Inspection, Corrosion, Materials,
Failure Analysis, RBI, NDT and Integrity.
Vessel Equipment & Piping Life-cycle Specialists,
Inspectors and Certification Engineers.
John fletcher RPEQ MSc CPEng IntPE
Managing Director
Main Office
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120
Phone: 07 3394 8332
Fax: 07 3394 4080
Head of Engineering
John Fletcher on 0413969776
[email protected]
Hello from myself (John Fletcher) and the whole team.
Dear Reader, May I firstly say hello from our team to you, and secondly
thankyou, as I do appreciate you taking the time out of your busy day to read
our brochure.
Please send comments / questions to my email on [email protected]
or ring on 0413 969 776. or use the contact message system at the bottom of
every page on the website.
Anyway what do we do?
In straight forward terms I would explain what we do as:
We care for your Pressure Equipment from cradle to grave
We work safely, efficiently and at the right price.
What we are
We are plain and simple to use and do business with.
We can work fixed price projects.
We are polite and genuine at all times.
An agile, flexible customer focussed company.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Services to Industry
1st Year Vessel inspections
Advanced NDT
Aerial Inspection (UAV)
Asset Management
Corrosion Engineering
Corrosion Monitoring
Destructive testing
Failure analysis
Fitness for Service
Hardness testing
Inspection Engineering
Inspection Planning
Inspectors and Engineers
Integrity Engineering
Laboratory Immersion / Corrosion Testing
Materials Engineering
Mechanical testing Lab
Non Destructive testing (NDT)
Non-Intrusive Inspection
Phased Array
Pre Commissioning
Pressure Equipment
PSV testing & Overhaul
RBI Failure Modes analysis
Risk based inspection (RBI)
Tensile testing
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
HSSE tenets of operation ............................................................................................................... 4
Our Team ............................................................................................................................................ 5
Business Ethics & Morals ............................................................................................................. 13
What is Risk Based Inspection, Introduction: .......................................................................... 14
Failure Modes and Damage Mechanisms in RBI analysis ..................................................... 15
Probability or likelihood of failure RBI ........................................................................................ 17
The Consequence of failure ......................................................................................................... 19
RBI Inspection Confidence ........................................................................................................... 21
What is Corrosion ........................................................................................................................... 22
Rotating............................................................................................................................................. 23
Fitness for service FFS.................................................................................................................. 25
Materials Engineering and testing ............................................................................................... 28
Mobile PSV testing & Overhaul .................................................................................................... 29
Failure Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 30
What is Physical Asset Management? ....................................................................................... 33
Pressure Vessel and AS3788 ....................................................................................................... 34
Pressure Piping ............................................................................................................................... 35
1st In Service Inspection............................................................................................................... 37
Aerial inspection ............................................................................................................................. 38
Non-intrusive Inspection .............................................................................................................. 39
Non Destructive Testing ................................................................................................................ 40
Advance NDT techniques ............................................................................................................. 41
Mechanical Testing ........................................................................................................................ 42
ASTM G31-72 Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals. ................................... 49
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
HSSE tenets of operation
Are as follows:
All safety incidents are preventable
We believe that the safety of our workforce takes precedence over all other
business objectives.
Fundamental to our business success is a safe and secure working
We seek to protect from harm our personnel, physical assets, community and
the environment.
Auzpec is committed to protecting and maintaining the Health and wellbeing of
its workforce.
Safety is our priority our goal is zero injuries.
While our workforce takes every precaution practicable to prevent incidents in
our workplaces, we have Security and Emergency Management
in place to minimise harm if they do occur.
We are committed to minimising the Environmental impact of our activities.
We believe in going beyond compliance to meet, or exceed, international best
We are visible leaders and always demonstrate a genuine commitment to HSSE.
We keep our team safe and prevent pollution of the environment by identifying,
assessing and controlling risks.
We set clear HSSE goals, objectives, expectations and targets to deliver our
business plans safely.
We carefully select and train our team (including Sub Contractors & Suppliers)
so that they are able to perform their work safely.
We keep our team informed and ensure team members are consulted on any
HSSE matters that might affect them.
We work with our team (Contractors & Suppliers) to manage workplace risks.
We plan ahead and develop capabilities to deal with emergencies, should they
We recognise and control business changes that could impact HSSE.
We monitor our HSSE performance and always seek improvements.
We learn from incidents and take the necessary actions so that they don’t
happen again.
We regularly check to ensure all of our HSSE expectations and obligations are
We regularly review our HSSE performance and make adjustments in support of
our goal of zero injuries.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Our Team
Head of Engineering John D Fletcher Mobile 0413969776
Mr John D Fletcher received a National Diploma (HNC) in Metallurgy from what
is now known as Teesside University. He then went on to study at Imperial
College, University of London in the Royal School of Mines for a Master’s
degree in Corrosion of Engineering Materials. His thesis studied the use of
Electrochemical Noise as a useful continuous monitoring technique for
sulphuric acid plants. He worked with Imperial chemicals Industries for 22 years
ending up as a Senior Scientist at ICI at the Wilton research centre which is
now known as Wilton International. After working in the Oil and Gas Industries
Aberdeen John then emigrated to Australia in 2001 to Brisbane working with
Chevron's Caltex Refinery in Lytton before setting up his own engineering
consultancy firm working mostly within the oil and gas firms such as BG,
Santos and Origin Energy in the new Multi Billion Coal Seam Gas installations.
Along the way John became a Professional member of the Institute of Materials,
Minerals and Mining (IOM3) and qualified as a Charted Engineer CEng and an
International Professional Engineer with the Engineering Council in the UK. He
is also a Professional member of the Institute of Corrosion UK.
In Australia and New Zealand John is a register Professional Engineer CPEng
with the Institute of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AusIMM)
which is a Kindred Body to the IOM3.
John is registered as a professional engineer of Queensland (RPEQ) and has
been recognised as such by the qualifications and competencies of an
engineer under the Board of Professional Engineers of Queensland administers
the Queensland Professional Engineers Act 2002 (The Act).
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Head of Advance NDT Peter Grealy Mobile 0418158952
Peter has over over 30 years extensive QA and QC experience in the Oil and
Gas, Chemical Process, Power Generation and Mining Industries in Australia
and overseas. During this time Peter has gained technical and management
experience working on numerous large-scale construction and maintenance
projects from procurement through to the commissioning and operations
phases. His key strengths are as an expert in the Non-destructive testing
industry His excellent knowledge and understanding of Australian and
international standards, processes, procedures and accountability measures
Highly experienced in heavy steel Fabrication ,Erection and Welding Extensive
experience in installation , commissioning and maintenance of rotating/
mechanical equipment Material and equipment failure analysis His extensive
experience and expertise in critiquing and writing reports, including notification
reports, inspection and testing reports, procedures and audit reports Analytical,
orderly and objective approach to managing tasks Self-directed and
experienced in leading and working in a team environment has made him a
well-respected professional in his field of advanced NDT.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Dr Tony Healy Senior Associate of Auzpec and Director at JAHCon
Dr. JA (Tony) Healy, Eng, MEngSc, BSc, MSc, PhD RPEQ Tony is a Mechanical
Engineer with a wide range of practical, business, consulting and academic
experience. Tony’s employment background was primarily in the paper and
motor vehicle industries as well as consulting experience in mining, power
generation, pharmaceutical, chemical manufacturing, petrochemical, water
treatment and other industries. Tony is based in Brisbane and offers Asset
Management services to clients throughout Australia and New Zealand. Prior to
setting up We Physical Asset Management Pty. Ltd. Tony worked as an Asset
Management Consultant and before that ran his own maintenance consulting
company in Europe specialising in Asset Management, Maintenance systems
and Training. Before moving to Europe he was the Engineering Manager for one
of the largest integrated paper & packaging companies in the world.
Tony is active in developing Quantitative risk assessments, Maintenance
systems, Technical obsolescence assessments, Asset condition assessments,
Condition monitoring and NDT programs as well as FMEA studies, Root Cause
Analysis etc. across a range of industries including Water treatment, Chemical
manufacture, Hydroelectricity, Petrochem, Gas Turbine generation, Geothermal
energy generation and Coal Wash plants. Tony has a PhD in Maintenance
Engineering from QUT and a Masters degree in applied Condition Monitoring
and NDT.
