Industrial Technology & Engineering Symposium

Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-1 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROSSLINK DENSITY OF PEROXIDE-VULCANIZED NATURAL RUBBER
LATEX FILMS Roslim Ramli1,2, Jefri Jaapar2, Manroshan Singh a/l Jaswan Singh1, Siti Noor Suzila Maqsood Ul Haque2, Amir Hashim
Md. Yatim1
1
Colloid and Interface Science Center, Malaysian Rubber Board, 47000 Sg. Buloh, Selangor,Malaysia
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, MARA University of Technology, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2
.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract This study examined physical properties of peroxide-vulcanized natural rubber latex films. Data obtained from crosslink density
measurement were used to evaluate the effectiveness of hydroxyacetone as a novel activator for tert-buthyl hyroperoxide in
prevulcanization of natural rubber latex. Increasing the tBHP-HAC levels were found to increasing the crosslink density values.
The optimum prevulcanization temperature and time with respect to maximum tensile strength were observed to occur at film
prepared at temperature 60 °C with heating time of 3 hours. Drying temperature affecting the physical properties of peroxidevulcanized natural rubber latex films as the tensile strength values tended to decrease at drying temperature above 120 °C. The
highest tensile strength value was observed on film dried at 110 °C for 20 minutes. Addition of Irganox 1520® antioxidant is
import in production of peroxide-vulcanized natural rubber latex films, as the antioxidant inhibits the thermal-oxidation to taking
place, and thus, greater coherence and improvement in tensile strength of the films by heat treatment could be achieved.
Keywords: Natural rubber latex, hydroxyacetone, tert-buthyl hyroperoxide, tensile strength, crosslink density
ICASIT 2015_ITE-5 NON-AQUEOUS DISPERSION (NAD) POLYMERISATION-BASED SYNTHETIC ROUTE TO
HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMER WITH HIGH SPECIFIC SURFACE AREAS
Norhayati Abdullah1 and Peter A.G. Cormack2
1
Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300
Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
2
WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral
Street, Glasgow, G1 1XL, Scotland (UK)
.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Hypercrosslinked polymer microspheres with high specific surface areas were prepared successfully by exposing reactive, geltype polymer precursors to a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The lightly crosslinked gel-type polymer precursors were synthesised by
non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) polymerisation in microsphere form, and were used subsequently in hypercrosslinking reactions.
Extensive microporosity was generated in the products, leading to remarkably high inner specific surface areas of up to ~1,500
m2/g. SEM and BET spectroscopy were used to monitor the course of the hypercrosslinking reactions.
Keywords: Hypercrosslinked polymers, non-aqueous dispersion polymerisation, polymer microspheres
1 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-9 EFFECT OF OZONE TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF SCREW PRESSED AND NON-SCREW PRESSED
EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH MEDIUM DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD
Roslan Ali1, Mohamad Nurul Azman Mohammad Taib1, Kamal Wok2, Shawaluddin Tahiruddin2 and Mohd Amrin
Abdullah2
1
Department of Bio-composite, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Sime Darby R&D Centre, 42960 Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This study was done to investigate the effects of ozone treatment as a method to improve the properties of empty fruit bunch
(EFB) medium density particleboard. Two types of EFB were used in this study i.e. screw pressed and non-screw pressed empty
fruit bunch. These EFB were treated in an ozone chamber for 8 hours prior to particleboard manufacturing. The mechanical
properties, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE), Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Internal Bonding (IB) and physical properties, water
Absorption (WA) and Thickness Swelling (TS) of EFB particleboard were determined. The results showed that the ozone
treatment could increase the MOR and IB values of EFB particleboard, but had no significant effect on MOE values. For
physical properties, the values showed no improvement for TS and WA. The panels manufactured using ozone treatment was
found suitable for applications for furniture products.
Keywords: Ozone treatment, mechanical properties, physical properties, empty fruit bunch, particleboard
ICASIT 2015_ITE-10 ULTRASOUND DYEING OF POLYESTER USING NATURAL COLORANT FROM MELASTOMA
MALABATHRICUM L.
Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Tengku Muna Shaheera Tuan Zainal Abidin,Mohd Rozi Ahmad, Muhammad Ismail Ab
Kadir, Nor Juliana Mohd Yusof
Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
There are many maternal line studies conducted for Orang Asli using mitochondrial DNA. This study focuses on the paternal
line, specifically Y-STR and three markers namely DYS19, DYS390 and DYS391. These markers were used to compare 21
subjects comprising of 7 from Senoi tribes and 14 from Negrito tribes. The samples were collected from Kampung Kuala Atok,
Kg. Sungai Tiang, Kg. Dedari, Kg. Krom, Kg. Teresek and Kg. Gam located in Taman Negara Pahang and villages nearby. From
these, 14 haplotypes were gained with one of it shared by both tribes while the rest were unique to the tribe. The analyses
conducted from the haplotype were gene diversity (GD), locus diversity (DL), haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination
capacity (DC). From the analysis, the GD values range from 0.2480 to 0.7108 whilst the DL values range from 0.2500 to 0.7446.
The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity values were 0.8875 and 0.6364, respectively. Since this work only studies
the comparison between Senoi and Negrito, further analysis is going to include the other sub tribes of Orang Asli.
Keywords: Natural dye; polyester; ultrasound dyeing
2 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-14 RUBBER-SOLVENT INTERACTION PARAMETER (Χ1,2) OF NR/SBR RUBBER BLEND SOLUTION IN
DETERMINATION OF CROSSLINK CONCENTRATION FOR VULCANIZED RUBBER BLEND
Azreen Izzati Dzulkifli, Che Mohamad Som Said, Chan Chin Han, Ahmad Faiza Mohd
Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah
Alam, 40 450 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Crosslink concentration is an important property affecting the major characteristic of cured rubber. One of the important
parameter to determine the crosslink concentration of a vulcanized rubber by swelling measurement is the rubber-solvent
interaction parameter known as ‘kai’ value denoted as χ. For single rubber, the χ value is known however, the χ1,2 for rubber
blends are unknown. This research concerned with the investigation to determine the χ1,2 for rubber blends solution (uncured
rubber). Natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) rubber blends solution were blend at 7 different ratios of 100/0,
80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 0/100 and were dissolved in toluene. The χ1,2 value of each rubber blends were determined
base on the intrinsic viscosity measurement. Crosslink concentrations of vulcanized rubber blends obtained from the swelling
measurement were then compared against the value determined from simple extension measurement (stress-relaxation method).
