Page 1 of 24 Abbreviations We use a number of abbreviations in our medical reference articles. The following table, which will be updated regularly, provides the abbreviation in full. Page 2 of 24 % abv percentage alcohol by volume ac ante cibum (before food) AIIRA angiotensin-II receptor antagonist AAFB acid-alcohol fast bacilli AAS atomic absorbance spectrophotometry Ab antibody ABC abacavir ABG arterial blood gasses ABPI ankle brachial pressure index ABR auditory brainstem response ACBS Advisory Committee on Borderline Substances ACDP Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor aCL anticardiolipin ACR albumin:creatinine ratio ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone ADH antidiuretic hormone AECG ambulatory electrocardiography AED automated external defibrillators AF atrial fibrillation AFE amniotic fluid embolism AFP alpha-fetoprotein AGXT alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIO Ambulance Incident Officer AJ ankle jerk ALF acute liver failure ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis AMAs anti-mitochondrial antibodies AMH anti-Müllerian hormone AMHP Approved Mental Health Professional ANA antinuclear antibody ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody Anti-GBM antiglomerular basement membrane antibody anti-RNP antibodies to ribonucleoprotein Page 3 of 24 anti-U1-RNP anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein a-NVH asymptomatic non-visible haematuria AP anteroposterior aPL antiphospholipid aPPT activated partial thromboplastin time APT adaptive pacing therapy APUD amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation AR ankle reflex ARB angiotensin receptor blocker ARC AIDS-related complex ARDS acute/adult respiratory distress syndrome ARR absolute risk reduction ART assisted reproduction technique ARVC arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy ASD autistic spectrum disorder ASW approved social worker ASTRAL Angioplasty and Stent for Renal Artery Lesions ATC around the clock ATRA all-trans retinoic acid AVJRT atrioventricular junctional re-entry tachycardia AVNRT atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia AVNT atrioventricular nodal tachycardia AZOOR acute zonal occult outer retinopathy BAER brainstem auditory evoked response BAL bronchoalveolar lavage BALT bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue BAN British Approved Name BCBV Better Care Better Value BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin BCh Bachelor of Surgery bd bis di twice daily BDD body dysmorphic disorder BHR bronchial hyperresponsiveness BiPAP bilevel positive airway pressure BJ biceps jerk BM Bachelor of Medicine BMA British Medical Association BMD bone mineral density Page 4 of 24 BMI Body Mass Index BMJ British Medical Journal BMedSci Bachelor of Medical Sciences BMM behavioural migraine management BMS bare metal stent BMT bone marrow transplantation BMZ basement membrane zone BNF British National Formulary BNP brain natriuretic peptide BP blood pressure BPharm Bachelor of Pharmacy bpm beats per minute BPP biophysical profile BR biceps reflex BRA bilateral renal agenesis BRI building-related illness BSAP bone-specific alkaline phosphatase BSE bovine spongiform encephalopathy BS MB Bachelor of Surgery and Bachelor of Medicine BSO bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy C1-INH C1-inhibitor antigenic protein Ca carcinoma CA carbohydrate antigen CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD computer-aided detection CA-MRSA community-acquired MRSA cANCA classical antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPS catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome CaSR calcium-sensitive receptor CAT cognitive analytic therapy cc cum cibo (with food) CCDC consultant in communicable disease control CCF congestive cardiac failure CCGR complete cytogenetic remission CCP cyclic citrullinated peptide CCPD continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis Page 5 of 24 CCU coronary care unit CDCR conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy CDI Children's Depression Inventory CDI cranial diabetes insipidus CDT cardiotocograph CEA carcinoembryonic antigen CER control event rate CES Center for Epidemiologic Studies CES cauda equina syndrome CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale CF complement fixation CFC chlorofluorocarbon CfI Centre for Infections cfu colony-forming unit CFS chronic fatigue syndrome CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CHAOS congenital high upper airway obstruction syndrome CHART continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy CHB complete heart block CHC Community Health Council CHD coronary heart disease CHM Commission on Human Medicines CHMP Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use CIRCI critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency CIS carcinoma in situ cm centimetre CMACE Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries CNS central nervous system CNV choroidal neovascularisation COAD chronic obstructive airways disease COCP combined oral contraceptive pill COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase COSHH Committee on Substances Hazardous to Health COT Consultation