Winter JIFFA`s General Assembly Approves Business Plan for Fiscal

JIFFA Report
Public Relations Committee Holds Summer
Logistics Field Trip in Tokyo for School Students
The Public Relations Committee held
its annual logistics field trip for school
students on July 31, 2014 at the Port of
Tokyo's Oi Container Terminal. In the
morning, participants toured the
container terminal, where they took a
close at a containership. After having
lunch, they visited the Tokyo Kamotsu
Terminal, which is also located in Oi, and
the Museum of Logistics in Shinagawa.
At the Oi Container Terminal, the
participants were taken to the rooftop of
a building to observe containerized
shipments moved by incoming and
outgoing trucks and trailers. Containers
that had just been imported and were
being exported, and reefer containers,
which have a function of refrigerating
products, among others, were located in
designated areas. Children looked very
busy taking pictures and notes of
lectures given by terminal employees.
On that day, a containership of more
than 10,000 TEUs deployed by Mitsui
O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL) on the
Asia/Europe route made its maiden call
at the Port of Tokyo. The participants
were lucky to have an opportunity to see
a brand-new vessel.
The terminal employees took the
participants to a safe place to allow them
to watch containers being loaded and
unloaded. They were excited to look very
Association INC.
4F, Across Shinkawa Bldg. Annex, 16–14, Shinkawa 1-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0033
Telephone 81 3 3297 0351 Facsimile 81 3 3297 0354
Issued in January 2015
At Museum of Logistics.
A school boy shouldering a
frame for a rice bale (left),
and diorama (below)
closely at the gigantic container carrier,
which measures 336.926 meters in
overall length and 48.2 meters in
At a nearby restaurant, the
participants had buffet lunch. A wide
variety of Japanese, Western and Chinese
dishes, including cake and other desserts,
attracted not only children, but also their
In the afternoon, the field trip was
moved to the Tokyo Kamotsu Terminal.
It is not unusual for the children and
parents to see freight trains carrying
containers, tanks and other shipments in
daily lives, but it must not be very often
to visit freight railway terminals. The
participants inspected the Tokyo
Kamotsu Terminal with help from staff
members, who also played a video to give
At Oi Container Terminal
a lecture. Covering a total area of
750,000 square meters, the extensive
terminal is capable of handling
approximately 5,300 railway containers,
which boast a capacity of five tons each.
They learned anew that products that
they use on a daily basis are carried not
only in air, sea and overland services, but
in railway services as well. At the end of
the event, the Tokyo Kamotsu Terminal
presented commemorative gifts to the
participants, which were cell-phone
The final destination of the field trip
was the Museum of Logistics in
Shinagawa. At the museum, changes in
logistics from the Edo Period (16001848) to the present were displayed.
With seaport, airport, railway and other
miniatures, the system of logistics was
introduced in a comprehensive way. A
program to allow visitors to heft carrying
poles, bales of rice and other old items
on their shoulders and a logistics game
both appeared so fun that the children
all enjoyed them. Taking this
opportunity, we would like to extend our
deepest appreciation for all parties who
support the field trip project.
JIFFA's General Assembly Approves Business Plan for Fiscal 2014
Japan International Freight Forwarders
Association Inc. (JIFFA) met in Tokyo on
Thursday, June 12 for its third annual
general assembly since acquiring a status
as a general incorporated association in
2012. During the meeting, which was
presided by Chairman Jiro Nakamura,
attendees conducted deliberations on
and gave approval to business and
settlement reports for fiscal 2013 (April
2013-March 2014) as well as a business
plan and a budget proposal for fiscal
2014 (April 2014-March 2015).
Business report for fiscal 2013
In fiscal 2013, JIFFA was joined by 26
forwarders and three organizations, which
increased the number of regular members
to 445 and that of supporting members
to 22, respectively. At a time when
globalization was growing among
Japanese enterprises, the new members
included businesses intending to launch
operations in the international forwarding
service market and international moving
firms having obtained a license for
providing forwarding services.
In the first half of last fiscal year (AprilSeptember 2013), JIFFA-affiliated
forwarders handled a total of 48.01
million tons of international multimodal
cargo, which went up 2.2% year on year;
in the second half (September 2013March 2014), 49.67 million tons, up
6.9%; and in total, 97.68 million tons, up
JIFFA's long-standing request to join
the International Federation of Freight
Forwarders Associations (FIATA) was
accepted finally in October 2013, when
the FIATA, an organization of freight
forwarders associations from many
countries and regions, convened
its annual world congress.