This cross-checking was to ensure the accuracy and reliability of χ1,2 value for rubber blends solution.
Keywords: Crosslink concentration, Flory-Rehner equation, Mooney-Rivlin equation, natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber
ICASIT 2015_ITE-18 EFFECTS OF BOARD DENSITY AND THICKNESS ON PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED FLOOR PANEL FROM
KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS) HIGH DENSITY FIBREBOARD (KHDF)
Nurul Nadia Mohd Khairuddin, Mansur Ahmad and Nurul Atiqah Mohd Ayob
Department of Bio-Composite Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This paper investigated the effect of density and thickness on flexural strength and dimensional stability of laminated floor panel.
The focus of this research is to acknowledge the suitability of Kenaf fibres as raw material for floor panel. The evaluated floor
panel samples consist of high density fibreboard as a core of floor panel and resin impregnated paper as lamination. The core
was made up from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) bast fibres that were used to fabricate dry-formed fibreboard at three different
board densities (850, 960 and 1000 kg/mᶾ) with the thickness of 8mm and 12mm for each board. Bending modulus of elasticity
(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were measured for each panel in
accordance to BS EN standard. The overall result showed increasing density and thickness increased were MOE, MOR, TS and
WA. Density and thickness were significantly affecting all the panels’ properties except for MOR, TS and WA.
Keywords: High density fibreboard, thickness, laminated floor panel, Kenaf, water absoption, thickness swelling, bending
3 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-22 THE INNOVATED JAPANESE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES ON ITS INDUSTRIAL
APPLICATIONS
Low Foon Siang1, Chong Heap Yih2 and Lee Wah Peng3
1
Low Foon Siang, Department of Mechanical and Materials, Faculty Engineering & Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul
Rahman, Setapak 53300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
2
School of Built Environment, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
3
Department of Surveying, Faculty Engineering & Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak 53300, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia
e-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
The Japanese organisations in Japan and their subsidiaries in overseas have been recognized for their remarkable results in
project management. Kaikaku (reform) project management (KPM) has emerged as an innovated Japanese project
management (JPM) method for many Japanese organisations. It will be interesting to find out if the organisations are
applying JPM approach when managing their project or practising the localized project management methods for their
success. This research aims to determine the application of KPM in Japanese organisations in Japan and Malaysia, as well as
the extend of the localization for their project management in Malaysia. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with
four Japanese manufacturers. The findings showed that KPM can be successfully executed in managing production and
manufacturing systems within organisations. The Japanese methods also have been used in R&D management and
technology know-how. However, Japanese companies in Malaysia practise localization of human resources management. It
can be concluded that KPM drives organisations in Japan and abroad to achieve continuous growth, while maintaining their
excellence in order to succeed in business.
Keywords : JPM, KPM, innovation, manufacturing industry, Japan, Malaysia
ICASIT 2015_ITE-23
A REVIEW ON THE RECENT RESEARCH OF POLYCAPROLACTONE (PCL)
Rabiatul Manisah Mohamed1, Kamal Yusoh2
1
Department of Polymer Engineering Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, TATI University College
(TATiUC), 24000 Kemaman , Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Chemical Engineering & Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Leburaya Tun Razak, 26300
Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract The concept of biodegradable plastics is of considerable interest with respect to solid waste accumulation. Greater efforts have
been made in developing degradable biological materials without any environmental pollution to replace the traditional plastics.
Among numerous kinds of degradable polymers, polycaprolactone sometimes called PCL, an aliphatic polyester and
biocompatible thermoplastic, is currently a most promising and popular material with the brightest development prospect and was
considered as the ‘green’ eco friendly material. The application for this biodegradable plastic includes controlled drug releases,
tissue engineering, bone scaffolds, packaging and, compost bags etc. This review will provide information on current PCL
development, material properties of PCL and its composites, and also its wide spectrum applications.
Keywords: Biodegradable, Polycaprolactone, PCL
4 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-25 MODELLING OF STEEL FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE RIBBED SLAB UNDER MULTIPLE RIBBED
CONDITION
Amir Syafiq Samsudin, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad, Mohd Hisbany Mohd Hashim, Siti Hawa Hamzah and Afidah Abu
Bakar
Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan Universiti Teknologi
MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Nowadays, demands in the application of fiber in concrete increase gradually as an engineering material. Rapid cost increment of
material causes the increase in demand of new technology that provides safe, efficient and economical design for the present and
future application. The introduction of ribbed slab reduces the material and thus the cost but the strength of the structure also
reduce due to the reducing material. This paper will focus on modelling behavior of ribbed slab reinforced with steel fibre using
Lusas Modeller. The structure design is in full aspect to optimize the function of steel fibre and the slab rib capability. This
research focus on modelling of multiple type of steel fibre ribbed slab consist of two ribbed slab, and also three ribbed slab in
similar size of 1500mm x 1000mm x 75mm using concrete Grade 30. Load was applied until failure under three point loading
system. It is importance to find the ultimate strength of the sample and the behavior of structure under vertical stress. Steel fibre
is expected to reduce the issue of micro crack and enhance the performance of concrete.
Keywords: Steel Fiber, Ribbed Slab, Multiple Ribbed Slab
ICASIT 2015_ITE-28 DYEING OF SILK FABRIC WITH THE EXTRACTED DYE FROM LICHENS
Nor Atiqah Mohamed, Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Kamsani Ngalib, Mohd Rozi Ahmad, Muhammad Ismail Abd Kadir,
Asmida Ismail
Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Two lichens species (Parmotrema praesorediosum and Heterodermia leucomelos) were assessed for dye production using the
boiling water method (BWM) and ammonia fermentation method (AFM). The dye extracted were applied on silk fabric. Three
types of mordant were used i.e. alum, iron and vinegar through meta-chrome (simultaneous) method of natural dyeing. The K/S
values, colour coordinates values and colour differences (ΔE) of the dyed samples were measured. Dyeing fastness properties to
washing, rubbing and light were tested. As results, P. praesorediosum extract yielded beige to dull brown shades by BWM and
pinkish-purple through the AFM, whereas H. leucomelos extract resulted in yellowish-brown shades through both BWM and
AFM on silk substrate. Modanting seemed to be effective on increasing the K/S values of all mordanted fabrics except in the case
of silk fabric dyed with P. praesorediosum extract from AFM. Fastness ratings to washing and rubbing were all very good (5-4)
for both P. praesorediosum and H. leucomelos dyed silk fabrics. Silk fabric dyed with P. praesorediosum and H. leucomelos
exract colored stronger and deep as their ΔE values were higher and increased obviously of all mordanted fabrics. It can be
concluded that P. praesorediosum and H. leucomelos exract from BWM and AFM method successfully dyed silk fabric and can
be used as an alternative source of dye.