Observation Tool CPAP continuous positive airway pressure CPD continuing professional development CQC Care Quality Commission Page 6 of 24 CRP C-reactive protein CRT cardiac resynchronisation therapy CSDD Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia CSE combined spinal-epidural CSII continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion CSSD central sterile supply department CSSRs councils with social services responsibilities CT computed tomography CTG cardiotocograph CTPA computed tomography pulmonary angiogram CTR cardiothoracic ratio CTSI computed tomography severity index CUP carcinoma of unknown primary CVE/CVA cerebrovascular event/cerebrovascular accident CVP central venous pressure CVS chorionic villus biopsy CXR chest X-ray DA Diploma in Anaesthetics DABA dual action bone agent DAT direct antiglobulin test db HL decibels hearing loss DCD developmental co-ordination disorder DCG dacryocystogram DCh Doctor of Surgery DCH Diploma in Child Health DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ DCP Diploma in Clinical Pathology DCR dacryocystorhinostomy dcSSC diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis DDH developmental dysplasia of the hip DDS Doctor of Dental Surgery DEN Doctor's Educational Need DES drug-eluting stent DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DFA direct fluorescent antibody DFHom Diploma of the Faculty of Homeopathy DFM Diploma in Forensic Medicine Page 7 of 24 DFSA drug-facilitated sexual assault dGEMRIC gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage DGM Diploma in Geriatric Medicine DGO Diploma in Gynaecology and Obstetrics DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation DIF direct immunofluorescence DIP distal interphalangeal Dip GU Med Diploma in Genitourinary Medicine dL decilitre DLBCL diffuse large B-cell lymphoma DLCO diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide DM diabetes mellitus DMARD disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug DMR Diploma in Medical Radiology DMSA dimercaptosuccinic acid DO Diploma in Ophthalmology DObst Diploma in Obstetrics DOT directly observed therapy DPath Diploma in Pathology DPF Dental Practitioners' Formulary DPH Diploma in Public Health DPhil Doctor of Philosophy DPhysMed Diploma in Physical Medicine DPM Diploma in Psychological Medicine DQ developmental quotient DR Diploma in Radiology DRCOG Diploma Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists DRCPath Diploma Royal College of Pathologists DRESS Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms DREZ dorsal root entry zone DS Doctor of Surgery DSP digital signal processing DTs delirium tremens DTaP diphtheria (D), tetanus (T) and acellular pertussis (aP) DTB Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin DXR digital X-ray radiogrammetry e/c enteric-coated Page 8 of 24 EBL estimated blood loss EBM evidence-based medicine EBNA EBV nuclear antigen EBUS TBNA endobronchial US-guided transbronchial needle aspiration ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ECT electroconvulsive therapy ECV external cephalic version EDAMS encephalo-duro-arterio-myo-synangiosis EDC estimated date of confinement EDD expected date of delivery EDS excessive daytime sleepiness EER experimental event rate EFWC electrolyte-free water clearance eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate EIA enzyme immunoassay ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EMA endomysial antibodies EMDA electromotive drug administration EMDAS encephalomyoduroarteriosynangiosis EMG electromyography ENG electronystagmography eod every other day EOG electro-oculogram ePACT electronic Prescribing Analysis and Cost Tool EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ePFIP electronic Prescribing and Financial Information for Practices EPO erythropoietin EPSEs extra-pyramidal side-effects ER (o)estrogen receptor ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERG electroretinography ERP exposure and relapse prevention ERT enzyme replacement therapy ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase ESES electrical status epilepticus in sleep ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy Page 9 of 24 EUA examination under anaesthesia EUS endoscopic ultrasonography EVAR endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair f/c film-coated FAP familial adenomatous polyposis FAMM familial atypical mole and melanoma FAST F ace Arm S peech T est FBC full blood count FDG fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography FEIA fluorescent enzyme immunoassay FENa fractional excretion of sodium FEUrea fractional excretion of urea FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second FFA Fellow Faculty of Anaesthetists FFCM Fellow Faculty of Community Medicine FFDM full-field digital mammography FFFP Fellow of the Faculty of Family Planning FFHom Fellow of the Faculty of Homeopathy FFPath Fellow Faculty of Pathology FFPHM Fellow Faculty of Public Health Medicine FFR Fellow Faculty of Radiologists FISH dual fluorescence in situ hybridisation FLA-ABS fluorescent antibody absorption test fl oz fluid ounce FMRP fragile X mental retardation protein FNA fine-needle aspiration FNAC fine-needle aspiration cytology