Document 7476

Project information
European Research on Environment and Health Funded by the Sixth Framework Programme
Snapshots of final results
KI-NA-25-049-EN-C
Sixty-six multidisciplinary pan-European
research projects dealing with environment
and health issues were funded by
the European Commission’s Research
Directorate- General (now called DG
Research and Innovation) in the Sixth
Framework Programme of Research (20022006). The main results are presented
in this catalogue. All of these projects
have now ended and have produced a
wealth of new and interesting results that
have improved the science base and that
have the potential to support various EU
policies. The projects presented addressed
a multitude of issues ranging from health
impacts of climate change to improved
integrated environment and health risk
assessment methodologies. This overview
should be useful to many stakeholders
policy makers at national, EU and global
level.
European Research on
Environment and Health
Funded by the Sixth
Framework Programme
Research and
Innovation
EuropeanResearchOnEnvironment&HealthFundedByFP6 COVER PgsLim 06 indd 1-3
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation
Directorate I – Environment
Unit I.4 – Climate Change and Natural Hazards
E-mail: [email protected]
Contact: Tuomo Karjalainen
European Commission
B-1049 Brussels
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
EuropeanResearchOnEnvironment&HealthFundedByFP6 COVER PgsLim 06 indd 4-6
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
European Research on
Environment and Health
Funded by the Sixth
Framework Programme
2012
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation
EUR 25049 EN
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TABLEOFCONTENTS
-3-
4
TableofContents
EUfundingofresearchonenvironmentandhealthinFP5andFP7
EUfundingofresearchonenvironmentandhealthinFP6
Environmentandhealthissuesaddressedbytheprojectsfunded
Projectdata
ChapterI:Projectsfocusedoncoordination,harmonisation,networking,policysupport
EMFNET:Effectsoftheexposuretoelectromagneticfields:fromsciencetopublichealthand
saferworkplace
ENVIE:Coordinationactiononindoorairqualityandhealtheffects
EPIBATHE:Assessmentofhumanhealtheffectscausedbybathingwaters
ESBIO:DevelopmentofacoherentapproachtohumanbiomonitoringinEurope
HENVINET:Healthandenvironmentnetwork
PHOEBE:Harmonisingpopulationbasedbiobanksandcohortstudiestostrengthenthefoundationof
Europeanbiomedicalscienceinthepostgenomeera
PRONET:Pollutionreductionoptionsnetwork
VIROBATHE:MethodsforthedetectionofadenovirusesandnorovirusesinEuropeanbathingwaters
withreferencetotherevisionoftheBathingWaterDirective76/160/EEC
ChapterII:Projectsfocusedontheeffectsofexposuretoenvironmentalstressorsandunderlying
mechanisms
ATHON:AssessingthetoxicityandhazardofnondioxinlikePCBspresentinfood
CASCADE:Chemicalsascontaminantsinthefoodchain:aNoEforresearch,riskassessmentand
Education
DEVNERTOX:Toxicthreatstothedevelopingnervoussystem:invivoandinvitrostudiesonthe
effectsofmixtureofneurotoxicsubstancespotentiallycontaminatingfood
DIEPHY:DietaryexposurestopolycyclicaromatichydrocarbonsandDNAdamage
ECNIS:Environmentalcancerrisk,nutritionandindividualsusceptibility
EUROPREVALL:Theprevalence,costandbasisoffoodallergyacrossEurope
FOOD&FECUNDITY:Pharmaceuticalproductsashighriskeffectors
FURANRA:Roleofgeneticandnongeneticmechanismsinfuranrisk
GABRIEL:Amultidisciplinarystudytoidentifythegeneticandenvironmentalcausesofasthmainthe
EuropeanCommunity
GA2LEN:GlobalallergyandasthmaEuropeannetwork
MONIQA:Towardstheharmonisationofanalyticalmethodsformonitoringqualityandsafetyinthe
foodchain
NEWGENERIS:Newbornsandgenotoxicexposurerisks:Developmentandapplicationofbiomarkersof
dietaryexposuretogenotoxicandimmunotoxicchemicalsandofbiomarkersofearlyeffects,
usingmotherchildbirthcohortsandbiobanks
PHIME:Publichealthimpactoflongterm,lowlevelmixedelementexposureinsusceptible
populationstrata
PIONEER:Pubertyonset–influenceofnutritional,environmentalandendogenousregulators
5
9
15
33
65
67
69
73
75
77
81
85
87
91
95
97
99
103
105
109
113
117
121
125
129
133
137
141
145
TableofContents
ChapterIII:Projectsfocusedonthedevelopmentofmethodsandtoolsforenvironmentandhealth
riskandimpactassessment
BENERIS:Benefitriskassessmentforfood:aniterativevalueofinformationapproach
DROPS:Developmentofmacroandsectoraleconomicmodelsaimingtoevaluatetheroleof
publichealthexternalitiesonsociety
ENVIRISK:Assessingtherisksofenvironmentalstressors:contributiontothedevelopmentof
integratingmethodology
ESPREME:IntegratedassessmentofheavymetalreleasesinEurope
2FUN:Fullchainanduncertaintyapproachesforassessinghealthrisksinfutureenvironmental
scenarios
HEIMTSA:Healthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenarioassessment
INTARESE:IntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
METHODEX:Methodsanddataonenvironmentalandhealthexternalities:harmonising
andsharingofoperationalestimates
NOMIRACLE:NovelmethodsforintegratedriskassessmentofcumulativestressorsinEurope
QALIBRA:Qualityoflife–integratedbenefitandriskanalysiswebbasedtoolforassessingfood
safetyandhealthbenefits
SAFEFOODS:Promotingfoodsafetythroughanewintegratedriskanalysisapproachforfoods
VERHICHILDREN:Valuationofenvironmentrelatedhealthimpactsforchildren
ChapterIV:Projectsfocusedonthedevelopmentofinvitrotoxicitytestingstrategies
ACUTETOX:Optimizationandprevalidationofaninvitroteststrategyforpredictinghumanacute
toxicity
CAESAR:Computerassistedevaluationofindustrialchemicalsubstancesaccordingtoregulations
CARCINOGENOMICS:Developmentofahighthroughputgenomicsbasedtestforassessinggenotoxic
andcarcinogenicpropertiesofchemicalcompoundsinvitro
EXERA:Developmentof3Dinvitromodelsofestrogenreportermousetissuesforthepharmaco
toxicologicalanalysisofnuclearreceptorsinteractingcompounds(NRICs)
OSIRIS:Optimizedstrategiesforriskassessmentofindustrialchemicalsthroughintegration
ofnontestandtestinformation
PREDICTOMICS:Shortterminvitroassaysforlongtermtoxicity
REPROTECT:Developmentofanovelapproachinhazardandriskassessmentorreproductive
toxicitybyacombinationandapplicationofinvitro,tissueandsensortechnologies
SENSITIV:Noveltestingstrategiesforinvitroassessmentofallergens
ChapterV:Projectsfocusedonemergingrisks
CELLNANOTOX:Cellularinteractionandtoxicologywithengineerednanoparticles
CIRCE:Climatechangeandimpactresearch:theMediterraneanenvironment
DIPNA:Developmentofanintegratedplatformfornanoparticleanalysistoverifytheirpossible
toxicityandtheecotoxicity
EDEN:EmergingdiseasesinachangingEuropeanenvironment
ENSEMBLES:ENSEMBLEbasedpredictionsofclimatechangesandtheirimpacts
HEALTHYWATER:Assessmentofhumanhealthimpactsfromemergingmicrobialpathogensin
drinkingwaterbymolecularandepidemiologicalstudies
HIWATE:Healthimpactsoflongtermexposuretodisinfectionbyproductsindrinkingwater
6
147
149
151
155
157
159
136
167
171
173
177
181
185
187
189
193
195
199
203
207
209
213
217
219
223
227
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241
TableofContents
IMPART:Improvingtheunderstandingoftheimpactofnanoparticlesonhumanhealthandthe
environment
MICRODIS:Healthandsocioeconomicimpactsofextremeevents
NANOINTERACT:Developmentofaplatformandtoolkitforunderstandinginteractions
betweennanoparticlesandthelivingworld
NANOSAFE2:Safeproductionanduseofnanomaterials
NANOSH:Inflammatoryandgenotoxiceffectsofengineerednanomaterials
NORMAN:Networkofreferencelaboratoriesandrelatedorganisationsformonitoringofemerging
environmentalpollutants
PARTICLE_RISK:Riskassessmentforparticleexposure
POLYSOA:Polymersinsecondaryorganicaerosols
ChapterVI:Otherprojectsofinterest 1
AnnexAParticipatingcountriesandinstitutesinFP6fundedenvironmentandhealthprojects
AnnexBVariousissuesaddressedbyFP6projects
AnnexCEnvironmentalfactors(stressors)addressedbyFP6projects
AnnexDHealthendpointsaddressedbyFP6projects
1
COSTactions,projectswithminorrelevancetohumanhealth,specificsupportactionsnot
carryingoutresearch
7
245
249
253
257
261
265
269
271
273
277
311
331
337
8
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP5andFP7
EUFUNDINGOFRESEARCH
ONENVIRONMENTAND
HEALTHINFP5ANDFP7
9
10
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP5
EnvironmentandhealthresearchfundedbytheFifthFramework
Programme(FP5–19982002)
FP5wasthefirstEUresearchframeworkprogramme
in which a dedicated environment and health
research activity emerged. Environment and health
researchwasmainlyfundedbytheQualityofLifeand
ManagementofLivingResourcesthemeofFP5,which
had a key action entitled 'Environment and Health'.
Withabudgetof€160millionovertheperiod1998–
2002, this key action initiated more than 90 trans
nationalresearchprojects,theresultsfromwhichare
2
available . The last projects ended in 2008, although
some additional results became available later.
Projects pertaining to ecotoxicological aspects were
also funded by two key actions within the Energy,
Environment
and
Sustainable
Development
programme.
SelectedresultsfromFP5projects:
9 Theadverserespiratoryhealtheffectsoffineparticles,nitrogenoxidesandin
particular smoking were widely demonstrated. The use of biomarkers to give
earlyindicationofeitherpotentialtodevelopdiseaseorevidenceofexposure
showed the utility of this emerging science for a variety of environmental
stressors. These results have effectively fed into the EU policy process on air
pollution;
9 Endocrinerelated reproductive effects were widely studied showing
correlationsbetweenexposuretoarangeofchemicalsandadverseeffectsina
variety of animal models ranging from invertebrates to various mammals.
Humanstudiesshowed,amongothers,thatreproductivehealthisdeteriorating
inseveralregionsinEuropeasevidencedbydecliningspermcountsandother
parameters, but causes behind this change remain unclear. In addition,
developmental and/or neurobehavioural effects of some chemicals were
observedinanimalsaswellasinexposedhumanpopulations;
2
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/pdf/env_health_projects/env_health_brochure.pdf;
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/themes/projects_en.htm#2
11
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP5
9
9
Fears about the adverse health effect of mobile phone use and other
electromagnetic sources were not supported by research findings, although it
canbeconcludedthatmoreresearchisneededtodrawcausalconclusions;
Clear evidence of links between transport noise, classroom performance and
health indicators were made. Noise can have adverse effects on the
cardiovascularsystem.
12
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP7
EnvironmentandhealthresearchfundedbytheSeventh
FrameworkProgramme(FP7–20062013)
Running from 2007 to 2013, FP7 has a budget of 53.2 billion euros over its seven
year lifespan, the largest funding allocation yet for the EU research framework
programmes. It is designed to build on the
achievements of its
predecessors towards
the creation of the
European
Research
Area and carry it
further towards the
development of the
knowledgeeconomyandsocietyinEurope.Since
2010, renewed emphasis has been put on
innovation aspects of the programme to promote growth and jobs, also in
anticipation of the next framework programme, Horizon 2020
theFrameworkProgrammeforResearchandInnovation.
The research activities funded by the FP are mainly managed by two Directorates
3
General (DGs) in the European Commission: DG Research and Innovation and DG
4
InformationSocietyandMedia .SomeactivitiesarealsofundedbyotherDGssuch
5
asDGEnterpriseandIndustryandDGMOVE .
th
More information on the 7 Framework can be found on the CORDIS website
6
dedicatedtoEuropeanresearch .Asynopsisandanalysisof
the projects in the environment and health area from the
7
firstfivecallsforproposalshasbeenpublished .Themain
funding for research has come from the specific
'Environment and Health' subactivity, embedded in the
Environment(includingClimateChange)theme.
3
http://ec.europa.eu/research
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/information_society/index_en.htm
5
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/index_en.htm
6
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/home_en.html
7
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/pdf/fp7_catalogue_eh.pdf;
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/pdf/fp7_catalogue_eh_projects_september_2011.pdf
4
13
14
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
EUFUNDINGOFRESEARCH
ONENVIRONMENTAND
HEALTHINFP6
15
16
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Introduction
This catalogue describes and analyses in some detail 66 projects selected from the
four calls for proposals launched by the European Commission in FP6 (specific
supportactions,whicharenotresearchprojects,arenotincluded;theyarelistedat
theendofthischapter).Itshouldbenotedthatprojectswhichhaveonlyaminoror
indirect health and/or environmental component have been included (e.g.,
8
9
10
ENSEMBLES ,CIRCE ,SAFEFOODS )forthesakeofcompletenessandrelevanceto
environmentandhealthrelevantpolicies.
The 66 projects represent 612 participating institutions from 58 countries from all
overtheworldandhavereceivedatotalEUcontribution€316M(€79Mperannum)
or€283M(€71Mperannum)ifthethreeprojectsmentionedaboveareomitted.
Thesespendinglevelsrepresentasubstantialincreaseascomparedtothespending
in FP5, where approximately €40M per annum were allocated to environment and
healthresearch.
In addition to more traditional smalltomedium scale specific targeted research
projects (STREPs) and coordination actions (CAs), FP6 saw the introduction of two
new funding instruments, namely integrated projects (IPs) and networks of
11
excellence(NoEs) .
x
Theintegratedprojectwasaninstrumenttosupportobjectivedrivenresearch,
where the primary deliverable was new knowledge. The projects were quite
large(thelargestprojectinthiscataloguehas69participatinginstitutions)with
asubstantialbudgetandlongduration(usuallyfiveorsixyears);
x
Networks of excellence were designed to strengthen scientific and
technological excellence on a particular research topic by integrating at
Europeanlevelthecriticalmassofresourcesandexpertiseneededtoprovide
European leadership and to be a world force in that topic. This expertise was
networkedaroundajointprogrammeofactivitiesaimedprincipallyatcreating
aprogressiveanddurableintegrationoftheresearchcapacitiesofthenetwork
partnerswhile,ofcourse,atthesametimeadvancingknowledgeonthetopic.
OnlyfourNoEswerefundedintheenvironmentandhealthareainFP6,allby
ThematicPriority5(FoodQualityandSafety).Theyhadupto34participating
institutionsandhadasimilardurationtothatofIPs.
8
ENSEMBLESEnsemblebasedpredictionsofclimatechangesandtheirimpacts
www.ensembleseu.org
9
CIRCEClimatechangeandimpactresearch:theMediterraneanenvironment
www.circeproject.eu
10
SAFEFOODSPromotingfoodsafetythroughanewintegratedriskanalysisapproachforfoods
www.safefoods.wur.nl
11
http://cordis.europa.eu/fp6/instruments.htm
17
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
One of the main drivers for environment and health research during the course of
FP6hasbeentheEuropeanEnvironmentandHealth
StrategyandtheassociatedActionPlan,adoptedin
12
2004 , the first phase of which cam to an end in
2010. This initiative aimed to improve our
understanding of the links between environmental
factorsandhealthandwaspartiallyinspiredbythe
needtolinkpolicywithresearchresults.TheActionPlanhasservedasacatalystto
increaseresearchspendingattheEUlevel,i.e.,FP6.FouroftheactionsintheAction
Planwererelatedtoresearch.
Theavailabilityofextraresourcesandpolicysupporthasallowedtheconcentration
andrefocusingofeffortstobuildupaEuropeanResearchAreainspecificfieldsof
environmental health science. The research/policy interface was enhanced by the
introductionintheFP6ofaspecific'ScientificSupporttoPolicy'programme,which
allowed the close exchange of ideas between research and policymakers and the
discussionofpolicyoptionsandpolicyimplicationsofresearchundertaken.
Astudycarriedoutbyanexternalimpactassessmentbody
on the longerterm impact of European Union funding of
research in the field of Environment and Health was
fundedbyDGResearchandInnovationin2010.Thestudy
concluded,interalia,that
x
There is objective evidence that projects funded by
theFPshavecontributedtonumerousEUpolicies:EU
researchonenvironmentandhealthhasalreadyhad
importantpolicyimpact;
x
AnimportantlongertermimpactoftheEUfundingis
that the environment and health research has
created an important common European research platform with a very high
degreeoflegitimacyamongtheactors.Actorsexpressedawishtoincreasethe
Europeancooperationonenvironmentandhealthresearchfurtherintheyears
tocome;
x
NationallevelstakeholdersaremoreconvincedthanEUlevelstakeholdersthat
the funded research projects/activities in the area of environment and health
havecomplementedand/orcontributedtonationalpolicies/actions;
x
Gaps remain both at research and policy levels that need to be filled in the
future.
Thedetailedconclusionsarepublicallyavailableinareport.
12
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/general_provisions/l28133_en.htm
18
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Environment and health research funded by FP6 has fed and has the potential to
feedintoalargenumberofpolicyinitiativessuchasTheEuropeanEnvironmentand
Health Action Plan, the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, the Community
Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters and the REACH regulation on chemicals. Each of
theprojectsheetsincludedinthiscatalogueidentifiesthemainpoliciestowhichthe
projectcouldcontributeorhascontributedalready.
By the end of 2011 all except one project have ended and thus final results are
available. However, it should be noted that many projects still continue publishing
resultsinscientificjournals,andsomeactivitiescontinueinotherprojectsfundedby
FP7.
19
20
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Researchprogrammesandtrendsoffundingenvironmentand
healthresearchinFP6
Environment and health research has a very wide scope and is of multidisciplinary
nature. For this reason, funding for this activity spans across several thematic
programmesandDirectoratesintheEuropeanCommission'sDirectorateGeneralfor
Research (currently called DG Research and Innovation). Thus, several sources of
fundingoccurredusingvariousfundinginstrumentsorschemes.
As seen in Fig. 1 and Table 1, the main funding area for
environment and health research projects in FP6 was the
'EnvironmentalHealthRisks'areaoftheThematicPriority5(Food
Quality and Safety). It funded 20 projects with a total EC
contribution of around €128M. This represents 30% of all
projectsand41%ofthetotalECcontributiontoenvironmentand
healthresearch.
The
Thematic
priority
6 (Sustainable
Development,
Global
Change
and
Ecosystems)
and 1
(Life Sciences;
Innovative
Medicines
Initiative,
PovertyRelated Diseases, Stem Cells) funded 16 and 12 projects, respectively. This
represents 24% and 18% (at EC contribution level: 28% and 21%) of all projects,
respectively. The Thematic Priority 1 projects were predominated by those
addressingthedevelopment ofalternativetoxicitytestingmethods,whereasPriority
6fundedprojectsweremorediverse.
Unlike in the past, some funding started to emerge for
nanotoxicological research from the Thematic priority 3
(Nanotechnologies and Nanoscience, KnowledgeBased
Multifunctional Materials, and New Production Processes and
Devises).11%oftheprojects,representing6%ofallFP6budget
for environment and health projects, were funded from this
ThematicPriority.
FP6hadaspecificareadevotedtoscientificsupporttopolicies(oftenreferredtoas
'Priority8').Inthisareathecalltopicswereelaboratedinclose
collaboration with the policy DirectoratesGeneral of the
21
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
EuropeanCommission.Thenineprojectsfundedintheenvironmentandhealtharea
represent 14% of all projects funded but only 4% of total funding (the projects
fundedwererathersmall).
Sustained–andevenincreasedfundingbyFP6toenvironmentandhealthresearch
can be speculated to be attributable to several factors, including continued public
concern for environment and health issues, the impetus provided by the European
Environment and Health Action Plan 20042010, and support from policy
DirectorateGenerals in the Commission, which recognise that to implement a
numberofpoliciesattheEUlevelscientificsupportisneeded.Forthesereasonsthe
three research framework programmes (FP5, FP6, FP7) have each had a dedicated
environmentandhealthresearchactivityorsubactivity.
22
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Fig.1.
SchematicrepresentationofEUfundingtoenvironmentandhealthrelatedresearch
byvariousthematicprioritiesinFP6
140
120
100
80
No. of projects
EU contribution (€M)
60
40
20
0
No. of projects
EU contribution (€M)
1
3
5
6
8
12
7
20
16
9
NEST
2
65,3
19,2
127,9
89,8
12,4
1,6
1=Thematicpriority1:LifeSciences;InnovativeMedicinesInitiative,PovertyRelated
Diseases,StemCells
3=Thematicpriority3:NanotechnologiesandNanosciences,KnowledgeBased
MultifunctionalMaterials,andNewProductionProcessandDevises
5=Thematicpriority5:FoodqualityandSafety('Environmentalhealthrisks'sub
area)
6=Thematicpriority6:SustainableDevelopment,GlobalChangeandEcosystems
(Complementaryresearchsubarea)
8=ScientificSupporttoPolicy(socalled'Priority8'):Policyorientedresearchin
specificactivitiescoveringwiderfieldofresearch
NEST=NewandEmergingScienceandTechnologyprogramme
23
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironment andHealthinFP6
Table1.
ThematicprioritiesandotherFP6programmesfromwhich
environmentandhealthrelatedactivitieswerefunded
Mainenvironmentandhealthissueaddressed
Nbprojects
EUcontri
bution
(€M)
ThematicPriority1LifeSciences;InnovativeMedicinesInitiative,PovertyRelated
Diseases,StemCells
Developmentoftoxicitytestingmethods
9
Coordinationofresearchonbiobankingandcohorts
1
0.8
Environmentalcausesofallergy/asthma
1
11.3
Roleofchemicalsondevelopmentandageing
Total
43.2
1
10.0
12
65.3
Thematicpriority3NanotechnologiesandNanoscience,KnowledgeBased
MultifunctionalMaterials,andNewProductionProcessesandDevises
Invitrotoxicityofnanoparticles
3
8.7
Coordinationofnanotoxicologyresearch
2
1.1
Invitroandinvivotoxicityofnanoparticles
1
2.4
Safetyofnanomaterials
Total
1
7.0
7
19.2
ThematicPriority5Foodqualityandsafety('Environmentalhealthrisks'subarea)
Food/environmentalcontaminantsforchemicalrisk
assessment
9
58.2
Methodologiesandmodelsforrisk/benefitanalysisof
foodcontaminants
4
14.7
Environmentalcancerrisks
2
11.4
Environmentalcausesofallergy/asthma
2
28.7
Detection/monitoringofenvironmental/food
contaminants
1
12.3
Developmentoftoxicitytestingmethods
1
0.2
Waterbornemicrobialcontaminantsfor
microbiologicalriskassessment
1
2.4
20
127.9
Total
24
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
ThematicPriority6Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems
(Complementaryresearchsubarea)
Methodologiesandmodelsforintegratedenvironment
andhealthrisk/impactassessment
5
29.9
Coordinationofresearch
3
5.5
Impactsofclimatechange
3
36.5
Methodologiesandmodelsforcost/benefitanalysisof
environmentalcontaminants
3
2.9
Impactsofextremeevents
1
5.0
Developmentoftoxicitytestingmethods
1
10.0
16
89.8
Total
13
'Priority8 'Policyorientedresearchinspecificactivitiescoveringawiderfieldof
research
Coordinationofresearchonindoorairquality
2
1.6
Waterbornemicrobialcontaminantsfor
microbiologicalriskassessment
2
4.2
Food/environmentalcontaminantsforchemicalrisk
assessment
1
1.5
Coordinationofresearchonhealtheffectsofnon
ionisingradiation(electromagneticfields)
1
1.5
Coordinationofresearchonbiomonitoringof
environmentalcontaminants
1
1.1
Developmentoftoxicitytestingmethods
1
1.5
Valuationofenvironmentrelatedhealthimpacts
1
1.0
9
12.4
Riskassessmentofairpollution
2
1.6
Total
2
1.6
Grandtotal
66
316.2*
Total
NESTNewandemergingscienceandtechnologies
*Thegrandtotalisapprox.€283Mifthreeprojectswithonlyaminorhealth
component(ENSEMBLES,SAFEFOODSandCIRCE)areexcluded
13
Notanofficialterm,butwasfrequentlyusedforthisactivity
25
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Projecttypes
Amongst the project types funded from the various Thematic Priorities, there is a
clear predominance of specific targeted research projects (STREPs 39% of all
projects funded; average EU contribution of €2M per project) and integrated
projects(IPs;30%ofallprojectsfunded;average€10.4Mperproject).Theaverage
number of participants in STREPs was 10 (smallest 4, largest 19 participating
institutions),whichishigherthantheaverageinFP5.Theaveragenumber–36of
participantsinIPsismuchhigher(smallest19,largest68participatinginstitutions).
