.2 UAS Operations
CASA Regulations
CASR part 101 – All unmanned aircraft
Promulgated in 2002
1st State to publish regulations
First UOC issued in 2003
Today > 200 UOCs
Currently being amended to reflect new ICAO terminology and low risk
operations of RPA < 2 kg (60J)
• CASR Part 102 will concentrate on RPAS only
FAA NPRM – Small UAS (1)
Proposed Part 107
< 55 lbs (25 kg)
Daytime ops in VLOS only
Not over people
Limited FPV
Max airspeed - 87 knots
Max Alt – 500 ft
No ops in Class A
Ops in Class B, C, D and E with ATC permission
Ops in Class G alowed without ATC permission
FAA NPRM – Small UAS (2)
• Operators required to:
• Pass Initial aeronautical knowledge test + renew every 24 months
• Be vetted by Transport Security Administration
• Obtain UAS Operators Certificate
• >17 years of age
• Report all incident within 10 days
• Over the next 10 years, the amount of money spent annually on UAS and their accompanying
technologies will likely double worldwide.
• Estimates vary between $4- 6 billion of what is currently being spent each year on developing UAS
technology around the world, according to a report published by the Teal Group.
• That number is expected to nearly double in future years, bringing the total amount spent on UAS
for both military and commercial applications to $10-13 billion annually by 2024.
• Civil use of UAS make up a small portion of today's market, approx 11%. This is expected to grow
to 14% by 2020.
• The growth in Australian civil use has seen almost a doubling of UOC approvals each year since
2012, with the current number being around 208.
• Airspace Integration
• Detect and Avoid
• Command, Control and Communications datalinks
• Autonomy
• Bandwidth and frequency management.
• Public Perception
• Social Issues
Airspace Integration
• The integration of UAS into civil airspace presents many technical,
operational, and policy challenges, eg
• the lack of an on-board capability to detect and avoid other aircraft
• the need to operate autonomously or at least with a great deal of automation
• coping mechanisms for dealing with loss of the command and control datalink
or the communications link which makes the whole system vulnerable.
Detect and Avoid
• One of the biggest concerns is that UAS cannot detect what else is around them
nor can they avoid oncoming traffic autonomously.
• Airspace Integration issues include air traffic control, pilots in the air, and UAS
pilots on the ground.
• Current technology inadequate for requirements
• ACAS is not good enough
• ADS-B equivalent
• Radar equivalent
• Sight equivalent
Social Issues
• Social issues are more than just airspace integration
• There are still major issues the industry and public is facing relating to
safety, privacy, ethics and infrastructure.
Social Change (1)
• Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society. It is
defined as a considerable, lasting change in the way a society behaves and
the norms and values to which the society adheres.
• Social change may be driven by culture, religion, economic, scientific or
technological forces.
• Some significant social changes:
the industrial revolution
the abolition of slavery
Social media – Facebook
Social Change (2)
• For many, their only experience with these aircraft comes from media reports about them being
used by the military for intelligence gathering and defence.
• Those images, coupled with privacy and safety concerns, is causing concern about using them in
our own backyard.
• Many on the front lines of the UAS revolution see tremendous advantages by using these devices
in civil applications such as aerial photography, vegetation monitoring, fire fighting, farming,
border security, pollution monitoring, law enforcement and numerous other uses.
• Only time, politicians, lawyers, and public opinion will answer the broader societal questions, but
one thing is for sure; the technical challenges surrounding these vehicles need to be answered
• Once these vehicles begin to fly regularly in civil airspace, they must be able to work within the
commercial airspace regime in a safe and integrated way.
Privacy and Ethical issues
• The issues related to privacy, data protection and ethics are
intentionally vague in order to ensure that they are technology
neutral. This means that they can apply to RPAS, CCTV, Body scanners,
• It is important to foster innovation but not at the expense of privacy
or ethical reasons.
• Privacy is the responsibility of the Privacy Commissioner
Roadmap to allow full utilisation into Society
• Need a better understanding of what industry, the military and civilian national
and international authorities need, and what are the crucial next steps that need
to be completed before UAS are widely accepted in everyday life applications.
• Must balance the benefits to society versus the risks associated with the
• Must deal with the Security issues and make people feel safe
• Must deal the Privacy issues to ensure people feel protected
• Must deal with the Human Factors and medical issues
• Must educate the industry and the general population
• To Integrate Unmanned Aircraft into Society, we need:
The Regulations, standards, procedures and policies in place
Technologies to be developed
Integrate military and civil aircraft into the airspace
Integrate the Societal, Privacy and Ethical issues
Educate industry and the general population
A roadmap on how to deal with and balance all these issue
Thank you