FPR false positive rate FRCA Fellow Royal College of Anaesthetists FRCGP Fellow Royal College of General Practitioners FRCOG Fellow Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists FRCOphth Fellow Royal College of Ophthalmology FRCPath Fellow Royal College of Pathologists FRCPS Fellow Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons FRCPsych Fellow Royal College of Psychiatrists FRCR Fellow Royal College of Radiologists FRCS Fellow Royal College of Surgeons Page 10 of 24 FRS Fellow of the Royal Society FRSH Fellow Royal Society of Health FSE fetal scalp electrode FSH follicle-stimulating hormone FVC forced vital capacity > greater than g gram GA general anaesthetic GABS Group Abeta-haemolytic streptococcus GAD glutamic acid decarboxylase GALC galactosylceramidase GALT gut-associated lymphoid tissue GARS gait abnormality rating scale GBM glomerular basement membrane GCA giant cell arteritis G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor GDM gestational diabetes mellitus GDS Geriatric Depression Scale GHRH growth hormone-releasing hormone GIFT gamete intrafallopian transfer GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumour GIT gastrointestinal tract GP General Practitioner GPi globus pallidus interna GR glucocorticoid receptor GRBAS Grade, Roughness, Breathy voice, Asthenia and Strain GREG guideline recommendation and evidence grading GVHD graft-versus-host disease HA-MRSA hospital-acquired MRSA HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points HAM HTLV-1-associated myelopathy HaNDL headache and neurological deficits + CSF lymphocytosis HAV hepatitis Avirus HAVS hand-arm vibration syndrome HBcAg hepatitis B core antigen HBeAg hepatitis B e antigen Page 11 of 24 HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen HCTD hereditary connective tissue disorders HDCV human diploid cell vaccine HFNEF heart failure with a normal ejection fraction HFPSF heart failure with preserved systolic function HGPRT hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b HIDA hepatobiliary imino-diacetic acid HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound HNIG human normal immunoglobulin HNPP hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy HoLEP holmium laser enucleation of the prostate HONK hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma HOOF Home Oxygen Order Form HPACHaPD HPAChemical Hazards and Poisons Division HPANPIS HPANational Poisons Information Service HPN home parenteral nutrition HPU Health Protection Unit HRCT high-resolution CT HRV heart rate variability HSC Health and Social Care hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein HSG hysterosalpingogram HTLV-1 human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 HVA homovanillic acid HVPG hepatic venous pressure gradient HYVET HY pertension in the V ery E lderly T rial Hz hertz IABP intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ICAS Independent Complaints Advocacy Services ICD implantable cardiac defibrillator ICHD International Classification of Headache Disorders ICP intracranial pressure ICP-MS inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry ICS intercostal space ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection Page 12 of 24 ICU intensive care unit IDDM insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDIF indirect immunofluorescence IE infective endocarditis IFN-gamma interferon-gamma IGF-I insulin-like growth factor-I IGFBP-3 insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 IGT impaired glucose tolerance IHD ischaemic heart disease IM intramuscular/ly IMB intermenstrual bleeding IMiD immunomodulatory drug IPPV intermittent positive pressure ventilation IPR impaired polysaccharide responsiveness IPV inactivated polio vaccine IQCODE Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly IRMA intraretinal microvascular abnormality IRT immunoreactive trypsinogen ISS Injury Severity Score IUCD intrauterine contraceptive device IUI intrauterine insemination in vivo within the living IVF-ET in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin IVII IV insulin infusion IVP intravenous pyelogram IVRA intravenous regional anaesthesia IVU intravenous urogram JCVI Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation JVP jugular venous pressure kcal kilocalorie kg kilogram KJ knee jerk KOH potassium hydroxide KR knee reflex KTP potassium titanyl phosphate < less than Page 13 of 24 L litre LA local anaesthetic LA lupus anticoagulant LABAs long-acting beta2 agonists LACIs lacunar infarcts LAIV live attenuated influenza vaccine LAMB lentigines, atrial myxoma, mucocutaneous myxoma, blue naevi LAP leukocyte alkaline phosphatase LARC long-acting reversible contraceptive LASEK laser epithelial keratomileusis LASIK laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis LAUP laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty lb pound LCR ligase chain reaction LDH lactate dehydrogenase LFHom Licensed Associate of the Faculty of Homeopathy LFTs liver function tests LGIB lower gastrointestinal tract bleeding LH luteinising hormone LHH likelihood of being helped or harmed LHRHa luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist LIF left iliac fossa LINks Local Involvement Networks