Courses for qualifying IMTS
In fiscal 2013, JIFFA gave
courses of lectures for qualifying
international multimodal transport
specialists in Tokyo and Osaka to
underpin the development of
human resources who have
expertise and know-how on international
multimodal transport services. A total of
242 students passed the qualifying
examination, raising the accumulated
number of international multimodal
transport specialists produced by JIFFA to
JIFFA provided language courses as
well, which were for those who wanted to
learn English and Chinese. To help
students improve their information
technology (IT) skills, JIFFA also held a
basic IT course.
On Jan. 1, 2014, JIFFA put into effect
terms and conditions for its Multimodal
Transport Bill of Lading and for its
Waybill. In conjunction with the
introduction of the terms and conditions,
JIFFA fully revised its forms of MT B/L and
Waybill as well.
As for overseas logistics research, JIFFA
sent missions to India (Mumbai,
Ahmedabad and other municipalities) and
Cambodia. Reports were compiled on
findings from the projects conducted in
the economies and released at dedicated
Business plan for fiscal 2014
In fiscal 2014, JIFFA will strive to gain
information on logistics affairs and
systems in other nations, provide member
companies with the information when
they need it, conduct logistics research in
countries that members are highly
interested in and hold sessions to release
reports on up-to-date information on
such countries.
JIFFA will also make efforts to distribute
information timely on the Advance Filing
Rules, the so-called Japanese 24-hour
rules, which were put into effect in March
To keep pace with the development of
globalization among enterprises, member
forwarders need to have deeper
knowledge of forwarding and relevant
systems in other countries, higher
commands of English and Chinese and
higher skills to use IT. To help them make
progress, JIFFA will continue to hold
courses of lectures for qualifying
international multimodal transport
specialists as well as language and IT
courses and workshops.
JIFFA will also promote education
activities so that its terms and conditions
for transport services, which were revised
for the first time in 20 years in fiscal
2013, will be used appropriately.
JIFFA Report
JIFFA Report
JIFFA Half-year Throughput Exceeds 50 Million Tons for First Time
Vietnam Becomes Second Largest Source of Imports to Japan
JIFFA members moved a total of
54.937 million tons of international
multimodal cargo to and from Japan in the
first half of fiscal 2014 (April-September),
growing 14.4% from a year earlier,
according to statistics compiled by the
organization's Forwarding Committee. It
was the first time that six-month
throughput had ever exceeded 50 million
tons. Imports and exports were both so
favorable as to enjoyed double-digit
improvements, with the former going up
11.5% to 34.665 million tons and the
latter, up 19.8% to 20.277 million tons.
Consolidated cargo accounted for 5.8%
of the total in imports, failing to reach the
6% line for the first time; 8.1% in exports;
and an all-time low of 6.7% in total.
Imports of international multimodal
cargo continued to increase constantly
until fiscal 2012 (April 2012-March
2013) thanks to the appreciation of the
Japanese yen. They are, however, still brisk
in fiscal 2014, although the yen has been
weakening now. In the first half, imports
surged 11.5% year on year to 34.665
million tons, reaching a record high for the
seventh consecutive term.
By origin, imports from China, the
leading source of multimodal cargo
destined to Japan, came back to enjoy a
double-digit increase, soaring 10% to
17.955 million tons. More noteworthy
were those from Vietnam, which became
the second-largest trade partner from
which Japan imports multimodal
shipments. In volume, they jumped 56.3%
to 2.562 million tons, helping the
Southeast Asian nation step up from fifth
place. Europe remained at third place,
from which 2.351 million tons were
imported, growing a mild 3.6%. Imports
from Hong Kong came in fourth, which fell
7.8% to 2.28 million tons. They
continued to be sluggish, suffering a yearon-year decline for four terms in a row, or
since the second half of fiscal 2012
(October 2012-March 2013). Combined
imports from China and Hong Kong
managed to hike 7.7% to 20.235 million
tons, exceeding the 20-million-ton mark
for the first time. In contrast, their share
did not reach the 60% mark, shrinking by
2 percentage points to 58.4%. Finished in
fifth place were imports from Thailand,
which zoomed so notable a 24.6% to
1.958 million tons as to defeat those
from the U.S. by a narrow margin.
JIFFA member forwarders carried a total
of 20.277 million tons of international
multimodal freight from Japan in the first
half of fiscal 2014, which ballooned
19.8% from a year earlier. Quantitatively,
it was a growth of 3.347 million tons.