Tony has been living and working in Australia for almost 30 years.
In his previous roles Tony has carried out the following major consulting jobs
amongst others.
• Maintenance systems audits.
• Maintenance system development.
• Asset based Risk assessments.
• Condition monitoring program development.
• Asset Condition Assessment.
• Technical Obsolescence Assessment.
• FMEA analysis.
• RCA.
• Course based training.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
• PhD (Maintenance Engineering)
• Master of Engineering Science (Condition Monitoring/NDT)
• Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical).
• Certificate in Training and Development (FÁS, Ireland)
• Advanced Certificate in Management Skills
• Trade (Motor Mechanic)
Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland – RPEQ 4891
Queensland coal - surface safety induction course
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Tony Watson Senior Associate of Auzpec and Director at Spectrum Performance
Tony has extensive experience in assisting clients with all aspects of Asset
Management, Maintenance Strategy, Reliability Centred Maintenance and PM
Optimisation, Maintenance Planning and Scheduling Development, Auditing
Processes, Document Systems Development and specialised training. Tony is
experienced in working with all levels of business - from shop floor staff to
executive management and brings 25 years of industry experience and
knowledge to his clients.
Tony demonstrates an extensive understanding of and experience in the use of
many CMMS operating systems including SAP, Maximo, JDE and Oracle. He
has the ability to learn systems quickly, and can apply his systems knowledge
to a range of operating environments as well as deliver in house specialised
Tony has worked with many of Australia's top 100 listed companies (including
international clients) ensuring you are working with a consultant who possesses
the suitable experience and the right mix of operational exposure to the CSG
(Coal Seam Gas), Coal, Iron Ore, Gold, Steel, FMCG, Oil and Gas industries.
Tony possesses a number of qualifications that include:
Six Sigma Black Belt (University of NSW) 2006
Associate Diploma in Business Management (University of Ballarat) 2007
Advanced Certificate in Electrical Engineering (Computer Technology) (NSW
TAFE) 1992
Electrical Trade Certificate (NSW TAFE) 1987
Tony demonstrates a considered, analytical and strategic approach to his
clients and is confident to work with and within all levels of business. Tony
demonstrates a wealth of valuable experience in a multitude of industries and
process environments and is passionate about using his knowledge and
experience to help clients develop successful stories with their challenges,
growth and projects.
To discuss your requirements call Tony directly on 0411 448462 or
email [email protected]
Sue Vance: Admin and QA manager
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Sue keeps the wheels moving and is our Lady of the Filing cabinet. She has a
lovely manner and superb skills set from her experienced as a healthcare
professional. With a background in teaching, training and assessment record
within dentistry and experience in the Fitness Industry has provided her with the
knowledge and the ability to offer encouragement and support for staff at all
levels to meet the expanding demands and duties of their profession and for
clients to meet their short and long term fitness goals and improve and maintain
their quality of life.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Gunnar Sjoberg AICIP Inspector and Senior Associate of Auzpec and Director
of NORDIC Inspection Pty Ltd
Gunnar has over 30 years’ experience in the pressure equipment maintenance
and fabrication industry, servicing the oil & gas, power and general industries
Australia wide - on & off shore. His aim is to provide a professional and
reliable service, sound advice and cost effective solutions in regards to safety,
integrity and reliability of pressure equipment.
He is AICIP certified and carries out his inspection processes in accordance
with AS3788-2006, and the assessment of results is based on State Act &
Regulations and applicable Standards (Australian, American and European).
He holds Professional Indemnity and Public Liability Insurance, and operates a
quality system based on AS 17020.
In-Service Pressure Equipment Inspector, In-Service Inspection
Coordinator and Supervisor. He also carries out third party Quality Audits.
(Fabrication and/or Repair to Pressure Equipment).
[email protected]
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Alex Seizovic Productivity and Operations Management Consultant, FAIEAust
EngExec and Senior Associate of Auzpec and Omega Productivity Consultancy
Diverse experience in organisational management, business improvements,
governance, compliance in production. Knowledgable and experienced in the
areas of company and commercial law, industrial property law and common
law, clean energy law and comparative corporate governance. Practical
experience gained in plant reliability, maintenance management, operations,
logistics and supply chain. Working knowledge and experience in operational
excellence, integrated operations and asset economics.
• An experienced, focussed and resilient executive with solid business acumen
across value management, management accounting, resource management,
front line management, economics and financial analysis
• A confident, inclusive and enthusiastic transformational leader with an MBA,
who utilises exceptional written and oral communication skills that cultivates
relationships and influences others
• A committed business and engineering manager, who is able to meet
operational imperatives by proactively monitoring organisational performance
whilst handling multiple demands and competing priorities.
• A meticulous maintenance and reliability engineer with experience across
plant reliability, maintenance management, operations, production, logistics
and supply chain management
Email: [email protected]
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Business Ethics & Morals
committed to the principles of open, honest and respectful business conduct.
Wikipedia states that business ethics and morals as “Business ethics (also
corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that
examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a
business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is
relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.” We at
seriously, I am sure we have all seen and been in previous organisations where
such statements were not true and where your personal beliefs on such matters
where not respected. It is therefore our intention to make a “plain English”
commitment to our customers regarding the way in which we will do business
with you and the way in which we expect to be treat, with mutual respect and
dignity. In Australia federal and state laws protects you, your business and your
customers from unfair trading practices. These laws, together with industry
codes of practice, help to ensure that your business operates fairly and
competitively and that all consumers are adequately informed and protected. At
Auzpec we comply to these standards at all times.
At Auzpec we aim for the highest standards in our dealings with customers.
• Are courteous and polite at all times.
• Answer any questions honestly and to the best of their knowledge.
• Do not avoid the truth and do not mislead.
• Always respect our and your right to end the conversation at any time.
• Are fully trained and competent.
• Can provide an explanation regarding our procedures for handling complaints
• Are committed to offering you the highest quality of service.
• All our personnel are trained to provide a high standard
• That our company literature is accurate and clearly written.
• Will never make you feel misled or push you into a contract with us.
This Code of Practice is our promise that:
• We rigorously select and train all our staff to the highest standards.
• We help you understand all about our products and services by providing
information in plain English.
• We ensure you are protected from mis-selling, whatever your circumstances.
If we fail to meet our obligations in this Code of Practice, we will deal with
matters quickly and sympathetically; we always apologise and correct any
mistakes quickly.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
What is Risk Based Inspection, Introduction.
First let’s consider the term risk which may have many meanings from the
subjective guess to the exact formula, some say it’s a gamble, many
dictionaries see it as the possibility that something bad or unpleasant (such as
an injury or a loss) may happen, or that someone or something may cause the
unpleasant to happen,
Many see risk as a balance between the potential of losing something of value,
weighed against the potential to gain something of value resulting from a given
action. Risk can also be defined as the intentional interaction with uncertainty.
In fact the International Risk Management Standard ISO 31000 defines risk as
the “effect of uncertainty on objectives”
We consider risk a function of the probability or likelihood of an event occurring
along with the consequences or the outcome of that event.
These risks are generally complex to fully understand, due to interactions of
human factors and numerous technical variables regarding probability analysis
Prevention or mitigation of risk for a major hazard may mean either preventing
an incident or providing an adequate distance between the incident and for
example the public. However, the applications of the two approaches are much
wider. Mitigation, for example, may include financial compensation as in
An effective means of understanding complex technological systems, and also
natural hazards, is to order or rank your priorities.
Risk mitigation may prevent us from taking reckless or uncalculated risks or it
may just mean that we cover the financial loss. Risk mitigation and prevention
therefore may affect both consequence and likelihood or probability of failure. If
we virtually eliminate the likelihood the risk reduces but it may still be there. If
we reduce the risk to as low as practicable then we are accepting the risk. If we
change from storing petrol to storing water then we have reduced the
consequence of a spill. But in practical terms this may prove to be a very
difficult challenge. So what kind of risks are we talking about here, well
disasters such as the 1988 UK Piper Alpha North Sea platform or the Ukraine
Chernobyl Nuclear plant disaster and more recently the Japanese Fukushima
nuclear accident on the 11th March 2011 show us that we must design, build
and operate equipment safely otherwise the loss of life and damage to the
environment is huge.