There are differences between the various Thematic Priorities: IPs were used as a
fundinginstrumentespeciallybyThematicPriority1and6.
DuetothelargenumberandtopicareasofSTREPsfunded,itisdifficulttohighlight
theirachievements.NotableintegratedprojectsfundedbyFP6includethoseaiming
at finding alternative methods and intelligent testing strategies for chemicals (e.g.,
14
15
16
REPROTECT , ACUTETOX , OSIRIS ), promoting integrated environment and
17
18
health impact and risk assessment methodologies (INTARESE and HEIMTSA ) or
exploring the risk for spreading of infectious diseases due to climate change
19
(EDEN ).Inadditiontoadvancingscientificknowledgeandproducingnewdata,IPs
alsoundertookmanytraininganddisseminationactivitiesandresearcherexchanges
werecommonwithinEuropeandbeyond.
The introduction of networks of excellence as a funding scheme in FP6 to fight
fragmentation resulted in the funding of four projects only, all in the Thematic
Priority5.TheaverageEUcontributiontoaNoEwas€13Mandtheaveragenumber
ofparticipatinginstitutions26(range19to34).Thesmallernumberofparticipating
institutionsmayreflectthefactthattherewasarequirementfordurableintegration
for this type of funding instrument; it would be easier with a smaller number of
participants.Inadditiontotheirscientificaccomplishments,themajorachievement
of Networks of Excellence was the numerous training activities offered both to
network participants and beyond, in addition to many targeted dissemination
activitiesengagingmanytypesofstakeholders.
14
REPROTECTDevelopmentofanovelapproachinhazardandriskassessmentorreproductive
toxicity by a combination and application of in vitro, tissue and sensor technologies www.reprotect.eu
15
ACUTETOXOptimisationandprevalidationofaninvitroteststrategyforpredictinghuman
acutetoxicitywww.acutetox.eu
16
OSIRIS Optimized strategies for risk assessment of chemicals based on intelligent testing www.osiris.ufz.de
17
INTARESE Integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors in Europe www.intarese.org
18
HEIMTSA Health and environment integrated methodology and toolbox for scenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
19
EDENEmergingdiseasesinachangingEuropeanenvironmentwww.edenfp6project.net
27
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
The four networks of excellence were projects dealing with allergy and asthma
2
20
21
(GA LEN ), environmental cancer risks (ECNIS ), endocrine disrupting chemicals
22
(CASCADE ) and harmonisation of analytical methods for monitoring quality and
23
safetyinthefoodchain(MONIQA ).
x
GA²LEN has achieved sustainability and is continuing
as a nonprofit network, building on the foundation
provided by the six years of FP6 funding. This
network,GA²LENe.V.,isbasedattheCharitéHospital
inBerlin. GA²LENprovidescontinuoussupporttoEU
initiativesbutiscurrentlyseekingfurtherfundingnot
only for the durable structure but also to allow the outputs needed to offer
panEuropeansurveillanceonallergiesforEUpolicies.
x
The ECNIS NoE was only the first stage of the
processofcreatingastronglyintegratedandviable
Europeanresearchnetwork.Havingdrawntogether
themostrelevantpartiestowardsthistaskandalso
having identified the major gaps in available data
and biomarker validation, the network deemed it as necessary to cement the
integrationonamorepermanentbasis.Thisideahasbecomeamajorgoalof
theECNIS2project,fundedbytheSeventhFrameworkProgrammeofResearch,
with an ultimate goal of transforming network into a virtual centre, the
EuropeanCentreforResearchandEducationonCancer,EnvironmentandFood
(ECRECEF).
x
Aftersixbusyyears,CASCADENoEbecomeCASCADEACERT,
a nonprofit association, which will continue to offer
training, risk assessment and collaborative partnership as
the leading European network within endocrine research.
An international postdoctoral programme (CASCADE
FELLOWS) to continue the research and researcher
exchangeactivitiesofCASCADEhasbeenestablished.
x
Atameetingheldin2010,theMONIQA
Governing Council decided that
sustainability of MONIQA will be
20
GA2LENGlobalallergyandasthmaEuropeannetworkwww.ga2len.net
ECNISEnvironmentalcancerrisk,nutritionandindividualsusceptibilitywww.ecnis.org
22
CASCADEChemicalsascontaminantsinthefoodchain:ANoEforresearch,riskassessment
andeducationwww.cascadenet.org
23
MONIQATowardstheharmonisationofanalyticalmethodsformonitoringqualityandsafety
inthefoodchainwww.moniqa.org
21
28
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
implemented through a new legal entity. This new entity, referred to as
MoniQA Association, was launched in 2011. It is registered as a nonprofit
distributing association (Verein) established in Vienna, Austria and subject to
thelawsofthatjurisdiction.TheMoniQAAssociationisaninternationalgroup
of organisations dedicated to promoting safer food by, e.g., promoting
harmonisationofanalyticalapproachesinfoodsafetyandqualityandproviding
infrastructure for, and establishing, an international network for inter
laboratoryvalidationtrialsforanalyticalmethodsandreferencematerials.
Coordinationactionsaimtopromoteandsupportthenetworkingandcoordination
of research and innovation activities. They can cover activities such as the
organisation of conferences, performance of studies, exchanges of personnel or
dissemination of good practices. Throughout the recent framework programmes a
rather constant proportion of projects have been coordination actions (CA), in FP6
receiving an average EU contribution of around €1.3 M. The average number of
participating institutions was 21 (range from 8 to 41). The coordination actions do
notallowresearchactivitiestobefundedbutareaimedtosupportcoordinationand
harmonisation of researchrelevant actions. They oftentimes identify research gaps
24
and are sometimes followed by more targeted research projects (e.g., ENVIE in
25
FP6,OFFICAIR inFP7).
Three highprofile coordination actions were funded by the 'Scientific Support to
26
Policy' programme in FP6, namely EMFNET on health risks related to
27
28
electromagnetic fields, ENVIE on indoor air quality, and ESBIO on harmonising
humanbiomonitoringinEurope.
Inadditiontothefourprojecttypesmentionedabove,eightspecificsupportactions
were funded in FP6. This funding instrument is used for activities such as
organisationofconferences,operationalsupportanddissemination.Theseprojects
arelistedinChapterVI.
24
ENVIE Coordination action on indoor air quality and health effects www.envie
iaq.eu/home.html
25
OFFICAIROnthereductionofhealtheffectsfromcombinedexposuretoindoorairpollutants
inmodernofficeswww.officairproject.eu
26
EMFNETEffectsoftheexposuretoelectromagneticfields:fromsciencetopublichealthand
saferworkplacehttp://web.jrc.ec.europa.eu/emfnet
27
ENVIECoordinationactiononindoorairqualityandhealtheffectswww.envie
iaq.eu/home.html
28
ESBIO–DevelopmentofacoherentapproachtohumanbiomonitoringinEuropewww.eu
humanbiomonitoring.org/sub/esbio.htm
29
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
CountriesandinstitutesparticipatinginFP6fundedenvironment
andhealthrelatedresearchprojects
All but one (Malta) EU member states were
representedintheprojectsfundedbyFP6.Asseen
in Fig. 2 and Annex A, Great Britain, Germany and
Italy participated in over 40 projects, Belgium,
Finland,France,theNetherlands,SpainandSweden
in over 30 projects, and the Czech Republic,
Denmark, Greece, and Poland in over 20 projects.
Germany and Great Britain had the greatest
numberofparticipatinginstitutionsaswell(over80each),followedbyItaly,France,
Spain,theNetherlands,SwedenandPoland.
FromotherEuropeancountriesthelargestparticipationwasthatofSwitzerland(23
institutionsin21projects),followedbyNorway(30institutionsin21projects).
FromoutsideEurope,participantsincluded:
9Africancountries;
5countriesfromtheAmericas;
9 Asian countries, with Israel having a significant participation with 11
participatinginstitutionsin7projects;
AustraliaandNewZealand.
As regards the participation of international organisations, the United Nations was
representedbyfourinstitutions,includingtheWorldHealthOrganization.TheJoint
ResearchCentreparticipatedin20projects.Theother19internationalparticipants
included associations funded by industry, and patient and other nongovernmental
organisations.
Table 2 gives an overview of the most active participating institutes in FP6
environmentandhealthrelatedresearchprojects.
31
EUFundingofResearchonEnvironmentandHealthinFP6
Fig.2.
ParticipatingcountriesandinstitutesinFP6environmentandhealthrelatedprojects
100
90
80
70
60
No. of projects
50
No. of institutes
40
30
20
10
0
AT
BE
BU
CY
CZ
DK
EE
FI
FR
DE
EL
HU
IE
IT
LV
LT
LU
NL
PL
No. of projects
17
31
7
2
22
24
4
33
35
49
20
14
12
45
3
6
2
38
27
9
4
8
8
32
34
51
No. of institutes
17
17
5
1
13
19
3
18
65
88
16
14
14
72
3
5
2
31
21
PT RO
8
8
SK
6
SI
6
ES
54
SE
24
UK
82
Table2.
ThemostactiveinstitutionsparticipatinginFP6projects
Nb
Institute
20
JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra(IT)
14
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge(SE)
13
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),Bilthoven(NL)
11
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,London(UK)
10
UtrechtUniversity(NL)
9
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Helsinki/Kuopio(FI);FlemishInstitutefor
TechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol(BE);InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),
variouslocations(NL);NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome(IT);NationalInstituteof
HealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),variouslocations(FR);NoferInstituteof
OccupationalMedicine,ód(PL)
8
CharlesUniversity,Prague(CZ);VUUniversity,Amsterdam(NL)
7
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,Brussels/LouvainlaNeuve(BE);NorwegianInstitutefor
AirResearch(NILU),Kjeller(NO);StockholmUniversity,SE;TechnicalUniversityof
Denmark,KongensLyngby(DK);
6
AarhusUniversity,Aarhus/Roskilde(DK);FraunhoferInstitute,variouslocations(DE);
FreeUniversityofBrussels(BE);HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,
Munich(DE);InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,Milan(IT);Maastricht
University(NL);MaxPlanckInstitute,variouslocations(DE);UniversityofEastAnglia,
Norwich(UK);UniversityofMilan(IT);UniversityofOslo(NO);UniversityofStuttgart
(DE);WageningenUniversity(NL)
5
CatholicUniversityofLeuven(BE);FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki(FI);
LundUniversity(SE);NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens(EL);NationalCentre
forScientificResearch(CNRS),variouslocations(FR);NationalInstituteforAgricultural
Research(INRA),variouslocations(FR);NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague(CZ);
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),variouslocations(ES);SlovakMedical
University,Bratislava(SK);UniversityofCrete,Heraklion(EL);UniversityofOxford(UK);
UniversityofSouthampton(UK)
32
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
ENVIRONMENTANDHEALTH
ISSUESADDRESSEDBYTHE
PROJECTSFUNDED
33
34
EnvironmentandHealthIssues AddressedbytheProjectsFunded
GeneralIssues
H EALTH
AsseeninAnnexB,environmentandhealthprojectsfundedbyFP6addressedavery
large number of crosscutting and more targeted issues, some issues being more
environmentallyorientedwhereasotherhadtheirfocusonhealth.
Inadditiontocarryingoutresearchactivitiesperse,nearlyhalfoftheprojectsalso
reviewedstateofthescienceonvariousissues,producingsynopsisreportsorother
materials.Examplesofprojectsinclude:
29
x
The HENVINET health and environment network, funded through as a
coordination action by the Thematic Priority 6, had the ambitious task to
provide policy support and to establish a longterm cooperation between
researchers, policy makers and other
stakeholders in the area of environment
andhealthresearchandassessment.The
project reviewed, exploited and
on
disseminated
knowledge
environmentalhealthissuesbasedonresearchandpractices.Thefourpriority
diseases and disorders, broadly defined in the European Environment and
Health Action Plan 20042010, were chosen as the topics the project focused
on: Asthma and allergies; cancer; neurodevelopmental disorders; endocrine
disruptingeffects.
30
x
The CAIR4HEALTH support action aimed at strengthening,
reviewing and exploiting research results, obtained by
Europeanandotherprojectsinthepast,relatedtoairquality
andhealthimpacts.Itidentifiedandanalysedtheknowledge
gapsandresearchneedsinthefieldofairqualityandhealth, CAIR
and the outcomes from the project form a scientifically
soundbasistosupporttheEuropeanairqualityandhealthmanagementpolicy
development.Someoftheresearchrecommendationsarebeingimplemented
31
by a project called TRANSPHORM , funded by the Seventh Framework
Programme.
29
HENVINETHealthandenvironmentnetworkhttp://henvinet.nilu.no
CAIR4HEALTHCleanairforhealth–researchneedsforsustainabledevelopmentpolicies
www.cair4health.eu
31
TRANSPHORMTransportrelatedairpollutionandhealthimpactsintegratedmethodologies
forassessingparticulatematterwww.transphorm.eu
30
35
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
x
32
EMFNET , which included 39 participating institutions
including WHO, industrial representatives and NGOs,
collatedresearchresultsfromEUfundedprojectsandother
national and international actions, provided a regular
updateonEMFresearchandrelevantinterpretation/advice
forthefacilitationofpolicydevelopmentoptionsbytheEU
and other bodies. It published more than 40 reports and 20 fact sheets and
expert opinions, 4 EMF and health related volumes, and organized and co
organized various seminars, workshops and conferences on specific policy
relatedEMFandhealthtopics.Theseareavailableontheprojectwebsite.
AnumberofprojectsfundedbyFP6madeanefforttoworktowardsharmonisingof
methods and approaches to specific issues, and provided guidelines and good
practiceexamplesforpotentialendusers.Twoexamples:
x
A group of 22 European experts on human biomonitoring, coming from
national governments, research institutes, industry and nongovernmental
organisations in 17 EU member states and
Croatia, worked together in the ESBIO
33
coordination action to prepare a coordinated
European approach on human biomonitoring.
The funding of ESBIO was the first step in a
longerterm perspective aimed at developing a
coherent approach to human biomonitoring in Europe. The work continues
34
35
throughthefollowupprojectsCOPHES andDEMOCOPHES ,fundedbyFP7
andLIFE+programme,respectively.Thefundingofthisprojectwasthedirect
resultoftheAction3 ofEuropeanEnvironmentandHealthActionPlan2004
2010, which called for harmonising human biomonitoring approaches in
Europe.
36
x
The main objective of the PRONET project was to
facilitateexchangeandevaluationofinterventionson
environmentandhealthexposurereductionmeasures
on a regional level and promote implementation of
successful initiatives in other regions of Europe. This
PRONET
projectfocusedontheexchangeofusefulpracticesin
32
EMFNETEffectsoftheexposuretoelectromagneticfields:fromsciencetopublichealthand
saferworkplacehttp://web.jrc.ec.europa.eu/emfnet
33
ESBIO–DevelopmentofacoherentapproachtohumanbiomonitoringinEuropewww.eu
humanbiomonitoring.org/sub/esbio.htm
34
COPHESEuropeancoordinationactiononhumanbiomonitoringwww.euhbm.info
35
DEMOCOPHESDemonstrationofastudytocoordinateandperformhumanbiomonitoringon
aEuropeanscalehttp://www.euhbm.info/democophes
36
PRONETPollutionreductionoptionsnetworkwww.proneteurope.eu
36
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
two areas: (i) the reduction of transportrelated health hazards (air pollution
and noise); and (ii) improvement of the indoor environment. As they are key
areas in environmental policy the health of the population would benefit
significantlyfromexposurereductionmeasures.PRONETsetupaninformation
exchange platform for the development of effective and efficient health
promotionbased policies and it formed a network of regional authorities and
researchersatEuropean,nationalandregionallevel.
Many projects funded by FP6 have contributed to building databases and
inventoriescontainingdataon,e.g.,specificenvironmentalcontaminants.
37
x
The NORMAN network , now established
as a permanent selfsustaining network of
reference laboratories, research centres
and related organisations for the
monitoring and biomonitoring of emerging environmental substances, had as
its mainmission is to enhance the exchange of information and collection of
dataonemergingenvironmentalsubstances.Itcontributedtothedevelopment
ofthreedatabases:
EMPOMAP: database of leading experts, organisations and projects
dealingwithemergingsubstances;
EMPODAT: a database of georeferenced monitoring data accompanied
byecotoxicologicalinformationfrombioassaysandbiomarkers;contains
over8000entries;
EMPOMASS:databaseofmassspectrometricinformationonprovisionally
identifiedandunknownsubstances.
InnovationinFP6projects
FP6 projects used innovative approaches to advance knowledge on environment
health relationships. Innovation is most evident in the development of methods,
toolsandapproachesforenvironmentalandhealthresearchtoadvancethecurrent
stateofscienceinvariousaspectsofenvironmentandhealthresearch,includingthe
understanding of mechanisms of disease development, and to support evolving
policiesandpolicyassessments.Outstandingexamplesinclude:
x
Methods for combined exposure to chemicals and other environmental
stressors: Risk assessment of chemicals is a highly developed discipline,
exemplified by a large body of international, regional or national/federal
guidelines for the domain of environment and human health. Such guidelines
are directed towards the generation of valid and reliable assessment data to
helpriskmanagerssetprioritiesandregulationsinthegoalofriskreduction.All
37
NORMANNetworkofreferencelaboratoriesandrelatedorganisationsformonitoringandbio
monitoringofemergingenvironmentalpollutantswww.normannetwork.com/index_php.php
37
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
guidelines apply to the assessment of single chemicals or of commercial
compounds as are present in products. No systematic approach exists for
assessing chemical mixtures which are the predominant exposure scenario in
38
the real world. Therefore, the NOMIRACLE project addressed the following
major shortcomings that exist within the current assessment approaches: i)
they bear on direct effects of single compounds or
products;ii)theydealwithuncertaintybyapplying
defaultassumptions(‘safetyfactors’)whicharenot
strictlybasedonscientificprinciples;iii)theydonot
accountformultiplestressorsandindirecteffectsin
a dynamic and heterogeneous environment; iv) they typically do not account
forcumulative(integratedovertime,space,substances)effects;andv)theydo
notallowforsitespecificandotherspatiallydetailedevaluations.Thekeytask
of NOMIRACLE has been to meet and overcome such shortcomings, by
developing novel methods and an overall conceptual framework for such
complex risk assessments. The work has resulted in new tools and methods,
scientificfindingsanddraftguidancedocuments.Thenewmethodsarepublicly
availableintheNOMIRACLEToolBoxontheprojectwebsite.
x
Methods for intelligent testing strategies for chemicals: According to the
REACH regulation, until 2018, all industrial chemicals with market volumes
above1tonneperannumhavetobeevaluatedandacceptedaccordingtothis
regulationwithrespecttotheirecotoxicologicalandtoxicologicalprofiles.Itis
estimatedthatthiswillconcernca.20000industrialchemicalsinthenext10
years. Integrated testing strategies shift risk assessment from a “boxticking”
approachwithextensiveanimaltestingtoamoreefficient,contextspecificand
substancetailored approach. The underlying principle is to take advantage of
existing information, to group information about similar substances and to
integrate exposure considerations. The different and possibly contradictory
informationisweighedandtherespectiveuncertaintiestakenintoaccountina
WeightofEvidence(WoE)approach.Thusitcombinesallavailabletestingand
non testing data and concludes whether or not additional data is needed. In
case of data gaps, the intelligent testing strategy proposes the most
appropriatemethodtoacquirethemissinginformation.Ideally,withregardto
the 3R principle of replacement, reduction and refinement of animal testing,
nontesting methods such as in vitro assays and QSAR (qualitative or
quantitativestructureactivityrelationships)methodsarepreferredforthis
38
NOMIRACLENovelmethodsforintegratedriskassessmentofcumulativestressorsinEurope
http://nomiracle.jrc.ec.europa.eu
38
EnvironmentandHealthIssues AddressedbytheProjectsFunded
39
purpose. Within this perspective, the OSIRIS integrated project developed integrated testing
strategiesthatenabletosignificantlyincreasetheuse
of nontesting information
for regulatory decision
making,andthustominimisetheneedforanimaltesting.
40
Onasmallerscale,theCAESAR projectbuiltmodelsto
predict toxicity of chemical substances for REACH, using
QSARapproaches.
x
Methods and tools for integrated environmental health impact assessment:
41
42
The HEIMTSA and INTARESE integrated
43
projects, with contributions from the 2FUN project, have developed a general methodology of
integratedenvironmentalhealthimpactassessment
(IEHIA), from emissions through to health impacts, aggregated via disability
adjusted life years (DALYs) and/or via monetary values and that incorporates
human health risk assessment as an integral
component. The two main projects have
elaboratedthatmethodologybydevelopingand
working through the full chain approach for
application EUwide for many pollutants, and demonstrated its application to
the environmental health impact assessment
of policies in several sectors, including the
complex set of policies and measures to
address climate change. The IEHIA
methodologydevelopedandproposedhasbeenrelatedtootherapproachesto
environmental HIA, e.g., the (modified) DPSEEA framework of WHO, and also
situatedwithinthebroaderandmoreencompassingfieldofHIAgenerally.This
provides a significant progress beyond the
stateoftheart when the projects began. A
toolbox was designed to help people design
andcarryoutintegratedenvironmentalhealth
impact assessments. It is aimed primarily at
policymakerswhomaycommissionassessmentsorneedtouse
39
OSIRISOptimizedstrategiesforriskassessmentofchemicalsbasedonintelligenttesting
www.osiris.ufz.de
40
CAESARComputerassistedevaluationofindustrialchemicalsubstancesaccordingto
regulationswww.caesarproject.eu
41
HEIMTSAHealthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
42
INTARESEIntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
www.intarese.org
43
2FUNFullchainanduncertaintyapproachesforassessinghealthrisksinfuture
environmentalscenarioswww.2fun.org
39
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
their results and scientists responsible for conducting assessments. However, it is
alsoexpectedtobeusefulforotherstakeholdersinvolvedinassessments,aswellas
students who wish to learn about the principles and methods used. The toolbox is
available at www.integratedassessment.eu. See also Technical Brief 8: Lessons
LearnedandUserAssessmentavailableontheprojectwebsite.
x
Development of risk/benefit analysis methods for food contaminants: Two
44
45
projects,workingtogetherinacluster,namelyBENERIS andQALIBRA ,were
funded,inadditiontoaspecificsupport
46
action BRAFO . The general objective
of BENERIS was to create a framework
for handling complicated benefitrisk
situations, and apply it for analysis of
the benefits and risks of certain foods.
Thefirstfood commoditytobeusedinthedevelopmentofthe methodology
was fish. The main outcomes of BENERIS are improved methodology (open
assessment) for benefitrisk assessments,
the web workspace Opasnet for
performing them in a collaborative way,
andtheOpasnetBasedatabasecontaining
readytouseinformationneededinassessments.QALIBRA,ontheotherhand,
developed a suite of quantitative methods for assessing
and integrating beneficial and adverse effects of foods
and apply them to selected food groups. The project
developed a generalised modular approach to benefit
riskanalysisusingmenusofdoseresponseandvaluation
functions.Thesecovereddifferenttypesofpositiveandnegativehealtheffects
that are commonly encountered in food safety assessment. The benefitrisk
analysis methods developed in QALIBRA were implemented in webenabled
softwareavailableforusebyallstakeholdersviaanintegratedwebsite.
x
The use of 'omics' and other approaches for
biomarker
development:
The
25partner
47
NEWGENERIS integrated project investigated
maternal exposure during pregnancy to selected
carcinogenic and immunotoxic chemicals and
evaluatedtheresultingfoetal(inutero)exposureand
44
BENERISBenefitriskassessmentforfood:aniterativevalueofinformationapproach
www.qalibrabeneris.eu
45
QALIBRAQualityoflifeintegratedbenefitandriskanalysiswebbasedtoolforassessingfood
safetyandhealthbenefitswww.qalibra.eu
46
BRAFOSpecificsupportactiontoinvestigatetheriskbenefitanalysisforfoods
www.brafo.org
47
NEWGENERISDevelopmentandapplicationofbiomarkersofdietaryexposuretogenotoxic
andimmunotoxicchemicalsandofbiomarkersofearlyeffects,usingmotherchildbirthcohorts
andbiobankswww.newgeneris.org
40
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
its effects on the foetus and in later childhood, particularly in relation with
childhoodcancerandimmunedisorders.Themainresearchtoolemployedby
NEWGENERISwasbiomarkers,i.e.,chemicalsorcellularcomponentsmeasured
inhumanfluidsortissues,indicativeofexposuretotoxicchemicalsoroftheir
early biological effects. For biomarkers of exposure, high throughput
techniques were developed. For biomarkers of carcinogenic risk – phenotypic
effects, maternal and umbilical cord blood lymphocytes were analysed for
micronucleiandmarkersofapoptosis/necrosisandinvitroproliferationrates.
