Relationships of learning in Occupational safety and health training

 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN CAPITAL AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (ICHCKM 2015) BANDUNG, INDONESIA 11-­‐13 FEBRUARI 2015 Relationships of learning in Occupational safety and health training and Occupational related injuries Nurshamshida Md Shamsudin Nik Hasnaa Nik Mahmood (PhD) Razak school of engineering and advanced technology Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Abstract Tremendous development of industrialization in Malaysia contribute to higher rate of
occupational injuries.. Enactment of OSH act 1994 enforces Occupational Safety
Health training as one of vital elements in every industry. This study attempt to
highlight current issues in Occupational related injuries (ORI) and Occupational
Safety and Health training (OSHT). Elements of ORI are differences of age, young
workforce, aging workforce, multigenerations, working experience, cognitive abilities
and occupations identified in literature while elements of OSHT which indicate the
elements of learning effectiveness in safety training are training instructional, training
method, adult’s learner, and training design. Previous research signified that there are
positive relationships between elements of Occupational related injuries and Elements
of Occupational safety and health training, To summarize research model is proposed.
Keywords: Safety, Training, Occupational related injuries
Occupational Safety and Health in Malaysia
Occupational safety and health (OSH), which is the discipline concerned with
preserving and protecting human and facility resources in the workplace, is an
important aspect in reducing risk at workplace. OSH is a basically standard which are
set in legislation with the aim to eliminate and reduce hazards at workplace. (Amirah,
Asma, Muda, & Wan Mohd Amin, 2013). In Malaysia, the role of occupational safety
and health has existed since 130 years ago. According to the Department of
Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, 2010), the development of safety and health
at workplace can be categorized into five eras. It started with the first era, named
Steam Boiler Safety Era, which took place prior to 1914. Subsequently, the
Machinery Safety Era took place from 1914 until 1952. During this era, the
Machinery Enactment 1913 replaced the various steam boiler enactments of Allied
Malay States on 1st January 1914. The development of safety and health at workplace
expanded in the following era of the Industrial Safety Era that took place from 1953
until 1969. In 1953, the Machinery Ordinance 1953 was enacted to replace all
previous legislations. Subsequently, in 1967, the Parliament had approved the Factory
and Machineries Act (FMA 1967). Between the years 1970 until 1994, the era was
called the Industrial Safety and Hygiene Era. In this era, few modifications were
made. Starting in 1970, the Factory and Machineries Act 1967 and eight of its
regulations were enforced replacing the Machinery Ordinance 1953. In 1980, the
application of the Factory and Machineries Act 1967 was extended to Sabah and
Sarawak. Since the year 1994, it is the Occupational Safety and Health Era where the
Parliament passed a new legislation known as the Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA) 1994 which was gazetted on February 1994. History of OSH in Malaysia is
lengthy and winding however the implementation of OSH act 1994 is considered as
one of the biggest move made by the country. Yet vast of work, exercise, practices,
research and training seems to be one of the pillar of ensuring the successful of the
osh program
OSH Act 1994
One such control measure is highlighted in OSHA 1994 part IV section 15 (1),which
states that: ‘It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to
ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work of all his
employees’. The enactment of OSH 1994 covers 9 industries in Malaysia involving;
mining and quarying
agriculture, forestry and fishing
utilities-gas, electric, water and sanitary services
transport, storage and communication
wholesale and retail traders
hotels and restaurant
finance, insurance, real estate, business service
Fakrul (2003) claimed that for any safety related at workplace, training is
uncompromised to every single aspect. Previous research conducted were also agree
and highlight that training is an essential component for a successful OSH program in
any organization.(Bahn & Barratt-Pugh, 2012, Burke et al., 2011)
Occupational Safety and Health training (OSHT)
(Kordecka, 2009) suggested that training of OSH is considered as important
prevention tool and a key factor towards strengthening of preventions and high
awareness on hazards exposure. The purpose of any safety training is to modify and
shape specifics bahaviors and to transfer knowledge and skills that should be applied
at any level of task that the employee should apply. It is wise to take note that for
every formal training programme, five important rules should be implemented for
effective outcome of training. The five steps involve are ;
1. Performance analysis
2. Instructionaldesign
3. Materilas acquisition
4. Delivery of training
5. Course evaluation (Yates, p 303-307, 2011)
Occupational Safety and Health Training (OSHT) In Malaysia
Regardless of all industries, every workplace evolves dynamically in every stage of
process. Hence this contributes to increase number of new hazards in workplace and
expose the workers to the high risk of accidents. To manage these hazards the