Keywords: Natural dye, lichen, fermentation, dyeing, mordant, colour strength, colourfastness 5 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-29 AN EFFICIENT FUZZY FRACTIONAL MODEL FOR CHEMICAL REACTIONS ARISING IN PALM OIL AND ITS
APPROXIMATE SOLUTION
Ali Ahmadian1,3, Norazak Senu1,3 , Soheil Salahsour2, Mohamed Suleiman3
1
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Mobarakeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mobarakeh, Iran.
3
Institute for Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
While an increasing number of fractional order integrals and differential equations applications have been reported in the
physics, chemical engineering, and bioengineering literatures, little attention has been paid to the fractional kinetic models in the
literature. In this research, we are confined with the application of Jacobi operational matrix for solving fuzzy fractional
differential equation arising in chemical reaction model into the Palm oil. The results illustrates the effectiveness of the method
which can be in high agreement with the exact solution.
Keywords: Fuzzy fractional differential equations, Kinetic model, Jacobi polynomials, Operational matrix
ICASIT 2015_ITE-32
SYNTHESIS OF CARBON NANOTUBE-CARBON NANOSPHERE ON THE CF SURFACE BY CVD
Ferial Ghaemi, Robiah Yunus, Lina Jassim
Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
In the current work the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanospheres (CNS) has been investigated by applying
chemical vapour deposition method in one-step sample preparation. In this method iron nitrate nona-hydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O)
and acetylene (C2H2) have been used as catalyst source and carbon source, respectively, to grow CNT directly on CF surface at
700°C and then CNSs were synthesized on CNT layers at 900°C under 250sccm gas flow rate (40%N2, 40%H2, 20% C2H2).
According to the SEM and TEM micrographs from the resultant carbon nanoparticles, the diameters of CNT and CNS have been
estimated about 30-50nm and 300-400nm, respectively.
Keywords: Carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, carbon nanosphere, chemical vapour deposition
6 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-36 PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CURING OF THICK RUBBER ARTICLE
Siti Zulaikha Ibrahim, Che Mohd Som Said, Mohamad Asri Ahmad, Azemi Samsuri
Department ofPolymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected] Abstract In this study, several batches of natural rubber (SMR L) were compounded with three different types of accelerators which were
N-cyclohexylbenzothiazole-2-sulphenamide (CBS), diphenylguanidine (DPG) and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDC) which is
an ultrafast accelerator. The rubber compounds were cured at 140ᵒC, 130ᵒC, 120ᵒC, 110ᵒC and 100ᵒC in accordance with the
temperature gradients observed within the thick rubber block. The main aim is to cure the rubber at each temperature region to
the same cure time as that of the outermost region (20 minutes at 140oC). The amount of ZDC at each temperature region was
increased appropriately to match the cure time 140oC. The amount of sulfur and accelerator was adjusted accordingly at each
curing temperature to match the state of cure at 140oC. The state of cure was assessed using hardness and tensile strength of the
vulcanized rubber. The same state of cure is achieved if the hardness and tensile strength is within ±2 IRHD and ±3 MPa
respectively with that of the control vulcanized rubber (hardness and tensile strength cured at 140oC). The results show that the
hardness and tensile strengths of the rubber vulcanized at each temperature region are within the expected margins. The results
indicate clearly that the type and amount of accelerators, and the amount of sulfur were correctly chosen at each temperature.
Keywords: Thick rubber, cure temperature, accelerators
ICASIT 2015_ITE-39 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES COATED ON HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
(HDPE) FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT APPLICATION
Khaled Shahot, Zulkifli Rosli, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, Hamdan Yusoff, Suraya Abdul Rashid, Rabaah Azia, Ismail
Abd Ghani
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM),
Serdang, 43400 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract This research aims to study the effect of activated carbon particles in adsorption of the methylene blue as a replacement of
wastewater treatment when coated on a high density polyethylene (HDPE) substrate (e.g. flat sheet and cosmo ball
substrates).Prior to coating, the activated carbon has been cleaned using tab water to remove ashes which blocks the activated
carbon porosity. Coating was done by applying epoxy material using brushing technique, and then sprayed the activated carbon
on epoxy either manually or using spray machine. The thickness and morphological of the coatings were characterized using
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Analyses conducted have confirmed that granuler activated carbon coating layers ranged
between 100 to 500µm (micrometer) have been successfully deposited on different shapes of HDPE substrates. The coatings
deposited on HDPE substrate produced high surface roughness of around7µm (micrometer).The ability of the coated samples in
removing the colour of methylene blue is believed due to the high porosity of the activated carbon(AC). The surface area has
been increased more than 10 times than uncoated substrate.
Keywords: Microstructure, porosity, activated carbon, coating, epoxy method, HDPE
7 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-42 EFFECT OF VARIABLE GEOMETRY ON SPRINGBACK OF HIGH STRENGTH STEEL MATERIALS
Muhamad Sani Buang, Shahrul Azam Abdullah*, Juri Saedon, Yupiter HP Manurung, Hashim Abdullah, Mohd Shahir
Mohd Hairuni
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Springback is the phenomenon in which the material strip unbends itself after forming process. It is caused by the geometrical,
mechanical properties or other process parameters. This paper focused on finite element simulation investigation on effects of
geometrical parameters on the springback amount of the High Strength Steel (HSS). Two geometrical parameters, punch radius
(Rp) and die opening (W) were selected are and their effect on springback studied. Finite element simulation of U-bending test
was performed using Simufact.formingTM with material database (MatILDa) and the level of the springback was measured. The
result of the simulation shows that different values of punch radius (Rp) and die opening (W) are significant to the springback
effect. The value of the springback increases, as the value of the die opening (W) increases. Meanwhile, the increasing value of
the punch radius (Rp) will lead to decreasing springback value. The findings of the simulation could be used to accurately and
reliably predict springback behavior of the tested material. From this finding, a proper prevention method can be taken to
eliminate springback, achieve improvement in the forming process as well as reduce processing time and cost.