For biomarkers of carcinogenic risks genomic effects, new biomarkers were
developed, based on the transcriptomic and proteomic signatures of the
chemicalsofinterestinmaternalandcordbloodcells.Concerninggenotyping
markersofsusceptibility,highthroughputanalysisofpolymorphismsencoding
forsusceptibilitypredisposinggeneswascarriedout.
48
The PREDICTOMICS project aimed at developing a novel platform for
anticipating liver and kidney
chronic toxicity elicited by drugs
and xenobiotics. By combining “omics” technologies and advanced cellular
models, PREDICTOMICS provided valuable tools for reliable screening of new
drugcandidatesbythepharmaceuticalindustry,aswellpotentialtoxins.
x
x
Theuseoftransgenicanimals:Transgenicmiceareoftenusedtostudycellular
andtissuespecificresponsestodisease.TheEXERAprojectdevelopednovel3D
in vitro models of mouse tissues from five major organs for the pharmaco
toxicological analysis of oestrogen receptor
interactingcompounds.Theimprovedsystems
generatedandexploitedinEXERAcanbeused
astoolsforthecharacterisationofnewlysynthesized drugsthatinteractwith
nuclear receptors and for the risk assessment of industrial “hormones”
(chemicals)thatmaycontaminatethefoodandtheenvironment.
Employing largescale environmental epidemiology: In FP6, the European
Commission for the first time funded truly largescale environmental
epidemiological studies, the best examples being the
49
NEWGENERIS and PHIME integrated projects.
NEWGENERIS, already mentioned above under
biomarker development, encompassed biobanks
representing a total of around 300 000 motherchild
pairs, constituting in effect a virtual European birth
megacohortwithsubjectscomingfromregionswithawidediversityof
48
PREDICTOMICSShortterminvitroassaysforlongtermtoxicity
www.predictomics.com/principal.htm
49
PHIMEPublichealthimpactoflongterm,lowlevelmixedelementexposureinsusceptible
populationstratawww.phime.org
41
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
environmental conditions and dietary and lifestyle habits. This makes
NEWGENERISoneofthelargeststudiesofitskindeverconductedandprovides
it with a unique potential to discern the role of foodborne chemicals in the
aetiologyofchildhoodcancerandimmunedisease.
PHIME has been examining the links between longterm lowlevel exposure
toxicmetalsonthenervoussystem(parkinsonism,hearing
deficiency, peripheral neuropathy), coronary heart disease
(CHD),stroke,osteoporoticfractures,diabetesmellitustype
I and II and endstage renal disease. The project has
examined thousands of subjects of all ages, including
motherchildpairs,fromavarietyofregionsextendingfrom
theFaroeIslandstoSeychellesandChina.
42
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Environmentalstressorsaddressed
Chemicals
Chemicalsbringaboutbenefitsonwhichmodernsociety
is entirely dependent, for example, in food production,
medicines, textiles, cars etc. They also make a vital
contribution to the economic and social wellbeing of
citizens in terms of trade and employment. The global
production of chemicals has increased from 1 million
tonnesin 1930tohundredsof millionsoftonnes.There
areabout100000differentsubstancesregisteredinthe
EUmarketofwhich10000aremarketedinvolumesofmorethan10tonnes,anda
further20000aremarketedat110tonnes.ThechemicalindustryisEurope’sthird
largestmanufacturingindustry.
However, certain chemicals have caused damage to human health and the
environment,resultinginsufferingandprematuredeath.Wellknownexamplesare
asbestos,whichisknowntocauselungcancerandmesothelioma,orbenzenewhich
canleadtoleukaemia.
Thelackofknowledgeabouttheimpactofmanychemicalsonhumanhealthandthe
environmenthasbeenacauseforconcernintheEUinthepastcoupleofdecades.
For this reason, the Commission has continued supporting research in this area in
FP6, following a substantial investment in previous framework programmes. These
projectshavethepotentialtosupportnumerousEUpoliciesandinitiatives,suchas
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH);
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminants in food; Commission Regulation (EC)1881/2006 setting
maximumlevelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs;
EU water policies such as Council directive 98/83/EC on the quality of
waterintendedforhumanconsumption;
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final;
CouncilDirectiveontheapproximationofthelawsoftheMemberStates
relatingtocosmeticproducts(76/768/EEC)
Three Rs (replacement, reduction, replacement) principle in animal
experimentation
AscanbeseeninFig.3andAnnexC,thelargestnumberofprojectsfundedinFP6
dealt with issues related to environmental chemicals (exposure to chemicals,
alternative testing methods, life cycle assessment, health effects etc) (37 projects).
43
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
ThusthistrendfollowscloselythatseeninFP5.Itshouldbenoted,however,thatin
50
51
some larger integrated projects (e.g., INTARESE and HEIMTSA ) chemicals were
onlyapartofawiderspectrumofenvironmentalstressorslookedatinanintegrated
context and not the main focus. Among the chemicals studied, there was a large
variety, ranging from heavy metals, cosmetics and persistent organic pollutants to
pharmaceuticalproducts.
The main objective of the CASCADE Network of Excellence
52
(NoE) was to act as an integrated research network in the
field of chemical contaminants in food. Apart from the joint
researchprogramme,theprojectdevelopedfromthestartan
extensive training and dissemination scheme. The focus of
CASCADE scientific activities was to characterise the health
implications of exposure to chemicals acting through nuclear
receptors. It focused on a limited set of model chemicals, namely dioxin (TCDD),
bisphenol A (BPA), vinclozolin and genistein. Reliable health risk assessment
information (e.g., toxicities, mechanisms of actions, human exposure levels, data
gaps,researchneeds)hasbeenprovidedonTCDD,BPAandvinclozolin.
53
The NORMAN network started its activities in
2005 and it is now established as a permanent
selfsustainingnetworkofreference laboratories,
researchcentresandrelatedorganisationsforthe
monitoring and biomonitoring of emerging environmental substances [defined as
defined as substances that have been detected in the environment, but which are
currentlynotincludedinroutinemonitoringprogrammesatEUlevelandwhosefate,
behaviour and (eco)toxicological effects are not well understood]. Its mission was
(andiscontinuing)to(i)enhancetheexchangeofinformationandcollectionofdata
on emerging environmental substances; (ii) encourage the validation and
harmonisationofcommonmeasurementmethodsandmonitoringtoolssothatthe
demands of risk assessors can be better met; and (iii) ensure that knowledge on
emerging pollutants is maintained and developed by stimulating coordinated,
interdisciplinaryprojectsoncollaborative,problemorientedresearchandknowledge
transfertoaddressidentifiedneeds.
50
INTARESEIntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
www.intarese.org
51
HEIMTSAHealthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
52
CASCADEChemicalsascontaminantsinthefoodchain:ANoEforresearch,riskassessment
andeducationwww.cascadenet.org
53
NORMANNetworkofreferencelaboratoriesandrelatedorganisationsformonitoringandbio
monitoringofemergingenvironmentalpollutantswww.normannetwork.com/index_php.php
44
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Severallargescaleintegratedprojectswerefundedonadvancingalternativetesting
methods for chemicals. In addition to OSIRIS and CAESAR
54
already mentioned previously, projects such as ACUTETOX 55
and REPROTECT were launched, focusing on specific issues
and areas where such methods are needed. ACUTETOX
undertookthechallenginggoaltocreateanintegratedtesting
strategy, which is based exclusively on in vitro and in silico
methodstoreplacetheanimaltestingusedtodayforpredicting
humanacuteoralsystemictoxicity.REPROTECT,on
the other hand, was set up in order to
develop/optimise in vitro models that are able to
detect adverse effects and mechanisms associated
withreproductivetoxicity.
Nanoparticles
Nanotoxicologyisasubspecialtyofparticletoxicology.Itaddressesthetoxicologyof
nanoparticles which appear to have toxicity effects that are
unusual and not seen with larger particles. In 2011 the
European Commission issued a recommendation to define
nanomaterials as materials whose main constituents have a
dimension of between 1 and 100 billionth of a metre. The
extremely small size of nanomaterials also means that they
muchmorereadilygainentryintothehumanbodythanlarger
sized particles. How these nanoparticles behave inside the body is still a major
questionthatneedstoberesolved.
In 2004, the European Commission adopted the Communication 'Towards a
European Strategy for Nanotechnology'. While acknowledging European excellence
innanosciencesandthepotentialtranslationintocommerciallyviableproductsand
processes, it also called for nanotechnology to be developed in a safe and
responsible manner. Ethical principles must be adhered to and potential health,
safety or environmental risks scientifically studied, also in order to prepare for
possibleregulation.
Consequently, in 2005, the European Commission adopted the Communication
'Nanosciencesandnanotechnologies:anActionPlanforEurope20052009',defining
aseriesofarticulatedandinterconnectedactionsfortheimmediateimplementation
of a safe, integrated and responsible approach for nanosciences and
54
ACUTETOXOptimisationandprevalidationofaninvitroteststrategyforpredictinghuman
acutetoxicitywww.acutetox.eu
55
REPROTECTDevelopmentofanovelapproachinhazardandriskassessmentorreproductive
toxicitybyacombinationandapplicationofinvitro,tissueandsensortechnologies
www.reprotect.eu
45
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
nanotechnologies, based on the priority areas identified in the abovementioned
European Strategy. The Action Plan indicated, inter alia, that the Commission will
promote safe and costeffective measures to minimise exposure of workers,
consumers and the environment to manufactured nanoscale entities. It will also
support a wide range of studies (including epidemiological studies) to (i) evaluate
currentandfutureprojectedlevelsofexposure,(ii)evaluatetheadequacyofcurrent
approaches to control exposure and (iii) launch appropriate initiatives, propose
measuresand/orissuerecommendations.
56
Twoimplementationreportshavebeenpublishedsince2005,thelatestin2009 .
Partially as a results of policy
initiatives, a new area of study
emerged in FP6 with funding of 10 projects (15% of total) (Fig. 3 and Annex C),
namely projects dealing with exposure to and impacts of nanoparticles. The EU
NanoSafety Cluster is a DG Research and Innovation initiative to maximise the
synergies between the existing FP6 and FP7 projects addressing all aspects of
nanosafetyincludingtoxicology,ecotoxicology,exposureassessment,mechanismsof
interaction, risk assessment and standardisation. Participation in the NanoSafety
cluster was voluntary for projects that commenced prior to April 2009, and is
compulsory for projects started since April 2009. A detailedcompendium has been
publishedontheprojectsfundedbytheThematicpriority3(Nanotechnologiesand
nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional materials and new production
processesanddevices)inFP6.
57
TheoverallgoaloftheNANOSH projectwasto
characterise the levels of exposure to specific
engineered nanoparticles and to delineate the
health effects of selected nanosized particles
relevant to the occupational environment. The project developed a strategy for
assessingexposuretoengineerednanoparticlesinarangeofworkplacesaswellasa
decision logic for determining whether workers were likely to be exposed to these
particles. Most nanoparticles were able to damage DNA in vitro, and, for titanium
oxide,thisseemedtobeduetoprimaryoxidativeDNAdamage.Somenanomaterials
werealsocapableofincreasingchromosomedamageinvitro,zincoxideshowingthe
clearesteffect.
Otherfundedprojectsaredescribedinthecompendiummentionedintheprevious
paragraph.
56
http://ec.europa.eu/nanotechnology/policies_en.html
NANOSHInflammatoryandgenotoxiceffectsofengineerednanomaterials
www.ttl.fi/partner/nanosh
57
46
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Ambientairpollution
Air pollution is the environmental stressor that the largest
number of European citizens are exposed to in their daily
activities. The issue of air quality is still a major concern for
manyEuropeancitizens.Itisalsooneoftheareasinwhichthe
European Union has been most active. Since the early 1970s,
theEUhasbeenworkingtoimproveairqualitybycontrollingemissionsofharmful
substances into the atmosphere, improving fuel quality, and by integrating
environmental protection requirements into the transport and energy sectors.
European Union policy on air quality aims to develop and implement appropriate
instruments to improve air quality. The control of emissions from mobile sources,
improving fuel quality and promoting and integrating environmental protection
requirementsintothetransportandenergysectorarepartoftheseaims.
The objective considered in the EU Sixth Environment Action Programme 2002
58
2012 istoachievelevelsofairqualitythatdonotgiverisetounacceptableimpacts
on, and risks to, human health and the environment. The Community is acting at
manylevelstoreduceexposuretoairpollution:throughEClegislation,throughwork
at the wider international level in order to reduce crossborder pollution, through
working with sectors responsible for air pollution and with national, regional
authoritiesandNGOs,andthroughresearch.
59
The EU Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution states that even with full
implementation of existing laws, environment and health problems will persist in
2020ifnofurtheractionistaken.ItisestimatedthatcurrentlyintheEUthereisa
lossinlifeexpectancyofover8monthsduetoPM 2.5 inair,equivalentto3.6million
lifeyearslostannually.Expressedinmonetaryterms,thedamagetohumanhealthis
estimatedtobebetween€189609billionannually.
Many projects were funded on exposure to and health impacts of air pollution in
60
FP5 .Perhapsdue tothis,FP6sawapauseinfundingoftargetedprojectsonthis
issue. Although 16 projects funded were focused to some extent on ambient air
61
pollution as a stressor, only one support action (CAIR4HEALTH ) had as its main
focus air pollution (Fig. 3 and Annex C). In other projects, air pollution was one
aspectfocusedinwithintheframeworkofalargerstudy.
58
SixthEnvironmentActionProgrammeEnvironment2010:Ourfuture,Ourchoice
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/newprg
59
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/air_pollution/l28159_en.htm
60
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/themes/projects_en.htm
61
CAIR4HEALTHCleanairforhealth–researchneedsforsustainabledevelopmentpolicies
www.cair4health.eu
47
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Asithasbecomeclearerthatoutdoorairpollutionat‘normal’levelshasanadverse
impactonpopulationhealth,policymakers,researchersandotherswereinterested
in understanding how big this effect might be. This has led to the development of
methods and tools attempting to answer two related kinds of questions: (i) One
(‘burden of disease’) question focused on the mortality and morbidity impacts of
current concentrations of air pollution; (b) Another (‘health impact assessment’)
question focused on the mortality and morbidity effects of changing air pollution
levels,andsometimesalsoonthewiderhealthimpactassessment(HIA)ofpolicies
and measures designed to reduce outdoor air pollution. Within this context, the
62
mainaimsofthe HEIMTSA OutdoorAirCaseStudy were
(using baseline scenarios for the years 2020, 2030 and
63
2050) were to extend the methodology of CAFE in order
to provide a methodology for HIA of outdoor air pollution
acrossthefullimpactchain.
Transport is an essential component of modern life and may both improve and
deteriorate public health. Main problems related to transport are air pollution,
climate change, water and soil pollution, transport accidents and injuries, traffic
noise, physical inactivity, psychological and social effects, but also problems as the
64
use of fossil fuels, the loss of public space/land/natural habitats etc. INTARESE evaluated the health benefits of alternative transport scenarios and measures. The
general INTARESE methodology was applied to
policies in five cities spread over Europe to reduce
problems related to motorized traffic. The
INTARESE methodology can be characterized as an
integrated environmental health impact assessment. The conclusions were, among
others that: (i) For the individuals who shift from car to bicycle, we estimated that
beneficial effects of increased physical activity are substantially larger than the
potentialmortalityeffectofincreasedinhaledairpollutiondosesandtheincreasein
traffic accidents; (ii) The policies in Rome and London resulted in PM10 and NO2
emission decreases of about 30% (at street level) and 10% (city average level)
respectively;(iii)Consistentwiththemodestchangeinairpollutionconcentrations,
thepoliciesinRome,theHagueandLondonresultedinsmallgainsinlifeexpectancy
andasmallreductioninthenumberofhospitaladmissions,whenexpressedatthe
city area level. More information is available in the Technical Brief 5 'Integrated
AssessmentsofWasteandTransport'issuedbytheproject.
62
HEIMTSAHealthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
63
TheCleanAirforEurope(CAFE)Programme:TowardsaThematicStrategyforAirQuality
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/cafe/general/keydocs.htm
64
INTARESEIntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
www.intarese.org
48
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Indoorairpollution
People spend 60 – 90 % of their life indoors – be it at home or in other public or
privateindoorenvironments,suchasschools,cafésandrestaurants.Havingcleanair
indoors is very important
for the health of the
population as a whole and
it becomes particularly
groupslikebabies,children
important for vulnerable
and the elderly or people
already suffering from,
e.g., respiratory or allergic
diseases. The health
effects of "cocktails" of
differentindoorpollutants,
their concentrations and
their
public
health
significance are being
studied
worldwide.
Already today, for many
pollutants,
scientific
evidenceshowsaseriousimpactonthehealthofthepopulation.Variousindoorair
pollutants are responsible for or exacerbate respiratory diseases, allergies,
intoxication and certain types of cancer (e.g., asbestos, radon, environmental
tobacco smoke (ETS), combustion products, volatile organic compounds, biological
pollutantsetc.).
In the past ten years, EU has started to attach more importance to the issue of
indoorairquality.Oneconsequenceofthiswastheinclusionofaspecificactionon
improvingindoorairqualityintotheEuropeanEnvironmentandHealthActionPlan.
ThishasalsoresultedatpracticallevelintheestablishmentofanEUExpertGroupon
Indoor Air Quality by European Commission's Health and Consumer's Directorate
General, which has organised several meetings on this issue. These meetings have
gatheredrelevantstakeholders(includingtheENVIEprojectseebelowandWHO)
todiscussfurtherdirectionsandpolicyactionsinthisarea.Indoorairqualityislikely
to continue being an issue of importance for policy makers, especially in view of
implementingtheDirectiveontheenergyperformanceofbuildings,whichwillhave
animpactonindoorairqualityandwellbeingofpeople.
65
The aim of the ENVIE coordination action was to
increase the understanding of the Europewide
public health impacts of indoor air quality by
identifying the most widespread and significant
indoor causes for these health impacts and
evaluating the existing and optional building and housingrelated policies for
controlling them. The project organised a wellattended enduser workshop. It
produced four comprehensive policyrelevant reports (Health Effects; Indoor Air
Pollution Exposure; Characterisation of Spaces and Sources; Policies on Ind oor Air
Quality:AssessmentandNeeds),whichareavailableontheprojectwebsite.
65
ENVIE Coordination action on indoor air quality and health effects www.envie
iaq.eu/home.html
49
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Noise
Although now acknowledged as being an increasingly important environmental
stressor,therewerenonoisefocusedtargetedprojectsfundedinFP6.Thesemaybe
due to the fact that this issue was not identified amongst
the highest priorities by the European Environment and
66
Health Strategy in 2004. Nevertheless, the HEIMTSA and
67
INTARESE integrated projects, included noise as a factor
when developing a general methodology of integrated
environmental health impact assessment (IEHIA). HEIMTSA
in particular published a noise case study (Integrated
environmental health impact assessment for noise due to
urban road traffic), available on the project website. The
reportcalculatedfromtheexposuredistributionsthehealth
impact of noise for annoyance, sleep disturbance, and myocardial infarction. The
health impact was also expressed in burden of disease and damage costs: for the
year2050thenumberofdisabilityadjustedlifeyearslostduetourbanroadtraffic
noisewasfoundtobe1.6millionandthedamagecosts14billionEuros.
Nonionisingradiation
Due to the funding of several projects in FP5 on the health
68
effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) , which continued
during the FP6 period including analyses of results, no new
research projects were financed during this period.
Nevertheless, the Commission monitored closely activities in
thisfieldasaresultofthespecificaction'Followdevelopments
regardingelectromagneticfields'intheEuropeanEnvironment
andHealthActionPlan.
InlinewiththeEUTreaty,itistheresponsibilityoftheMemberStatestoprotectthe
healthofthepublicand,inparticular,totakedecisionsandmeasuresregardingEMF
exposure levels. However, EU regulators felt the need to provide a common
protective framework for the EU population. The purpose was to help Member
Statesputcoherentandcomparableexposurelimitsinplace.ThisledtheEuropean
Council to adopt in 1999 the Council Recommendation on the limitation of the
66
HEIMTSAHealthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
67
INTARESEIntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
www.intarese.org
68
http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/themes/projects_en.htm
50
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
69
exposureofthegeneralpublictoelectromagneticfields(0Hzto300GHz) .Thisnon
bindingtextservedastheframeworkofreferenceforthedevelopmentofotherEU
70
legislation,especiallyDirective2004/40/EC3ontheexposureofworkerstoEMF ,as
71
wellasDirectives1999/5/EC4onradioandtelecomsequipment (alsoknowasthe
72
R&TTE Directive) and 2006/95/EC5 relating to certain electrical equipment (also
knowastheLowVoltageDirective).
AscalledforbytheCouncilRecommendationmentionedabove,theCommissionis
keeping 'the matters covered by this recommendation under review'. So far, the
Commissionhasrequestedfourindependentscientificassessmentsofthevalidityof
theexposureguidelinestomakesuretheyprovideahighlevelofprotectiontothe
public, the most recent ones having been published in 2007 and 2009 by the
Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). To
date,theseassessmentshavenotidentifiedanyscientificrationalethatcouldleadto
arevisionoftheexposurelimits.
Within the context of reviewing scientific evidence, the
73
Commission funded in FP6 the EMFNET coordination action
with39participatinginstitutions,theaimofwhichwastocollate
and analyse research results from EU funded projects and other
national and international actions, provided a regular update on
EMF research and relevant interpretation/advice for the
facilitationofpolicydevelopmentoptionsbytheEUandotherbodies.
Itpublishedmorethan40reports(examples:reportonepidemiologicalstudies;on
healtheffectsofRFwithrecommendationsfornonionisingradiationprotectionand
research needs; on inventory of EMF research in Central European countries; on
laboratory studies on ELF fields etc.) and 20 fact sheets and expert opinions (e.g.,
Comments on the BioInitiative working group report; Fact sheet on exposure to
shortrange wireless technologies; Fact sheet on health risk posed by high voltage
powerlines etc.),fourEMFandhealthrelatedvolumes,andorganisedandco
69
CouncilRecommendationof12July1999onthelimitationofexposureofthegeneralpublicto
electromagneticfields(0Hzto300GHz),OfficialJournaloftheEuropeanUnionL199,pp5970,
30.7.1999.
70
Directive2004/40/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof29April2004onthe
minimumhealthandsafetyrequirementsregardingtheexposureofworkerstotherisksarising
fromphysicalagents(electromagneticfields),OfficialJournaloftheEuropeanUnionL184,pp1
9,24.5.2004
71
Directive1999/5/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof9March1999onradio
equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual recognition of their
conformity,OfficialJournaloftheEuropeanUnionL91,pp1028,7.4.1999
72
Directive2006/95/ECoftheEuropeanParliamentandoftheCouncilof12December2006on
theharmonisationofthelawsofMemberStatesrelatingtoelectricalequipmentdesignedfor
usewithincertainvoltagelimits(codifiedversion)(TextwithEEArelevance),OfficialJournalof
theEuropeanUnionL374,pp1019,27.12.2006
73
EMFNETEffectsoftheexposuretoelectromagneticfields:fromsciencetopublichealthand
saferworkplacehttp://web.jrc.ec.europa.eu/emfnet
51
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
organised various seminars, workshops and
conferencesonspecificpolicyrelatedEMFand
health topics. Materials produced by the
project are available on the project website.
Some of the work continues under the
74
auspicesoftheEFHRAN project.
Microbialagents
Water is life! It is a precondition for human, animal and plant
life as well as an indispensable resource for the economy.
Water also plays a fundamental role in the climate regulation
cycle. Protection of water resources, of fresh and salt water
ecosystemsandofthewaterwedrinkandbatheinistherefore
oneofthecornerstonesofenvironmentalprotectioninEurope.
In2000,theEuropeanUniontookagroundbreakingstepwhen
itadoptedtheWaterFrameworkDirective(WFD).Itintroduces
a new legislative approach to managing and protecting water,
based not on national or political boundaries but on natural
geographicalandhydrologicalformations:riverbasins.Italsorequirescoordination
ofdifferentEUpolicies,andsetsoutaprecisetimetableforaction,with2015asthe
targetdateforgettingallEuropeanwatersintogoodcondition.
The WFD is a framework for EU water policy and is complemented by other
legislation regulating specific aspects of water use. These include (i) The
Groundwater Directive (2006); (ii) The Environmental Quality Standards Directive
(2008); (iii) The Urban Wastewater Directive (1991); (iv) The Nitrates Directive
(1991);(v)ThenewBathingWaterDirective(2006);(vi)TheDrinkingWaterDirective
(1998); (vii) The Floods Directive (2007); (viii) The Marine Strategy Framework
Directive(2008).
The2006BathingwaterDirective(the"new"Directive,repealingby2014the"old"
1976BathingWaterDirective)hasthepurposetopreserve,protectandimprovethe
quality of the environment and to protect human health. The provisions of the
Directive include a number of obligations for Member States, as well as rules
generallyapplicableallacrosstheEU.