government through it’s various ministries and agencies, universities, safety and
health professionals has developed various regulations and trainings supported by
NIOSH. As national institution that promotes and cultivate each of OSH training in
Malaysia, NIOSH stand remain as the main source of all types of training involving
safety and health in Malaysia for every organizations for all industries covered under
the OSH act 1994. Other than that there are also training provider recognized either
by DOSH (Department of Occupational Safety and Health) as well as by international
board. To conclude employer could provide both approach of safety and training to
the workers as stipulated under the Act either by having in house training and any
safety and health training institutional. The main challenge towards the
implementation of the OSH program is on the part of how knowledge and skills can
be transferred accordingly. Analsysis from national OSH masterplan indicates that
there are three stages of National OSH Master plan, started with self regulation
continued with producing safety culture and improved with preventive culture. It
seems that training is the essential component. Knowledge, skills and related
information can only be transferred via safety and health training.. On top of this
training is considered as a tool of accidents preventive in occupational safety and
health. Along with this effort, besides DOSH (Department of occupational safety and
health) and Ministry of Human Resource, NIOSH is cooperating with all agencies and
department as safety and training hub. NIOSH offers two types of training provided
are the competency and non competency training. National Institute of Occupational
Safety and Health (Niosh) chairman Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye (Borneopost, 2011)
highlight the setting up of industries to serve various development corridors according
to the government transformation programme had pushed up the demand for qualified
SHO. from 1997 to 2010, a total of 5,681 had passed the SHO examination but only
2,352 registered with the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH).
From 1997 to 2010, Niosh trained 15,000 SHO but not everyone sat for the exam as
some such as human resource managers, procurement officers and so forth joined to
gain knowledge on safety.
Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations, 1997
‘The Occupational Safety and Health (Safety and Health Officer) Regulations 1997
which came into force on 22 August 1997 requires certain industries to employ a
competent safety and health officer to resolve matters pertaining to the safety and
health at their workplace” (Niosh, 2013). Section 29 – Safety and Health Officer
Section 29 compels companies exceeding 100 or 500 employees (depending on the
nature of business) to appoint a Safety and Health Officer where non-compliance of
this provision may also be relevant to this problem. As suggested previously by
Xavier (1996), appointment of a safety and health officer should not be severely
restricted according to the number of workers. He further reiterates that the question
of danger does not lie in numbers but in the nature of the work carried out at the
workplace. Since this is a provision which ensures that compliance with the safety
and health provisions of the Act is monitored, he suggests that this compulsion should
not be restricted to certain categories of occupation only.
Safety and Health officer training programme (SHO)
This programme is designed to train and produce safety and health officer. Basically
the participants of this programme need to fulfill certain requirements and they have o
sit fro 22 days training in Niosh involving of 4 training modules. Basically the
training sessions aims to expose the trainee are; safety, health, management and
legislations. After that they have to sit for examinations and pass all 4 types of
assessments conducted in Niosh under the instrcutions of DOSH. After they pass, the
trainee need to work on safety related job for three years before they can register
themselves as safety and health officer. DOSH considered SHO as their ambassador
in all industries that play major role to ensure low rates of incident at workplace.
Niosh trained almost 15000 participants in this programme however there are still
reports from industries lack of competent and registered SHO. According to
Lee(2011) chairman of Niosh currently there are only 3000-4000 active SHO
compared to high volume of SHO demand from the industry. There are around eight
branches of Niosh in other state and there also almost 19 training provider. Indeed the
demand are still high.
Training for OSH especially in SHO programme are challenging due to alarming
numbers of occupational related injuries. The screening process for SHO participants
and competent SHO has been implemented rigidly by NIOSH and DOSH to ensure
that the quality of officer produced may not jeopardize the safety performance in the
industries. Due to shortage numbers of SHO in Malaysian industries as stipulated in
OSH act 1994, the crucial part of this programme is about training any of individual
who came from various background and education level without any safety and health
knowledge and credentials. To add, the participants are diverse, multicultural,
multigenerations and differences of age. Yet this study attempt to review the current
issues of OSHT and occupational related injuries (ORI) in Malaysian industries. On
the other hand, findings of this study will be applied to strengthen the design of safety
and health training specifically in SHO programme.