From the second half of fiscal 2013, when
the previous record was established,
throughput rose a significant 14.9%.
Exports to China, the most powerful
importer of multimodal shipments from
Japan, remained robust, hiking
4.8% to 3.878 million tons.
China was followed by the U.S.,
to which 2.87 million tons were
exported, inflating 9.2%. In the
U.S., domestic demand is so
massive that exports from Japan
marked a high growth rate for
the first time in a while and
enjoyed a year-on-year increase
for two straight terms. Those to
Hong Kong came in third place,
which surged 67.6% to 1.656
million tons to enable the special
administrative region to take a
big leap from seventh place.
South Korea defended its
position as the fourth-largest
importer, to which 1.57 million
tons were exported, growing
5.7%. In volume, those to
Europe managed to enjoy a
double-digit increase of 10.6%
to 1.57 million tons, but in rank,
they took two steps down to
Import/export total
In the first half of fiscal 2014, JIFFA
members transported 54.937 million tons
of multimodal shipments to/from Japan,
which surged 14.4% from the
corresponding six months of the previous
fiscal year. In terms of volume, it was a
significant improvement of 6.928 million
China was the leading trade partner to
Japan, to/from which more than 20 million
tons were carried. More precisely, 21.838
million tons were handled, which surged
9.1%. Ranked second were those to/from
the U.S., which improved 9.2% to 4.808
million tons. Hong Kong finished in third
and Europe in fourth, switching positions
with each other from a year earlier.
Throughput went up 13.7% to 3.936
million tons and up 6.3% to 3.921 million
tons, respectively. South Korea remained
at fifth, to/from which 3.289 million tons
were moved, rising 13.3%.
Judicial Affairs Committee Holds Seminars
On Transport Document in Tokyo, Osaka
The Judicial Affairs Committee had
published a guidebook on terms and
conditions for its transport documents,
which were revised in 2013. To meet
requests from member forwarders to give
briefings on essences of the guidebook in
an easy-to-understand format, the
committee held seminars in Tokyo on
Tuesday, Sept. 16 and Osaka on
Thursday, Sept. 18.
During the first sessions of both
meetings, Mr. Masaya Takeda, a member
of the Judicial Affairs Committee,
delivered presentations on details of JIFFA
Multimodal Transport B/L and JIFFA
Waybill as well as important terms and
conditions. He elaborated items that are
important for daily routines. During the
second sessions, Mr. Natsuo Shinohara,
another member of the committee,
lectured about the rights and duties of
carriers and shippers. He also focused on
the responsibilities of carriers, analyzing
specific examples in several case studies
and relating them with relevant terms and
At the Osaka seminar, discussions were
General Affairs Committee Holds
Briefing Sessions in Three Areas
The General Affairs Committee
convened meetings on WednesdayFriday, July 9-11, 2014 to give
debriefings to member companies in the
Kyushu/Chugoku, Kansai and Chukyo
areas, respectively. On behalf of JIFFA,
Executive Director and Secretary-General
Masaharu Nozawa and members of the
committee were present at the briefing
Mr. Nozawa introduced key points of a
report on business activities for fiscal
2013 and a business plan for fiscal
2014. He also described important
policies according to which JIFFA
At Fukuoka
conducts activities, which were as follows:
(1) JIFFA strives to become more
globalized and internationalized. Efforts
to make to this end include obtaining
more up-to-date information by taking
advantage of being a member of the
International Federation of Freight
Forwarders Associations (FIATA);
(2) JIFFA formulates and provides
timely human resource education and
development programs, such as courses
for qualifying international multimodal
transport specialists; and
(3) JIFFA revises bills of lading (B/Ls)
and other transport documents with the
At Nagoya
held on subjects that many member
companies in Kansai had wanted to learn,
which were problems that could arise
from using surrendered bills of ladings
(B/Ls) and ways to use waybills. Mr.
Hiroki Okabe, chairman of the Judicial
Affairs Committee and a lawyer from law
firm Okabe & Yamaguchi Counselors at
Law, gave a lecture to introduce several
rulings that Japanese courts had given.
Mr. Hitokazu Ito, who is also a member of
the committee, delivered a presentation
on problems that could occur
from the use of surrendered B/Ls
and actual cases in which they are
used. He also promoted that
waybills be used more commonly.
JIFFA held seminars in Tokyo in
September 2013, Hong Kong in
November 2013 and Hakata in
July 2014, all of which were
highly rated by local affiliated
aim of introducing documents that better
fit the times and complying with
international rules and regulations.