Keywords: Springback, U bending, high strength steel (HSS), Simufact.formingTM ICASIT 2015_ITE-43 EFFECT OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT ON MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ELECTROSPUN PVA
NANOFIBRE
Nur Athirah Bt [email protected], Khairunnadim Ahmad Sekak, Mohd Rozi Ahmad
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This work focuses on the preparation of electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanofibres of three different molecular weights.
The electrospinning process parameters were varied in terms of the voltage and feed rate. Scanning Electron Microscopy
technique was used to characterize the morphological structure of the electrospun PVA nanofibre. The results show that the
average fibre diameter increased as the molecular weight of the polymer increased. The formation of beads occur from the lowest
molecular weight sample of 89K. However, long, continuous and beaded-free fibres were obtained from the 125K and 205K
polymer weight PVA. The results also suggest that higher spinning voltage and feed rate produce larger fibre diameter,
respectively.
Keywords: Polyvinyl Alcohol, nanofibres, molecular weight, electrospinning
8 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-45 DESIGN METHOD OF KITTING SYSTEM IN FLEXIBLE ASSEMBLY LINE BASED MANUFACTURING FOR
MASS CUSTOMISATION ADAPTATION
Wan Ahmad Najmuddin Wan Saidin, Mohd Azam Musa, Nazrul Idzham Kassim, M.H Norhidayah and S.S. Ramli
Department of Mechanical, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, International College of Automotive (ICAM), Pekan, 26607
Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract This paper describes the design method of kitting systems for variant engine assembly, which contribute to performance of parts
assembly flexibility and efficiency. The need for efficient material handling part delivery is higher especially in automotive
industry due to extensive product customisation and the small area to keep all the necessary parts at the assembly line. The paper
focuses on the suitability of design KS in the essence of reliability, safety and ergonomics of workers. Relatively, the design
consider the flexibility of the kit process in engine assembly parts with regard to performance measurement resulting in overall
efficiency and accuracy of production line. Associated with Lean approach, KS provide an essential outcome required that avert a
non value adding activities to take place in assembly line. It is believed that the findings of this study will provide an optimum
efficiency of part feeding process between variant parts model. In particular, KS is cost efficient when extensive sorting process,
parts model misplaced and lack of space can be avoided.
Keywords: Kitting system, Assembly line, Mass customisation, Design for assembly ICASIT 2015_ITE-50 ANALYSIS OF MICRO-POROSITY DEFECT AND REMEDIAL MEASURES IN CRANKSHAFT (DUCTILE IRON)
– A CASE STUDY
Azalan Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohd Azam Musa, Noraishah Mohamad Noor, Wan Ahmad Najmudin Wan Saidin, Mohd
Fadhil Rani
Department of Mechanical, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, International College of Automotive (ICAM), Pekan, 26607
Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract This paper presents analysis of Micro-Porosity defect in product Crankshaft - Ductile cast iron (FCD 700/2), which
has been carried out at one of Automotive Foundry Company in Malaysia.
Systematic analyses were carried out to understand the root causes of the micro-porosity. From the data analysis there are two
significant factors are identified that affect the formation of micro-porosity, they are mold factor and metal factor. Four remedial
countermeasures have been proposed to prevent micro-porosity; increase squeezes pressure at molding machine, control sand
moisture, increase radius at edge of mold, and reduce Magnesium (Mg) content. Result of the trials showed substantial reduction
of micro-porosity defect in crankshaft (casting). The company has accepted the countermeasure and incorporated in the standard
operation procedure.
Keywords: Ductile iron, casting, micro-porosity, causes and remedies for micro-porosity defects
9 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-58 HIGH MODULUS RUBBER VULCANIZATES FROM NATURAL RUBBER/EVA BLENDS FILLED WITH
REINFORCING FILLERS
Wisut Kaewsakul1, Nutsara Jandam1, Ekwipoo Kalkornsurapranee1, Sitisaiyidah Saiwari2, Anoma Thitithammawong2
1
Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai Campus,
Songkhla 90110, Thailand
2
Department of Rubber Technology and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of Songkla University,
Pattani Campus, Pattani 94000, Thailand
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The desired properties of rubber goods significantly depend on three key factors: 1) rubber formulations; 2) processing methods;
and 3) design of products. High modulus rubber vulcanizates can hardly be achieved with a balance of the overall properties,
because the rubbers or elastomers are soft and flexible material. In this research work, we aimed to formulate the natural rubber
(NR) compounds for the specified high modulus rubber articles to be comparable with a slatted wood. Four important effects
were taken into consideration, i.e. filler contents, amounts of process oil, blend ratios, and silane coupling agent contents. Based
on the results in this study, the best possible combination to produce high modulus rubber vulcanizates was 80/20 NR/EVA blend
reinforced by 60/60 silica/carbon black. The processing of compound can be aided by an addition of the process oil at 14.3 wt%
relative to the filler contents and the silane coupling agent at 9.0 wt% relative to the silica amounts. The obtained rubber
compound/vulcanizate showed easy processability, acceptable mechanical properties, and in particular hardness of 93 Shore A,
while the slatted wood has 95 Shore A.
Keywords: Modulus, rubber, EVA, vulcanizate, filler, blend
ICASIT 2015_ITE-61 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH LOADING LUFFA ACUTANGULA FIBER WITH CLOISITE 15A AND
POLYPROPYLENE
Siti Nurai’syah Umar Shaifudin, Dzaraini Kamarun, Nur Hikamah Seth, Engku Zaharah Engku Zawawi
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Matured fruits of Luffa acutangula are usually used in non-industrial applications such as bath and cleaning sponges; or being
disposed as waste material. Alternatively, the fibers when matured can be used as reinforcing fillers for polymers to produce
industrial products. Frequently, these fibers are incorporated in thermoplastics and thermosets binders at low loadings (1 – 40) wt
% of total composition. In this project, high loadings of luffa fiber (50 to 70 wt %) were incorporated into polypropylene using
typical plastics processing method such as extrusion and compression moulding. Cloisite 15A (C15A) at 5 wt % were added for
reinforcement; and increase density for ease of processing during mixing. MAPP were added as compatibilizer to improve fiber
compatibility with PP. The effects of fiber loadings on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. Optimum
mechanical properties were observed at 55 wt % of fiber loading.