LLETZ large loop excision of the transformation zone LMA laryngeal mask airway LMP last menstrual period LMWH low molecular weight heparin LOC loss of consciousness LOD laparoscopic ovarian 'drilling' LSCS lower segment Caesarean section LSD lysergic acid diethylamide LTK laser thermal keratoplasty μg (mcg) microgram m metre m3 cubic metre mm3 cubic millimetre mm Hg millimetre of mercury mol mole Page 14 of 24 m/r modified-release MAC membrane attack complex MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MAOIs monoamine oxidase inhibitors MBAcA Member British Acupuncture Association MB BCh Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery MB BChir Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery MB BS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery MB ChB Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery MBL mannose-binding lectin MCAD medium-chain acyl-CoAdehydrogenase MCh mean corpuscular haemoglobin MCH Master of Surgery MChir Master of Surgery MChOrth Master of Orthopaedic Surgery MCI mild cognitive impairment MClinPsychol Master of Clinical Psychology MCOT mobile cardiac outpatient telemetry MCP metacarpophalangeal MCR major cytogenetic remission MC&S microscopy, culture and sensitivity MCTD mixed connective tissue disease MCUG micturating cystourethrogram MCV mean cell volume MD Doctor of Medicine MDR multidrug-resistant MDT multidrug therapy MEB muscle-eye-brain (disease) MEL maximum exposure limit MELD model for end-stage liver disease MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia MenC meningitis C mEq milliequivalent MERIT Medical Emergency Response Incident Team MEWDS multiple evanescent white dot syndrome MFCPU multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis MFFP Member Faculty of Family Planning Page 15 of 24 MFHom Member of the Faculty of Homeopathy MFOM Member Faculty of Occupational Medicine MFPHM Member Faculty of Public Health Medicine MFPR multifetal pregnancy reduction mg milligram MGUS monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance miRNAs microRNAs MID multi-infarct dementia MIO Medical Incident Officer MIS Müllerian-inhibiting substance Mitf microphthalmia transcription factor MJ megajoule MKP melanoma of known primary source mL millilitre MMed Master of Medicine MMedSci Master of Medical Science MMR measles, mumps and rubella MODY maturity onset diabetes of the young MOH medicine overuse headache MPIG Minimum Practice Income Guarantee MR modified release MRA magnetic renal angiography MRCGP Member Royal College of General Practitioners MRCOG Member Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists MRCP Member Royal College of Physicians MRCPath Member Royal College of Pathologists MRCPsych Member Royal College of Psychiatrists MRCS Member Royal College of Surgeons MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRCP magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography MRSA meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRV magnetic resonance venography MSAFP maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein MSLT multiple sleep latency test MSSA meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus MSU mid-stream specimen of urine MTCT mother-to-child transmission MUA manipulation under anaesthetic Page 16 of 24 MUD matched unrelated donor MUP melanoma of unknown primary source MUGA multiple-gated acquisition MUPS medically unexplained physical symptoms MUS medically unexplained symptoms MuSK muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase Na sodium NAAT nucleic acid amplification test NABSA nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique NAC N-acetylcysteine NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADP nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NAME naevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibroma and ephilides NASH non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NaTHNaC National Travel Health Network and Centre NBT nitroblue tetrazolium NCS nerve conduction studies NDI nephrogenic diabetes insipidus NE niacin equivalents NESP novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NICU neonatal intensive care unit NIDDM non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NISS New Injury Severity Score NIV non-invasive ventilation nL nanolitre NNH number needed to harm NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NNT number needed to treat NOIDs Notifications of Infectious Diseases NPF Nurse Prescribers' Formulary NPIS National Poisons Information Service NPPV noninvasive positive pressure ventilation NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSE neuron-specific enolase NSTACS non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome Page 17 of 24 NSTEMI non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction NTD neural tube defect NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide NVH non-visible haematuria OAES otoacoustic emissions screen OATS osteoarticular transplantation OC&P ova, cysts and parasites OCT optical coherence tomography od omni die (every day) OES occupational exposure standard OGD oesophagogastroduodenoscopy om omni mane (every morning) OMIM Online Mendelian Inheritence in Man on omni nocte (every