Inspection at all stages of the equipment’s life is vital but none more so than
during its operational life. With that in mind therefore in 1993, 21 petroleum and
petrochemical companies initialised a project for the development of a riskbased inspection methodology for application in downstream refining and
petrochemical industry.
They realised that risk was a term with a multitude of meanings ranging from
the subjective to the mathematically exact, but which, invariably applied to
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
failure or loss of functionality and considered the probability of failure or
malfunction, and its consequences.
They appreciated that there are a number of methods in which to analyse and
rank relative risk and then formulate a plan to mitigate or inspect those risks to.
This became known as risk based inspection.
The project lead directly to the American petroleum standard known as API 580
and 581.
API 580 outlines the conceptual approaches and necessary elements which
may be included in an RBI analysis. As such it is inclusive of several
approaches to RBI available from numerous sources.
Whereas API 581 outlines the specific RBI methodology developed by the API
RBI sponsor group. As such it is one API acceptable method in which to
approach RBI that would be acceptable relative to API 580
They approach risk from either a Qualitative or Expert Judgment, Semiquantitative (Rule Based Analysis) and Quantitative (Probabilistic, Statistical,
Mathematical Modelling) or continuum or mixture therein.
Failure Modes and Damage Mechanisms in RBI analysis
API 580 recommended practice (RP) provides information on using risk analysis
to develop an effective inspection plan. Inspection planning is a systematic
process that begins with identification of facilities or equipment and culminates
in an inspection plan.
It provides a system whereby the probability (Likelihood) of failure and the
consequence of failure (COF) are evaluated by considering all credible damage
mechanisms that could be expected to affect the facilities or equipment.
In addition, failure scenarios based on each credible damage mechanism are
developed and considered. Risk Based Inspection is used to examine
equipment such as pressure vessels, heat exchangers and piping in industrial
The damage mechanisms and failure modes of pressure boundary metallic
components are a fundamental part of the RBI analysis.
Damage mechanisms in the hydrocarbon process industry are addressed in API
571. ASME PCC-3 also which has some useful information and appendices on
damage mechanisms.
It is recommended that a person with knowledge in materials and corrosion that
should be involved in the process. We at Auzpec have this knowledge.
Damage mechanisms include corrosion, cracking, mechanical and metallurgical
Understanding damage mechanisms is important for:
The analysis of the POF Probability of failure (likelihood of failure)
The selection of appropriate inspection intervals/due dates, locations and
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
The ability to make decisions (e.g. modifications to process, materials
selection, monitoring, etc.) that can eliminate or reduce the probability of a
specific damage mechanism.
Failure modes identify how the damaged component will fail (e.g. by leakage or
by rupture).
Understanding failure modes is important for three reasons:
The analysis of the COF, Consequence of failure
The ability to make run-or-repair decisions,
The selection of repair techniques.
It is recommended that the RBI team should consult with a corrosion specialist
to define the equipment damage mechanisms, damage modes (optional), and
potential failure modes.
Our approach is as follows.
Identify the internal and external operating and environmental conditions, age,
design and operational loading. Data used and assumptions made should be
validated and documented.
Deterioration or degradation is sometimes used as a synonym for damage.
However, damage mechanism is used throughout this document for
Process conditions as well as anticipated process changes should be
Identifying trace constituents (ppm) in addition to the primary constituents in a
process can be very important as trace constituents can have a significant
effect on the damage mechanisms.
Considering the materials, methods and details of fabrication, develop a list of
the credible damage mechanisms that may have been present in past
operation, be presently active, or may become active.
Under certain circumstances it may be preferable to list a specific damage
mechanism and then list the various damage modes or ways that the damage
mechanism may manifest itself. For example, general corrosion could result in a
large burst while localized corrosion might be more likely to result in a pinhole
type leak.
All credible failure modes for each damage mechanism or damage mode
should be considered.
Note it is possible to have two or more damage mechanisms at work on the
same piece of equipment or piping component at the same time. An example of
this could be stress corrosion cracking in combination with generalized or
localized corrosion (thinning or pitting).
At Auzpec we have RPEQ CPEng and CEng Engineers and AICIP Inspectors
who can help with this issue. We have NACE qualified Senior Technologists with
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
vast experience of Risk Based Inspection. We have experience in Meridium,
Capstone and Tischuk RBI systems.
We can.
Nominate corrosion circuits.
Assign Damage mechanism
Assign Probabilities of failure
Assign Consequences of failure
Calculate Risk Criticality
Probability or likelihood of failure RBI
Iso 31000 the international risk standard states that In risk management
terminology, the word “likelihood” is used to refer to the chance of something
happening,whether defined, measured or determined objectively or subjectively,
qualitatively or quantitatively, and described using general terms or
mathematically (such as a probability or a frequency over a given time period).
It also notes that the English term “likelihood” does not have a direct equivalent
in some languages; instead, the equivalent term “probability” is often used.
However, in English, “probability” is often narrowly interpreted as a
mathematical term.
Therefore, in risk management terminology, “likelihood” is used with the intent
that it should have the same broad interpretation as the term “probability” has
in many languages other than English. Therefore the terms probability and
likelihood in our sense are seen as equivalent terms when associated with
The European RBI approach namely RIMAP, describes a methodology for the
probability or likelihood of failure assessment, which can be either used alone,
or alternatively combined with established methods. It goes on to state that
whatever we call it the assessment method should be verified / benchmarked
against a recognized (established) methodology, which is generally being used,
accepted and referred to in the open literature.
The American Petroleum Institute and its recommended practice api580 That
probability analysis in context of an RBI program is performed to estimate the
probability of a specific adverse consequence resulting from a loss of
containment that occurs due to a damage mechanism or mechanisms. The
probability that a specific consequence will occur is the product of the
probability or PoF and that the probability of the scenario under consideration
assuming that the failure has occurred.
The POF analysis should address all damage mechanisms to which the
equipment being studied is or can be susceptible. Further, it should address
the situation where equipment is or can be susceptible to multiple damage
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
mechanisms (e.g. thinning and creep). The analysis should be credible,
repeatable and documented. It should be noted that damage mechanisms are
not the only causes of loss of containment. Other causes of loss of
containment could include but are not limited to: seismic activity, weather
extremes, overpressure due to pressure-relief device failure, operator error,
inadvertent substitution of materials of construction, design error, sabotage.
These and other causes of loss of containment may have an impact on the POF
and may be (but typically are not) included in the POF analysis for RBI.
RIMAP requirements for performing PoF analysis is that it should be generally
acceptable, verifiable and benchmarked against a recognized established
methodology and that it should be conservative especially for simplified
approaches, The input data, the final results and analysis procedure should be
documented and available to audit via a peer review process. A multi-level
approach ranging from the qualitative through to the quantitative for example
screening to detailed may be used depending on the requirements. It should
follow a written procedure in a structured manner with well-defined
The PoF rating should show the highest individual failure mechanism probability
which should not be averaged and that any additional aspects are considered.
PoF analysis should be carried out in such a way to cover, all active damage
mechanisms, realistic or best estimate damage rates, the past and future
effectiveness of the inspection program required.
It should include the confidence level in the damage rate, the effectiveness of
the inspection program in improving the confidence level in the damage rate
and Identify any level of damage that will exceed the damage tolerance of the
equipment and result in failure. It should also analyse the possible interaction or
synergistic effects for all damage mechanisms. and determine the interval for
the next inspection.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
The Consequence of failure
Risk is often characterized by reference to the potential or likelihood of an
event and the consequences of that event. A dictionary definition of
consequence maybe, “what comes by causation or follows from logic, as a
result from one’s choice or act”.
Any event however can lead to a range of consequences. A consequence can
be certain or uncertain and can have positive or negative effects on objectives.
It can be expressed qualitatively or quantitatively and may escalate through
knock-on effects.