Keywords: Azadirachta excelsa, Phytochemical Screening, GC-MS Analysis
10 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-62 COMPARISON STUDY FOR THE PLASTICITY OF DUAL PHASE STEEL
Noraishah Mohamad Noor, Haryanti Samekto, AR Yusoff, Nazrul Idzham Kasim, Wan Ahmad Najmuddin Wan Saidin,
Mohd Azam Musa, Azalan Mohamed Ibrahim, Nurulhisham Musa
International College of Automotive, 26607 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26607 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor,
Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The elastic relaxation behavior of dual phase steel DP800 is studied based on experimental and numerical method. The true
stress-true strain curve according to differ angular sheet rolling direction obtained from a standard uniaxial tensile test. The
relations between true stress and true strain are presented in the form of power law equation. This form of material
constitutive model shows that the strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent vary significantly in describing the
nonlinear true stress-true strain relationship of the material. Finite Element (FE) calculations with Belytschko-Lin-Tsay shell
element formulation are performed using the non-linear FE code Ls-Dyna to predict the plastic deformation of the material.
Power Law Isotropic Plasticity criterion is adopted for these numerical analyses. The local strains in plastic deformations
zone and true stress-strains characteristics obtained by experiment are compared. Using the same parameter the simulation
was applied in different model which are known as Isotropic Elastic-Plastic Model and Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity
Model provide in Ls-Dyna simulation for comparison. In general, good agreement result is obtained between Power Law
Isotropic Plasticity Model is obtained compared to Isotropic Elastic-Plastic Model and Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity
Model. It is demonstrated the behavior of the strain and the Power law criterion can be determined from uniaxial tensile test
with the aid of non-linear FE analyses.
Keywords: Tensile test, DP800, sheet metal, power law isotropic plasticity, non-linear FE analysis ICASIT 2015_ITE-63 KEVLAR, GLASS, ALUMINUM: BASIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES TOWARDS FIBER METAL LAMINATE
CHARACTERISTICS
Husri Bin Husain1, Abdul Rahim Othman2, Mohd Khir Harun3
1&3
Universiti Kuala Lumpur,Malaysian Institute Of Aviation Technology,Sepang,Selangor, Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia, School Of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Nibong Tebal Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
2
Abstract
Advancements in composite technology have been using intensively in the aerospace, armor, sport goods and aviation industry.
The advantages offered by advanced composite materials, namely high strength to weight ratio, have made them popular
substitute for structures and components on aircraft, automotive, naval and land systems. Rapid development in the composite
applications, coupled with more technological advancements than ever estimated, has fueled industry growth. Among of the
family in the advanced composite material is fiber metal laminates. This damage tolerant, fatigue and corrosion resistant material
has become a center of attention for research development in recent year. To support the interest of the industries for this
material, study and research have been carried out to improve the performance and to develop various configuration designs of
fiber metal laminates such as GLARE, ARALL and CARE. Realizing the contribution of fiber metal laminates is huge towards
the development of the aviation, armor, marine and automotive industries, this paper will focus on the pre-study of mechanical
properties of a new hybrid material consisting of aluminum, Kevlar/epoxy and Glass/epoxy layers which named by the writer as
KeGa. Experimental practices employed to obtain the mechanical properties for tensile test and charpy impact are reported.
Results from this study shows that KeGa has similar pattern characteristics as existing fiber metal laminates. The findings show
that KeGa has potential resistance towards the impact damage, low density-greater possible weight saving and high resistance
towards corrosion. In addition, KeGa as a new hybrid material has demonstrated the behavior of three different types of lamina
properties in one product which would offer more options to the designers to extract information for their engineering
requirements.
Keywords: Fiber metal laminates, Glare, KeGa, Care, Arall, Kevlar, Glass ,epoxy, static in plane tensile test and low impact test
11 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-65 EFFECT OF ADDITIVES ON THE FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE OF HIGH SELECTIVE ASYMMETRIC
NANOFILTRATION-SURFACTANT MEMBRANES FOR ION REMOVAL
Badour A. Alsnosi Algazale, Abdul Rahman Hassan and Mohd Hafez Mohd Isa
Department of Industrial Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM),
Nilai, 71800 Negeri Sembilan Darul Khusus, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract The effect of additive and surfactant on high selective charged asymmetric nanofiltration membrane was studied. Nanofiltration
experimental results revealed that the fabrication parameters were found to significantly affect the membrane performance and
properties. At different additives concentration ranging from 2 to 10 wt%, the additives were found to play an important role in
determining the membranes performance. At the optimum additives concentration at 2 wt%, the NFS membranes reached up to
92% of salt rejection and high volume flux of 3.76 x10-6 m3/m2s. In addition, the incorporating of hydrophilic surfactant
produced more porous and fine NFS which thus promoting towards higher performance and better characteristics of NFS
membranes.
Keywords: Nanofiltration; surfactant; additives; high selective; ion removal
ICASIT 2015_ITE-69 THE INFLUENCE OF SINGLE BINDER BASED PALM STEARIN IN HAP FEEDSTOCK ON RHEOLOGICAL
PROPERTIES USED FOR CERAMIC INJECTION MOULDING
Siti Norazlini Abd Aziz, Nurul Huda M.Ali, Mimi Azlina Abu Bakar, Istikamah Subuki, Muhammad Hussain Ismail
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia
Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The invention of natural binder like palm stearin has widely developed in research nowadays. In this paper, the influence of
single binder comprised of palm stearin mixed with HAP powder was investigated. HAP feedstock is analyzed in order to
develop as a scaffold bio implant materials. Two different mixing temperatures were used for preparing the feedstock. After
mixing, the feedstock underwent viscosity analysis using a capillary rheometer at temperature range of 70°C to 90°C. The result
clearly showed that the use of 100% palm stearin is successful in providing required flow for injection molding. Injection
molding process can be carried out at relatively low temperature in comparison with the conventional binder system used.
Keywords: Injection Molding, Hydroxyapatite, Palm stearin, scaffold,viscosity
12 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-70 ASPECTS OF TITANATE COUPLING AGENTS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN DENTAL POLYMER
COMPOSITES: A REVIEW
Nidal W. Elshereksi1,2, Mariyam J. Ghazali1, Andanastuti Muchtar1, and Che H. Azhari1
1
Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia, UKM-Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.