WithintheframeworkoftheDrinkingWaterDirective,atotalof48microbiological
andchemicalparametersmustbemonitoredandtestedregularly.
74
EFHRANEuropeanhealthriskassessmentnetworkonEMFexposurehttp://efhran.polimi.it
52
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
75
EPIBATHE wasfundedasapolicysupportingproject
because of the relative paucity of EU data describing
the health effects of bathing in EU freshwaters and
Mediterranean marine waters. Both environments
provide important recreational resources throughout the Union. The provided new
information to underpin the WHO Guidelines for recreational waters published in
2003.Thisinformation,togetherwithnewdatafortheUSA,hasbeenevaluatedby
WHOinJanuary2009duringanexpertconsultationtoconsiderrevisionoftheWHO
GuidelinesinthisareafromwhichelementsoftheEUBathingWaterDirective(2006)
criteria derive. The project did not produce a clear evidencebase which would
suggestthatarevisionofthewaterqualitycriteriaoutlinedinAnnex1ofthe2006
Bathing Water Directive should be undertaken. The risks attributable to bathing in
freshwaterswerelessmarkedthaninmarinewaterenvironments.Thissuggeststhat
a differential in standards applied to both environments, as is evident in the 2006
BathingWaterDirective,issupportedbytheavailableandnewlyderivedevidence.
76
VIROBATHE aimed to provide a procedure for analysis of EU
bathing waters for noroviruses and adenoviruses by validated
comparisonsofmethodsforprocessingwatersamplestoachieve
thebestvirusrecoveryconsistentwithcostandfeasibilityofuse
77
in routine monitoring laboratories. HEALTHY WATER , on the
otherhand,advancedourknowledgeonpathogenesis
ofemergentmicrobialpathogensindrinkingwaterto
understandtheirtransmissiontohumans.Theproject
focused on all major types of pathogens, i.e., viruses,
bacteria and protozoa, and concentrated on a
representativesetofEuropeandrinkingwatersupplysystemsandsourcewatersof
specificsensitivitytohumanhealth.
78
The HIWATE project investigated potential
human health risks associated with longterm
exposure to low levels of disinfectants (such as
chlorine)anddisinfectantbyproductsoccurringinwaterforhumanconsumption
75
EPIBATHEAssessmentofhumanhealtheffectscausedbybathingwaters
http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp6/ssp/epibathe_en.htm
76
VIROBATHEMethodsforthedetectionofadenovirusesandnorovirusesinEuropeanbathing
waterswithreferencetotherevisionoftheBathingWaterDirective76/160/EEC
www.virobathe.org
77
HEALTHYWATERAssessmentofhumanhealthimpactsfromemergingmicrobialpathogensin
drinkingwaterbymolecularandepidemiologicalstudieswww.helmholtz
hzi.de/en/healthy_water
78
HIWATEHealthimpactsoflongtermexposuretodisinfectionbyproductsindrinkingwater
www.hiwate.eu
53
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
and use in the food industry. The study comprised riskbenefit analyses including
quantitativeassessmentsofriskassociatedwithmicrobialcontaminationofdrinking
waterversuschemicalriskandcomparedalternativetreatmentoptions.
Climatechange
A crosscutting and previously little funded issue that
emergedinFP6istheimpactofclimatechangeonhealth.
Eight projects were funded, reflecting the increasing
importanceofclimatechangeasanissueingeneralandthe
lack of data as regards health impacts in particular, as
identified in the 3rd IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on
ClimateChange)report.Itshouldbenoted,however,thatallbutoneoftheprojects
79
(EDEN ),didnothavetheirmainfocusonthehealthimpacts.
EDEN identified and evaluated European ecosystems and
environmental conditions linked to global change, which can
influence the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics
of pathogenic agents. It worked on providing predictive
emergence and spread models including global and regional
preventive, early warning, surveillance, and monitoring tools
andscenarios.Diseaseswereselectedaccordingtothevectors
andhostsinvolvedintheirepidemiology:tickborneencephalitis,haemorrhagicfever
with renal syndrome (rodents), leishmaniasis (sandflies), West Nile and malaria
(mosquitoes). Also, African sources of West Nile and Rift Valley fever viruses were
studiedtoimprovecontrolforthebenefitofAfricanpopulations,andinvestigatethe
risk of introduction in Europe. The results show, in general, climate change alone
cannotexplaintheupsurgeoremergenceofvectorbornediseasesinEurope.This
was demonstrated for the case of tickborne encephalitis in Baltic countries and
CentralEurope,forwhichsocioeconomicalfactors(poverty)andhumanbehaviour
aretightlyrelatedtothediseaserisk.Partsof
the activities continue in EDENext, a project
th
funded by the 7 Framework Programme of
theEU.
80
81
TheHEIMTSA andINTARESE integratedprojectshadasoneoftheirobjectivesto
test the integrated environmental health impact assessment system (IEHIAS) and
apply the INTARESE/HEIMTSA methodology to a realistic policy scenario. The so
calledcommoncasestudywasthemeanstofulfilthismainobjective.Thecommon
79
EDENEmergingdiseasesinachangingEuropeanenvironmentwww.edenfp6project.net
HEIMTSAHealthandenvironmentintegratedmethodologyandtoolboxforscenario
assessmentwww.heimtsa.eu
81
INTARESEIntegratedassessmentofhealthrisksfromenvironmentalstressorsinEurope
www.intarese.org
80
54
case study addressed the fact that policies and measures for mitigation of and
adaptiontoclimatechangearenearlyalwayschosenwithafocusonthereductionof
CO2eqandthecostofthemeasures.However,theremayberelevantsidebenefits
ordamages,e.g.,decreaseorincreaseinhealthimpacts,whichshouldalsobetaken
intoaccountduringthedecisionprocess.Thusthecasestudyaddressed,interalia,
thefollowingquestion:whatarethe(negativeorpositive)healthimpactsofclimate
change policies in Europe for the years 2020, 2030, and
2050? The results show that the impact of most climate
change mitigation policies on environmental human health
is nearly as important as the climate change effects
themselves. Taking health impacts into account when making decisions about
climate protection will change the cost benefit ratio and the ranking of policies
considerably. It is thus obvious that any decision support in the field of climate
protectionshouldbeaccompaniedbyanintegratedhealthimpactassessment.Quite
some climate protection policies have important positive effects, i.e., they reduce
healtheffectsconsiderably.Howeversomepolicies,especiallybiomassburningand
reducingairexchangeratesinhouses,causequitehighadditionalhealthimpacts.
55
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Fig.3
Environmentalstressorsaddressedbytheprojects:Numberofprojectsfunded
Environmental factors and issues addressed by projects
45
42
40
35
30
25
nb of projects
20
16
15
10
9
10
8
8
3
5
1
ts
ev
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e
ex
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m
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,w
as
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EM
F,
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,
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ise
,
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an
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e
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at
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oo
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ir
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56
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Healthendpointsstudied
When analysing the health endpoints and diseases investigated in FP6 projects, it
becomes evident that the project portfolio comprised mostly projects focusing on
82
83
several endpoints concurrently (e.g., PHIME or ATHON ), although a few
84
85
addressed a single endpoint or disease (e.g., GABRIEL or ECNIS ; 'onedisease'
projectsarenotthenormintheenvironmentandhealtharea(AnnexD).
Cancer,genotoxiceffects:
Numerous factors found in the environment are known to cause or are likely to
cause cancer in humans. They include tobacco, ultraviolet radiation, fibres, fine
particles, and dust, and chemicals such as pesticides, dioxins, and benzidine. It is
estimatedthatasmanyastwothirdsofallcancercasesarelinkedtoenvironmental
causes. Many of these are linked to modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking or
physicalinactivity.
The European Environment and Health Strategy aimed in its first cycle from 2004
2010 to establish a good understanding of the link between childhood respiratory
diseases, asthma and allergies; neurodevelopment disorders; childhood cancer; as
wellasendocrinedisruptingeffects.Thistranslatedintoaspecificresearchactionin
the European Environment and Health Action Plan, namely Action 6 Targeting
researchondiseases,disordersandexposures.Amongstthesubobjectiveswasthe
development of European networks to promote research into uncommon cancers,
the identificationof geneenvironment interactions involved in the development of
cancerinhighriskpopulations,andthedefinitionofpreventionstrategies.
As seen in Annex D, the largest number of FP6 projects was focused on
genotoxic/mutageniceffectsandcancer.
82
PHIMEPublichealthimpactoflongterm,lowlevelmixedelementexposureinsusceptible
populationstratawww.phime.org
83
ATHONAssessingthetoxicityandhazardofnondioxinlikePCBspresentinfood
www.cascadenet.org/~athon
84
GABRIELMultidisciplinarystudytoidentifythegeneticandenvironmentalcausesofasthmain
theEuropeancommunitywww.gabrielfp6.org
85
ECNISEnvironmentalcancerrisk,nutritionandindividualsusceptibilitywww.ecnis.org
57
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
86
AsaresultoftheAction6,theNEWGENERIS integrated
project (described previously, focusing on childhood
cancerandimmunedysfunction)andtheECNISNetwork
of Excellence were funded. ECNIS brought together
European research groups from 25 institutions of 13
countries into a durable network of partners to conduct cuttingedge research on
cancercausationandprevention.ThevisionofECNISwasthecreationofadynamic
researchnetworkwhichaimedtodecreasecancerincidencebyidentifyingchemicals
orotherfactorsintheenvironmentandfoodwhichcausecancer,byelucidatingthe
mechanismsbywhichdietaryandlifestylepatternsincreaseordecreasecancerrisk,
byfacilitatingthedevelopmentofnewfoodswithcancerpreventiveproperties;by
discovering genetic (hereditary) factors, which make individuals more or less
susceptible to cancer; and by formulating improved approaches to the risk
assessmentofcarcinogens.
87
The major goal of the CARCINOGENOMICS projectwastodevelopaseriesofmechanism
based in vitro tests that are representative of
various modes of carcinogenic action for a
number of major target organs for
carcinogenicaction,e.g.,liver,lungs,andkidneys.Ithasalsotheobjectiveofbuilding
aniterativeinsilicomodelofchemicalcarcinogenesis.
Neurodevelopmentalandimmuneeffects
AnothersubobjectiveofAction6mentionedintheprevioussectionwastosupport
research on the causes and mechanisms of neuroimmune disorders, identifying
genetic and environmental risk factors. Neurodevelopmental disorders result from
impairmentsofgrowthanddevelopmentofthebrainandnervoussystemandlead
tomanydisorders.Thesemechanismscanbeinfluencedbyenvironmentalfactors.
Thenervousandimmunesystemshavemanyinteractionsthatdictateoverallbody
health.
86
NEWGENERISDevelopmentandapplicationofbiomarkersofdietaryexposuretogenotoxic
andimmunotoxicchemicalsandofbiomarkersofearlyeffects,usingmotherchildbirthcohorts
andbiobankswww.newgeneris.org
87
CARCINOGENOMICSDevelopmentofahighthroughputgenomicsbasedtestforassessing
genotoxicandcarcinogenicpropertiesofchemicalcompoundsinvitro
www.carcinogenomics.eu
58
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
13 FP6 projects addressed some aspects of neurodevelopment in
their work plans (Annex D). A further 7 projects looked at some
88
aspectsofeffectsontheimmunesystem.DEVNERTOX focusedon
generating experimental models to improve developmental
neurotoxicity testing and risk assessment for neurotoxic food
contaminants (methylmercury and two PCBs: PCB153 and PCB126).
Theresultsindicatethatthecombineduseofinvitroandinvivomethodologiesisa
successful strategy to identify neurodevelopmental toxicity and characterize the
mechanisms of actions of potentially neurotoxic substances. The analysis of
behaviourisafirstchoiceapproachtodetectsubtleandlonglastingmodificationsin
vivo.Learningandmemoryfunctionswereimpairedinbothratsandmice.
Reprotoxiceffects
One of the main aims of the European Environment and Health Strategy was to
further our understanding of endocrinedisrupting effects. According to the
International Programme for Chemical Safety, endocrine disrupters are exogenous
substances that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause
adversehealtheffectsinanintactorganism,oritsprogeny,or(sub)populations.The
most frequently studies effects are those related to the reproductive system (e.g.,
decreased semen quality, increased time to pregnancy or risk of development of
testicularcancer).
InadditiontothepreviouslydescribedCASCADENetworkofExcellencewithspecific
focustorestructureresearchinEuropeonendocrinedisruptingchemicals,10other
projects were funded with at least some relevance to the endocrine
disruptingissue(AnnexD).Amongstthese,therewastheFOODAND
89
FECUNDITY project looking from various points of view at
pharmaceuticals with a potential to affect human fecundity via
exposurethroughthehumanfood
chain, and the previously
90
mentioned REPROTECT integrated project
developinginvitromodelsabletodetectadverseeffectsandmechanismsassociated
withreproductivetoxicity.
88
DEVNERTOXToxicthreatstothedevelopingnervoussystem:invivoandinvitrostudieson
theeffectsofmixtureofneurotoxicsubstancespotentiallycontaminatingfood
www.imm.ki.se/devnertox
89
FOODANDFECUNDITYPharmaceuticalproductsashighriskeffectors
http://foodandfecundity.factlink.net
90
REPROTECTDevelopmentofanovelapproachinhazardandriskassessmentorreproductive
toxicitybyacombinationandapplicationofinvitro,tissueandsensortechnologies
www.reprotect.eu
59
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Respiratorydiseases,allergy/asthma:
There are over 100 million people with asthma, allergy and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. Over 80 million people in Europe have some
form of allergic disease and their prevalence is increasing. Allergic diseases are a
continuum from the atopic eczema and allergic rhinitis to asthma. In certain cases
foodallergyisariskfactorforthedevelopmentofasthma.This'allergicmarch'isa
challenge for healthcare systems. Approximately 300 million people around the
world have asthma, and it has become more common in both children and adults
globally in recent years. Estimates have shown that the number of people with
asthmacouldgrowtoasmanyas400450millionpeopleworldwideby2025.Around
30millionpeopleinEuropehaveasthma,andasmanyas6millionsuffersymptoms
whicharecharacterisedassevere.
In view of this alarming picture, the European Environment and Health Strategy
urgedtheEuropeanCommissiontosupportresearchonthe
causes of asthma and allergy focusing on complex
interactions, such as changes in the environment and
lifestyles. As a result, 11 projects were funded touching
uponsomeaspectsofthisissueinFP6(AnnexD).Perhaps
2
91
the most wellknown one was the GA LEN network of
Excellence.ItwascreatedtocombatfragmentationintheEuropean researcharea,
ensuring excellence in EU allergy and asthma research by bringing together
institutionsandresearchersfromacrosstheEU.Oversevenyearslater,thevisionof
GA²LENisstilltoreducetheburdenofallergicdiseasesinEuropebyimprovingthe
health of European with allergic diseases, increasing the competitiveness and
boostingtheinnovativecapacityofEUhealthrelatedindustriesandbusinesseswhile
addressing health issues including emerging allergies. Work carried out by GA²LEN
has established the EU as a leader in the field of allergy and asthma research and
clinicalcare.
91
GA2LENGlobalallergyandasthmaEuropeannetworkwww.ga2len.net
60
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Infectiousdiseases
SixprojectsfundedbyFP6werefocusedonthespreadofinfectiousdiseasesinthe
environment (Annex D). In addition to the projects already described above under
'Microbial agents' and 'climate change' (EDEN, EPIBATHE, HEALTHY WATER), two
largescaleintegratedprojectsfocusingonclimatechangehadasmallpartonhealth
impacts,focusing,amongstothers,ontheriskofspreadofinfectiousdiseases.
92
ENSEMBLES concluded,interalia,thatclimatevariability,
as characterised by extreme weather events and
interannualvariability,isknownto affectcertaininfectious
diseases. The impacts of longterm shifts in climate
conditionsmayleadtoshiftsinthedistributionofinfectious
diseases and areas suitable for food production. The
impacts on health will outweigh the benefits, and populations in lowincome
countriesarelikelytobeworstaffected.Methodsforestimatingthehealtheffectsof
climate change are at an early stage of development. The project developed
empricialstatistical models were developed to estimate the direct impact of daily
temperature on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality (the direct effects of heat
and cold) and on diarrhoeal disease mortality, based on observational studies of
exposureresponsefunctions.
93
CIRCE , on the other hand, had a part on human health aiming at identifying and
assessing selected health impacts of climate
change in the Mediterranean. Several countries
conductedhealthimpactassessmentsofclimate
change. From these studies and assessments, it
canbeexpectedthatprojectedtrendsinclimate
changerelated exposures of importance to
humanhealtharelikelytoincreaseinheatwave,
drought and firerelated health impacts, change
infoodbornediseasepatterns,changeinthedistributionofinfectiousdiseasesand
potentially contributing to the establishment of tropical and subtropical species,
increaseintheburdenofwaterbornediseasesandwaterstress,andincreaseinthe
frequencyofrespiratorydiseasesandallergicdisorders.
92
ENSEMBLESEnsemblebasedpredictionsofclimatechangesandtheirimpacts
www.ensembleseu.org
93
CIRCEClimatechangeandimpactresearch:theMediterraneanenvironment
www.circeproject.eu
61
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Otherendpoints:
Inadditiontothemajorhealthimpactsandendpointsdescribed
above,otheraspectswerealsocovered(AnnexD).Someprojects
lookedatcardiovasculardisease,metabolicdisorders,obesity,
diabetes,andstroke,althoughtherewasnotanytargetedproject
ontheseendpoints.Asmallnumberofprojectsalsofocusedon
hepatic,renalandbonetoxicityaswellasgeneralmortalitytrends.
62
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Conclusions
Taken globally, it can be concluded that the projects funded by FP6 have had an
impactonmanyfronts,whichhasfrequentlyhavealonglastingeffectswellbeyond
thelifetimeoftheproject.
Examplesofimpacts:
Many projects endeavoured to establish the current state of science in a
particulardomainofenvironmentalhealthsciences(e.g.,EMFNETcollatedand
analysed research results from EU funded projects and other national and
internationalactionsonhealthrisksofexposurestoelectromagneticfields)
The vast majority of projects advanced the state of the environment and
health sciences, and some took innovative steps to accomplish this (e.g.,
NEWGENERIS, a project focused on childhood cancer and immune disorders,
carriedoutexperimentalstudiestodevelopandvalidatenewbiomarkersand
highthroughput analytical methodologies, including in vitro studies to assess
effectsofenvironmentalcontaminantsonsperm,transplacentaltransportand
metabolism,inordertoidentifynewrelevantbiomarkers)
NewfundinginstrumentsintroducedinFP6allowedto
advancethebuildingofaEuropeanResearchAreain
some specific domains of environmental health
2
sciences (e.g., the GA LEN network of Excellence was
created to combat fragmentation in allergy/asthma
research in Europe, ensuring excellence in EU allergy
andasthmaresearchbybringingtogetherinstitutions
andresearchersfromacrosstheEU)
Partially thanks to major policy initiatives taken during the course of FP6,
projects were funded to tackle emerging issues (e.g., the EU NanoSafety
Clusterwasinitiated,includingseveralFP6projects,tomaximisethesynergies
betweentheexistingFP6andFP7projectsaddressingallaspectsofnanosafety
including toxicology, ecotoxicology, exposure assessment, mechanisms of
interaction,riskassessmentandstandardisation)
Many projects funded have the potential to provide support to EU policies
including ones where there is no EU legislation yet (e.g., ENVIE aimed to
increasetheunderstandingoftheEuropewidepublichealthimpactsofindoor
airquality,notyetregulatedintheEUinthesamewayasoutdoorairpollution,
by identifying the most widespread and significant indoor causes for these
health impacts and evaluatingthe existing and optional building and housing
relatedpoliciesforcontrollingthem)
63
EnvironmentandHealthIssuesAddressedbytheProjectsFunded
Manyprojectsbuiltdatabases,tools,methodsandmodelsthatcanbeusedby
otherprojectsandstakeholdersinthefuture(e.g.,NORMANdevelopedthree
databases, one of which contains georeferenced chemical monitoring data
accompaniedbyecotoxicologicalinformationfrombioassaysandbiomarkers)
64
ProjectData
PROJECTDATA
65
CHAPTERIProjectsFocusedonCoordination,Harmonisation,Networking,PolicySupport
CHAPTERI
Projectsfocusedoncoordination,
harmonisation,networking,
policysupport
67
68
CONTRACTNUMBER:502173
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€2269394
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1534994
STARTINGDATE:March1,2004
ENDDATE:August31,2008
DURATION:54months
EMFNET
EFFECTSOFTHEEXPOSURETO
ELECTROMAGNETICFIELDS:FROMSCIENCE
TOPUBLICHEALTHANDSAFERWORKPLACE
Summary:
Research on possible health implications of exposure to
electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been carried out by a
numberofresearchcentres,laboratoriesanduniversities,
supported by international, national and industrial
funding bodies. Due to the extent and diversity of
researchactivitiesbeingundertaken,itisusuallydifficult
to provide relevant, authoritative and timely input for
policy development at the EU level and elsewhere.
Furthermore, research results can be misinterpreted
inappropriately, applied to other sources or exposure conditions or may not
adequately address the concerns of stakeholders. In order to properly address the
issue of interpretation of scientific results on potential health effects of EMF, this
coordination action was launched in 2004 involving 41 participants. The partners
includedcoordinatorsofthepreviouslyEUfundedresearchprojects,coordinatorsof
researchprojectsatnationallevel(Finland,France,Germany,Greece,Hungary,Italy,
UK), representatives of other international activities such as the World Health
OrganizationcoordinatedEMFproject,associationsofindustries,manufacturesand
trade unions, and regulatory bodies. The main outcome of the project was the
production of factsheets on numerous issues related to EMF risks, available on the
1
projectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
CouncilRecommendationonthelimitationofexposureofthegeneralpublicto
electromagneticfields(0Hzto300GHz)(1999/519/EC)
Directive 1999/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on radio
equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment and the mutual
recognitionoftheirconformity
Directive 2004/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the
minimumhealthandsafetyrequirementsregardingtheexposureofworkersto
therisksarisingfromphysicalagents(electromagneticfields)
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
1
http://web.jrc.ec.europa.eu/emfnet
69
Mainresults:
x
EMFNET has improved the understanding of EMF and health issues, and
coordinated research activities. During its time course, it became one of the
maininternationalactorsinthisarea;
x
EMFNETcollatedresearchresultsfromEUfundedprojectsandothernational
and international actions, provided a regular update on EMF research (plans,
priorities, gaps, prospects from ongoing research, results) and relevant
interpretation/adviceforthefacilitationofpolicydevelopmentoptionsbythe
EUandotherbodies;
x
TheEMFNETEuropeanFastResponseTeamonEMFandHealth,answered,on
short notice, specific questions of the European Commission services
concerningpotentialhealthimpactsofEMF;
x
EMFNET published more than 40 reports and 20 fact sheets and expert
opinions, four EMF and healthrelated publications, and organised and co
organised various seminars, workshops and conferences on specific policy
relatedEMFandhealthtopics.Theseareavailableontheprojectwebsite;
2
x
SomeprojectactivitiesweretakenoverbyaprojectcalledEFHRAN ,fundedby
theEuropeanCommission'sHealthandConsumersDirectorateGeneral.
Coordinator:
x
National Research Council, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Milan, IT
(Dr.PaoloRavazzani)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
FraunhoferInstitute,Hannover
DE
InternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer,Lyon
FR
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre,Ispra
IT
FI
UniversityofKuopio
VerumFoundationforBehaviourandEnvironment,Munich
DE
NationalAgencyforNewTechnologies,EnergyandtheEnvironment
IT
ofItaly(ENEA),Rome
UniversityofGenoa
IT
NationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),Villejuif
FR
CH
WorldHealthOrganization,Geneva
GraduateSchoolofChemistry,BiologyandPhysicsofBordeaux
FR
(ENSCBP)
TechnicalUniversityofGraz
AT
FranceTelecom,IssylesMoulineaux
FR
2
EFHRANEuropeanhealthriskassessmentnetworkonEMFexposurehttp://efhran.polimi.it
70
ResearchAssociationforRadioApplications,Bonn
AristotleUniversity,Thessaloniki
'FredericJoliotCurie'NationalResearchInstituteforRadiobiologyand
Radiohygiene,Budapest
UniversityofRome'LaSapienza'
NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
FoundationforResearchonInformationTechnologiesinSociety,
Zürich
InternationalCommissiononNonIonizingRadiationProtection,
Oberschleissheim
UnionoftheElectricityIndustryEurelectric,Brussels
EuropeanTelecommunicationNetworkOperators'Association,
Brussels
UniversityofLeeds
GsmAssociation,London
InternationalGlobalEthicsAssociationIgea,Ghent
RadiationandNuclearSafetyOrganization(STUK),Helsinki
MobileManufacturersForum,Brussels
UniversityofBologna
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki
UniversityofBradford
EuropeanTechnicalTradeUnionOfficeforHealthandSafety,Brussels
FederationofFrenchElectrical,ElectronicandCommunication
Industries(FIEEC),Paris
ARCSeibersdorfResearchGmbh,Seibersdorf
NationalRadiologicalProtectionBoard,Harwell
CentralInstituteforLabourProtection–NationalResearchInstitute,
Warsaw
NationalInstituteforOccupationalsafetyandPrevention(ISPESL),
Rome
NationalInstituteforWorkingLife,Stockholm
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
71
DE
EL
HU
IT
IT
CH
DE
BE
BE
UK
UK
BE
FI
BE
IT
SE
FI
UK
BE
FR
AT
UK
PL
IT
SE
BE
72
CONTRACTNUMBER:502671
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€824,977
ECCONTRIBUTION:€824,977
STARTINGDATE:April1,2004
ENDDATE:October31,2008
DURATION:55months
ENVIE
COORDINATIONACTIONONINDOORAIR
QUALITYANDHEALTHEFFECTS
Summary:
The aim of the ENVIE project was to increase
the understanding of the Europewide public
health impacts of indoor air quality by
identifying the most widespread and
significantindoorcauses fortheseimpactsand
byevaluatingtheexistingandoptionalbuilding
and housingrelated policies for controlling them. It addressed, in particular, the
issue regarding how indoor air quality might contribute to the observed rise in
asthmaandrespiratoryallergy,togetherwithotheracuteandchronichealthimpacts.