Iso-31000 the international Risk standard states that risk analysis involves
consideration of the causes and sources of risk and the likelihood that those
consequences can occur. An event can have multiple consequences and can
affect multiple objectives therefore existing controls and their effectiveness and
efficiency should also be taken into account.
Consequence can be expressed in terms of tangible and intangible impacts. In
some cases, more than one numerical value or descriptor is required to specify
consequences and their likelihood for different times, places, groups or
Risk identification should therefore include examination of the knock-on effects
of particular failures including cascade and cumulative effects.
Note that an event without consequences can also known as a “near miss”,
“incident”, or “close call”.
The American Petroleum Institute analyse RBI consequence by studying the
release of hazardous fluid which are estimated in seven distinct steps.
By determining representative fluid and its properties, selecting a set of hole
sizes for the escape of the fluids estimating the total amount of fluid available
for release and its potential release rate, defining the type of release and hence
the model the dispersion of the final phase of the fluid, i.e., a liquid or a gas.
It goes on to study the effect of the post-leak response and determines the
area potentially affected by the release, relative cost of the leak, due to
downtime and environmental clean-up.
API 580 uses both qualitative and quantitative consequences of failure analysis
and includes flammable events (fire and explosion), toxic releases, releases of
other hazardous fluids, environmental consequences, production
consequences (business interruption), maintenance and reconstruction impact.
RIMAP the European based RBI document states that consequence of failure
should be determined separately for the four elements, namely, safety, health,
environment and business, and the overall consequence determined by the
highest rating.
The document recognises that different classifications need to be balanced so
that one aspect does not dominate the risk assessment. However it should be
noted that depending on how this balance is determined, a high business
consequence may take priority over a medium health or safety consequence.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
The document does however consider humans within or outside the plant’s
area, for such factors as safety Health Environmental and business failure. It
also considers that a satisfactory consequence assessment may require the
definition of a number of scenarios, e.g. small leak, large leak, full rupture and
characterisation of mitigating systems such as water curtains, detection,
warning systems and monitoring which is similar to the API method. In fact
the European RIMAP is considered compatible with other approaches as the
overall approach is as per API or ASME and is intended broadly for similar
purposes. Note however, while the principles are largely similar, the user is
warned against expecting identical results.
There are differences in detail that may result in significant differences when
using different approaches on the same plant, case or system.
For example, unlike most other known approaches, RIMAP is designed to be
industry independent and provides seamless transfer between different levels of
analysis (ranging from screening to detailed).
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
RBI Inspection Confidence
During risk based inspection analysis API 580 recommends that you should
contemplate a number of factors when considering the difference between
precision and accuracy of your risk analysis.
Whilst the precision is a function of the computational method and metrics
The accuracy of the analysis is a function of the methodology and the quantity
and quality of the data available plus its consistent application of rating the
inspection effectiveness, this is critical to accomplish a credible, effective and
sustainable RBI program.
One word of warning here is regarding the accuracy and precision with respect
to quantitative versus qualitative risk analysis methods and the implied precision
and accuracy of quantitative compared to say a qualitative risk matrix analysis
may in reality not exist, this is due to the element of uncertainty that is inherent
with the analysis of probabilities and consequences.
However when analysing for risk, one should really consider the basis for the
predicted damage and rates and the level of confidence we have in the
inspection data and the technique used.
In practice, there are often many factors that will affect the estimate of damage
rate as well as the magnitude of a failure that cannot be fully taken into account
with a fixed model. API581 therefore advise the beneficial use of both
quantitative and qualitative methods in a complementary fashion to produce the
most effective and efficient assessment
Quantitative analysis uses logic models to calculate probabilities and
consequences of failure. These logic models are then used to characterize
materials damage to equipment and to determine the consequences of failure.
These logic models however can have significant variability and may introduce
error and inaccuracy which impact the quality of the risk assessment. These
models must be validated carefully by expert judgment.
The accuracy of any type of RBI analysis depends on using a sound
methodology, quality data, and knowledgeable personnel and is important to
any type of RBI methodology selected for application. Inspection quality
reflects the repeatability of the inspection process in terms of equipment
access, instruments, operator, environment and process.
approach to Inspection Effectiveness Categories. It states that Highly Effective
inspection methods will correctly identify the true damage state in nearly every
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
case with a 80–100% confidence. Usually Effective inspection methods are
considered to be 60–80% confident they can spot the damage. Fairly Effective
40–60% and Poorly Effective only 20–40% .
Ineffective inspection confidence is when the method will provide no or almost
no information that will correctly identify the true damage state and are
considered ineffective for detecting the specific damage mechanism (less than
20% confidence).
What is Corrosion
Corrosion is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical
reaction with their environment. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a wellknown example of corrosion. This type of damage typically produces oxide or
salt of the original metal i.e. Iron oxide or Iron Chloride.
Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or
polymers, although in this context, the term degradation is more common.
Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including
strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and gases.
Many structural alloys corrode merely from exposure to moisture in air, but the
process can be strongly affected by exposure to certain substances. Corrosion
can be concentrated locally to form a pit or crack, or it can extend across a
wide area more or less uniformly corroding the surface. Because corrosion is a
diffusion-controlled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces. As a result,
methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface, such as passivation and
chromate conversion, can increase a material's corrosion resistance. However,
some corrosion mechanisms are less visible and less predictable.
Corrosion in Industry
It is widely recognised within industry that effective management of corrosion
will contribute towards achieving the following benefits:
Statutory or Corporate compliance with Safety, Health and Environmental
Reduction in leaks
Increased plant availability
Reduction in unplanned maintenance
Reduction in deferment costs
The current statutory regime places a requirement on the owner to maintain the
integrity of the facilities, and to ensure that equipment can be operated safely
and a safe working environment maintained.
Loss of hydrocarbon containment due to corrosion can result in severe
consequences upon safety, the environment and asset value.
An analysis of data reported by industry ranks corrosion as the second most
frequent initiating factor leading to a loss of containment.
Failures of joints and flanges rank most frequent
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Predicting the rate of plant degradation due to corrosion carries an element of
uncertainty. Uncertainty can be reduced by corrosion management systems that
combine both proactive and reactive management measures.
There is an existing recognition by Industry of both the costs borne by their
business that can be attributed to inadequate corrosion control, and the
consequential impact upon operations.
The effect, therefore, of implementing appropriate Corrosion Management
Systems, that result in the reduction/elimination of corrosion related
damage/deterioration of assets, not only assists in compliance with regulatory
requirements but also has a direct effect on the assets overall economic
performance, i.e. providing a "double pay back"
We at Auzpec are specialist when it comes to corrosion control we are qualified
Engineers, members of NACE and the Institute of corrosion as Professional
members and have MSc qualifications in Corrosion Engineering.
Asset Management Consulting
High level business improvement services aimed at optimising the interface
between the business goals and the physical assets used to carry out the
Maintenance System Development
Optimum use of physical assets at minimum cost requires a detailed
understanding of the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of
equipment in its operating setting.
Measuring the impact of current practice as well as the impact of any changes
calls for a structured and comprehensive auditing methodology. We can assist
you develop auditing techniques suited to your business or provide previously
developed auditing methodologies which have been widely used across many
industry sectors.
Managing Spare Parts
Identifying and optimising spare parts usage is a crucial component of Asset
management. Optimum spare parts holdings ensures under-stocking resulting
in excessive downtime and overstocking resulting in excessive stocking costs
are both optimised.
Condition Monitoring (CM)
Establish CM programs using systematic assessment techniques which ensure
that your program properly reflects the importance of these assets to your
organisation. We can assist you develop CM programs suited to your business
needs. We has developed CM programs for a range of industries including
Manufacturing, Mining, Refining etc.
Criticality Assessments
Determining the Criticality of assets and systems is a crucial stage of
establishing a modern Asset management program. Criticality is a major Asset
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Management decision tool as it supports Planning & Scheduling, organising
repair work, and determining the impact of tasks NOT completed to schedule.
System Modelling
System modelling is used to estimate the likely response of complex systems
under assumed conditions and constraints. Modelling is very often the only way
to estimate how a complex system will perform over time and to identify the
weak links in that system. We can assist you develop system models for RAMS
and similar studies and perform experimental tests to determine sytem
Availability, Reliability, Production levels etc. We has developed system models
for a range of industries including Manufacturing, Mining, Refining, Water
treatment etc.