On Jan. 1, 2014, two revised terms
and conditions were implemented, which
are for JIFFA Multimodal Transport Bill of
Lading and JIFFA Waybill Non-Negotiable.
During the meetings, JIFFA's Secretariat
gave reasons for revising these terms and
conditions and adopting a full form for
the latter. A briefing was also given on the
legal status of transport documents.
Besides, key points were discussed on the
format of JIFFA Multimodal Transport B/L
and JIFFA Waybill, both of which are
governed by the aforementioned revised
terms and conditions; the guidebook for
JIFFA transport documents (2013
edition) and others.
At Kobe
JIFFA Report
Education Committee Gives Intensive Lecture
On Multimodal Transport Business in Fukuoka
The Education Committee gave a
lecture on the international multimodal
transport business in Fukuoka this fiscal
year. Offered every year in Kyushu, the
one-day intensive program focuses on
highly interesting subjects that are
thought to be helpful for forwarding
service providers. A total of 50 students
enrolled themselves in the fiscal 2014
course, which was held on Wednesday,
July 9.
To help the students learn basic
knowledge of international multimodal
cargo transport services, the Education
Committee (1) introduced risks that could
arise from using so-called surrendered bills
of lading (B/Ls) and rulings issued by
Japanese courts regarding surrendered
B/Ls, and promoted the use of waybills.
(2) As there was a case in the past in
which a non-vessel-operating common
carrier (NVOCC) did not prepare to pay
indemnities to shippers, the committee
advised that NVOCCs keep riskmanagement plans in mind on a routine
basis, assuming that accidents could occur
when doing business with no liability
insurance. (3) Domestic
feeder services were
also covered, as they
are a popular subject
attending JIFFA's annual
course for qualifying
international multimodal
transport specialists.
The students stress
they learn so much from
JIFFA Representative Attends FIATA Meetings
Mr. Masaharu Nozawa, Executive
Director and Secretary-General of JIFFA,
attended two important International
Federation of Freight Forwarders
Associations (FIATA) meetings in 2014
on behalf of the Tokyo-based
The FIATA, which holds its Region
Asia-Pacific (RAP) Field Meeting in June
every year, met in Beijing, China last year,
hosting some 50 attendances from 13
countries and regions.
The meeting was organized in
conjunction with the United Nations
(UN) Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Regional
Conference/Forum and Meeting of Chief
Executives of National Associations for
Freight Forwarders, Multimodal
Transport Operators and Logistics
Service Providers.
The FIATA meeting and UNESCAP
conference, forum and meeting have been
convened together in recent years
through cooperation between the
organizations. Having many challenges to
overcome in common, they will continue
to work to deepen their partnership
FIATA Regional Meeting/Asia/Pacific in Beijing
JIFFA Report
lectures on domestic feeder services that
they should have taken them earlier.
When the Education Committee
conducted a survey after the intensive
lecture, most of the attendees answered
that it was as highly informative and
fulfilling as the course for qualifying
international multimodal transport
specialists. As such, JIFFA was convinced
that they would make effective use of the
knowledge they had acquired from the
lecture in their daily routines.
particularly in formulating master plans
for developing intra-Asia logistic
international human development
programs among economies in the region.
Meanwhile, the FIATA held its 52nd
World Congress in Istanbul, Turkey on
Oct. 15-18. Under the theme of
“Sustainable Growth in Logistics,”
logistics was discussed from (1)
economic, (2) social and (3)
environmental viewpoints. Attendees
exchanged views on how economic, social
and environmental issues can be
addressed to have logistics grow
Training Workshop for New Employees
Held in Tokyo
The Education Committee held a
training workshop in Tokyo in July 2014
for employees hired in fiscal 2014 (April
2014-March 2015). At the three-day
workshop, which the association
organized for the first time, lectures were
designed to help the students, who
joined JIFFA-affiliated companies four
months earlier, learn the forwarding
business from basics. Specifically, easyto-understand subjects had been
selected from the results of surveys
conducted during JIFFA's annual basic
courses on the forwarding business,
including explanations on terminology.
On the first day, the attendees first
studied processes in forwarding services
from a DVD that JIFFA had produced on
forwarding services for international
seaborne shipments. They also attend
lectures on export and import business
On the second day, lectures were
given on documents, insurance and claim
management for international multimodal
cargo transport.