Itbuiltonthebroadscientificexperienceandthewealthofaccumulatedliterature
from the domestic and international indoor air research projects as well as the
variouscommitteesandexpertgroupsduringthepast20years.Theintentionwasto
focusfromthestartonthoseindoorairqualityissuesthathavethehighestEurope
wide health relevance. Having defined a shortlist of such 'reverse' indoor health
exposuresourcechains,theprojectevaluatedthepolicyalternativesforminimising
unwantedhealthconsequences,intermsofachievablepublichealthbenefits,while
takingintoaccountpolitical,legal,technological,economicalandsocialfeasibility.A
further outcome was the identification of a set of advisable and feasible indoor air
quality policy options for Europe. The final results are available on the project
3
website (Fourcomprehensivereports:HealthEffects;IndoorAirPollutionExposure;
Characterisation of Spaces and Sources; Policies on Indoor Air Quality: Assessment
andNeeds).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
Directive2001/95/ECongeneralproductsafety
Directive89/106/EECrelatingtoconstructionproducts
Directive2010/31/EUontheenergyperformanceofbuildings
EUclimateandenergypackage
x
x
x
x
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
3
www.envieiaq.eu/home.html
73
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
Ashortlistof'reverse'indoorhealthexposuresourcechainswasdefined;
A set of highly advisable and feasible indoor air quality policy options for
Europewasidentified;
Likely public health gains, represented by disabilityadjusted life years (DALY)
reductions, were calculated, which could be achieved by the selection of
differentgeneralandspecificindoorairqualitypolicies;
Recommendationswereprovidedon
9 energyefficiency, buildingmaterials,productsandmaintenance,policies
concerningtheimpactsofoutdoorenvironment;
9 policiesconcerningspecificbuildingconstructionsandequipment;
9 the development of health based ventilation guidelines to control
exposuretopollutantsfromindoorandoutdoorsources,includingindoor
moisture,andensurecomfortableindoortemperature;
9 the development of moisture control guidelines for building design and
maintenance;
AframeworkforaEUGreenPaperonindoorairqualitywasproposed:Thelist
of proposed policies clearly shows that to tackle indoor air quality there is a
needforanintegrativeapproach.
Coordinator:
x
Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon, PT (Prof. Eduardo de Oliveira
Fernandes)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Kuopio
UniversityofMilan
CommissionoftheEuropeanCommunitiesDirectorate
GeneralJointResearchCentre,Ispra
HelsinkiUniversityofTechnology
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller
JózsefFodorNationalCentreforPublicHealth,Budapest
InteruniversityMarineBiologyandAppliedEcologyCentre
'G.Bacci'(CIBM),Livorno
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
AarhusUniversity,Roskilde
SwedishNationalTestingandResearchInstitute,Borås
AssociationforResearchandIndustrialCooperationof
AndalusiaF.dePaulaRojas"(AICIA),Sevilla
BuildingResearchInstitute(ITB),Warsaw
CharlesUniversity,Prague
RomeEnvironmentalHealthAuthority
CranfieldUniversity
74
Country
FI
IT
IT
FI
NO
HU
IT
DK
DK
SE
ES
PL
CZ
IT
UK
CONTRACTNUMBER:022618
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1990185
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1990185
STARTINGDATE:December1,2005
ENDDATE:March31,2009
DURATION:40months
EPIBATHE
ASSESSMENTOFHUMANHEALTH
EFFECTSCAUSEDBYBATHINGWATERS
Summary:
EPIBATHE investigated the
health risks associated with
bathing waters to support
reviews and revision of the
EU’sBathingWaterDirective.
It reviewed the international
literature and research on all
health risks from bathing waters. It defined gaps in current data that restrict the
application of ‘evidencebased’ policy to European bathing water standards, and
developed research protocols to fill the gaps. It undertook research across two
bathing seasons, with the first epidemiological studies in the Mediterranean and
Hungary. At the end, it produced a detailed policy interpretation of the findings.
4
Moreinformationcanbefoundonthefollowingwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Directive2006/7/ECconcerningthemanagementofbathingwaterquality
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
4
http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp6/ssp/epibathe_en.htm
75
Mainresults:
x
Datawereacquiredfromtheeightepidemiologicalstudiescompleted2006and
2007. This information on EU fresh and Mediterranean waters has been
analysed separately and also combined with existing data acquired using the
same research methods in Germany and the United Kingdom. This meta
analysis of the larger data set includes data on over 7 000 volunteers who
participatedintheserandomisedcontrolledtrialsbetween1989and2007;
x
Water quality encountered during the Hungarian and Spanish investigations
wasrelatively‘clean’aswouldbeexpectedfromthechoiceofsites,whichwere
incompliancewiththeImperativestandardoftheEUbathingWaterDirective
(1976). However, elevations in symptom reporting in the bather group, i.e.,
when compared to the nonbather group, were observed. It was also notable
that the background rates of most symptoms, principally gastrointestinal (GI)
symptoms, was lower in the EPIBATHE studies than in previous studies in the
UKandGermany.Thesetemporaldifferencescouldbeduetoimprovementsin
effluent treatment and the general health status of the European population
overthe20yearperiodspannedbytheseinvestigations;
x
Theanalysisofthecombineddataset,specificallythecomponentfocusedon
GIsymptoms,suggeststhatenterococciarebestpredictorofillnessinbathers
using marine waters and Escherichia coli is a better index of GI symptoms in
bathers using freshwater. The evidencebase created by this analysis suggests
thatexposuretomarinerecreationalwaterspresentsapproximatelytwicethe
risk associated with fresh waters containing similar faecal indicator organism
densities. The EPIBATHE empirical field studies and combined data analysis
does not suggest that a change in the water quality standards suggested by
eithertheWHOortheEuropeanUnionareinneedofrevision;
x
The EPIBATHE project has produced data suggesting significant limitations in
the microbiological methods defined in the revised Bathing Water Directive
(2006);
x
The EPIBATHE team established relevant links and transmitted information to
endusers in the European Commission and WHO, responsible for the
developmentofinternationalwaterqualityguidelines.
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofWales,Aberystwyth(Prof.DavidKay)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
JózsefFodorNationalCentreforPublicHealth,Budapest
Rovira&VirgiliUniversity,Reus
NationalPublicHealthServiceofWales,Cardiff
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
WorldHealthOrganisation,Geneva
76
Country
HU
ES
UK
UK
CH
CONTRACTNUMBER:022580
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1055000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1055000
STARTINGDATE:October1,2005
ENDDATE:September30,2007
DURATION:24months
ESBIO
DEVELOPMENTOFACOHERENT
APPROACHTOHUMAN
BIOMONITORINGINEUROPE
Summary:
A group of 22 European experts on human
biomonitoring,
coming
from
national
governments, research institutes, industry and
nongovernmental organisations in 17 EU
member states and Croatia, worked together in
the ESBIO coordination action to prepare a
coordinatedEuropeanapproachonhumanbiomonitoring.Humanbiomonitoringisa
scientific approach for assessing human exposure to and health effects of
environmentalpollutantsbasedonsamplingandanalysisofhumantissuesandfluids
(e.g.,blood,urine).Itisseenasapotentiallypowerfultooltosupportenvironmental
policy as well as public health policy. Human biomonitoring was therefore an
importantelementoftheEuropeanEnvironmentandHealthActionPlan20042010.
ThefirstpartoftheworkconsistedofthetechnicalpreparationoftheEuropeanpilot
projectthatwastobelaunchedduringtheActionPlan(itwaslaunchedin2011).The
workofESBIOwasmainlyfocussedonpreparationoftheconceptforacoordinated
EUapproach,developmentofqualitycontrolandassuranceprotocols,elaborationof
howbiomonitoringresultscanbeintegratedmostefficientlywithenvironmentand
registeredhealthdataanddevelopmentofcommunicationstrategiesandscenarios
foramoreextensiveuseofhumanbiomonitoringforpolicymaking.Thefinalreport
5
isavailableontheprojectwebsite .Theworkhascontinuedthroughthefollowup
6
7
projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES , funded by FP7 and LIFE+ programme,
respectively.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
x
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
5
www.euhumanbiomonitoring.org/sub/esbio.htm
COPHESEuropeancoordinationactiononhumanbiomonitoringwww.euhbm.info
DEMOCOPHESDemonstrationofastudytocoordinateandperformhumanbiomonitoringona
Europeanscalehttp://www.euhbm.info/democophes
6
7
77
Mainresults:
x
An effective network on human biomonitoring on a European level was
established and an EUwide harmonised approach for human biomonitoring
hasbeenelaborated;
x
The coordination action has drafted protocols for the following: (i) for a
harmonised way of collecting and analysing selected pollutants; (ii) for data
management; (iii) for interlaboratory comparison; (iv) for organisation of
laboratory work; (v) for population sampling, recruitment and biological
sampling;
x
A conference on the state of the art on human biomonitoring in Europe was
held in Lisbon, contributing to the improvement of the communication
betweenallstakeholders;
x
Anelectronichumanbiomonitoringinventorywascreated;
x
Aconceptwasproposedtoestablishbiomonitoringasapolicymakingtooland
guidelinesprovidedforintegrationscenariosandimplementationstrategiesfor
biomonitoring;
x
Knowledgewasgatheredonhowethicalissuesarealreadytakenintoaccount
indifferentcountriesandprojects,currentlegalisation;
x
Themostcosteffectiveandeconomicwaytoperformahumanbiomonitoring
pilotprojectwasidentified;
x
An extensive scientific basis for the utility and sensitivity of biomarkers to be
usedinbiomonitoringwasprovided.
Coordinator:
x
BiPROGmbH,Munich,DE(Dr.ReinhardJoas)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
BE
FederalEnvironmentAgency,Berlin/DessauRosslau
DE
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PL
LisbonFacultyofMedicine,PreventiveMedicineInstitute
PT
UniversityofCopenhagen
DK
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
BE
FrenchNationalInstituteforHealthSurveillance(INVS),St
FR
Maurice
NL
EnvironmentHealthSciencesInternational(EHSI),Hulst
StateGeneralLaboratory,Nicosia
CY
InitiativLiewensufankasbl,Itzig
LU
EuropeanOilCompanyOrganisationforEnvironment,Healthand
BE
Safety(CONCAWE),Brussels
78
InstituteforMedicalResearchandOccupationalHealth,Zagreb
RegionalEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyforLombardia(ARPA),
Milan
NationalHellenicResearchFoundation,Athens
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge
RegionalAuthorityofPublicHealth,BanskáBystrica
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
AustrianFederalEnvironmentAgency,Vienna
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki
HealthProtectionAgency,Salisbury/Didcot/Chilton
NationalInstituteforHealthDevelopment,Tallinn
HR
IT
EL
SE
SK
CZ
AT
FI
UK
EE
79
80
CONTRACTNUMBER:037019
PROJECTTYPE:
Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€3209528
ECCONTRIBUTION:€3209528
STARTINGDATE:November1,2006
ENDDATE:April30,2010
DURATION:42months
HENVINET
HEALTHANDENVIRONMENTNETWORK
Summary:
The aim of HENVINET was to support
policy making to protect the health of
populations and individuals. These policies need to integrate environmental and
health issues. The main objective of HENVINET was to establish a longterm co
operationbetweenresearchers,policymakersandotherstakeholdersintheareaof
environment and health research and assessment. The project reviewed, exploited
anddisseminatedknowledgeonenvironmentalhealthissuesbasedonresearchand
practices.Thefocusoftheprojectwashumanhealthandthepossibilityofimproving
healthaswellasreducingtheapparentincreaseintheprevalenceofcertaindiseases.
Thefourprioritydiseasesandeffects,broadlydefinedintheEuropeanEnvironment
and Health Action Plan 20042010, were chosen as the starting topics the project
focused on: Asthma and allergies; cancer; neurodevelopmental disorders; and
endocrine disrupting effects. HENVINET
identified over 100 tools used in a number of
different decision making contexts: from
everyday operation by health practitioners to
strategic longterm planning of policies for
reducing the negative effects of the
environmentonhealth.Suchtoolsincludesoftwaremodels,guidelines,handbooks,
orsimpleindicators.Theyareaccessiblethroughasearchablemetadatabaseonthe
8
projectwebsite .Fourpolicybriefswereproduced:onbrominatedflameretardants
decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD);
phthalates; impacts of climate change on asthma and other respiratory disorders;
andthepesticidechlorpyrifos(CPF).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
8
http://henvinet.nilu.no
81
Mainresults:
x
A HENVINET developed a knowledge evaluation method and applied it to
examples taken from four groups of health endpoints: asthma and allergies,
cancer,neurodevelopmentaldisorders,andendocrinedisruptingeffects;
x
The evaluation methodology has three main steps: (i) First, based upon
scientific review, the consortium translated each of the identified
environmental health issues into a schematic framework using a causal chain
diagram (DPSEEA framework). A webbased questionnaire was developed to
engage experts to assess the diagrams completeness and accuracy, and the
stateofknowledgeineachelementandlink;(ii)Inthesecondstep,theresults
ofthefirststepweresummarisedandsubmittedforexternalexpertdiscussion
withtheaimtoidentifyexpertagreementsanddisagreements,andtoprovide
a list of prioritised actions for policymakers; (iii) In the final step, the results
weresubmittedtodecisionmakersforfeedbackontheprocessandresults;
x
Theonlineexpertevaluationwasperformedforthreetypesofcases:(i)apolicy
question: the members of the European Respiratory Society were asked how
will climate change affect respiratory health; (ii) a risk assessment paradigm
evaluated for phthalates, chlorpyrifos, and the brominated flame retardants
DecaBDE and HBCD: experts were selected based on the literature review of
the last 5 years; and environmental determinants of disease, assessed for
specifictypesofcancer:aprofessionalsocietywasconsulted;
x
Amajorscientificachievementwasarrivedatbythecancertopicgroup,which
was able to translate the knowledge about environmental determinants of
cancerintoaseriesofsimplecausalchaindiagrams;
x
As an emerging issue, the consortium has chosen nanoparticles for expert
evaluation,inordertoidentifythemostimportantgapsinscientificknowledge
of various aspects of the causeeffect relationship between engineered
nanoparticles and their potential health risks. The work resulted in a publicly
accessibletoolforevaluationonline;
x
The methods on evaluation of knowledge and interpretation of expert
elicitation results using the causeeffect diagram as a basis can be used for
other environmental health issues. The results may support informed policy
makingtoprotectthehealthofpopulationsandindividuals;
x
Webbasedsearchablemetadatabasesondecisionsupporttoolsareaccessible
throughtheHENVINETnetworkingportal;
x
The HENVINET online networking portal has been established on
http://www.henvinet.eufortheglobalenvironmentandhealthcommunity.
82
Coordinator:
x
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller,NO(Dr.AlenaBartonova)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
NationalVeterinaryInstitute,Oslo
NO
EcobabyFoundation,Amsterdam
NL
UnitedBristolHealthcareNHSTrust
UK
PublicHealthServicesGelderlandMidden,Arnhem
NL
CentralScienceLaboratory,York
UK
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
SK
InstituteofFoodBioresources,Bucharest
RO
NationalAgencyforNewTechnologies,Energyandthe
IT
Environment(ENEA),Rome
IT
WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)–EuropeanCentrefor
EnvironmentandHealth,Rome
UniversityofHertfordshire,Hatfield
UK
WageningenUniversity
NL
UniversityofOslo
NO
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Utrecht,Zeist
NL
FinnishMeteorologicalInstitute,Helsinki
FI
CommissionoftheEuropeanCommunitiesDirectorateGeneral
IT
JointResearchCentre,Ispra
IT
ConsortiumforInformationSystems(CSI)Piemonte,Turin
InstituteforMedicalResearchandOccupationalHealth,Zagreb
HR
UmeåUniversity
SE
NorwegianSchoolofVeterinaryScience,Oslo
NO
SlovakTechnicalUniversity,Bratislava
SK
StockholmUniversity
SE
UniversityofSouthernDenmark,Odense
DK
NationalCentreforScientificResearchDemokritos,AghiaParaskevi
EL
AR
ArgentineanAssociationofDoctorsfortheEnvironment(AAMMA),
BuenosAires
BeijingUniversitySchoolofPublicHealth
CN
IntegralUniversity,Lucknow
IN
eThekwiniMunicipality,Durban
ZA
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthofMexico,Cuernavaoa,Morelos
MX
NationalInstituteforCancerResearch,Genoa
IT
UniversityofAntwerp
BE
83
84
CONTRACTNUMBER:518148
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€827720
ECCONTRIBUTION:€800870
STARTINGDATE:March1,2006
ENDDATE:August31,2009
DURATION:42months
PHOEBE
HARMONISINGPOPULATIONBASED
BIOBANKSANDCOHORTSTUDIESTO
STRENGTHENTHEFOUNDATIONOF
EUROPEANBIOMEDICALSCIENCEIN
THEPOSTGENOMEERA
Summary:
The purpose of PHOEBE was to establish a
collaborative research network to identify key
issues and to lay the groundwork for efforts to
ensure that Europe makes best use of its rich
array of populationbased biobanks and
longitudinal cohort studies. These include
retrospectiveandprospectiveelementstocover
majorcohortsthatalreadyexistandneworplannedinitiatives.Particularemphasis
wasplacedonstudiesthatcancontributesubstantiallytocoordinatedinvestigations
of the genetic and environmental determinants of complex diseases. PHOEBE
worked to: (i) Promote communication between major biobanking initiatives; (ii)
Enhance the effective sharing and synthesis of information and data; (iii) Avoid
expensive mistakes and inefficiencies that can arise when individual initiatives
repeatedly'reinventthewheel'.Harmonisationimpliestheuse,wherepossible,of
complementary protocols for data management, genotyping, phenotyping, and
ethicallegal constructs. PHOEBE cooperated closely with several related,
international initiatives including the EUfunded GenomEUtwin (Genomewide
analysesofEuropeantwinandpopulationcohortstoidentifygenespredisposingto
common diseases), P3G (Public Population Project in Genomics) in Canada and
PHGEN (Public Health Genomics European Network). A final conference
“HarmonizingBiobankResearch:MaximizingValue–Maximizinguse”wasorganised
in Brussels in 2009. The conference gathered more than 250 people from over 35
9
countries. More information is available in the project final report . Some of the
10
11
workhascontinuedintheFP7fundedBBMRI andENRIECO projects.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Together for Health: A Strategic Approach for the EU 20082013
(COM[2007]630final)
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
9
http://www.fhi.no/dav/8cb1c605e3.pdf
BBMRIBiobankingandbiomolecularresourcesresearchinfrastructurewww.bbmri.eu
ENRIECOEnvironmentalhealthrisksinEuropeanbirthcohortswww.enrieco.org
10
11
85
Mainresults:
x
Throughthecoordinatedeffortsofmultipleprojects,thescienceofbiobanking
maturedsubstantiallyduringthelifetimeoftheproject;
x
These diverse harmonisation initiatives resulted in the emergence of a new
reservoirofknowledge,experience,andexpertisethatiscrucialtosharewith
the biobanking community and which paves the way for the next phase of
harmonisationobjectives;
x
PHOEBE was committed to mobilising this information within the biobanking
communityforthepurposeofmaximisingthescientificvalue,useandutilityof
ourbiomolecularresources;
x
TohelpinthisendeavourPHOEBEhasbeenactivelyengagedinorleadingkey
meetings, conferences, strategy building initiatives, biobanking projects and
training;
x
The project produced reports and recommendations, guidelines and planned
international conferences to promote much needed dialogue within the
communityandbetweenstakeholders;
x
PHOEBE played an instrumental role to enhance crosstalk and collaboration
betweenthenextwaveofbiobankingprojects.
Coordinator:
x
NorwegianInstituteofPublicHealth,Oslo,NO(Dr.JenniferHarris)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofBristol
UniversityofBonn
UniversityofTrieste
PompeuFabraUniversity,Barcelona
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge
UKBiobank,Stockport
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Helsinki
McGillUniversity,Montreal
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Toulouse
UniversityofMontreal
UniversityofLeicester
ErasmusUniversityMedicalCentre,Rotterdam
EstonianGenomeProjectFoundation,Tartu
CharlesUniversity,Prague
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,London
86
Country
UK
DE
IT
ES
SE
UK
FI
CA
NL
FR
CA
UK
NL
EE
CZ
EL
UK
CONTRACTNUMBER:044159
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€750000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€750000
STARTINGDATE:January1,2007
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:36months
PRONET
POLLUTIONREDUCTIONOPTIONSNETWORK
Summary:
There is a lack of systematic exchange of
information and experience among EU
MemberStatesontheissueofenvironmental
healthprotection.Forthispurposeitwouldbe
usefultoidentifyandanalysenationalandregionalactivitiesandtoexchangegood
practices.ThemainobjectiveofthePRONETprojectwastofacilitateexchangeand
evaluationofinterventionsonenvironmentandhealthexposurereductionmeasures
on a regional level and promote implementation of successful initiatives in other
regions of Europe. This project focused on the exchange of useful practices in two
areas: (i) the reduction of transportrelated health
hazards (air pollution and noise); and (ii) the
improvementoftheindoorenvironment.Astheyare
key areas in environmental policy, the health of the
population would benefit significantly from exposure
reduction measures. PRONET set up an information
exchange platform for the development of effective
PRONET
and efficient health promotionbased policies. It
formedanetworkofregionalauthoritiesandresearchersatEuropean,nationaland
regionallevel.Theprojectestablishedalinkthroughpartnersandmemberstatesto
the Transport, Health and Environment PanEuropean Programme (THE PEP), the
EuropeanLocalTransportInformationService(ELTIS)andotherrelevantprojects.At
workshops, network members came together to identify, analyse, assess and
develop policy options, to gain insight into interventions and to disseminate the
results to all stakeholders in European regions to accelerate the progress in
environmentalhealthprotection.Theresultsareusedtomakerecommendationsfor
12
policiesatregionallevel.Moreinformationisavailableonthewebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
x
ThematicStrategyontheUrbanEnvironment[COM/2005/0718final]
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
12
www.proneteurope.eu
87
Mainresults:
x
PRONETbuiltaEuropeannetworkofpotentialstakeholderswithinthefieldsof
indoorenvironmentandtransport,inordertofacilitateexchangeofexamples
ofgoodpractice.ItestablishedcooperationwithotherEuropeanprojects,e.g.,
THEPEPandtheWHOproject'Actionstoreducehealthrisksduetoindoorair
pollutionwithbiologicalagents';
x
A database with diverse, innovative case studies was built: diverse in a
spatial/geographicalsenseandcoveringavarietyoftopics,suchasreductionof
volatileorganiccompoundsfrombuildingmaterials,reductionofallergens,or
improvement in ventilation behaviour with respect to indoor environment. In
thefieldoftransportthetopicsrangedfromalternativefuels,trafficzoningand
congestionchargingtocomprehensivemethodsofpollutionreduction;
x
Most of the examples of good practices were collected by contacting a large
number of stakeholders. For indoor environment, this resulted in a total of
about150entriesandfortransportinabout400entries;
x
As regards indoor environment, case studies were grouped in 9 main
categories: ventilation, radon, noise, moisture, moulds, allergens, volatile
organic compounds, environmental tobacco smoke and combustion. As for
transport, case studies were categorised in 10 groups: traffic restrictions, low
emission vehicles, traffic or spatial planning, promotion of cycling, logistic
concepts, awareness raising, public transport, comprehensive approaches,
administrative/politicalinstruments,andnetworksanddatabases;
x
An assessment form was developed, aimed at reviewing the effectiveness of
thecollectedcasestudies;
x
Factsheetswerecreatedfortheindoorandtransportcasestudies(availableon
the project website). Keywords are available in each of the 23 official EU
languages;
x
Forindoorenvironment,thefactsheetsconsistofthefollowinginformation:(i)
The title, category and whether it is applicable in schools, homes or other
settings;(ii)Adescriptionoftheproblem;(iii)Anoverviewofthemeasureand
theactionsthatshouldbetaken;(iv)Adescriptionofthecasestudyonwhichit
was based, including contact information of the case owner; (v) Some
additional points in relation to the applicability that should be taken into
account;
x
For transport, the information that is included in the fact sheet is slightly
different from that in the indoor environment sheet: (i) The title and the
categoryofthemeasure;(ii)Somegeneralinformationonwhathasbeendone
within the measure; (iii) The expected or achieved results (reduction in
exposureand/orimprovementinhealth);(iv)Someadditionalpointsinrelation
to the applicability, that should be taken into account; (v)
Conditions/restrictions that might be relevant; (vi) Contact information of the
caseowner.
x
Results were disseminated to, e.g., ministries by, among others, the
organisationoflocalworkshops.