Document Management
Learning is based on observing the world around us and extracting lessons
from those observations to inform future decisions. This is sometimes called
the 'learning cycle'. The cumulative lessons learnt over time, comprise the
knowledge base on which future decisions are based. If an organisation is to
learn from experience and not repeat mistakes from earlier periods, there needs
to be an effective mechanism of recording, storing and retrieving data over
time. This knowledge base can be one of the most important assets of the
organisation as it comprises the information collected over the life of the
organisation. The organisations 'document management system' is the tool for
managing this information over time.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Fitness for service FFS
Fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment is a multi-disciplinary approach to
determine, as the name suggests, whether a structural component is fit for
continued service.
In 2000, the American Petroleum Institute (API) published API 579, a
Recommended Practice for FFS assessment. Although this document was
intended primarily for refining and petrochemical assets, it has seen widespread
use in a wide range of industries that utilize pressure vessels, piping, and
storage tanks.
It aids with:
Inspection and categorizing damage, degradation, and corrosion mechanisms
Evaluation of wall thinning, pitting, cracking, fatigue, mechanical damage,
high-temperature corrosion, and creep
Develop and implement programs for corrective and predictive maintenance of
tanks, vessels, piping, and pipelines
Select the right repair technique and avoid pitfalls in repair welding and joining
API 579-1/ASME FFS-1
In 2007, API joined forces with the American Society for Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) to produce an updated document with the designation API 579-1/ASME
FFS-1. This document, which is a Standard rather than a Recommended
Practice, contains numerous improvements and explicitly addresses industries
outside of refining and petrochemical.
A typical FFS assessment may involve several engineering disciplines, and it
requires collecting data from a number of sources and a team of people i.e.
Stress Analysis. An accurate estimate of stresses acting on the component of
interest is e to assessing structural integrity and remaining life
Metallurgy/Materials Engineering. An understanding of the performance of
various materials subject to specific environments, temperatures, and stress
levels is essential for ensuring safe and reliable operation
Non-destructive Examination (NDE). Flaws must be detected and sized before
they can be assessed. The most suitable inspection technology depends on a
variety of factors, including type of the flaws or damage present and the
accessibility of the region of interest
Corrosion. An understanding of environmental degradation mechanism(s) that
led to the observed damage is a prerequisite for FFS assessments. Moreover
expertise in corrosion is useful for prescribing suitable remediation measures
Plant Operations. Interaction with plant personnel is usually necessary to
understand the operating parameters for the equipment of interest. Information
such as operating temperature & pressure, process environment, and start-up /
shutdown procedures are key inputs to a FFS assessment
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Fracture Mechanics. This discipline is used to analyse cracks and other planar
flaws. • Probability and Statistics. This discipline is useful for data analysis and
for probabilistic risk assessments
Fitness-for-service assessments can range in complexity from simple
screening evaluations to highly sophisticated computer simulations, including
finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
The necessary level of complexity varies from one situation to the next. In some
cases, an advanced analysis is performed when a simple screening
assessment is unable to demonstrate that the equipment in question is fit for
continued service.
Standardized FFS procedures typically include a range of assessment options
that cover the full spectrum of complexity.
The API/ASME fitness-for-service standard provides three levels of
assessment: • Level 1. This is a basic assessment that can be performed by
properly trained inspectors or plant engineers.
Level 1 assessment may involve simple hand calculations. However the
specified procedures must be followed exactly, and there is little or no room for
Level 2. This assessment level is more complex than Level 1, and should be
performed only by engineers trained in the API/ASME FFS standard. Most Level
2 calculations can be performed with a spreadsheet. Level 2 procedures
provide some latitude to exercise sound engineering judgment.
Level 3. This is the most advanced assessment level, which should be
performed only by engineers with a high level of expertise and experience. A
Level 3 assessment may include computer simulation, such as finite element
analysis (FEA) or computational fluid dynamics (CFD). For Level 3
assessments, the API/ASME standard provides a few overall guidelines, but the
details of the assessment are left to the user. The lack of specificity in Level 3
is by design.
BS 7910 BS 7910
BS 7910 BS 7910, the UK procedure for the assessment of flaws in metallic
structures, was first published almost 30 years ago in the form of a
fracture/fatigue assessment procedure, PD6493.
It provided the basis for analysing fabrication flaws and the need for repair in a
rational fashion, rather than relying on long-established (and essentially
arbitrary) workmanship rules.
The UK offshore industry in particular embraced this new approach to flaw
assessment, which is now widely recognised by safety authorities and
specifically referred to in certain design codes, including codes for pressure
Since its first publication in 1980, PD6493/BS 7910 has been regularly
maintained and expanded, taking in elements of other publications such as the
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
UK power industry's fracture assessment procedure R6 (in particular the Failure
Assessment Diagram approach), the creep assessment procedure PD6539 and
the gas transmission industry's approach to assessment of locally thinned
areas in pipelines.
Sequence of operation, according to BS 7910:•
Identify the flaw type
Establish the essential data
Determine the size of the flaw
Assess possible material damage mechanisms and damage rate
Determine limiting size of the flaw
Based on the damage rate, assess whether the flaw will grow to this final size
within the remaining life of the structure or in-service inspection interval, by
sub-critical flaw growth assess the consequence of failure.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Materials Engineering and testing
Materials engineers work as metallurgists, plastics engineers, ceramists,
adhesive scientists, process and quality control engineers and corrosion or
fracture engineers. They work in a range of industrial activities, including
manufacturing, processing and recycling, and select and design materials for:
It is a multi-disciplinary field which deals the study of materials through the
materials structure, properties and performance, its origins reach back to the
emerging fields of chemistry, mineralogy and engineering during the
Enlightenment and It incorporates elements of physics and chemistry, and is at
the forefront of nano-science and nano-technology research.
In recent years, materials science has become more widely known as a specific
field of science and engineering. It is an important part of forensic engineering
i.e. the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail
or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury or damage to
property and failure analysis, the latter being the key to understanding, for
example, the cause of various aviation accidents. Many of the most pressing
scientific problems that are faced today are due to the limitations of the
materials that are available and, as a result, breakthroughs in this field are likely
to have a significant impact on the future of technology.
Materials engineers investigate the properties of metals, ceramics, polymers,
plastics and other materials, and develop and assess their commercial and
engineering applications.
We at Auzpec can help you in this area of science and engineering. It is an
important part of forensic engineering i.e. the investigation of materials,
products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as
We provide the following services:
Residual life extension
Material selection, identification, condition assessment and repair strategies
Metallography and micro-structural characterisation
Fatigue analysis / remnant life analysis
Stress and strain measurement
Failure analysis and mitigation / root cause analysis
Finite element analysis
Corrosion investigation and mitigation
Coating assessment and specification
Evaluation of cracks and flaws using fracture mechanics
Weld procedure development and review
Litigation support and expert witness
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Mobile PSV testing & Overhaul
We specialise in the testing and optimisation of Pressure Relieving Devices. Led
by experienced and practical engineers, and backed by skilled technicians,
We undertake high precision, high accuracy PRD testing and certification.
• Test, rebuild, repair, set and certify Pressure Relief and Pressure Safety Valves
• Testing of bursting discs
• PSV and PRV failure analysis
We provide fully equipped, self-sustained, mobile testing service, operated by
trained, competent and accountable technicians.
All test benches are custom designed and manufactured to conform to AS3788,
API527, API576 and ASME-PTC25, featuring large volume accumulation, large
outlet orifice size and are proven to be industry best practice.
We employ innovative / new testing technologies, featuring high frequency
sample rates, high accuracy, pressure transducers and software, as well as
digital gauges and high resolution digital imagery. All test procedures exceed
minimum national, international and manufacturers’ standards, ensuring
accurate and repeatable results that allow reliable RBI implementation. In
addition, We provide comprehensive and robust quality control, as well as
industry leading risk mitigation and safety management practices.