Literature review
Occupational related injuries (ORI)
This section will discuss in detail elements emerge from literature review in
occupational related injuries. There are seven elements identified which are
differences of age, young workforce, aging workforce, multigenerations, working
experience, multicultural and occupations and cognitive abilities
Age Differences
The evidence about the association of age with the frequency, severity and
characteristics of occupational accidents has been highly contradictory. For instance,
it has been shown that employ- ees who were injured in an occupational accident
were more likely to be under 30 at manufacturing (Swaen et al., 2004) and construction industries (Chau et al., 2002), and that older workers displayed fewer residual
symptoms on recovery from an occupational acci- dent than younger workers
(Pransky et al., 2005). Besides, higher accident ratios have been found for younger
workers in assembly, mining and food service.(Blanch, Torrelles, Aluja, & Salinas,
Young Workforce
Young workers, defined as workers aged 15–24 years of age, typically work
temporary, part-time, low wage, non-unionized jobs in the service sector and in terms
of safety are at a greater risk of workplace injury than older workers
understanding(Tucker & Turner, 2011). F C Breslin, Smith, Mustard, & Zhao, (2006)
indicate that young workers as those under 18 years old because child labor laws only
apply to this age group. An alternative definition includes young adults up to 24 years
old. This broad definition recognizes that many young adults are also just entering the
labor market and are more likely than older adults to have a work injury.
Consequently, the actual activities that young populations are doing in these settings
and their work environments need to be better understood modified
accordingly.(Bangdiwala, Runyan, & Roge, 2012)
Aging Workforce
As Malaysia citizen born between 1946 to 1964 reach retirement age, the
demographic profile of the Malaysia population will undergo a profound change.
According to the Department of Statistic Malaysia, the proportion of the Malaysia
population age 60 and older have increased from 5.2 per cent in 1970 to 6.3 per cent
in 2000 and has been projected to 9.9 per cent in 2020. Based on United Nation
medium projection, the proportion of the Malaysia population age 60 and older will
climb up to fourteen percent by 2028.
safety training practices and challenges for organizations with employees from
different generations, including the Baby Boomer Generation, Generation X, and
Generation Y (Millennials). The attitudes and abilities of the generations are
compared in various areas including technology, communication styles, and
leadership. Suggestions are provided for training approaches for different age groups,
such as structured classes, workshops, and using multimedia and mobile devices.
Work, skills, and experience
Young male and female workers are overrepresented in statistics concerning negative
outcomes of poor work environment and risky work. Young workers often have a low
awareness of risk, a lack of safety training, and inadequate introductions to the
work(Andersson, Gunnarsson, Rosèn, & Moström åberg, 2014)
Cognitive abilities
Salthouse (2011) indicate that age differences in cognitive abilities under the age of
50 could have important implications for job performance because cognitive ability
has been found to be related to job and unlike older ages a very high proportion of
people within this age range are in the labor force.(Schroeder & Salthouse, 2004)
Table 1: Summaries of elements in Occupational Related Injuries (ORI)
Types of job
and workplace
Outcomes of the study
job/workplace factors that are potentially F Curtis modifiable: hazard exposure and work pace Breslin et al., pressure.
Younger employees had an elevated risk of injury while workers >55 years had an elevated risk for fatality. A large majority of incidents involve workers with <5 years experience The injury rates found among adolescent workers
demonstrates that continued safety interventions
and increased training are needed. Because of high
claim rate and injury severity, particular attention
should be focused on adolescents in food service,
manufacturing, and agricultural occupations.
Understanding the differences of adolescent
circadian rhythm patterns in establishing work
schedules and supervisory practices could also
prove valuable for decreasing injury risk.
Multigenerations The results of the data indicated that there was a
relationship between age and days lost as well as
total mining experience and days lost following
an injury. Furthermore, the data indicated an
increased risk of overexertion injuries as age
increases. These are important findings for the
coal mining industry as many miners are more
experienced and older.
Risks for a fatal result of occupational injuries,
adjusted by individual and occupational factors
older age at injury was related to higher injury costs but not to number of injuries. The higher injury costs associated with worker age are likely due in part to the severity of the injuries sustained by older workers. Aging
well-­‐being of older workers if such individuals workforce
are more likely to suffer work-­‐related health problems Working
Groves, Kecojevic, & Komljenovic, 2007 McCall, Horwitz, & Carr, 2007 Margolis (2010) Villanueva & Garcia, (2011) Schwatka, Butler, & Rosecrance, (2012) Jones, M. K., Latreille, P. L., Sloane, P. J., & Staneva, A. V. (2013).
injury risk among young workers, nature of Holte,
Kjestveit, &
young work and associated exposures, Lipscomb,
(2014) Occupational safety and health training (OSHT)
Adult’s learner, instructional design, training approach, training method
The increasing trend of deaths and injuries in industries has led their authorities to
develop accident investigation plans. One of the underlying aspects of such plans is
hazard identification and incidents reporting which can be met by an appropriate
employees’ participation. So far, several studies have confirmed the effect of training
in participation improvement. Hence , effective training in OSH related
Learning and Training
Learning is defined as permanent change in behavior, cognition and affect that occurs
as a result of one interaction. Gagne suggested training can be improve relying on
three learning principles;
Task analysis
Component task achievements
Task sequencing
Shaping learning in training
Developing and understanding of learning process in OSH training , this study used to
adapt on maximizing learning concept, based on Baldwin and Ford model 1988, three
primary areas emphasize on maximizing learning which are; trainee characteristics,
training design and transfer of training.