88
Coordinator:
x
Public Health Services Gelderland Midden, Arnhem, NL (Dr. Peter van den
Hazel)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
MinistryoftheEnvironmentandConservation,Agricultureand
DE
ConsumerProtectionoftheStateofNorthRhineWestphalia,
Düsseldorf
MinistryforHousing,SpatialPlanningandEnvironment,DenHaag
NL
StockholmCountyCouncil
SE
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
NL
Bilthoven
NationalEnvironmentalResearchInstitute,Roskilde
DK
AT
MedicalUniversityofVienna
PublicHealthAgencyofBarcelona
ES
89
90
CONTRACTNUMBER:513648
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€2847858
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2247624
STARTINGDATE:January1,2005
ENDDATE:March31,2007
DURATION:27months
VIROBATHE
METHODSFORTHEDETECTIONOF
ADENOVIRUSESANDNOROVIRUSESIN
EUROPEANBATHINGWATERSWITH
REFERENCETOTHEREVISIONOFTHE
BATHINGWATERDIRECTIVE76/160/EEC
Summary:
13
Themainaimoftheproject wastoprovideaprocedure
for analysis of EU bathing waters for noroviruses and
adenoviruses by validated comparisons of methods for
processing water samples to achieve the best virus
recovery consistent with cost and feasibility of use in
routine monitoring laboratories. The specific objectives
wereto:(i)comparemethodsfornorovirusandadenovirus
detection in recreational waters; (ii) derive a combination
of concentration and detection techniques to provide a reproducible system of
testing bathing waters for the target viruses; (iii) furnish scientific evidence to
provide support for norovirus and adenovirus testing of environmental samples in
respectoftheirroleastheappropriateviralindicatoroffaecalpollution;(iv)prepare
the technology for EU Accession States as part of the development of their
environmentalandsocialprogrammes;(v)sharetechnologybetweenlaboratoriesto
achievewidercompetenceinthevirologicalanalysisofenvironmentalmaterials.The
resultsfromVIROBATHEprovideabasisforfurtherworktolinkvirusoccurrencewith
healtheffectsofrecreationalwateruse,eitherthroughcorrelationwithenterococci
or by epidemiological studies based on projects such as EPIBATHE (described
elsewhereinthiscatalogue).VIROBATHEhasshownthattheideaofusingvirusesas
anindicatorofpollutionandasavalidparameterintheBathingWaterDirectivehas
movedfromthe"conceptual"atthebeginningoftheprojectthroughthe"possible"
stagereachedattheendofPhase1,wherethemethodswereshowntoworkinthe
laboratory, to the "feasible" stage, where structured field studies have furnished
evidencethatvirusescanbedetectedinsurveillanceprogrammes.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Directive2006/7/ECconcerningthemanagementofbathingwaterquality
EUfunding:
x
'ScientificSupporttoPolicies'programme
13
www.virobathe.org
91
Mainresults:
x
TheprojectconcludedthatitisfeasibletointroducetheVIROBATHEdeveloped
virusconcentrationanddetectionmethodsintovirologylaboratoriesofawide
rangeofskillsandexpertise;
x
Target viruses could be concentrated by relatively inexpensive techniques,
which should therefore be adaptable to routine environmental monitoring
laboratoriesandtolaboratoriesincountrieswithlowresourceprovision;
x
Thechosenconcentrationmethodwasapplicableacrossallthefreshwaters–
fromFrancetoPoland;
x
Adenoviruses and noroviruses were present in fresh and marine recreational
watersandweredetectablewithvaryingfrequency;
x
TargetviruseswerewidelypresentinenvironmentalsamplesacrossEurope;
x
Adenoviruses were found to be statistically associated with human faecal
pollutioninfreshwater;
x
Methodological considerations: (i) The nested polymerase chain reaction
(nPCR) for adenovirus is reliable; (ii) at least some of the samples contained
infectious adenovirus as detected by the integrated cell culture polymerase
chain reaction (ICCPCR) method; (iii) detection, especially for adenoviruses,
canbequantifiedbyaquantitativePCRtechnique;(iv)Noroviruseswerefound
not to be a practical target for surveillance as they were not sufficiently
abundantnorwasthereversetranscriptase(RT)PCRrobust;(v)Moreworkis
needed to optimise a method for marine waters; (vi) Further work on nucleic
acidextractionisneededtooptimiserecoveryaswellasonreducinginhibition
ofthePCRbycomponents,especiallyinfreshwater;
x
The next stage will be to move from "feasible" to "operational", where
quantitative determinations of target viruses (probably adenoviruses) will be
reconciledwithlevelsofknownfaecalindicators(probablyenterococci)sothat
meaningfuldiscussionsontheformulationofaviralparameterbasedonsound
scientificdatacanbeheld.
92
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofWales,Aberystwyth,UK(Prof.DavidKay)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofPisa
CentralScienceLaboratory,York
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment
(RIVM),Bilthoven
UniversityofRome"TorVergata"
PublicHealthServiceofBadenWürttemberg,Stuttgart
HenriPoincaréUniversity,Nancy
EnvironmentAgency,Starcross
UniversityofBarcelona
BavarianHealthandFoodSafetyAgency,Oberschleissheim
FederalEnvironmentAgency,Berlin
NationalVeterinaryInstitute,Oslo
NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
UniversityofPortoFacultyofPharmacy
StateGeneralLaboratory,Nicosia
HealthProtectionAgency,Reading
93
Country
IT
UK
NL
IT
DE
FR
UK
ES
DE
DE
NO
IT
PT
CY
UK
94
CHAPTERIIProjectsFocusedontheEffectsofExposuretoEnvironmentalStressorsandUnderlyingMechanisms
CHAPTERII Projectsfocusedontheeffectsof
exposuretoenvironmental
stressorsandunderlying
mechanisms
95
96
CONTRACTNUMBER:22923
PROJECTTYPE:Specifictargeted
researchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€4925004
ECCONTRIBUTION:€4610000
STARTINGDATE:April1,2006
ENDDATE:31March,2010
DURATION:48months
ATHON
ASSESSINGTHETOXICITYANDHAZARDOF
NONDIOXINLIKEPCBSPRESENTINFOOD
Summary:
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), previously used
onalargescaleforindustrialpurposes,areagroup
oftoxicfoodcontaminantsthatareveryresistantto
degradation.Althoughnowprohibited,duetotheir
persistencePCBsarestillabundantintheenvironmentandpresentinhighlevelsin
foods such as meat, fish and dairy products. Nondioxinlike PCBs (NDLPCBs) are
poorly characterised from a toxicological point of view. ATHON was initiated to
increasetheknowledgeonhealthhazardsofNDLPCBsinfood.Usingexperimental
models,textminingandmathematicalmodelling,effectsafterexposuretoNDLPCBs
were investigated in a controlled and reproducible manner. The results show that
PCBs can be transferred rapidly across the placental barrier by passive diffusion.
Neurotoxicity studies within ATHON increased the knowledge on underlying
mechanisms that may contribute towards the epidemiology reports of cognitive
impairment in children exposed to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation. Gene
expressionchangesafterexposuretoseveralPCBswereobservedindifferentbrain
areas. Both transcriptomics and proteomics revealed a genderspecific reaction to
thePCBexposure.Bodyand organ relatedtoxicityendpointswerealsochangedas
wellasendpointsrelatedtodevelopmentandreproduction.Afinalprojectsummary
1
isavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs; Commission Regulation
(EC)1883/2006 laying down methods of sampling and analysis for the official
control of levels of dioxins and dioxinlike PCBs in certain foodstuffs;
Commission Recommendation 2006/88/EC concerning the reduction of the
presence of dioxins, furans and PCBs in feedingstuffs and foodstuffs;
Commission Recommendation 2006/794/EC on the monitoring of background
levelsofdioxins,dioxinlikePCBsandnondioxinlikePCBsinfoodstuffs
CommunityStrategyforDioxins,FuransandPolychlorinatedBiphenyls
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
1
www.cascadenet.org/~athon
97
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Studies after developmental and adult exposure in vivo (rats and mice)
collectively indicated that one of the characteristic effects of NDLPCBs is
disruptionofthyroidhormonehomeostasis.Forthehumansituation,however,
itisnotclearwhetherPCBexposureleadstosimilareffects;
AvarietyofcytochromeP450relatedchangeswereobservedinliver;
Evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro neurotoxicity studies within ATHON
increased the knowledge on underlying mechanisms that may contribute
towardstheepidemiologyreportsofcognitiveimpairmentandmotordisorders
in children exposed to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation. The effects
observedalsoincludedisturbedauditoryfunctionandafeminisedbehaviourin
males;
Gene expression changes after exposure to several PCBs were observed in
different brain areas as well as in peripheral blood. Both transcriptomics and
proteomicsrevealedagenderspecificreactiontothePCBexposure;
Evaluationperformedonbodyandorganrelatedtoxicityendpointsaswellas
endpointsrelatedtodevelopmentandreproductionrevealedslightlyincreased
neonatal mortality, slight delays in developmental milestones, transient
decreased body weight, increased liver weight and changes in bone mineral
density;
Exposure to NDLPCBs was shown to have tumourpromoting activities on
proteinlevelbothinvivoandinvitro;
SeveralarticlesrelatedtothequalitativeandquantitativetoxicitydataforNDL
PCBsgeneratedwithintheprojecthavebeenpublishedandfurtherarticlesare
planned.
Coordinator:
x
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm,SE(Prof.HelenHåkansson)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
VeterinaryResearchInstitute,Brno
PrinceFelipeResearchCentre,Valencia
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Kuopio
TechnicalUniversityofKaiserslautern
InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,Milan
UtrechtUniversity,InstituteforRiskAssessmentSciences
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
UniversityofOslo
UmeåUniversity
UnitedBristolHealthcareNHSTrust
HealthCanada,Ottawa
GermanStatutoryAccidentInsurance,Bochum
98
Country
BE
CZ
ES
FI
DE
IT
NL
NL
NO
SE
UK
DE
CONTRACTNUMBER:506319
PROJECTTYPE:Networkofexcellence
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€14400000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€14400000
STARTINGDATE:February1,2004
ENDDATE:January31,2010
DURATION:72months
CASCADE
CHEMICALSASCONTAMINANTSINTHE
FOODCHAIN:ANoEFORRESEARCH,
RISKASSESSMENTANDEDUCATION
Summary:
The main objective of the CASCADE Network of
Excellence (NoE) was to act as an integrated research
networkinthefieldofchemicalcontaminantsinfood.It
was originally composed of 19 partner universities and
institutes, but has been additionally expanded through
the introduction of new partners. CASCADE is today a
highly multidisciplinary network. The focus of CASCADE
scientific activities was to characterise the health
implications of exposure to chemicals acting through
nuclear receptors. It focused on a limited set of model chemicals, namely dioxin
(TCDD),bisphenolA(BPA),vinclozolinandgenistein.Reliablehealthriskassessment
information (e.g., toxicities, mechanisms of actions, human exposure levels, data
gaps, research needs) has been provided on TCDD, BPA and vinclozolin. From the
startCASCADEdevelopedanextensivetraininganddisseminationscheme.Aftersix
years, CASCADE NoE become CASCADE ACERT, a nonprofit association, which will
continue to offer training, risk assessment and collaborative partnership as the
leadingEuropeannetworkwithinendocrineresearch.Aninternationalpostdoctoral
programme(CASCADEFELLOWS)tocontinuetheresearchandresearcherexchange
activities of CASCADE has been established. For more information, see the project
2
website .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
2
www.cascadenet.org
99
Mainresults:
Integrationandtraining
x
CASCADE has played a significant role in integrating research activities in the
field of chemical contaminants in food. It involved not only the research
communitybutalsoadditionalstakeholdersandthegeneralpublic;
x
CASCADE partners exchanged 250 researchers throughout the lifetime of the
project,andtheseexchangesarestillongoing;
x
CASCADEinitiatedcourseprogrammesinclude'Advancedinternationaltraining
courses in health risk assessment', 'RACOURSES', 'TRISK' (programme for
training/certification of European risk assessors), 'MSTnet' (CASCADE Science
RiskAssessmentExpertiseInventoryandtheMathematicalandStatisticalTool);
x
More than 1 300 PhD and post doctoral students, senior scientists as well as
professionals from industry and regulatory authorities attended the 34
differenttrainingcourses,summerschoolsandworkshopsorganised;
x
CASCADE will continue working towards better integration in the future, for
instance with the establishment of the global postdoctoral programme on
endocrinedisrupterresearchwithinthecontextofCASCADEACERT;
x
CASCADEisactivelyengagedindevelopingaEuropeanstructurefortrainingof
accredited European risk assessors. CASCADE universities are dedicated to
developing joint education for Master’s level and PhD students and promote
exchangeofstudentsandteachersbetweentheuniversities;
x
ScientificintegrationwasachievedbytheinvolvementofCASCADEpartnersin
differentscientificcollaborationswithinCASCADEandalsowithotherprojects
and international research actors such as the US Environmental Protection
Agency(EPA).
Scientificactivities
x
CASCADE has identified listings or databases containing information on
established or potential endocrine disrupters that have been produced by
governmental, nongovernmental or industrial bodies. Efforts were made to
verify the information derived from these sources using publications records.
Allthisinformationhasbeencollectedandtransferredtoaconsolidatedlistby
eliminating redundancy. In this way a combined dataset with 169 compounds
wasobtained,includingnaturallyoccurringproducts,environmentalpollutants,
industrialchemicals,agrochemicalsandpharmaceuticalcompounds,withdata
abouttheirrelativebindingaffinityforoestrogenreceptors;
x
CASCADE advanced the state of the science by, among others, (i) the
developmentofanalyticalmethodstodetectcertainchemicalcontaminantsin
differentfoodmatrixes;(ii)therefinementofinsilicomethodstoassesbinding
ofxenoestrogenstooestrogenreceptorD(iii)theintegrationandvalidationof
novel analytical and in silico approaches with biological methods; (iv) the
generation of novel reporter cell lines to characterise the effects of chemical
contaminantsonER,LXR,AhR,AR,TRnuclearreceptorsignallingpathways;(v)
the study of the crosstalk between different cellular signalling pathways
100
modulatedbychemicalcontaminants;(vi)thestudyoftheimpactofcellular
metabolism on the biological response of chemical contaminants; (vii) the
developmentofnovelsmallmodelorganisms(frogsandzebrafish)tostudythe
effectsofchemicalcontaminantsinvivo;(viii)theidentificationofintermediate
metabolismandmetabolicsyndromerelatedendpointsaspotentialtargetsfor
chemical contaminants in food; (ix) the integration of the methodology
developed by CASCADE to study the effects of contaminants in whole food
(BabyfoodandBread).
Dissemination
x
CASCADE partners have actively participated in the public debate regarding
chemicalcontaminantsinfood.CASCADEpartnersandnetworkrepresentatives
havebeencontactedbyauthorities,industry,nongovernmentalorganisations
(NGOs) and individual European consumers to provide advice and support in
theareaofchemicalcontaminantsandtheireffectsonhealth;
x
The CASCADE project dissemination strategy received in 2011 the
'Communication Stars' award due to its multifaceted communication actions
that influenced the EU chemical regulation "REACH". Via campaigns, position
papersandopinionpapers,CASCADEhastriedtoinfluencethedecisionmakers
in several urgent and important questions. At the time for voting on REACH
regulation, CASCADE published an article about REACH implementation in
Financial Times. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and CASCADE jointly carried
outaDETOXcampaign,testing27differentfoodstuffsaroundEurope;
x
Since2005,CASCADEhaschairedCommNet,whichconsistedofmorethan20
projects.Ithasenhancedthecommunicationqualityinalltheinvolvedprojects
fundedbytheEUResearchFrameworkProgramme;
x
CASCADE has spread visibility via YouTube, Wikipedia YouTube, Wikipedia,
Facebook, Cordis, AlphaGalileo, EurActive, EC DG Research, Research*eu and
viaatleast20otherwebsites;
x
The project produced more than 200 scientific publications in peerreviewed
journals,151manuscripts,182abstractsfororalpresentationsatmeetingsand
351 abstracts for poster presentations at meetings, 46 theses, 21 reports, 25
bookchaptersandhundredsofposters;
x
CASCADE has established spinoff companies for management, administration
anddissemination.
101
Coordinator:
x
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm,SE(Prof.JanÅkeGustafsson)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofMilan
JohannesGutenbergUniversity,Mainz
EcoleNormaleSupérieure(ENS),Lyon
UniversityofGranada
NationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),Paris
UniversityofTurku
GeorgAugustUniversity,Göttingen
UniversityofPécs
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,Munich
InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,Milan
NationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch(INRA),Toulouse
EberhardKarlsUniversity,Tübingen
KaroBioAB,Huddinge
UniversityofHelsinki
NationalResearchInstituteforFoodandNutrition(INRAN),
Rome
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Montpellier
SlovakAcademyofSciences,InstituteofExperimental
Endocrinology,Bratislava
NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
102
Country
IT
DE
FR
ES
FR
FI
DE
HU
DE
IT
FR
DE
SE
FI
IT
FR
SK
IT
CONTRACTNUMBER:506143
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€2591940
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2399940
STARTINGDATE:December1,2003
ENDDATE:December31,2006
DURATION:36months
DEVNERTOX
TOXICTHREATSTOTHEDEVELOPING
NERVOUSSYSTEM:INVIVOANDINVITRO
STUDIESONTHEEFFECTSOFMIXTUREOF
NEUROTOXICSUBSTANCESPOTENTIALLY
CONTAMINATINGFOOD
Summary:
DEVNERTOXfocusedongeneratingexperimentalmodelstoimprove
developmental neurotoxicity testing and risk assessment for
neurotoxic food contaminants. There is still limited knowledge
about the exact mechanism(s) of action of most environmental
neurotoxicants,andthisisoneofthereasonswhytheidentification
of endpoints for neurotoxic effects has been progressing slowly.
Three compounds were studied alone and in combination: methylmercury (MeHg)
andtwopolychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCBs)withdifferentchemicalproperties(PCB153
andPCB126).Themajorgoalswereto:(i)Developtestingprotocolsbasedontheuse
of several in vitro experimental models; (ii) Identify biochemical, molecular and
functional endpoints based on the mechanism of action of MeHg and PCBs; (iii)
Evaluate the neurotoxic effects of MeHg and PCBs during development, including
longterm consequences and genderrelated aspects; (iv) Define quantitative
measuresofobservedeffectsforriskassessmentpurposes,andtoderiveguidelines
forexposurelimits.Theresultsindicatethatthecombineduseofinvitroandinvivo
methodologies is a successful strategy to identify neurodevelopmental toxicity and
characterise the mechanisms of actions of potentially neurotoxic substances. The
analysis of behaviour is a first choice approach to detect subtle and longlasting
modificationsinvivo.Learningandmemoryfunctionswereimpairedinbothratsand
3
mice.Adetailedfinalreportisavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs; Commission Regulation
(EC)1883/2006 laying down methods of sampling and analysis for the official
control of levels of dioxins and dioxinlike PCBs in certain foodstuffs;
Commission Recommendation 2006/88/EC concerning the reduction of the
presence of dioxins, furans and PCBs in feedingstuffs and foodstuffs;
Commission Recommendation 2006/794/EC on the monitoring of background
levelsofdioxins,dioxinlikePCBsandnondioxinlikePCBsinfoodstuffs
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
3
www.imm.ki.se/devnertox
103
Mainresults:
x
Thecombineduseofinvitroandinvivomethodologiesisasuccessfulstrategy
to identify neurodevelopmental toxicity and characterise the mechanisms of
actionsofsubstancesthatarepotentiallyneurotoxic;
x
Changes were detected in selected mechanismbased endpoints (i.e.,
neurotransmitters) at concentrations relevant for human developmental
exposure;
x
Neuralstemcellsseemtobeapromisingmodeltoinvestigatedevelopmental
neurotoxicity: They are highly sensitive to toxicantsand undergo apoptotic or
necroticcelldeathtriggeredbymultipledeathpathwaysthatmaycrosstalk;
x
Theanalysisofbehaviourisafirstchoiceapproachtodetectsubtleandlong
lastingmodificationsinvivo,alsobecauseitoffersthepossibilitytoanalysethe
sameanimalsatdifferentstagesofdevelopment;
x
Learning and memory functions were impaired in both rats and mice.
DevelopmentalexposuretoMeHgaffectsnotonlycognitivefunctionsbutalso
motivationdrivenbehaviourinmalebutnotfemalemice;
x
Itisimportanttomeasureactuallevelsintissuesandcellsinordertoenablea
comparisonofinvivoandinvitroresults.
Coordinator:
x
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge,SE(Prof.SandraCeccatelli)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofPavia
IT
UniversityofParma
IT
PrinceFelipeResearchCentre,Valencia
ES
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,Brussels
BE
UppsalaUniversity
SE
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PL
TrinityCollege,Dublin
IE
104
CONTRACTNUMBER:505609
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1852095
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1461947
STARTINGDATE:February1,2004
ENDDATE:September30,2007
DURATION:44months
DIEPHY
DIETARYEXPOSURESTOPOLYCYCLIC
AROMATICHYDROCARBONSANDDNA
DAMAGE
Summary:
Exposure from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from
some foods is sufficiently high to permit direct studies of DNA
lesions in humans. This potential health hazard its modulation
by genetic factors, synergists and protective substances 4
constituted the main focus for DIEPHY . New methods for
assessing oxidative and other types of DNA damage as well as
basic knowledge on different DNA repair mechanisms were also
provided. The impact from exposures via food to PAHs was
studied in women characterised by different ethnicity and life
stylesfromthegeneralpopulationinPoland,SerbiaandItaly,as
wellasinsubjectslivingintwoenvironmentalcatastrophezonesinSerbia.Thestudy
oftheeffectsofcombinedexposurestoPAHsandhighlevelsofarsenicindrinking
water was unique, as was the assessment of individual DNA repair capacity, which
offersapossibilitytoidentifyparticularlysensitivegroupswithrespecttothistypeof
carcinogen.Inhumanstheutilityofvariousbiomarkersderivedfrommodelsystems,
relevant for tumour induction by PAHs, was directly assessed by monitoring
chromosomal and DNA damage in buccal cells and lymphocytes. The inhibiting
effects of anticarcinogens with respect to DNA damage and chromosomal
aberrations induced by exposure to PAHs was assessed directly in isolated
lymphocytes and buccal cells from human volunteers in an intervention crossover
study.Intheareaofpublichealth,effortsweremadetopromoteahealthierdietfor
thegeneralpopulation.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Commission Regulation (EC) No 627/2006 implementing Regulation (EC) No
2065/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards quality
criteria for validated analytical methods for sampling, identification and
characterisationofprimarysmokeproducts
x
CommissionRegulation(EC)No1881/2006settingmaximumlevelsforcertain
contaminantsinfoodstuffs
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
4
http://medpr.imp.lodz.pl/diephy/home.htm
105
Mainresults:
x
Diolepoxides derived from benzo(a)pyrene (BPDE), dibenzo(a)pyrene (DBPDE),
fluoranthene(FADE)andbenzophenanthrene(B(c)PhDE)wereinvestigatedin
terms of mutagenic efficacy, replication bypass by recombination and trans
lesionDNAsynthesis,incisionratesandrepairkinetics.Ofthethreecompounds
tested, DBPDE was the most toxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic, whereas
FADEistheleast reactiveandgave fewermutations per recombinationevent
ascomparedtoBPDE.TheDBPDEadductsappearedtobemoremutagenicand
recombinogenicthantheBPDEadducts.Theresultssuggestanimportantrole
ofnucleotideexcisionrepairforcellularresistancetoDBPDEaffectingboththe
inductionofchromosomalaberrationsandsisterchromatinexchanges;
x
Neither chlorophyllin nor ellagic acid exhibited any protective action with
respecttotheinductionofDNAadductsinmouseliver;
x
Cohortsof100nonsmokingwomenfromLodz(PL),Viterbo(IT)andBelgrade
(RS)weregenotyped,interviewedwithrespecttolifestylerelatedfactors,and
sampled for determination PAHmetabolite patterns, DNA adducts and
oxidative damages, and biomarkers for vegetable intake. In addition to the
Belgradecohort,100residentsinVojlovicalivingclosetothebombedPanevo
refineryandpetrochemicalcomplexeswerescoredwithrespecttomicronuclei
(MN)inperipherallymphocytes;
x
TheconcentrationsofmainPAHurinarymetabolitesfoundintheItaliancohort
compared closely to findings in Germany, indicating similar PAH levels in
ambientairandconsumedfood.ElevatedconcentrationsofPAHmetabolitesin
the Polish and Serbian cohorts reflect significantly higher exposures from
ambientairand/orcontaminatedfood;
x
TheanalysisoftheMNdataforwomenlivinginBelgradeshowedasignificantly
lower frequency for the subgroup consuming vitamin supplements versus
individualswhodidnot;
x
Vegetableanalysisshowedthattheworkersandthepeoplelivinginthevicinity
ofthePanevorefineryarenotsubjecttoanincreaseofambientPAHexposure
causallylinkedtotheproductionofthepetrochemicalcomplexoftherefinery;
x
Analysis of genetic polymorphisms in major metabolising and DNA nucleotide
excision as well as base excision repair genes did not indicate any significant
differencesbetweenthethreecohortsinPoland,ItalyandSerbia;
x
A statistically significant relationship was found between the frequency of
having fried, smoked or grilled meat dishes as well as vegetable servings and
theDNAfragmentationbyCometassayinPolish,ItalianandSerbianwomen;
x
TherewasamarkedincreaseofMNfrequencywithageinSerbianwomen,and
a statistically significant association between high intake of vitamin
supplementsanddecreasedfrequencyofMN;
x
Relying on data obtained in this project, as well as supported by updated
medical information, health advisories intended for the general public have
beenpreparedandprintedinthePolishandSerbianlanguages.