We can comprehensively audit and conduct reviews of test equipment and test
procedures against applicable national, international, manufacturer and client
standards and procedures to ensure accuracy and repeatability of PRD test
We can provide guidance on the optimisation of PRD design, selection,
operation and maintenance practices to minimise maintenance frequencies and
maximise reliability and asset integrity. Applicable services include
• Statistical analysis of PRD in-service performance and bench test results
• Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) reviews
• Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
• Root Cause Analysis (RCA)
• Risk Based Inspection (RBI)
• Design and manufacture of PRD consumables, transport racking and flange
protectors to ensure safe and reliable transportation of PSVs for continued
maintenance integrity.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Failure Analysis
Failure analysis is the process of collecting and analysing data to determine the
cause of a failure. It is an important discipline in many branches of
manufacturing industry, such as the electronics industry, where it is a vital tool
used in the development of new products and for the improvement of existing
products. The failure analysis process relies on collecting failed components
for subsequent examination of the cause or causes of failure using a wide array
of methods, especially microscopy and spectroscopy. We at Auzpec can help
we can perform failure analysis quickly and painlessly on site and in the lab so
phone today.
At Auzpec we take a 4 step approach to failure analysis.
Step 1 (understand)
1. Gain a good understanding of the conditions under which the part was
2. We ask questions from those who work with, as well as those who maintain the
equipment and visit the site.
3. We contact the manufacturer and ask basic questions so that the investigator
gets a good understanding of the manufacturing process and its intended use.
4. In many instances we will receive a failed part with little information about its
history and operating conditions. In cases such as these the CSI approach of
physical evidence begins and is more heavily relied on.
Step 2 (look)
1. We carry out a visual examination, cataloguing and recording the physical
evidence at the same time. This familiarises the investigators with the evidence
and creates a permanent record that can be referred to in light of new
2. The samples are examined, photographed and sketched taking particular care
to identify and record any area of particular importance, such as fracture
surfaces and surface defects.
3. We use stereomicroscope with lights that can be easily directed. The shadows
give depth to a surface making it easier to analysis and photograph.
4. Pieces are examined and recorded before any surface cleaning is undertaken.
In some cases substances such as dirt, paint and Oil on the surface can
themselves be important clues, indicating such things as how old the fracture
surface is and in what kind of environment the piece was operating.
5. We examine the fracture surfaces in detail and try to identify the mode of
fracture (brittle, ductile, fatigue, etc.), points of initiation, and direction of
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
6. Each mode of fracture has distinct characteristics that can be easily seen with
the naked eye or the use of a stereomicroscope, however, sometimes a
scanning electron microscope (SEM) will have to be used.
Step 3 (decide on a course of action).
1. Based on the visual examinations and the background information the
investigator must outline a plan of action, which is the series of steps that will
be needed to successfully complete the case. Macroscopic examination, Nondestructive testing (NDT), Chemical analysis, Metallographic examination
Mechanical Testing.
2. Determine the cause of failure, which can classified into i.e. Ductile, Brittle
Inter-granular, Brittle Trans-granular, and Fatigue.
3. We will need to check out theories regarding cause of failure by returning to
examine the part in more detail once other evidence is gathered.
4. Use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at this stage because of its large
range of magnifications and its large depth of field.
5. Since undamaged fracture surfaces are not always available we therefore would
open other cracks that may be present in the piece. This often reveals good
quality fracture surfaces similar to those that caused failure.
6. Non-destructive tests (NDT) to examine parts without causing permanent
damage. Often times, results obtained from examining failed parts in the lab
using NDT's can be used to examine parts in the field and remove them from
service before failure occurs.
7. Chemical analysis on the bulk of the material to confirm the material
composition. Depending on the investigation, chemical analysis is also be done
on any overlay materials or surface residues.
8. Metallographic examination involves the sectioning of samples to examine the
microstructure. The sections that are selected for examination are dependent
on the type of piece and the mode of fracture.
9. Sections from the sample are be taken in different planes so that any
differences in the microstructure can be seen.
10. Sometimes it is useful to take a cross section through the fracture surface so
that the microstructure below the fracture and the surface profile can be
11. A section running parallel to the fracture surface is also often taken for
examination. Samples are mounted, ground, and polished using metallographic
12. They are examined before etching for porosity, inclusions, and other defects,
microstructures is identified and their properties researched.
13. Mechanical testing is done to verify that the mechanical properties of the
material conform to the standards.
14. Hardness testing because of its relative simplicity, low cost, and the fact that
for many materials tables exist to relate hardness with yield strength.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
15. A macro-hardness is usually sufficient to determine material properties,
however micro-hardness measurements are helpful in determining property
variations within the material.
16. Use the microhardness measurement to compare the surface hardness to that
of the body or to verify the microstructure.
17. Other mechanical testing such as tensile tests and impact tests may be used,
(sometimes limited by insufficient material).
Step 4 (conclusion and recommendations)
1. Once all the data is gathered, the investigator comes to a conclusion based on
the evidence present.
2. This requires that the investigator to draw heavily on background experience
and research performed. T
3. The most difficult step in any investigation is coming up with recommendations
these may require extra testing in the field using NDT visual and or further
samples. Or may include a change in operating procedure, change in materials
or further / more frequent NDT / Visual examination.
4. Some cases will be simple, however many cases are not obvious even though
the cause and theory are known.
5. Report is written and feedback given
This process is sometimes lengthy and undefined however here at AuzPec we
will agree upfront price limits and “do not exceed” amounts keeping you in
charge of the whole process. Estimates are given in good faith and would not
be exceeded without prior approval.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
What is Physical Asset Management?
Physical Asset Management is the practice of managing the entire life-cycle
(design, construction, commissioning, operating, maintaining, repairing,
modifying, replacing and decommissioning/disposal) of physical and
infrastructure assets such as structures, production and service plant, power,
water and waste treatment facilities, distribution networks, transport systems,
buildings and other physical assets.
Asset management, broadly defined, refers to any system that monitors and
maintains things of value to an entity or group. It may apply to both tangible
assets such as buildings and to intangible concepts such as intellectual
property and goodwill.
Asset management is a systematic process of deploying, operating,
maintaining, upgrading, and disposing of assets cost-effectively.
Asset management in the engineering environment is the practice of managing
assets to achieve the greatest return (particularly useful for productive assets
such as plant and equipment), and the process of monitoring and maintaining
facilities systems, with the objective of providing the best possible service to
users (appropriate for public infrastructure assets).
ISO 55000 defines Asset management as the "coordinated activity of an
organization to realize value from assets". In turn, Assets are defined as
follows: "An asset is an item, thing or entity that has potential or actual value to
an organization". This is deliberately wider than physical assets but these form
an important focus for more organizations.
(NB there are important qualifying Notes to these definitions, which are set out
in ISO 55000).
Therefore Asset Management can be seen as the balancing of costs,
opportunities and risks against the desired performance of assets, to achieve
the organizational objectives. This balancing might need to be considered over
different time-frames.
Asset Management is the art of making the right decisions at the right time and
optimising the delivery of value.
A common objective is to minimise the whole life cost of assets but there may
be other critical factors such as risk or business continuity to be considered
objectively in this decision making.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Pressure Vessel and AS3788
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a
pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.
The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the
history of pressure vessel development and operation.
Consequently, pressure vessel design, manufacture, and operation are
regulated by engineering authorities backed by legislation.
For these reasons, the definition of a pressure vessel varies from country to
country, but involves parameters such as maximum safe operating pressure and
In Australia AS3788 Standard specifies the minimum requirements for the
inspection, repair and alteration of in-service boilers, pressure vessels, piping,
safety equipment, and associated safety controls (hereafter referred to as
pressure equipment), and gives guidance in the execution of such activities.
Guidance is included for the inspection of ancillary equipment such as
structures. This Standard also specifies the requirements for the initial
inspection after installation and prior to commissioning.
AS3788 applies to, but is not limited to, pressure equipment covered by
AS/NZS 1200. Typically it includes the following:
(a) Boilers and associated pressure parts, controls and pipe work covered by
AS 1228, BS 1113, BS 2790, AS 2593 and ASME BPV-I.