2
Department of Dental Technology, College of Medical Technology, P.O. Box: 1458, Misurata, Libya.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract Silanes are extensively used in dental composites to facilitate chemical bonding among the phases of composites. Despite their
popularity, the dental application of silanes as coupling agents is still restricted by a few limitations, which include their
hydrolytic instability in aqueous oral environment and their inefficiency to bond with nonsilica fillers. Titanate coupling agents
can provide good interphase bonding, improve mechanical properties, enhance filler homogenous dispersibility, and modify the
rheological behavior of composites. Moreover, moisture resistance can be improved by adding a small amount of titanates. This
review aims to evaluate the efficiency of using titanate coupling agents in dental polymer composites and denture bases,
particularly when titanium-based fillers are impregnated.
Keywords: Titanate coupling agent; silane coupling agent; dental composite; aqueous oral environment; hydrolytic degradation
ICASIT 2015_ITE-72 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF PARAFFIN WAX AS MICROENCAPSULATED PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL
(PCM) COATED ON POLYESTER FABRIC
Abu bakar Mahamad Dom, Wan Yunus Wan Ahmad, Najua Tulos, Mohd Faizul Yahya, Ahmad Faiza Mohd
Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This research works involves the production of microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) in which paraffin wax was used
as core components with sebacyol chloride (SC) and hexamathylene diamine (HMD) to make polyamide as a shell component.
The microencapsulated PCM was characterized using fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy
(SEM). Thermal energy storage capacity was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) while thermal conductivity
was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microencapsulated PCM were found to have a regular spherical shape
with a size of 50 µm while FT-IR indicated that the microencapsulation process occurs due to the existence of alkyl group (C-H)
and carbonyl group (C=O) in the spectra. DSC analysis shows that the paraffin start to melt at 47˚C to 56˚C with thermal energy
storage capacity 140.097 J/g and 114.766 J/g for sample A and sample B respectively. Thermal conductivity of PCM related with
its thermal energy storage.
Keywords: Microencapsulated phase change material (PCM), thermal conductivity, paraffin wax, differential scanning
calorimetry, FTIR
13 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-74 ENHANCED ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF PVDF/MGO NANOCOMPOSITE THIN FILMS
Adillah Nurashikin Arshad, Rozana Mohd Dahan, Mohamad Hafiz Mohd Wahid, Muhamad Naiman Sarip, Mohamad
Rusop Mahmood
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Poly (vinylideneflouride)/nano-magnesium oxide (PVDF/MgO) film with MgO loading percentage of 7% were annealed with
various annealing temperatures ranging from 70°C to 170°C. The PVDF/MgO(7%) thin films were fabricated using spin coating
technique with metal-insulator-metal (MIM) configuration and the dielectric constant of PVDF/MgO(7%) with respect to
annealing temperatures was studied. The PVDF/MgO nanocomposite thin films annealed at temperature of 70°C (AN70) showed
an improvement in the dielectric constant of 27 at 103 Hz compared to un-annealed sample (UN), which is 21 at the same
frequency. As the annealing temperatures were increased from 90°C (AN90) to 150ᵒC (AN150), the dielectric constant of
PVDF/MgO(7%) were found to gradually decreased from 25 to 12 respectively, interestingly lower than the UN thin films.
AN70 also produced low value of tangent loss (tan δ) at frequency of 103 Hz. The resistivity value of AN70 was also found to
increase from 3.08×104Ω.cm (UN-PVDF) to 1.05×105Ω.cm. The increased in dielectric constant, with low tangent loss and high
resistivity value suggests that 70°C was the favourable annealing temperature for PVDF/MgO(7%) for application in electronic
devices such as low frequency capacitor.
Keywords: Poly(vinylidene flouride), MgO, dielectric constant, tangent loss, resistivity
ICASIT 2015_ITE-76
EFFECT OF BLACK FILLER ON HBU AND STRESS RELAXATION OF NR VULCANIZATES
Che Mohamad Som Said, Azemi Samsuri
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Viscous dissipation of filled rubber compounds is one method in the estimation of heat generation when designing thick rubber
articles especially for those undergoing dynamic stress in its application. A study was conducted to determine the heat build-up
and stress relaxation of a series of natural rubber vulcanizates filled with different types and loading of carbon black respectively;
using the Goodrich Flexometer and Rubber Process Analyzer (RPA) respectively. Carbon black filled compounds were prepared
in BR 1600 Banbury mixer at 60oC, 5 minutes mixing time and a rotor speed of 40 rpm., followed by mixing on a two-roll mill
for the addition of curing agents. Test specimens were cured using compression moulding at 150oC. Results of this study showed
that there was a similar trend in the data of both measuring. Results also showed that as the particle size of the carbon black
decreases, i.e., increasing structure, the amount of heat generated increased. Incorporation of fillers causes higher viscous heating
in the uncured compounds as well as imparting higher heat build-up in the cured compounds. Results also showed that
compounds which contain smaller particle size, i.e., higher structure carbon black have longer relaxation time.
Keywords: Heat build-up, viscous heating, stress relaxation, rubber compound, carbon-black
14 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-80 DETERMINATION OF HYDROXYMETHYLFURFURAL (HMF) IN HONEY BASED ON P-TOLUIDINE AS A
REAGENT USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD
Mashri Ahmad Yahia, Musa Ahmad, Che Wan Z. Che, Lee Y. H
Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan DK, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Spectrophotometric determination of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on p-toluidine as a reagent has been studied. The
absorption intensities were measured at a wavelength range of 250 to 500 nm to record the absorption spectra before and after
reaction with the HMF. The solution response was obtained at pH 3. The concentration of HMF was 4 * 10-3 M, whereas for
p-toluidine was 8 * 10-3 M .The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of reproducibility was 3.33% when concentration of ptoluidine 3 * 10-3 M was used .The photostability was found to be good with 1.9 %.
Keywords: HMF, p – toluidine, UV spectrophotometric, pH
ICASIT 2015_ITE-83 EFFECT OF PROCESSING METHOD ON THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN PLA/PEG MELT BLENDING
Norazlina Hashim, Kamala Retenam, Santhoshini Somderam, Kamal Yusoh
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, TATI University College (TATIUC),
Jalan Panchor, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia
Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Pahang Darul
Makmur, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The dispersion of PEG acts as plasticizer in PLA blends were investigated using thermal analysis. The comparisons were
made between two melt processing method, twin screw extruder and two-roll mills to study how it will affect the Tg, Tc and
Tm of blends in DSC analysis. The TGA behavior was also studied for two-roll mills processing method to confirm the effect
of PEG loading in PLA on degradation and amount of residue left after analysis. In DSC analysis, it can be seen clearly, the
PEG loading decreased the glass transition temperature in all blends compares to neat PLA. For twin screw extruder
blending, the crystallization peak existed for some blend. It was difference for two-roll mills blends where the crystallization
peak absent in all blends with PEG loading. The presence of PEG gave no significant variation on melting temperature peak
for both processing method.