On the third day, which was the last
day of the workshop, the students
toured Tokyo Bay in the morning on
board a vessel operated by the Tokyo
Metropolitan Government (TMG)'s
Bureau of Port and Harbor. Going
Lectures at JIFFA's conference room
At Honmoku Container Terminal
JIFFA Welcomes Guests from Slovenia
JIFFA welcomed guests from Slovenia
on Sept. 18, 2014. On behalf of Posta
Slovenije, or the Post of Slovenia, Mr.
Boris Novak, General Manager; Mr. Petra
Mencigar Cvar, Director for Product
At JIFFA's reception room
around the bay, they looked at container
terminal facilities at the Port of Tokyo
from the sea. In the afternoon, they were
relocated to the Port of Yokohama's
Honmoku Container Terminal with help
from Mitsubishi Logistics Corporation,
where they had a briefing on the port.
Near a large containership moored at the
terminal, they learned about containerloading and -unloading operations.
The training workshop was attended
by 50 students. When a survey was
given, many answered the knowledge
they had learned, the lectures they had
attended and the on-the-job training
they had received during the workshop
would be of great help when performing
business tasks in the future. The
Education Committee will continue to
give a similar workshop in fiscal 2015.
Development; Ms. Marjan Osvald,
Director International Mail and Mr. Saso
Turk, Senior Advisor, visited the
association. The party was accompanied
by Mr. Miran Skendar, Secretary General
of the Slovenia Japan
Business Council.
Posta Slovenije is the
largest general logistics
service provider in Slovenia.
Its main business activities
are delivering mail and
international parcels as well
as providing courier services.
It is also engaged in carrying
general cargo by sea, land,
rail and air; offering storage
and other miscellaneous services and
having export and import shipments clear
customs inspections. The parastatal is
responsible for forwarding international
containers that are transported by sea to
the Port of Koper as well. They are moved
by rail and/or land to neighboring and
other countries, such as Austria, Hungary,
Slovakia, southern Germany, Czech
Republic and Poland.
The members came to Japan to
introduce Posta Slovenije to JIFFA and
Japanese enterprises to enhance the
trade between Slovenia and Japan.
Posta Slovenije introduced itself first,
and in return, JIFFA gave a presentation
to give briefings on its history,
organizational structure, the roles of its
committees and its business activities,
among others.
JIFFA Report
JIFFA Report
Logistics Research Conducted in Fast Developing
Chinese Inland Cities of Chengdu, Chongqing, Xi'an
International Exchange Committee
members visited the Chinese inland cities
of Chengdu, Chongqing and Xi'an on Oct.
19-26, 2014 to research local logistics
In 2013, China's real gross domestic
product (GDP) managed to grow 7.7%
from a year earlier, but failed to reach 8%
for the second consecutive year.
Nevertheless, the total value of trade
increased 7.6% to a record-high
US$4.16 trillion, helping the country
overtake the U.S. to become the world's
greatest trading nation.
responsible for exporting $23 billion
worth of commodities in fiscal 2013,
which accounted for 40% of all products
exported from Sichuan province, the
capital of which is Chengdu.
As for logistics, shipments to and from
Chengdu are mostly transported by air.
However, exports to Europe are carried
by rail, while imports are moved by river
from the gateway port of Shanghai.
Railway services transport cargo from
Chengdu to Europe in a transit time of 15
days. In 2013, a total of 400,000 tons
were handled. The city has set a goal of
moving 2.4 million tons a year by 2030.
Having a population of some 15
million, Chengdu is a large city where
many office buildings and condominiums
Rail terminal in Chengdu
Traffic Jam
are crammed side by side. There are many
fancy cars on main streets, but many
people are suffered from a traffic jam.
There are two bonded areas in the city
of Chengdu. The Chengdu Hi-Tech
Comprehensive Bonded Zone, which a
mission from the International Exchange
Committee visited, became operational in
2008. Covering a total area of 4,680
square meters, the bonded zone was
Bonded zone
In July 2014, the local government
raised the minimum monthly wage by
200 yuan, according to a Japanese
forwarder doing business in Chengdu.
Young workers still tend to leave work
soon, contributing to a low job-retention
rate, but experienced workers usually
carry on.
Chongqing is a direct-controlled
municipality, where some 30 million
people reside. Shipments are primarily
transported by ship on the Yangtze River
route. Water levels of the river have
become stable since the completion of
the Three Gorges Dam, enabling it to
accommodate 10,000-ton vessels now.
When the second phase of Guoyuangang
is fully completed in 2015, containerized
shipments will be handled at the new
port. Chongqing's capacity for processing
containers will then increase from
600,000 TEUs to 2 million TEUs. Having
a railway branch line, the new port is
Claster of high-riss buildings
projected to develop into a major
logistics base in an inland region.