(b) Pressure vessels and associated pressure parts, controls and pipe work
covered by AS 1210, BS PD 5500, EN 13445, ASME BPV-VIII, AS 2971 (serially
produced pressure vessels) and EN 286-1.
(c) Pressure piping covered by AS 4041, NZS/BS 806, ASME B 31.1 and ASME
B 31.3.
(d) Pressurized storage tanks built to API 620 or equivalent.
(e) Fired heaters.
(f) Heritage boilers and pressure vessels.
Although pressure equipment with Hazard Level E (to AS 4343) is within the
scope of this Standard, no specific requirements have been included. To
ensure safety, in-service inspection of such equipment should follow the
principles of this Standard, along with good engineering practice.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Pressure Piping
Is the most complex item on your plant and is the one that invariably provides
you with the most leaks whether from a gasket or a perforation in the pipe
wall either are not welcome.
We at Auzpec can:
Extract your piping line lists from your P&ID's
Photograph / scan your field installation
Construct Thickness monitoring location (TML's)
Construct the TML database ready for analysis
Take the thickness test NDT Ultrasonic readings.
Carry out in depth flaw analysis using phased array and UT flaw detection.
Calculate the corrosion rates and any fitness for purpose level 1 calculations as
Carry out external coating surveys, flange, spring hanger and support
inspection audits.
We can then best advise you regarding your piping system.
What pipes do we inspect?
In Australia AS3788 applies to, but is not limited to, pressure equipment
covered by AS 4041, NZS/BS 806, ASME B 31.1 and ASME B 31.3. Inspection
and surveillance shall be performed while the plant is operational to detect
signs of deterioration, damage or evidence that suggests damage or
deterioration may exist, e.g. leaks, vibration, settlement, piping movement,
adequate performance of piping supports, etc.
It states that, the owner should verify, as far as practicable, the accuracy and
completeness of the manufacturer’s data report (MDR) and piping fabrication
and construction quality assurance documentation.
Consideration should be given to checking original thickness measurements of
new pressure equipment to obtain baseline data.
Where there is a delay between installation and commissioning, there may be
deterioration of the equipment which is inconsistent with the deterioration
mechanisms and rates when in service, and this should be allowed for.
AS3788 also shows the requirements for AS4343 classification of A, B and C
level piping, which include 1st yearly and External / Internal examination.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
AS3788 states the general requirements for the inspection of pressure piping.
Pressure piping includes the pipe and all valves and fittings that form the
pressure retaining parts. It also includes the piping support components such
as hangers, guides and shoes.
Pressure piping shall be periodically inspected to assist in ensuring safe and
reliable operations until the next scheduled inspection.
This inspection shall assess the condition of the piping in order to judge its
suitability to continue to operate. Inspection may be both internal and external
and may include supplementary non-destructive techniques or pressure tests.
An inspection may be performed when the piping is operating or depressurized.
As a result of periodic inspection, a certificate or report of inspection shall be
issued to the owner
It is not possible to specify a universal minimum internal inspection interval for
piping as piping systems operate in a very wide range of service conditions.
The internal inspection interval shall be determined by a person competent to
identify and assess the failure mechanisms and deterioration rates.
It shall take into account any data from previous inspections to provide
information on the current condition and past performance.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
In the absence of previous inspections, the piping shall be internally inspected
in accordance with the requirements of Table 4.1.
It is often impractical to carry out internal inspection using direct visual
examination of the internal surfaces of the piping systems. Internal inspection
shall be carried out by methods appropriate to detecting the modes of failure as
identified by a competent person.
In Auzpec we have the competent people who can help.
In AS3788 Appendix I covers the inspection of piping systems which are an
integral part of a plant or facility and is inclusive of buried piping and are
subject to internal or external pressure. Pressure piping of hazard levels A and
B require inspection by an in-service inspector. Pressure piping of hazard
levels C, D and E should be inspected by the owner.
1st In Service Inspection
In Australia the In-service inspection standard used is AS3788 stares that,
when indicated by AS3788 standard reference Column 3 of Table 4.1, new
pressure equipment shall be inspected internally and externally after its first
year of service.
The purpose of the first yearly inspection is to confirm the suitability of the
design and materials used for the service conditions and to pick up any quality
assurance defects that may have been either overlooked during fabrication or
construction, or which may have developed or become significant during
The interval to the next inspection shall then be determined.
Alternatively, the first in-service inspection may be deferred if it is determined
safe to do so by using a Risk Based Inspection (RBI) process (refer also Clause
4.5 and Paragraph B5).
The maximum interval between commissioning and the first in-service
inspection shall be the nominal inspection interval given in Table 4.1.
Any deferment shall be documented in a transparent and auditable manner.
We can help you:
Internally and externally inspect your vessel for 1st In Service Inspection.
Non-intrusively inspect your vessel for 1st In Service Inspection.
Assist you in deferment of your vessel first inspection to the first nominal period
using risk based inspection analysis.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Aerial inspection
Aerial inspection and surveying using Remotely Operated Aerial Vehicles, close
visual and thermal inspections and surveys of high, live and difficult to reach
assets, such as flare stacks and flare tips, using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.
Qualified and experienced inspection engineers AICIP CPEng and RPEQ work
alongside remote pilot and UAV controller certificated pilots (CASA Remote
Pilot/ UAV) and will provide you detailed reports which will allow you to make
operationally critical maintenance decisions.
Offering detailed inspection reports containing high resolution still and video
imagery for close visual and thermal inspections
Our inspection service will help you:
Reduce the potential risk of costly delays during planned shutdowns and
Minimise the need for people to work at height helping you to safely achieve
your operational goals.
No plant outage – with plant able to stay online and operational during
Reduce the need for people to be placed in potentially dangerous locations
Reduce costs,
Improve safety,
Save time,
Eliminate scaffolding requirements
Close visual Inspections on
Flare Inspections
Chimney Inspections
Chimney stacks
Cooling towers
Structural Inspections
Storage tanks
Elevated pipe racks
Thermal Inspections
Chimney ducting
Process equipment
Invaluable information about an asset’s condition allowing you to make critical
operational or maintenance decisions. Remotely Operated Aerial Vehicles we
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
can inspect your asset live, Capturing high resolution stills, HD video and
infrared images. plus a detailed condition report.
Non-intrusive Inspection
Australian standard AS3788 states that an internal inspection gathers
information about the condition of internal surfaces and usually requires
confined space vessel entry or visual inspection using equipment such as
bore-scopes or video scopes.
However, internal inspection may also be executed by appropriate nonintrusive means (e.g. ultrasonic or radiographic testing), where a high degree of
confidence can be demonstrated in the reliability of such techniques.
Care is needed to ensure that sampling is truly representative of the condition
of equipment. Where practical internal inspection may be carried out whilst the
equipment is operating.
The DNV Recommended Practice G103 states that internal inspections have
traditionally been achieved by means of an internal visual inspection (IVI),
however, there can be very high cost associated with shutting down a vessel
(loss of production), isolating it and preparing it for entry.
Indeed, these costs can be much higher than the cost of the inspection itself.
Furthermore, the mechanical disturbances involved in preparing the vessel for
internal inspection and reinstating it may adversely affect its future
Finally, and by no means least, man access may also be hazardous.
There can, therefore, be significant advantages if inspections are performed
from the outside of the vessel without breaking containment i.e. non-invasively.
However, there needs to be a balance between achieving these benefits and
obtaining the information required to ensure continued safe and reliable
While it may often be the preferred option, non-intrusive inspection (NII)
represents a relatively new approach by comparison to IVI and many engineers
responsible for inspection planning have yet to build up experience with and
confidence in its application.
In addition, there are a wide variety of techniques available, each with its own
specific capabilities and limitations.
The acceptability and benefits of non-intrusive inspection for a particular vessel
will depend on a number of factors
Vessel geometry
Potential deterioration mechanisms and modes
Locations and sizes of flaws of concern
Historic inspection data
Confidence in inspection capability
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Inspection costs.
Techniques for non-intrusive inspection (NII) of equipment are becoming
increasingly sophisticated and more widely available. While it may often be the
preferred option, NII represents a relatively new approach by comparison to IVI
and many engineers responsible for inspection planning have yet to build up
experience with and confidence in its application.