Keywords: Poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene glycol), thermal analysis
15 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-84 THERMAL PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER/PHENOLIC
BLENDS REINFORCED BY KENAF FIBERS
Marliana Mohd Mahadar1, Azman Hassan1, Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus2, Abdul Khalil H.P.S. and Mohamad Haafiz
Mohamad Kassim3
1
Enchanced Polymer Research Group, Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2
Malayan Adhesives & Chemical Sdn Bhd, No. 9, Jalan Utas 15/7, 40200 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
3
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
In this study, unsaturated polyester resin (UP) is blended with resole type phenolic resin (PF) to develop a material with good
flame retardancy. The UP/phenolic resin blends are expected to show good compatibility when compounded with natural fibers
which in this research is kenaf fiber. The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The char
yields of the UP/PF blends reinforced kenaf composite increased with PF content. The degradation temperature of the composite
at 50% weight loss rose to 410.130C as the PF content was increased to 40%. The result shows with additional of PF to UP resin
enhance the thermal stability of the composite. Meanwhile the mechanical performance of UP/PF kenaf composite were
evaluated and compared with neat UP and PF reinforced with kenaf fiber using tensile and impact testing. The mechanical
properties of all resin blends at different mixing proportions slightly decrease by increasing the phenolic ratio but shown an
improvement as compared to the PF kenaf fiber composite. The fracture surface morphology of the tensile testing samples of the
composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Keywords: Unsaturated polyester, phenolic resin, kenaf fiber, thermal properties, mechanical properties
ICASIT 2015_ITE-86 DETERMINATION OF WHITE ROOT INFECTED RUBBER TREE THROUGH DIELECTRIC
CHARACTERISTIC IN LATEX
Azrie Faris Mohd Azmi, Hadzli Hashim, Mohd Suhaimi Sulaiman, Nur Baiti Wahid, Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman,
Ahmad Faiz Mohd Sampian
Department of Electronic (System), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor,
Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
White root disease caused by Rigidoporus Lignosus is one of most serious disease in rubber plantation. Until now, research about
white root disease relates to electrical properties is still less. Hence, this research wants to investigate the differences of healthy
and white root disease through dielectric constant of latex. 76 samples of healthy and white root disease respectively were
collected from rubber estate located in Kota Tinggi, Johor. The samples were brought back to the laboratory of Faculty of
Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam to measure the dielectric constant for both conditions of latex
using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in the range of frequency between 50 Hz – 10 kHz. The results obtained
from this measurement were proceeding with the statistical analysis to analyze the differences of healthy and white root disease.
It was found that at frequency 150 Hz can discriminate the latex between healthy and white root disease.
Keywords: Dielectric constant, Electro-Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), White root disease
16 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE- EFFECT OF COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS AND CROSSLINK CONCENTRATION ON BLOOMING RATE
OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDS
Ummu Qani’ah Yasin, Dzaraini Kamarun, Che Mohd Som Said, Azemi Samsuri
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Blooming is a diffusion process whereby compounding ingredients dispersed in rubber matrix migrate to the rubber surface
and appears as a layer of white crystalline material. Blooming is a typical phenomenon observed in rubber compounds which
could lead to problems such as discoloration and poor appearance of products as well as loss of adhesion. Cause of blooming
was still unclear and this research was carried out to identify the effect of compounding ingredients and crosslink
concentration on blooming rate in natural rubber compounds. In this project 6 natural rubber formulations based on three
different types of compounding ingredients at two different concentrations of crosslinker were compounded and tested for
their blooming characteristics. Sulphur, wax and dithiocarbamate as the compounding ingredients were mixed with natural
rubber in the presence of 1 and 6 phr of peroxide as the vulcanizing agents. The effect of crosslink concentration on blooming
rate of the compounded rubber was then determined. The blooming rate was determined by the weight of the blooming
material on the rubber surface as a function of time. The blooming rate was found to be affected by the types of
compounding ingredients and crosslink density of rubber. Wax with 6 phr of peroxide showed the highest amount of bloom
and the highest blooming rate while the dithiocarbamate accelerator with 1 phr peroxide showed the lowest amount of bloom
and the lower blooming rate. As expected, all the compounding ingredients showed an increase of crosslink concentration as
the loading of peroxide increases. The blooming rate was also found to be affected by the crosslink concentration of rubber.
As the crosslink concentration increases, the rate of blooming increases as were shown by wax and dithiocarbamate
accelerator. However, sulphur showed the opposite trend whereby the crosslink concentration increases but the blooming rate
decrease. This could be due to the high peroxide level retarding the sulphur blooming process.
Keywords: Blooming, compounding ingredients, crosslink concentration, blooming rate ICASIT 2015_ITE-90 EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GALACTOMANNAN FROM SEEDS OF LEUCAENA
LEUCOCEPHALA
Shazlinda Shirajuddin, Dzaraini Kamarun, Nahlah El-Kudssiah Ismail, Abdul Rashid Lee, Sabu Thomas, M. S. Latha
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Galactomannan a biopolymer polysaccharides that widely obtained from Leguminosae plant have shown an interesting capability
as drug carrier. In this study, galactomannan from the seeds of Leucaena leucocephala known as ‘petai belalang’ locally was
obtained by water extraction. The galactomannan was characterized structurally by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and
fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and morphologically by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of
galactose and mannose have been confirm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Crystallinity of galactomannan
was analyzed by X-ray diffraction confirmed amorphous nature of the polysaccharides. Thermal stability of galactomannan was
carried out at thermogravimetric analysis measurement at the range of 25-900oC shown decomposition of galactomannan at
546.57oC. Hence, galactomannan has been successfully extracted from the Leucaena leucocephala plant.