Trainee characteristics
Trainability and Personality and Attitudes
Training design
It is defined as adapting learning environment to maximize learning
• Conditions of Practice and Retention
Transfer of Training
Identical elements
General Principles
Stimulus variability
Support in the work environment
Instructional strategies
Instructional strategies are an essential part of any training project. Some authors use
the term to include everything in the training plan, from developing the course
materials to choosing the assessment method. Others refer to instructional strategies
as the modalities in which content is delivered and trainees are engaged in activities.
(Strategies, n.d.)
Table 2: Summaries of elements in Occupational Safety and Health Training
of Outcomes of the study
The objectives of this study were to characterize the (Neal, 2013)
performance of new employees receiving four types
of training delivery methods operating a meat slicer.
Safety training delivery methods included; no
instruction, written instruction, demonstrations and
written instruction with demonstra- tions. Written
instruction and demonstrations was used as a
delivery method, temporal performance increased,
ATP-B readings were lower and participants
perceived it as an effective training method. ?
Adult’s learner
Pollock, CSP
The “engage- ment hypothesis” claims that (Brahm
traditional classrooms are rather Results: Singer, 2013)
Accordingly, based on panel data from 2003 to
2009 for a representative sample of 2,787 Chilean
firms, the engagement hypothesis initially appears
to be supported; however, after correcting for selfselection bias, it loses most of its significance.
the main objective of the present study was to (Fam,
compare two training approaches, classic and Nikoomaram,
creative, in improving health, safety and envi- & Soltanian,
ronment (HSE) supervisors’ participation. Classic 2012)
and creative training approaches were applied to
increase supervisors’ participation. To conclude, the
creative approach emphasizing on the participatory
training could be an effective approach in
improving the safety and consequently the health of
supervisors in industries.
Safety training is an important part of every safety (Withers,
professional’s daily practice. Chemical safety Freeman,
training course that is offered both in the classroom Kim, 2012)
and on the computer. The effectiveness of safety
training given different delivery methodologies, but
the techniques used are relatively simple and can
facilitate reductions in overall costs associated with
Safety training plays an impor- tant role in reducing (Stuart, 2014)
accidents A construc- tivist approach was taken and
the module design was underpinned by Kolb’s
model of experiential learn- ing, placing more
responsibility on the learners for their own learning
and encouraging them to reflect upon their
experiences. The findings of this study suggest that
students with prior industry machining experience
required a change in their attitude to machining
which was achieved within the practical labs, while
students with no machining experiences were
intimidated by the learning environment in the
practical labs
Research hypotheses
Based on the literature review, to understand the relationship between OSH practices
(SC, AT, EI, LD, EC and ST) and OSH performances (SP and FP), the following
hypotheses were develop to be tested. These hypotheses will be tested based on
numbering system H1.This style of hypotheses statement is chosen due to the nature
of answering hypotheses using structural equation 9odeling (SEM) methods. H1:
H1: There is a positive and direct significant relationship between Occupational
related injuries and OSH training in Malaysian industries
A proposed research model
This study aims to investigate the structural relationship between occupational related
injuries and OSH training. A Proposed Research Model Based on the literature review
in section 2, there are many researchers explored about ORI and OSHT. The research
aims at investigate the structural relationship between ORI and OSHT in Malaysian
safety and health officer training. Figure 1 presented a structural OSHA practices and
OSHA performances model
In this study, sampling method by using structured questionnaire. The population of
this study comprised in Malaysian automotive industry. Questionnaires will distribute
to respondents from participants of safety and health officer programme conducted by
Niosh Malaysia. To analyze the data, two statistical techniques will be adopted.
Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) techniques will be apply to perform the require
statistical analysis of the data from the survey. Exploratory factor analysis, reliability
analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to test for construct validity, reliability, and
measurements loading weill be performed.. The statistical Package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS) version 17 will be used to analyze the preliminary data and provide
descriptive analyses about thesis sample such as means, standard deviations, and
frequencies. SEM using AMOS 6.0 will use to test the measurement model.
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