AS3788 also states that Internally lined vessels where part or all of the vessel
wall has a protective lining, the maximum interval between inspections shall be
determined from a consideration of previous history for the lining material for
similar service conditions, as well as the following factors.
The wastage allowance on the protected metal in case of lining failure.
The remaining corrosion allowance on the parent metal where it is not protected
by a lining. Note (The possibility of damage to the base metal, by atomic
diffusion through the lining).
We at AuzPec can plan, implement and inspect and accept vessel inspections
via this method. It is aimed at the inspection of welded vessels constructed
from metals, and related items, fittings and connections associated with them.
Non Destructive Testing
Non-destructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of
analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a
material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), non-destructive inspection (NDI), and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are also commonly used to describe this
Because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected, it is a
highly valuable technique that can save both money and time in product
evaluation, troubleshooting, and research.
Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) includes
Radiography X-Ray / Gamma
Visual Inspection
Magnetic Particle
Penetrant Testing
Eddy Current Testing
Time of Flight Diffraction
Surface Finish Inspections
Paint Inspection
Coating Evaluation
Eddy Current,
Remote Field Eddy Current
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Holiday testing
Lixi profiler
Advance NDT techniques
Phased array: Is widely used in several industrial sectors, it is used to detect
component failures i.e. cracks or flaws and thereby determine component
quality. Due to the possibility to control parameters such as beam angle and
focal distance, this method is very efficient regarding the defect detection and
speed of testing. Phased array can also be used for wall thickness
measurements in conjunction with corrosion testing. Phased array can be used
for the following industrial purposes:
Inspection of Welds
Thickness measurements
Corrosion inspection
Flaw detection
TOFD: Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method of ultrasonic testing is a
sensitive and accurate method for the non-destructive testing of welds for
Digital Radiography: Digital radiography is a form of X-ray imaging, where
digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film.
Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and
the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be
used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.
Thermography: Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video
are examples of infrared imaging science.
Saturated low frequency eddy current (SLOFEC™) SLOFEC is an acronym for
“saturated low frequency eddy current”. This non-destructive testing method
for tank, boiler tube and pipe inspection
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Mechanical Testing
Our NATA Accredited Testing Laboratory in the field of Mechanical Testing.
Tensile testing with strain rate control from 0.4kN to 1000kN.
Charpy Impact testing 0 to minus 47°C, down to 101°C & at minus 196°C
Dynamic Striker Tup—ASTM E23, and AS 1544.2
Izod impact testing at ambient temperature.
Vickers Hardness testing Macro 5 HV to 30HV, Micro 300g to 1kg
Brinell Hardness testing. 2.45kN (HBW 5/250) to 29.4kN (HBW 10/3000)
Destructive testing of Welded Products.
Arrange for Clients Chemical Analysis needs. (NATA)
Arrange for Clients Metallurgical Evaluation needs. (Professional Services)
The Charpy impact
The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a
standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy
absorbed by a material during fracture. This absorbed energy is a measure of a
given material's notch toughness and acts as a tool to study temperaturedependent ductile-brittle transition. It is widely applied in industry, since it is
easy to prepare and conduct and results can be obtained quickly and cheaply.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Instron ASTM E23 charpy impact machine
ASTM E23 describes impact testing of notched-bar metallic specimens. The
standard covers both Charpy and Izod style testing and outlines test methods
for measuring the energy absorbed by the broken specimen. A Charpy test
requires the notched metal specimen to be held on both ends (in a horizontal
fashion) and broken by an anvil strike at the location of the notch.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Avery AS1544.2 charpy impact machine
The Charpy V-notch Impact Test is a pendulum-type single-blow impact test in
which the test piece, V notched in the middle and supported at both ends as a
simple beam, is broken by a falling pendulum which strikes the test piece
opposite the notch. The energy absorbed is determined from the subsequent
rise of the pendulum.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Instron HDX1000 Universal testing machine
A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials
testing machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and
compressive strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform
many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and
The set-up and usage are detailed in a test method, often published by a
standards organization. This specifies the sample preparation, fixturing, gauge
length (the length which is under study or observation), analysis, etc.
The specimen is placed in the machine between the grips and an extensometer
if required can automatically record the change in gauge length during the test.
If an extensometer is not fitted, the machine itself can record the displacement
between its cross heads on which the specimen is held. However, this method
not only records the change in length of the specimen but also all other
extending / elastic components of the testing machine and its drive systems
including any slipping of the specimen in the grips.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
40mm transverse tensile
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or
ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while
being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking. Tensile strength is not the
same as compressive strength and the values can be quite different. Some
materials will break sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a
brittle failure. Others, which are more ductile, including most metals, will
experience some plastic deformation and possibly necking before fracture.
The UTS is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the
engineering stress versus strain. The highest point of the stress–strain curve is
the UTS. It is an intensive property; therefore its value does not depend on the
size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as
the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects,
and the temperature of the test environment and material.
80mm transverse bends
Flexural strength, also known as modulus of rupture, bend strength, or fracture
strength, a mechanical parameter for brittle material, is defined as a material's
ability to resist deformation under load. The transverse bending test is most
frequently employed, in which a specimen having either a circular or rectangular
cross-section is bent until fracture or yielding using a three point flexural test
technique. The flexural strength represents the highest stress experienced
within the material at its moment of rupture.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Charpy impacts weld & heat affected zone
The Charpy V-notch test is a standardized high strain-rate test which can
measure the amount of energy absorption of material. This absorbed energy is
a measure of a given material’s toughness and acts as a tool to study brittleductile transition, depending upon the test temperature. With this test, one can
evaluate reliability of weld joint component and/or structure based on measured
energy absorption of material (specimen) and understanding deformation
and failure process during test
Macro-Vickers hardness flange to pipe
The Vickers hardness test was developed as an alternative to the Brinell method
to measure the hardness of materials. The Vickers test is often easier to use
than other hardness tests since the required calculations are independent of the
size of the indenter, and the indenter can be used for all materials irrespective
of hardness. The basic principle, as with all common measures of hardness, is
to observe the questioned material's ability to resist plastic deformation from a
standard source. The Vickers test can be used for all metals and has one of the
widest scales among hardness tests. The unit of hardness given by the test is
known as the Vickers Pyramid Number (HV) or Diamond Pyramid Hardness
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
Brinell & Vickers hardness
Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of
permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. Some
materials, such as metal, are harder than others. Macroscopic hardness is
generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behaviour of
solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different
measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and
rebound hardness.
Hardness is dependent on ductility, elastic stiffness, plasticity, strain, strength,
toughness, viscoelasticity, and viscosity.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080
ASTM G31-72 Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals.
Accurate monitoring of corrosion rates in any environment is critical when
viewed in terms of the maintenance and repair costs associated with corrosion
and material failure.
Test coupons provide an inexpensive means of measuring corrosion rate in the
lab, on line or on a pilot / side stream.
On-line monitoring allows you to effectively measure the corrosivity within your
system. By observing the mm-per-year corrosion penetration rate and weight
loss of an exposed coupon, valuable information can be provided regarding the
material’s life expectancy.
Coupons exposed to laboratory solutions from plant operations, or less reliable
synthetic solutions which approximate the chemistry of plant streams, generate
useful information if the tests are properly designed and conducted. Such tests
allow study of the effect of changes in process chemistry on corrosion.
Briefly ASTM G31-72, Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals is
described as:
Test specimens (coupons) of each metal to be tested, are engraved with a
unique identification code, measured to determine dimensions, cleaned to
remove grease and oxidation films, rinsed in distilled water and dried.
Each coupon is weighed and immersed in a test solution at temperature
undisturbed for 90 days (or as agreed / specified).
The coupons are then rinsed to remove residual test solution and loose
corrosion products, cleaned with the appropriate method and dried.
Each coupon is weighed and the change in weight during immersion is used to
determine the corrosion rate.
This practice is known as the ASTM G31-72, Laboratory Immersion Corrosion
Testing of Metals. It describes fully the accepted procedures for and factors
that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests.
433 Logan Road, Stones Corner Brisbane QLD 4120 Phone: 07 3394 8332 Fax: 07 3394 4080