Keywords: Galactomannan, Leucaena leucocephala, Leguminosae
17 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-7 EFFECT OF CARBON BLACK STRUCTURES TOWARDS HEAT BUILD-UP MEASUREMENTS AND ITS
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES
1
Mohd Ismail Rifdi Rizuan, 2Mohammad Azizol Abdul Wahab, 1,2Ahmad Zafir Romli
1
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450
Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Center of Polymer Composites Research & Technology (PoCResT), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA
(UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different carbon black structures towards heat build-up measurements and its
dynamic properties such as tangent delta, loss modulus and storage modulus on the industrial rubber compounds containing
Natural Rubber (NR) and Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR). Different carbon black structures were used and characterised with
respect to their rheological and physical properties. Heat Build-up test is a testing procedure which is used to measure the rate of
heat generated by the rubber vulcanisates when subjected to rapidly oscillating compressive stresses or strain under controlled
conditions. It was found that NR compound containing low and high carbon black structures; N375 and N339 produced lower
heat generation compared to NR/SBR blends that filled with the same type of carbon black fillers. It shows that NR with low and
high carbon black structures exhibits low heat build-up (surface and intrinsic) with a balance of good traction and low rolling
resistance for application in tyre.
Keywords: Carbon black, heat build-up, tangent delta, loss modulus, storage modulus
ICASIT 2015_ITE-79 BENDING STRENGTH OF FINGER JOINTED KELAT WOOD (SYZYGIUM SPP.) AS AFFECTED BY FINGER
LENGTH AND ORIENTATION
Nur Hasmiza Abdul Hamid, Mansur Ahmad, Mohd Nazip Suratman and Falah Abu
Department of Bio-Composite Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam,
40450 Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine the bending strength of finger joint of Kelat wood (Syzygium spp.) bonded using Phenol
Resorcinol Formaldehyde (PRF). Three jointed Kelat wood finger length of 12mm, 13mm and 15mm respectively were
manufactured and tested. In addition, the effects of different orientation (horizontal and vertical) of fingers were also examined.
Bending tests were carried out to determine the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) of the finger
jointed samples in accordance to BS EN 373 standard. The results show that the finger length 15mm exhibited significantly
higher means of MOE and MOR with the values of 17635.12 MPa and 72.59 MPa respectively, as compared to the shorter finger
length (p≤0.05). This suggests that the bending strength was influenced by the finger length, since higher strength was obtained
from the longer fingers. The result also shows that bending strength of vertical finger joint is not significantly different with
horizontal finger joint (p≥0.05). Therefore, the results obtained in this study is useful to provide base line data for a subsequent
work which involve a manufacturing of glued laminated timber (glulam) from this species.
Keywords: Kelat (Syzygium spp), finger joint, bending, finger joint length, finger joint orientation
18 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-9 EFFECT OF FILER DISPERSION ON TENSILE STRENGTH AND TEARING ENERGY OF NATURAL RUBBER
(NR) LATEX FILMS
Siti Aisyah Jarkasi, Azemi Samsuri, Dzaraini Kamarun, Amir Hashim Md Yatim
Centre of Industrial Technology Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor
Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Fillers play important roles in enhancing mechanical properties of NR latex films. The effect of filler dispersion and amount of
dispersing agent to the tensile strength and tearing energy of NR latex films were investigated in this study. The studies were
carried out by (i) varying the amount of dispersing agent (Anchoid) added which is an anionic surfactant; and (ii) varying the
speed of stirring during mixing of latex with compounding ingredients. It was observed that tensile strength and tearing energy
were affected by both factors listed. In the case of NR latex film filled with 10pphr of carbon black (Super Abrasion Furnace,
SAF), the optimum stirring speed was 400rpm and the optimum amount of surfactant was in the range of 5 to 10 %. High tensile
strength ranging from 29 - 31 MPa and high tearing energies ranging from 90.6 - 111.0 kJ/m2 were achieved from optimization of
these two factors; rendering their importance.
Keywords: Anionic surfactant, Anchoid, Natural Rubber latex, carbon black, filler dispersion
ICASIT 2015_ITE-56
WATER RESISTANCE AND TENSILE STRENGTH OF NATURAL-FIBRE REINFORCED HIGH DENSITY
POLYETHYLENE (HDPE)
Nurul Atiqah Mohd Ayob, Mansur Ahmad, Nurul Nadia Mohd Khairuddin
Department of Bio-composite, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor
Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
In this paper, three type of natural-fibre reinforced polyethylene were produced. They are the coconut coir reinforced
polyethylene (RPCC), kenaf reinforced polyethylene (RPKC) and bamboo reinforced polyethylene (RPBC) were produced.
Water absorption test, thickness swelling test and tensile test of the different natural fibre composites were carried-out. The
tensile modulus of elasticity, tensile stress, water absorption and thickness swelling of kenaf and bamboo reinforced
polyethylene composites were found to increase with increasing fibre weight fraction. Kenaf and bamboo composites showed
comparable in tensile stress and tensile modulus of elasticity while coconut coir appears to be otherwise. However, coconut
coir fibre composites displayed comparable to kenaf and bamboo for both water and thickness swelling. There were
significant differences in both tensile properties and the percentage of the water absorption.
Keywords: Natural fibres, water absorption, thickness swelling, tensile, HDPE, composite
19 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015 Industrial Technology and Engineering ICASIT 2015 ICASIT 2015_ITE-88
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LAMINATED HYBRID BAMBOO VENEER BOARD
(HLBVB) FOR FURNITURE COMPONENTS
Muhamad Iqram Ibrahim, Tuan Anis Nadia Tuan Mohd Saipuddin, Siti Rafedah Abd Karim, Abdul Hamid Saleh
Department of Bio-composite, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor
Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
Increasing demand for wood and dwindling raw materials has led to the use of alternatives resources to substitute wood.
Exploring new, sustainable and good properties of substitutes is a potential solution for this issue. Hybrid Laminated
Bamboo-Wood Veneer (HLBVB) is may have the potential as one of the alternative. HLBVB is a product where bamboo and
wood veneers are laminated together to produce a board. In this study Betong bamboo, (Dendrocalamus asper) veneers were
laminated with Sesenduk (Endospermum diadenum) veneers to form HLBVB where Urea Formaldehyde (UF) was used as
glue. HLBVB was pressed at two levels of pressure viz. 70kgm-2 and 130kgm-2. Moisture content (%), density (kgm-3),
delamination (%), bending (MPa), screw withdrawal (N) and shear (MPa) were determined in accordance to BS:EN 1993.
From an independent t-test analysis, it was found that there are significant differences in the mean of all variable tested
between two the pressure applied except for delamination (p≤0.05).
Keywords: Buluh betong (D.asper), sesenduk (E.diadenum), HLBVB, rotary peeling, slicing
20 ICASIT 2015: 24 – 26 FEBRUARY 2015