106
Coordinator:
x
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód,PL(Prof.RobertNilsson)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
StockholmUniversity
SE
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
SE
InstituteofExperimentalMedicine,Prague
CZ
UniversityofTuscia,Viterbo
IT
VincaInstituteofNuclearSciences,Belgrade
RS
BiochemicalInstituteforEnvironmentalCarcinogens,Prof.Dr.
DE
GernotGrimmerFoundation,Grosshansdorf
107
108
CONTRACTNUMBER:513943
PROJECTTYPE:NetworkofExcellence
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€11000000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€11000000
STARTINGDATE:May1,2005
ENDDATE:October31,2010
DURATION:66months
ECNIS
ENVIRONMENTALCANCERRISK,
NUTRITIONANDINDIVIDUAL
SUSCEPTIBILITY
Summary:
ECNIS brought together European research groups from
25institutionsof13countriesintoanetworktoconduct
cuttingedge research on cancer causation and
prevention. The participating groups are active in the
area of environmental cancer and its modulation by
nutrition and genetic makeup. The vision of ECNIS was the creation of a dynamic
research network, which aims to decrease cancer incidence by: (i) identifying
chemicals or other factors in the environment and food, which cause cancer; (ii)
elucidating the mechanisms by which dietary and lifestyle patterns increase or
decrease cancer risk; (iii) facilitating the development of new foods with cancer
preventive properties; (iv) discovering genetic (hereditary) factors which make
individuals more or less susceptible to cancer; and (v) formulating improved
approaches to the risk assessment of carcinogens. To reach its objectives, ECNIS
activitieswereorganisedaroundthreeaxes:(i)Integratingactivities,topromotethe
establishmentofadurablenetworkofEuropeanresearchgroupscommittedtoco
ordinated research planning, personnel mobility and sharing infrastructures and
data; (ii) Joint research activities, focussed on high quality, multidisciplinary
investigations in the area of molecular cancer epidemiology, environmental
carcinogenesis and its modulation by nutrition and genetics; and (iii) 'Spreading of
excellence'activities,includingresearchertrainingandmobilityprogrammesaswell
assharingofnewscientificknowledgewithdifferentstakeholders(researchers,the
general public, regulators, health care specialists, industry, etc.). At the end of the
5
project,theprojectwebsite hadbeenvisitedbyover600000people.Thenetwork
organised9conferences,75workshopsand13trainingcourseswithalargenumber
of attendees. 75 PhD students were trained and 236 joint publications published.
ECNISresearchersperformedindepthevaluationsofthestateofsciencerelevantto
canceraetiologyandhaveformulatedcorrespondingproposalsforfutureresearch.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
5
www.ecnis.org
109
Mainresults:
x
AsaresultofcommoneffortoftheECNISresearchers,anumberofinitiatives
important for European integrative research on cancer, biomarkers, and food
havebeeninitiated:
9 MolecularEpidemiologyandCancer(MEC)database:bringstogetherthe
data of a number of population studies, thus providing increased
statistical power to evaluate the influence of various environmental or
other factors on cancer risk. Currently MEC incorporates information on
exposure,includingnutritionandcancerchemoprevention,biomarkersof
exposure, biomarkers of individual susceptibility, cytogenetic and other
genotoxicdamage,anddatasetsofmolecularepidemiologystudies;
9 Core facilities: provide standardised chemicals, antibodies and analytical
methodologyforECNISpartners;
9 EuropeanStandardsCommitteeonUrinaryDNALesionAnalysis(ESCULA):
presently comprises 31 laboratories from 16 countries globally. This
network focuses on validation of the methods for determination of
urinary 8oxo7,8dihydro2’deoxyguanosine (8oxodG), a well
establishedbiomarkerofoxidativestress;
9 European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG): comprises 12
laboratoriesfrom9differentEUcountries.Themainobjectiveistoreach
consensus on the likely level of DNA damage in lymphocytes and on
proceduresandvaluesoftheDNA repairincisionassay,andadditionally
development of bona fide internal standard materials to minimise
variabilityinthemeasuresofcometassayendpoints;
9 ECNISRepository:hasbeendevelopedintheformofelectronicplatform
for storing and providing access to digital documents dealing with the
mattersofenvironmentalhazardsforcancer;
9 ECNISvideoconferencingnetwork:isthelargestnetworkofthiskindbuilt
inEurope.Itconsistsof23partnergridsallowingpointtopointaswellas
multipointsconnections;
9 Training instruments: In additional to more conventional training
initiatives,awebbasedcoursetitled‘Molecularepidemiology:principles
andapplications’hasbeendeveloped.
x
ECNISprovidedthegluetobringtogethermanyofthetopEuropeaninstitutes
withahighdegreeofspecialisationinindividualrelevantareas,andbeganthe
process of developing strategies for the combined use of disciplines of
analytical and synthetic chemistry, molecular biology, food science,
epidemiology,riskassessmentandethics,withtheultimateintentionofmaking
them available for panEuropean cancer molecular epidemiology studies, i.e.,
studiesofpopulationsfromdifferentregionsofEuropewithdifferentclimates,
pollutionlevelsanddietaryhabits;
x
The ECNIS Network of Excellence was only the first stage of the process of
creating a strongly integrated and viable European research network. Having
drawn together the most relevant parties towards this task and also having
110
identifiedthemajorgapsinavailabledataandbiomarkervalidation,itwas
realised as necessary to cement the integration on a more permanent basis.
This idea has become a major goal of the ECNIS2 project, funded by the
Seventh Framework Programme of Research, with an ultimate goal of
transforming network into a virtual centre, the European Centre for Research
andEducationonCancer,EnvironmentandFood(ECRECEF).
Coordinator:
x
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód,PL(Prof.KonradRydzyski)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
GermanCancerResearchCentre,Heidelberg
DE
UniversityofCopenhagen
DK
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
SE
InstituteforScientificInterchangeFoundation,Torino
IT
NationalHellenicResearchFoundation,Athens
EL
UniversityofLeicester
UK
NationalInstituteofEnvironmentalHealth,Budapest
HU
NicolausCopernicusUniversity,CollegiumMedicumin
PL
Bydgoszcz
IT
GeneticsResearchInstitute&OspedalePoliclinics,Milano
JohannesGutenbergUniversity,Mainz
DE
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki
FI
FreeUniversityofBrussels
BE
LundUniversity
SE
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
BE
InstituteofCancerResearch,Sutton
UK
MaastrichtUniversity
NL
BiochemicalInstituteforEnvironmentalCarcinogens, DE
Prof.Dr.GernotGrimmerFoundation,Grosshansdorf
ES
CatalanInstituteofOncology,Barcelona
UtrechtUniversity
NL
UniversityofDundee
UK
InternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer,Lyon
FR
NETIXSkrzypczynski,KrzysztofowiczSp.J.,Warsaw
PL
LeocordiaAB,Stockholm
SE
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyandMedicine,London
UK
111
112
CONTRACTNUMBER:514000
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€18321182
ECCONTRIBUTION:€14259966
STARTINGDATE:June1,2005
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:55months
EUROPREVALL
THEPREVALENCE,COSTANDBASISOFFOOD
ALLERGYACROSSEUROPE
Summary:
6
TheEUROPREVALL consortiumcomprised63
partners from 19 different countries and
collaborating centres in North America, Australia and New Zealand. The project
soughttoidentifyhowmanyindividualssufferfromfoodallergyandwhicharethe
majorproblemfoods.Forthispurpose,cohortsweresetupindifferentagegroups
with a birth cohort with complimentary community surveys in schoolage children
and adults. Studies in unselected populations were complimented by a cross
sectional study in the allergy outpatient clinics. This provided the project with a
cohortofindividualswithwellcharacterisedfoodallergies,whichwerenecessaryfor
developing and validating new diagnostic
tools and led to the development of the
EUROPREVALL Serum Bank (EPSB). All the
datacollectedintheEuropeancohortstudies
was entered online into databases.
Information on how much of a food can cause a reaction has been collected when
determining the clinical reactivity to foods, which has been assessed in the
EUROPREVALLcohortswhereverpossible.Theroleofdiet,environmentandgenetic
factors in food allergy was studied by characterising patterns of sensitisation to
inhalant allergens in the cohorts with pollen exposure and food consumption
patterns,ultimatelywithaviewtolinkingtheresultingdatasetstoidentifypotential
causallinksbetweenexposuretopollenanddevelopmentoffoodallergies.Apilot
study was carried out to establish prevalence of three infections that have been
linkedtoprotectionagainstthedevelopmentofallergies:hepatitisA,toxoplasmosis
andsalmonella.ExposuretothepriorityfoodsinEUROPREVALL(consumption)was
evaluated in four countries. Changes in consumption were analysed in the four
countries with peanut as the study focus. In addition to research, the consortium
undertookmanytraininganddisseminationactivities.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
European Environment and Health Strategy [COM(2003) 338] and Action Plan
20042010"[COM(2004)416]
EUhealthpolicyandprevention
Directive2000/13/EContheapproximationofthelawsoftheMemberStates
relatingtothelabelling,presentationandadvertisingoffoodstuffs
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
6
www.europrevall.org
113
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
EUROPREVALLwasanimportantprojectforpatientsasithasprovidedinsight
ofallaspectsof (IgEmediated)foodallergiesandaddressedtheneededdata
andgaps;
AkeycontributionofEUROPREVALLwastheprovisionofgoodqualitydatato
characterise the risk from allergenic foods. Epidemiological data are already
providingaclearerpictureofthesizeofthepopulationatriskinEuropeandan
indication of the relative importance of different foods. Data from the birth
cohorts and particularly the clinic surveys are already revealing distinctive
patternsoffoodallergyprevalence;
Significant amounts of data on thresholds of reactivity to different allergenic
foodsarenowemerging.Thesedataarenowbeingusedtodevelopandrefine
dosedistributionmodelsforseveralfoods.Betterknowledgeofthenumbers
atriskfromdefinedamountsofallergenicfoodwillnotonlyprovideasounder
scientificbasisforregulatoryandallergenmanagementdecisions,butwillalso
inform the wider debate among stakeholders, for instance on issues such as
tolerablerisk;
Acorrectdiagnosisisessentialforthefoodallergicpatient.Foodallergiescan
result in uncomfortable, severe or potentially fatal responses. EUROPREVALL
dataandknowledgewillhavesignificantimpactondiagnostictestingforfood
allergyatseverallevels;
TheprojecthasformedanetworkofpanEuropean(andbeyond)researchers
spanningdisciplinesfromepidemiologytoeconomics,frommoleculargenetics
to clinical science, risk management to food science. This is unique and
necessary to realise the potential of the data and resources, in particular to
ensureitsdeliveryinaform,whichcanbeusedbyriskassessorsandmanagers;
ThedatafromEUROPREVALLprovideasignificantadvance,butstillneedstobe
translated into validated evidence methods for risk management that can be
usedeffectivelybythefoodindustrytomanageallergensinfoods.Aseriesof
“stateoftheart”papersrelatingtofoodallergymanagementwasdeveloped;
The socioeconomic impact of food allergy focused on assessing the role of
food allergen labelling in communicating with food allergic consumers about
potential allergenic hazards in particularly prepackaged foods, together with
newstudiesonimpactoffoodallergiesonqualityoflifeandassessingitscost;
EUROPREVALL partners have pioneered the development of the first disease
specificqualityoflifeinstrumentsforfoodallergy;
Validatedquestionnaireshavebeendevelopedtoassesstheeconomicimpact
offoodallergies;
Dissemination to different stakeholders has been undertaken though
collaboration with other projects. The main EUROPREVALL activity has been
focussed on the food industry, making use of a previously developed web
basedplatform,www.foodallergens.info,todisseminatetoolsandinformation.
It has links to the InformAll database and is linked to the MoniQA food
allergensworkinggroupwebsite;
114
x
x
x
Industrialinteractionshaveincludedactiveinvolvementoffoodmanufacturers
through the participation of Unilever, Nestle and Kraft in many aspects, but
particularly the development of realistic food challenge materials and
development of tools and approaches to help the food industry manage
allergens in foods. SMEs have also played an important role, e.g., in the
developmentofimmunoassaystodetermineallergensinfoods;
33PhDstudentsweretrained,integratedacrosstheprojectactivitiescoupled
with specific training in the study and clinical protocols of the multicentre
studies;
There has been a significant increase in the numbers of credible clinical
researchcentresabletoundertakeeffectivediagnosisoffoodallergy.
Coordinator:
x
InstituteofFoodResearch,Norwich,UK(Prof.ClareMills)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
SanquinBloodSupplyFoundation,Amsterdam
King'sCollegeLondon
WageningenUniversity
CharitéUniversityMedicalCenter,Berlin
UniversityofZürich
HospitalClinicoSanCarlosdeMadrid
NationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch(INRA),Paris
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
Agrotechnology&Foodlnnovations,Ijmuiden
PaulEhrlichInstitute,Langen
RothamstedResearchLimited,Harpenden
UnileverUKCentralResourcesLimited,Sharnbrook
NESTECSA,Vevey
KraftFoodsR&D,Munich
MedicalUniversityofVienna
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
UniversityofSouthampton
EuropeanFederationofAllergyandAsthmaPatientsAssociations
(EFA),Brussels
UniversityMedicalCentre,Utrecht
EurohandelsinstitutGMBH,Köln
TepnelBiosystemsLTD,Deeside
BiomayAG,Vienna
lnstituteofAnimalReproductionandFoodResearch,Olsztyn
AarhusSchoolofBusiness
VBCGenomicsBioscienceResearchGmbh,Vienna
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
115
Country
NL
UK
NL
DE
CH
ES
FR
DK
NL
DE
UK
UK
CH
DE
AT
EL
UK
BE
NL
DE
UK
AT
PL
DK
AT
UK
InteruniversitaryConsortiumforMagneticResonanceof
ParamagneticMetalloproteins,SestoFiorentino
GroningenUniversityHospital
AgriculturalUniversityofAthens
NationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Rome
MedicalUniversityofód
TheCentralManchesterandManchesterChildren'sUniversity
HospitalsNationalHealthServiceTrust
PhadiaAB,Uppsala
ReflabAPS,Copenhagen
AnaphylaxisCampaign,FarnboroughHampshire
MedicalUniversity,Sofia
FacultyHospitalBulovka,Prague
VilniusUniversity
BaigentLtd,Chesham
IPPragmatics,TheLondonBioscienceInnovationCentre
London
NetherlandsAnaphylaxisNetworkFoundation,Dordrecht
LeidenUniversityMedicalCentre
SanCarloClinic,PadernoDugnano
MaastrichtUniversity
StrasbourgUniversityHospital
LandspitaliUniversityhospital,Reykjavik
LaPazUniversityHospital,Madrid
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,Munich
RoguchiMemorialInstituteforMedicalResearch,Accra
HospitalityandLeisureManpower,KingstonUponThames
HospitaloftheHospitallerBrothersofStJohnofGod,Budapest
UniversityCollegeCork
AcademicMedicalCentreofUniversityofAmsterdam
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,London
FoodInformationServiceEurope,BadBentheim
AllergyAsthmaAssociates,Mysore
SiberianStateMedicalUniversity,Tomsk
ChineseUniversityofHongKong
IALAutomationundLogistikGMBH,Rötgen
FoundationforBiomedicalResearchatRamonyCajalUniversity
Hospital,Madrid
AppelEuropa,Sofia
CentreforEnergy,EnvironmentandTechnologyResearch
(CIEMAT),Madrid
MedicalUniversityofód
JagiellonianUniversityMedicalCollege,Cracow
AarhusUniversity
116
IT
NL
EL
IT
PL
UK
SE
DK
UK
BG
CZ
LT
UK
UK
NL
NL
IT
NL
FR
IS
ES
DE
GH
UK
HU
IE
NL
UK
DE
IN
RU
CN
DE
ES
BG
ES
PL
PL
DK
CONTRACTNUMBER:513953
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€2593200
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1750800
STARTINGDATE:December1,2004
ENDDATE:May31,2008
DURATION:42months
FOODANDFECUNDITY
PHARMACEUTICALPRODUCTSAS
HIGHRISKEFFECTORS
Summary:
The strategic objectives of the FOOD &
7
FECUNDITY project were to (i) identify
potential endocrine disrupters among pharmaceutical products
(PPs);(ii)developandemployvalidatedmethods(chemicaland
immunochemical) for screening and testing PPs in
environmental and food samples; (iii) determine their
adverse effects and mechanism of action at the cellular,
molecular and whole organism level; (iv) learn the extent
of human exposure to the selected PPs; and (v) assess,
based on the data accumulated in the course of the study,
their risk to men and women fecundity in various geographical locations and
exposure scenarios in Europe. The project first carried out a feasibility study to
identify potentially highrisk PPs and develped an antibody as well as an enzyme
linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for one of them [ethynylestradiol (EE2)]. An
inventory was prepared of pharmaceuticals with a potential to affect human
fecundityviaexposurethroughthehumanfoodchain.Classificationofmechanisms
by which pharmaceuticals affect fecundity was prepared. Exposure pathways for
human exposure to PPs through food were analysed and the main pathways
identified.StrategiesweredevelopedforthegenerationofantibodiesandELISAsfor
sevenhighpriorityPPs: ethynylestradiol(EE2),medroxyprogesteroneacetate(MPA),
levonorgestrel (LNG), indomethacin (IMT), atenolol (ATL), trimethoprim (TMP) and
fluoxetine (FLX). Methods were developed and optimised for the clean up and
concentrationofEE2andLNGfromrealenvironmentalsamples,foodandbiological
samples. The feasibility of studying unintended exposure to PPs in human serum
sampleswasdemonstrated.HumanexposuretoEE2andasourceofenvironmental
contaminationthatmayeffecthumanreproductionwereidentified.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
Directive2000/60/ECestablishingaframeworkforCommunityactioninthe
fieldofwaterpolicy
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
Directive2004/27/ECamendingDirective2001/83/EContheCommunitycode
relatingtomedicinalproductsforhumanuse
Directive2004/28/ECamendingDirective2001/82/EContheCommunitycode
relatingtoveterinarymedicinalproducts
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
7
http://foodandfecundity.factlink.net
117
Mainresults:
x
Feasibility study: consisted of (i) identification of the first potential high risk
PPs;(ii)generationofanantibodyforoneofthem:ethynylestradiol(EE2);(iii)
DevelopmentofanELISAforEE2;(iv)characterisationoftheEE2antibodies;
x
Identification of potential endocrinedisrupting chemicals: An inventory has
been prepared of pharmaceuticals with a potential to affect human fecundity
viaexposurethroughthehumanfoodchain.Theclassificationofmechanisms
by which pharmaceuticals affect fecundity, i.e., what kind of reproductive
disorder they may cause, was completed. An evaluation of the risk
assessment/statistical models was performed in order to select the most
suitable ones and to adapt them to the needs of the project. Exposure
pathwaysforhumanexposuretoPPsthroughfoodhavebeenanalysedandthe
mainpathwaysidentified;
x
Diagnostic assays and validation of assays: Strategies were developed for the
generationofantibodiesandmicroplateassays(ELISAs)forsevenhighpriority
PPs:EE2,MPA,LNG,IMT,FLX,TMPandATL.Fiveoftheaboveantibodieswere
characterised(antiEE2,antiMPA,antiLNG,antiIMTandantiATL.)foraffinity,
limit of detection and cross reactivity. The ability of the EE2, IMT, and LNG
diagnosticassaystomonitorthetargetPPsinenvironmental,foodandhuman
serumsampleswasevaluated.Acellbasedreceptorbindingassayprotocolwas
developed, which can be easily converted into a functional highthroughput
screening assay. Methods were developed and optimised, based on solgel
immunaffinity purification in combination with solidphase extraction, for
cleanup and concentration of EE2 and LNG from real environmental samples
(water of different sources), food (cow milk) and biological samples (human
serum and breast milk) at high recoveries and full compatibility with liquid
chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Environmental (water from
different sources) and human serum samples were prepared for LCMSMS
analysisinordertodeterminepopulationexposure;
x
Monitoring PPs in human, food & environmental samples: 299 human serum
samplesfromDenmarkwereanalysedbythecombinedAIPLCMSMSmethod
forEE2.Inpartofthesamplesdetectableamountswerefound;
x
Clinical epidemiology: The feasibility of studying unintended exposure to
pharmaceutical compounds in human serum samples was demonstrated.
HumanexposuretoEE2andasourceofenvironmentalcontaminationthatmay
effecthumanreproductionwereidentified.
118
Coordinator:
x
AnalystResearchLaboratoryLtd,Rehovot,IL(Dr.HaimSchlesinger)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
TheVolcaniCenter,BetDagan
IL
AarhusUniversityHospital
DK
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
FR
Paris
NationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch(INRA)andNational
FR
CentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),Nouzilly
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
NL
Bilthoven
WessexInstituteofTechnology,Southampton
UK
AT
FactlineWebservicesGmbH,Vienna
OSMDANLtd,Rehovot
IL
119
120
CONTRACTNUMBER:44393
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1620460
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1500000
STARTINGDATE:January1,2007
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:36months
FURANRA
ROLEOFGENETICANDNONGENETIC
MECHANISMSINFURANRISK
Summary:
After the discovery of the formation
of acrylamide during heat processing
of food, more recent studies have also indicated that the simple organic molecule
furan is present in a wide variety of foods and may also be formed during heat
processing. Like acrylamide, furan until recently has also been known only as an
industrial chemical and most of the toxicity data elaborated up to now are not a
suitablebasisfortherequireddetailed
risk assessment of human exposures
to furan with food. Since the
mechanismsofcarcinogenicactivityof
furan in rodents are not well
understood, the objectives of FURANRA were to generate relevant mechanistic
informationasasupportfortheongoingriskassessmentofhumanfuranexposures
with food. The importance of modeofaction research on furan is underscored by
thecomparativelysmalldifferenceintheestimatedhumanexposuresandthedoses
of furan, which cause carcinoma in the liver of experimental animals. A detailed
elucidation of genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms and their possible dose
response relationships and interconnectivity are of fundamental importance for a
reliableriskassessment.DuetogenotoxicityandDNAbindingoffuranestablishedin
the project, the current risk assessment for furan requires application of a linear
doseresponse relationship. Exposures to furan in adults are estimated to be less
than0.5g/kgbodyweight/day;datafromthisprojectalsosupportasimilarintake
of furan in children. Due tothe high incidence of tumours induced by furan in rats
evenatthelowestapplieddose,alinearextrapolationoftheanimaldatatocalculate
possible human tumour risks is uncertain. When using a marginofexposure (MoE)
assessment,MoEstoadoseinducingasignificanttumourincidencearecalculatedas
only1000to2000.ThelowMoEswarrantfurtherreductionsinfuranexposures.A
8
detailedreportcanbedownloadedfromtheprojectwebpage (Deliverable9.1).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Scientificsupporttopolicy'programme
8
www.furanra.toxi.uniwuerzburg.de
121
Mainresults:
x
A 28day repeated dose study with oral dosing of furan showed minor liver
damage induced by furan both in rats and in mice, but analysis ofthetissues
andbloodsamplesalreadyindicatedchangesingeneexpressionandbileacid
excretion;
x
In vivo and in vitro genotoxicity studies showed equivocal results with furan
itself, but a clear response with the reactive furan metabolite, when added
directlytothecellculturemedia;
x
Furanconcentrationsshowawiderangeinfood;
14
x
Treatment of male Fischer rats with Cfuran at a known carcinogenic dose
indicatedthatfuranmaybindtoDNA;
x
No overt signs of liver toxicity were evident by histopathology, clinical
chemistry and metabonomics after oral administration of furan for 28 days.