night) OTC over-the-counter OGTT oral glucose tolerance test OPCAB off-pump coronary artery bypass ORIF open reduction internal fixation PACG primary angle closure glaucoma PACT prescribing analysis and cost tabulation PAGE polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis PAI photoacoustic imaging PAIR Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration PALS Patient Advice and Liaison Services PAM proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, metronidazole PAPP-A pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A PAPS primary antiphospholipid syndrome PAS periodic acid-Schiff PATH Proteinuria/Antiphospholipid syndrome/Thrombocytopenia/Hypertension PBP progressive bulbar palsy pc post cibum (after food) PCB post-coital bleeding PCC Patient Client Council PCEC purified chick embryo cell PCI percutaneous coronary intervention PCNL percutaneous nephrolithotomy PCNSL primary central nervous system lymphoma PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome Page 18 of 24 PCR polymerase chain reaction PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure PDA patent ductus arteriosus PDD pervasive developmental disorder PDL pulsed dye laser PDT photodynamic therapy PEA pulseless electrical activity PECS picture exchange communication system PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy PEP post-exposure prophylaxis PEPSE post-exposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure PERLA pupils equal + react to light and accommodation PEST psoriasis epidemiology screening tool PET positron emission tomography PF(R) peak flow (rate) PI protease inhibitor PIC punctate inner choroidopathy PICU paediatric intensive care unit PIP proximal interphalangeal PIVKA-II protein induced from vitamin K absence PJRT permanent junctional re-entrant tachycardia PLDH pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride PLHA people living with HIV/AIDS PLMS periodic limb movements of sleep PLP1 proteolipid protein-1 PLS primary lateral sclerosis PM polymyositis PMA progressive muscular atrophy PMETB Postgraduate Medical Education Training Board PML progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy PMN polymorphonuclear PMR polymyalgia rheumatica PND postnasal drip po per os by mouth POAG primary open angle glaucoma Page 19 of 24 POCT point of care test POEM Patient-oriented Eczema Measure POIC progestogen-only injectable contraceptive PoM prescription-only medication POP plaster of Paris POSDI progestogen-only subdermal implant POSE primary obesity surgery, endoscopic POTS postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome PP pancreatic polypeptide PP psychogenic polydipsia PPD purified protein derivative PPE personal protective equipment PPI proton pump inhibitor ppm parts per million PPRA-gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma PPROM preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes PPV pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine PR progesterone receptor PRA preoperative risk assessment PRL prolactin prn pro re nata (when required) PRNP PR ioN P rotein PRP polyribosyl ribitol phosphate PS polysomnography PSA prostate specific antigen PSVT paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia PT prothrombin time PTA polymyxin/tobramycin/amphotericin PTBD percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty PTH parathyroid hormone PTRAA percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty PTX pneumothorax PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid PUNS Patient's Unmet Needs PUO pyrexia of unknown origin PVA polyvinyl alcohol PVS persistent vegetative state Page 20 of 24 qad quoque alternis die (every other day) qam quaque die ante meridiem (every day before noon) qd quaque die (every day) qds quater die sumendum (to be taken four times daily) qh quaque hora (every hour) qhs quaque hora somni (every night at bedtime) qid quattuor in die (four times a day) qod every other day qpm quaque die post meridiem (every day after noon) qqh quarta quaque hora (every four hours) ® registered trademark RAADP routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis RADS Reynolds' Adolescent Depression Scale RAEB refractory anaemia with excess blasts RAEBt refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation RAPD relevant afferent pupil defect RARS refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts RAS renin angiotensin system RAST radioallergosorbent test RCA root cause analysis RCDS Reynolds' Child Depression Scale RCGP Royal College of General Practitioners RCN Royal College of Nursing RCOG Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists RCT randomised controlled trial RDS respiratory distress syndrome RDT rapid diagnostic test REBT rational emotive behavioural therapy REE resting energy expenditure rFVIIa recombinant activated factor VIIa rHA recombinant haemagglutinin rhG-CSF recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor rHuEPO recombinant human erythropoietin RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation RIF right iliac fossa RIFLE Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease RIMA Reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A Page 21 of 24 rINN Recommended International