As it concerns traffic conditions,
congestions are more severe in
Chongqing than in Chengdu, although
regulations restrict trucks from going into
the city.
In Chongqing, workers earn about
3,000 yuan a month on average, nearly
as much as those in Chengdu.
The JIFFA mission paid a visit to the
Chongqing International Freight Agency
Association (CIFAA). There are as many
as 423 logistics service providers
operating in the city now, 142 of which
are engaged in international services,
according to the association. Looking
closely at shipments to and from
Chongqing, 60% are moved via the
Yangtze River, 30% by air and the
balance of 10% by rail and/or truck. In
the first nine months (JanuarySeptember) of 2014, the municipality
exported $70 billion worth of products in
The Chongqing International Freight
Agency Association is now working on a
railway route between China and Europe
via Kazakhstan, which is known as the
(continued on page 7)
Language Training Committee Honors Top
Performers at Practical English Course
JIFFA on Oct. 20, 2014 honored three
top performers at its Language Training
Committee's fiscal 2014 (April 2014March 2015) training course for practical
English communication, which was given
in Tokyo from April to September.
Chairman Jiro Nakamura, executive vice
president of Nippon Express Co., Ltd.,
presented certificates of completion and
commemorative gifts to the three at a
commendation ceremony held at the
association's head office, which is also
located in Tokyo.
Ms. Nagisa Iwasaki of Nissin
Corporation (second from left, front row)
obtained the highest score at the final
examination. She shared her impression
about the course, saying, “The amount of
time I spend sending an e-mail message in
English has reduced to approximately
Logistics Reserch Conducted…
(continued from page 6)
New Silk Road. In May 2014, the
Chongqing Municipal Government
opened local offices in Belgium, Germany
and the Netherlands. The service has
handled 8,266 TEUs of containers so far.
Xi'an was the Asian end of the Silk
Road. Neatly planned and arranged
cityscapes help it look different from
Chengdu and Chongqing. Streets are
divided into lanes for four-wheel vehicles,
“There had been courses for business
English and letters for employees of
trading houses and other enterprises, but
JIFFA was the first to open an English
course for logistics service providers,”
Chairman Nakamura (second from right,
front row) said.
“The textbooks contain so many
different patterns of situations that
students can deal with them using
idiomatic phrases,” he added in
satisfaction of the contents of the
JIFFA launched the course in 1999 to
help employees of member companies
improve practical English in their business
routines. The six-month program was
attended by a total of 31 students and
twenty-seven students were qualified for
the final examination, having taken 75
percent, or 27 lectures of the 36. All of
them passed the exam.
28 Students from Member Companies Finish
'English for Logistics-Training Course'
The Language Training Committee
held an English-language course from
May 29, 2014. Entitled “Oxford
Business English: English for Logistics—
Training Course,” it allowed students to
learn useful phrases and vocabulary in
English. More specifically, it was designed
to help students learn from a native
speaker English texts concerned with the
forwarding business. During the 10lesson program, a new project for fiscal
2014 (April 2014-March 2015), a total
of 28 students studied hard to master
practical English.
A native speaker from the U.K., who
had obtained a Certificate in Teaching
English to Speakers of Other Language
(CELTA), gave the lessons, using a
textbook published by Oxford University
Press in England, where the forwarding
two-wheel vehicles and pedestrians.
Unlike Chongqing, there are no heavy
traffic jams.
At Xi'an Xianyang International Airport,
which is located approximately 40
kilometers away from the center of Xi'an,
the 20,000-square-meter second-phase
development was launched in July 2011
after permission had been given to
construct the Xixian New District. The
airport is situated so conveniently that
passengers can reach 70% of the
remaining municipalities in China within
two hours. Taking advantage of this
feature, Xi'an hopes to develop a new Silk
business took root a very long time ago
and the English language was first
The students learned materials from
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
programs and other useful phrases and
expression related to forwarding services
visually and auditorily with their eyes and
ears. The English course came to an end
on Thursday, Sept. 18, when completing
all of the scheduled lessons.
Road, or a network of aviation services. In
2013, the airport handled 180,000 tons
of cargo, intending to increase
throughput to 450,000 tons by 2020.
The Tree cities are all in a transition
period, growing into consumption cities in
line with increases in purchasing power.
They are all working seriously on how
they can incorporate underdeveloped
logistics infrastructure into their social
structures and how they can develop rail
and river transport into ways to procure
and sell commodities.