Non-proprietary Name RLS restless legs syndrome RMO responsible medical officer rNA recombinant neuraminidase RPGN rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis RPR rapid plasmin reagin RPS19 small ribosomal protein 19 RPSGB Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain RRR relative risk reduction RSI repetitive strain injury RTA renal tubular acidosis RUQ right upper quadrant RVOT right ventricular outflow tract s/c sugar-coated SABRE serious and adverse blood reactions and events SAD seasonal affective disorder SAD social anxiety disorder SAH subarachnoid haemorrhage SALT skin-associated lymphoid tissue SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis SCD sudden cardiac death SCHIN Sowerby Centre for Health Informatics at Newcastle SCID severe combined immune deficiency SCS spinal cord stimulation SCT supervised community treatment SEGA subependymal giant cell astrocytoma SEN subependymal nodule SERMs selective (o)estrogen receptor modulators SFH symphyseal fundal height SGA small for gestational age SHOX stature homeobox-containing gene SIGN Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome SITREP situation report SJ supinator jerk SLE systemic lupus erythematosus SLR straight leg raise SLS selected list scheme Page 22 of 24 SMC Scottish Medicines Consortium SNOMED Standardised Nomenclature of Medicine SNRIs serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors s-NVH symptomatic non-visible haematuria SOCOs Scene of Crime Officers SPC Summary of Product Characteristics SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography scanning SpR Specialist Registrar SPRM selective progesterone receptor modulator SR supinator reflex SRS somatostatin receptor scintigraphy SRT structured reflective template SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSS subclavian steal syndrome START Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment stat statim (immediately) STEMI ST segment elevation myocardial infarction STN subthalamic nucleus STOPP Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions SURUSS Serum Urine and Ultrasound Screening Study SVTs supraventricular tachycardias SXA single energy X-ray absorptiometry SXR skull X-ray TACE transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation TAPP transabdominal preperitoneal TATTS tired all the time syndrome TBSA total burn surface area TDF tenofovir DF Td/IPV tetanus, diphtheria and polio tds ter die sumendum (to be taken three days daily) TEE transoesophageal echocardiography TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TEP totally extraperitoneal TESE testicular sperm extraction TEVAR thoracic endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair TIA transient ischaemic attack tid ter in die (three times daily) Page 23 of 24 TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt TIVAS totally implantable venous access system tiw three times a week TJ triceps jerk TKI tyrosine kinase inhibitor TLC total lung capacity TMS transcranial magnetic stimulation TNA transient neurological attack TOP termination of pregnancy tPA tissue plasminogen activator TPN total parenteral nutrition TR triceps reflex TRALI transfusion-related acute lung injury TRISS Trauma and Injury Severity Score TRT tinnitus retraining therapy TSE transmissible spongiform encephalopathy TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone TSS toxic shock syndrome TTE transthoracic echocardiography tTG tissue transglutaminase TUIP transurethral incision of the prostate TURP transurethral resection of the prostate TUVP transurethral vaporisation of the prostate TYM Test Your Memory U&E urea and electrolytes UCTD unclassified connective tissue disorder ud ut dictum (as directed) UGIB upper gastrointestinal bleeding ULN upper limit of normal UPD uniparental disomy UPPP uvelopalatopharyngoplasty URA unilateral renal agenesis VATS video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery VCA viral capsid antigen VEP visual evoked potential VF ventricular fibrillation VGCC voltage-gated calcium channel VH visible haematuria Page 24 of 24 VIP vasoactive intestinal polypeptide VLCFA very long chain fatty acids VLDL very low-density lipoprotein VMA vanillylmandelic acid VPI velopharyngeal insufficiency VT ventricular tachycardia VTEC O157 verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 WASP Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein WATCH Working Group on the Assessment of Toxic Chemicals WBH-DTI whole-brain histogram of diffusion tensor imaging WCC white cell count WHO World Health Organization WLL whole-lung lavage WRIGHT WHO Research into global hazards of travel XDR extensively drug-resistant Y Z Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. EMIS has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. For details see our conditions. Original Author: Ros Jones Current Version: Ros Jones Peer Reviewer: Hilary Cole Last Checked: 19/07/2012 Document ID: 12418 (v31) © EMIS View this article online at www.patient.co.uk/doctor/abbreviations. Discuss Abbreviations and find more trusted resources at www.patient.co.uk. EMIS is a trading name of Egton Medical Information Systems Limited.
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