However, a dosedependent increase in cell proliferation was detected
specificallyinareaslocatedneartheedgeoftheliverlobes;
x
In vivo genotoxicity assays in B6C3F1 mice provided evidence of genotoxic
effects after repeated oral exposure with furan (a doserelated increase of
micronuclei). Repeated oral furan administration was shown to induce in vivo
primary DNA damage in spleen cells, which evolved in doublestrand breaks
followingmitogenstimulationofcellsinvitro;
x
Furan induced a doserelated increase in thymidine kinase (tk) mutation
frequencyinL5178Ycells,butathighcytotoxicdoses;
x
ElevatedfuranlevelswerefoundincarrotjuiceswithrelativelyhighpHvalues
andinprunejuices.Otherflavoursofthebrandsthathavehighfuranlevelsin
theircarrotorprunejuiceshadlowfuranlevels.Caroteneincombinationwith
sterilisation is a possible source of furan in carrot juices. The prune drying
process is a possible source of furan in prune juices. Babies may have high
exposure to furan when their carrot juice consumption is high (0.25 litre per
day).Adultsarenotatriskwhenconsumingcarrotorprunejuices;
x
Furan determination in bakery products turned out to be irreproducible,
possibly because of inhomogeneous furan distribution in the products. The
highestfuranlevelswerefoundinwholegrainproducts;
x
Chemical characterisation of furan metabolites in bile provided further
evidence to suggest that glutathione (GSH)conjugates and degraded protein
adducts are major in vivo metabolites of furan. Although no toxicity data are
availablesofar,themetabolitesidentifiedinbileareassumedtobelesstoxic
thancis2butene1,4dialandtheinitialmonoGSHconjugate;
x
Onthebasesoftheresultsobtained,furanprovedtobeaninvivogenotoxinin
ratsunderthereportedexperimentalconditions,thoughin“nonconventional”
genotoxicityassays.
122
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofWürzburg,DE(Prof.WolfgangDekant)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
UniversityofKaiserslautern
UniversityofBirmingham
UniversityofTuscia,Viterbo
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
EcoTraceLimited,Camberley
NestléResearchCentre,Lausanne
123
Country
IT
DE
UK
IT
NL
UK
CH
124
CONTRACTNUMBER:18996
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€13258334
ECCONTRIBUTION:€11327585
STARTINGDATE:March1,2006
ENDDATE:August31,2010
DURATION:54months
GABRIEL
MULTIDISCIPLINARYSTUDYTOIDENTIFY
THEGENETICANDENVIRONMENTAL
CAUSESOFASTHMAINTHEEUROPEAN
COMMUNITY
Summary: 9
The aim of GABRIEL was to
systematically discover and
identify the environmental and
genomic causes of asthma with
largescale studies of genes and
environment.
Genomewide
association studies showed that
allergy is a consequence of
asthmaratherthanitscauseand
identified several new targets
for asthma therapy. A panel of
100keygeneticmarkershasbeentypedinafurther40000subjectsfrompopulation
samples across Europe in very substantial epidemiological survey. GABRIEL has
performed searches for factors protective against asthma through advanced
epidemiological surveys of rural populations, with an initial sample size of 135 000
children. The results confirm the protective effect of farming, and show that farm
childrenwereexposedtoawiderrangeofmicrobialexposurethancontrolchildren.
GABRIEL scientists have been the first to show that the airways contain a
characteristicmicrobialflorawhichdiffersbetweenhealthanddisease.Inaddition,
GABRIELhasfosteredinnovativemolecularinvestigationsfactorsinfluencingasthma
and set out to discover the molecular nature of strong protective effect against
asthma conferred by farming environments. EMC Microcollections have patented
highlysensitiveassaysfortheidentificationofbacteriallipoproteinsindustextracts,
and have patented a strategy for the synthesis of new ligands as potential
therapeuticagentsforasthmaprevention.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
x
EUhealthpolicyandprevention
EUfunding:
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
x
9
www.gabrielfp6.org
125
Mainresults:
x
GABRIEL has produced and published novel investigations into the ethics of
geneticstudiesofyoungchildren,bydistributingquestionnairesandsampling
children’sopinionthroughonlinefocusgroups;
x
ThegeneticstudiesinGABRIELwereextraordinarilysuccessful,culminatingina
secondgeneration genomewide association study (GWAS) of 15 billion
genotypesin10000casesofasthmaand16000controls.Thisstudydiscovered
several new asthma genes, showing that allergy is a consequence of asthma
rather than its cause and identifying several new targets for asthma therapy.
The results have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine in
2010,addingtoapublicationinNatureofthefirstasthmaGWASin2007.The
results of the GABRIEL GWAS are now the principal component of an
internationalmetaanalysisof25000asthmatics,tobecompletedin2011;
x
TheGABRIELconsortiumhasalsocompletedaverysubstantialepidemiological
surveyinwhichapanelof100keygeneticmarkershasbeentypedinafurther
40000subjectsfrompopulationsamplesacrossEurope.Analysisofthisdatais
ongoing, including systematic analyses of geneenvironment interactions with
cigarettesmoking,farmingenvironments,obesityandairpollution;
x
GABRIELhasperformedsearchesforfactorsprotectiveagainstasthmathrough
advanced epidemiological surveys of rural populations, with an initial sample
size of 135 000 children. The results confirm the protective effect of farming,
and show that farm children were exposed to a wider range of microbial
exposurethancontrolchildren;thisexposurecanexplainasubstantialfraction
of the inverse relation of asthma status and farming. These results were
publishedintheNewEnglandJournalofMedicinein2011;
x
Surveys of 10 000 children have also been completed in SouthWest Poland.
Theenvironmentalandgenomicfactorsthatcauseorprotectagainstasthmain
different nonEuropean populations, including subjects from Russia, Chinese
populations and rural and urban populations in tropical Ecuador, were
examined;
x
GABRIELhasfosteredinnovativemolecularinvestigationsofGABRIELsubjects,
including proteomic investigation of serum from the children of farmers and
nonfarmers. Affymetrix and Illumina platforms have been used to measure
global gene expression in RNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from
childrenintheMRCAandMRCEfamilypanels.Thefirstresultswerereported
in Nature Genetics in 2007, and contributed to the 1 000 genome project
papersinNatureandSciencein2010.Furtheranalysisofthisimportantdataset
isongoing;
126
x
x
x
x
x
GABRIEL has carried out highly novel assessments of microbial and other
factorsindustandfarmmilk,whichmaycontainthefactorsthatconferstrong
protectionagainstasthmaintheruralandfarmingenvironment.GABRIELhas
also used genomic studies as a systematic tool to classify and identify the
microbial flora from environmental samples, from the upper airways of
asthmatic and normal children, and from bronchoalveolar lavage of children
withsevereasthmaandcontrols;
The secondgeneration GWAS of asthma included 600 subjects with
occupationalasthma,andidentifiedseveralsignificantgeneticeffectsthatare
currentlybeingmodelledforgeneenvironmentinteractions;
GABRIEL also set out to discover the molecular nature of strong protective
effectagainstasthmaconferredbyfarmingenvironments.Dustobtainedfrom
mattresssockswastestedforeffectsoninflammationinairwayepithelialcells,
inamodelofdendriticcell/Tcell(DC/T)interaction,andinamurinemodelof
asthma.Strongprotectiveeffectswereobserved,andfractionationofthedust
extracts has narrowed the search for biological molecules that may be used
therapeuticallytopreventasthma;
GABRIELfundedsixfellowshipsforyoungscientiststospendseveralmonthson
anexchangevisittoahostlaboratorywithintheconsortium;
The training programme organised numerous workshops and meetings of
specialinterestgroups.
Coordinator:
x
Imperial College of Science, Technology And Medicine, London, UK
(Prof.WilliamCookson)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
MunichUniversityChildren'sHospital
DE
NationalCentreforGenotyping,Evry
FR
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre,Ispra
IT
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
SE
ResearchCentreBorstel
DE
UniversityofUlm
DE
UniversityofBasel
CH
StGeorge's,UniversityofLondon
UK
UtrechtUniversity
NL
CharitéUniversityMedicalCenter,Berlin
DE
NL
LeidenUniversityMedicalCentre
UniversityCollegeCork
IE
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Leiden
NL
RuhrUniversity,Bochum
DE
127
UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLifeSciences,
Vienna
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Kuopio
UniversityofFrancheComté,Besançon
UniversityofGroningen,UniversityMedicalCenter
UniversityofOxford
WroclawMedicalUniversity
EMCMicrocollectionsGmbH,Tübingen
AarhusUniversity,Aarhus
UniversityofBristol,AvonLongitudinalStudyofParentsand
Children
SurfaceTherapeutics,Oxford
HelsinkiUniversityCentralHospital
SiberianStateMedicalUniversity,Tomsk
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,Munich
UniversityofVerona
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Evry
InstituteofBiochemistry&Genetics,Ufa
InstituteofMedicalGenetics,Tomsk
ChineseUniversityofHongKong
UniversidadSanFranciscodeQuito
128
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FR
NL
UK
PL
DE
DK
UK
UK
FI
RU
DE
IT
FR
RU
RU
CN
EC
CONTRACTNUMBER:506378
PROJECTTYPE:
NetworkofExcellence
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€14400000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€14400000
STARTINGDATE:February1,2004
ENDDATE:January31,2010
DURATION:72months
GA2LEN
GLOBALALLERGYANDASTHMA
EUROPEANNETWORK
Summary:
10
GA²LEN was a Network of Excellence
of the leading European clinical and
research facilities in the field of
allergology and asthma, associated with
the European Academy of Allergy and
Clinical Immunology (EAACI) and the
organisation representing European
patientswithallergiesandasthma(EFA).
ItstartedundertheEUSixthFramework
Programme as a Network of Excellence.
Itbroughttogetherepidemiological,basicandclinicalresearchersfromacrosstheEU
to work on common activities. The results have been published widely. GA²LEN
allowed for allergic diseases and asthma to be tackled using a global approach,
startingfromcoprogrammingandfacilitatingbasicresearch,acceleratingtheresults
fortranslationalresearch,optimisingmultinationalclinicalresearch,butnotstopping
there.GA²LENhassystematicallycreatedorupdatedrelevantguidelinesforallmajor
topicsinallergy,togetherwiththeEAACI.GA²LENhasensuredtheharmonisationof
the standards of care and through its quality programme certifies the member
institutions to comply to the highest standards. GA²LEN has achieved sustainability
andiscontinuingasanonprofitnetwork,buildingonthefoundationprovidedbythe
sixyearsofFP6funding.Thisnetwork,GA²LENe.V.,isbasedattheCharitéHospital
in Berlin. GA²LEN provides continuous support to EU initiatives, but is currently
seeking additional funding not onlyfor the durable structure, but also to allow the
outputsneededtoofferpanEuropeansurveillanceonallergiesforEUpolicies.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
EUhealthpolicyandprevention
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
10
www.ga2len.net
129
Mainresults:
x
GA²LENwascreatedtocombatfragmentationintheEuropeanallergy/asthma
research, in order to ensure excellence in research by bringing together
institutions and researchers from across the EU. The network notably put in
place centralised structures and an office supervising the multiple assets in
knowledge of the different GA²LEN partners, enabling them to optimally
synchronisetheirresearchefforts.Creatingthesestructureswascomplexsince
notonlymanytechnical,ethicalandlegalaspectshadtobesolved,butalsoa
wholenewatmosphereoftrusthadtobecreated.Currently,GA²LEN’svisionis
stilltoreducetheburdenofallergicdiseasesinEuropebyimprovingthehealth
ofEuropeanswithallergicdiseasesaswellasbyincreasingthecompetitiveness
andtheinnovativecapacityofEUhealthrelatedindustriesandbusinesses;
x
WorkcarriedoutbyGA²LENhas(i)establishedtheEUasaleaderinthefieldof
allergy and asthma research and clinical care; (ii) proposed avenues for
reducing the socioeconomic impact of allergy and asthma for the EU; (iii)
started to improve the quality of life and availability of treatment for allergy
patients;
x
GA²LEN has worked and continues working within the research community
through(i)thecoordinationandcombinationofexisting,fragmentedEuropean
forces from epidemiology, basic, clinical and social sciences; (ii) the
establishment of an open platform for joint activities, including common
databases, biobanks and modern communication facilities; (iii) the
establishmentofaclinicaltrialsnetworktotestnovelmanagementstrategies
in the field of allergy (including diagnostic, treatment and preventive
strategies); (iv) the assistance to researchers in accessing complementary
expertise and tools; (v) the development of common training schemes for
young scientists (both clinical and nonclinical) and exchange fellowships to
facilitate international, multidisciplinary and crosscultural development; (vi)
the promotion of integration between academia and industry, in particular
smallandmediumsizedenterprises(SMEs);
x
The network connects the research community and the rest of the society
through(i)theincorporationofpatients’viewsintotheformulationofresearch
policy; (ii) the incorporation of policy makers’ views into the formulation of
research policy; (iii) the development of mechanisms to disseminate
informationtoallstakeholders;(iv)thedevelopmentofapanEuropeansystem
of quality management for allergy services; (v) the assistance with the
development of evidencebased policies for the prevention and management
ofallergyandasthma;
x
During the fourth year, the largest multinational database in birth cohorts
worldwide was created by joining together nearly all existing data in Europe.
Thisoffersthestatisticalpowertoaddressimportantquestions,andtheresults
havebeenpublished;
x
Over500paperswereproducedbyGA²LENmembers.Amongthem,about80
paperswerepublishedasGA²LENpositionpapers,practicalguides,or“GA²LEN
taskforcepapers”withGA²LENinthetitle;
130
x
x
The project organised a large number of events (symposia, workshops,
conferences), schools, training, public meetings, awareness raising, press
releasesandotherformsofdissemination;
GA²LENhasproposedtosetupasentinelnetworktomonitoremergingtrends
inallergicdiseaseEUwideusingGA²LENpartnercentresas“sentinels.”
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofGhent,BE(Prof.PaulvanCauwenberge)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
EuropeanAcademyofAllergologyandClinicalImmunology
(EAACI),Brussels
EuropeanFederationofAllergyandAsthmaPatients
Associations(EFA),Brussels
UniversityofViennaMedicalSchool
OdenseUniversityHospital
HelsinkiUniversityCentralHospital
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Villejuif
CharitéUniversityMedicalCenter,Berlin
LudwigMaximiliansUniversity,Munich
TechnicalUniversityMunich
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
UniversityofPalermo
NationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Rome
UniversityofGenoa
AcademicMedicalCentreofUniversityofAmsterdam
UtrechtUniversity
VoksentoppenBKL,RikshospitaletUniversityClinic,
UniversityofOslo
JagiellonianUniversityMedicalCollege,Cracow
MedicalUniversityofód
UniversityofCoimbra
MunicipalInstituteofMedicalResearch(IMIMIMAS),Barcelona
AutonomousUniversityofMadrid
UniversityofGothenburg
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
SwissInstituteofAllergyandAsthmaResearch,Zürich
NationalHeartandLungInstitute,London
UniversityofSouthampton
131
Country
BE
BE
AT
DK
FI
FR
DE
DE
DE
EL
IT
IT
IT
NL
NL
NO
PL
PL
PT
ES
ES
SE
SE
CH
UK
UK
132
CONTRACTNUMBER:036337
PROJECTTYPE:
NetworkofExcellence
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€12400000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€12300000
STARTINGDATE:February1,2007
ENDDATE:January31,2012
DURATION:60months
MONIQA
TOWARDSTHEHARMONISATIONOF
ANALYTICALMETHODSFORMONITORING
QUALITYANDSAFETYINTHEFOODCHAIN
Summary:
The reasons for setting up the MONIQA network of excellence included, inter alia,
thefragmentationEuropeanresearchinfoodsafetyandquality;introductionofnew
EU regulations on food allergens, mycotoxins and other food contaminants; poor
communication between research and standardisation bodies; limited validity of
standardisation/validation certificates for analytical methods; lack of appropriate
validationprotocolsfornewandrapidmethods;absenceofreferencemethodsand
materials for some analytes (e.g., food
allergens);andlackofwaysofassessing
thefinancialimpactofneworamended
legislation at the micro or macro
socioeconomic level. To address these
issues, The Network of Excellence
sought to ensure longlasting cooperation amongst leading research institutions,
industrial partners and the small and mediumsized businesses that dominate
European food manufacture and retail. The network undertook a large number of
activities, including (i) Coordinating and merging of research infrastructures (e.g.,
settingupofadatabaseofresearchinfrastructureresources,clarifyingthetermsand
conditionsforinfrastructuresharinganddevelopingscenariosforthesharingofsaid
infrastructure); (ii) Promoting personnel exchanges and mobility; (iii) Carrying out
training activities and joint research; (iii) Pursuing network sustainability: Legal
agreement has been concluded to create the MONIQA Association. This nonprofit
organisation will continue the Network of Excellence activities as well as offering
servicesandproductsforthefoodindustry,analyticallaboratories,andpolicymakers
andregulators.Moredetailsontheprojectoutcomeandachievementscanbefound
11
onthewebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
11
www.moniqa.org
133
Mainresults:
x
The Network of Excellence has involved experts from around the globe and
aimedtomakefoodssaferbyharmonisingworldwidefoodqualityandsafety
monitoring and control strategies. Participants and stakeholders included
control and reference laboratories, industrial and research laboratories,
method providers and test kit manufacturers, food manufacturers and food
related associations, universities and higher education institutions, and policy
makers;
x
MONIQA focused on the validation of and the setting of performance
criteria/requirementsformethodsusedtoanalysefoodsand/orproductsafety
and quality. The main emphasis was on rapid methods and emerging new
testingtechnologies,andtheirapplicabilityandreliabilityinroutinetesting;
x
Concerns related to the different legislation/regulations and practise in issues
such as sampling and measurement uncertainty in Europe and other regions
and countries (e.g., Americas, Asia) have been identified and problems
associated with interpretation of analytical results and compliance criteria
practiseconsidered;
x
The MONIQA database was set up, allowing rapid searching of relevant
analyticalmethodsforspecificanalytes,includinginformationaboutthedegree
ofvalidation,legalrequirementsandlimits,andtheavailabilityofmethods.The
database is structured around two key elements: comprehensive lists of
contaminantsandcommodities(ormatrices)inwhichcontaminantsmaypose
a threat to human health. Detailed information about the methods database
canbefoundatwww.moniqa.org/database;
x
MONIQA has managed international ring trials validating methods for
regulatory and surveillance, supporting standardisation organisations around
the globe, primarily the European Committee for Standardisation CEN, the
InternationalOrganizationforStandardizationISO,andCodexAlimentarius;
x
The socioeconomic impact of food safety and quality regulations was one of
themostimportantissuescoveredbyMONIQA.Theprojectaimedtosupport
systematicassessmentofthesocioeconomicimpactofEuropeanfoodquality
andsafetyregulationsintermsofefficiency,effectivenessandconsistency,and
administrativecostsaswellasinternationaltradeamongststakeholders(e.g.,
consumers,industry,regulatoryandcontrolbodies)atdifferentlevels;
x
Examples of topics for food scientist training activities supported by MONIQA
include the use of food analysis in managing food chemical contaminant risk
withinthefoodindustry,foodsafetyandriskassessment,andcriteriaapproach
formethodvalidationandriskcommunication;
x
Besidesfacetofaceworkshops,distancelearninghasbeenanimportantpart
oftheMONIQAtrainingprogramme.MONIQAoffersdistancelearningviaweb
seminarsandeLearningcourses;
x
Initially,prioritiesfortheMONIQA Association, whichhastakenoversomeof
theactivitiesoftheNetworkofexcellence,willincludedisseminatingvalidated
data for food safety through, for example, online databases; improving the
knowledgebased bioeconomy through participation in relevant research
134
programmes and facilitating bilateral/multinational research collaboration
agreements; promoting harmonisation of analytical approaches in food safety
and quality; providing infrastructure for and establishing an international
network for interlaboratory validation trials for analytical methods and
referencematerials;andsharingexpertiseandunderstandingthroughtraining
courses, scientific conferences and symposia, researcher mobility, expert
consultancy,andpublications.
Coordinator:
x
International Association for Cereal Science and Technology, Vienna, Austria
(Dr.RolandErnestPoms)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLifeSciences,
AT
Vienna
AinShamsUniversity,Cairo
EG
CampdenBRI,ChippingCampden
UK
CERGroupe,HormonologyDepartment,Marloie
BE
EurofinsAnalytikGMBH,Hamburg
DE
GaikerFoundation,Zamudio(Bizkaia)
ES
CentralScienceLaboratory,York
UK
InternationalQualityandEnvironmentServicesS.A.,Athens
EL
TR
TubitakMarmaraResearchCenterFoodInstitute,GebzeKocaeli
UniversityofFoodTechnologies,Plovdiv
BG
VocaltagLtd,MigdalHaemek
IL
VTTTechnicalResearchCentre,Espoo
FI
UniversityofNaples
IT
NorwegianFoodResearchInstituteMatforsk,Ås
NO
NationalTechnicalUniversityofAthens
EL
NL
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
Bilthoven
SichuanUniversity,Chengdu
CN
IT
NationalResearchInstituteforFoodandNutrition(INRAN),
Rome
BudapestUniversityofTechnologyandEconomics
HU
InstituteofEnvironmentalScienceandResearch,Christchurch
NZ
NationalFoodandNutritionInstitute,Warsaw
PL
HacettepeUniversity,Ankara
TR
ChineseCerealsandOilsAssociation,Beijing
CN
ID
InstitutePertanianBogor,Bogor
HanoiUniversityofTechnology
VT
135
InstituteofFoodResearch,Norwich
InstituteofSciencesofFoodProduction(ISPA),Rome
WebbStephenMatthew,Vienna
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
UniversityofBonn
InterdisciplinaryCentreforComparativeResearchintheSocial
Sciences,Vienna
UniversityofBologna
136
UK
IT
AT
IT
DE
AT
IT
CONTRACTNUMBER:16320
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€15661101
ECCONTRIBUTION:€13594976
STARTINGDATE:February1,2006
ENDDATE:July31,2011
DURATION:66months
NEWGENERIS
DEVELOPMENTANDAPPLICATIONOF
BIOMARKERSOFDIETARYEXPOSURETO
GENOTOXICANDIMMUNOTOXICCHEMICALS
ANDOFBIOMARKERSOFEARLYEFFECTS,USINGMOTHERCHILDBIRTHCOHORTS
ANDBIOBANKS
Summary:
12
NEWGENERIS
studied maternal exposure during
pregnancy to selected carcinogenic and immunotoxic
chemicals and evaluated the exposures and effects on the
foetus and in later childhood, particularly in relation with
childhood cancer and immune disorders. The role of
relevant exposures of the fathers was also evaluated. Selected biomarkers were
measured in samples available in motherchild birth cohorts/biobanks in five
Europeancountries.AcutelymphocyticleukaemiacaseswererecruitedinGermany
and evaluated for genetic polymorphisms. A total of around 250 000 motherchild
pairswereincluded.Newmotherchildcohortstudieswerelaunched,e.g.,theRHEA
cohort in Crete. For the biomarkers of exposure investigated, clear differences
between countries were observed. An association between increased prenatal
exposurelevelstodioxinsandPCBsthroughmother’sfoodandincreasednumbersof
upperrespiratorytractinfectionsandwheezeduringthefirstthreeyearsoflifewas
found.Achemicalcontentdatabasewasconstructedandusedtocalculatethelevels
ofmaternalchemicalexposures.Spermintegrityappearedtoberesilienttochemical
exposureinvitro.Astrongassociationwasfoundbetweenincreasedacrylamideand
glycidamideadductsandreducedbirthweightofchildren.Avalidatedexvivo/invitro
system for the study of transport of selected genotoxicants and immunotoxic
substances across the placental barrier was established and applied. The placenta
barrierwasnotfoundtobeprotectivetowardsexposurestothestudiedcompounds.
In vitro gene expression studies on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells
resultedintheidentificationofgenesthatarederegulatedbyspecificcompounds.In
addition to the scientific activities and publications, the project implemented a
number of training activities and exchange programmes and undertook outreach
activitiesincludingtheorganisationofworkshopsandotherevents.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
12
www.newgeneris.org
137
Mainresults:
Experimentswerecarriedoutusing12modelcompounds:benzo(a)pyrene(BaP),2
amino3methylimidazo
[4,5f]
quinoline
(IQ),
2amino1methyl6
phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine(PhIP),monoacrylamide,dimethylnitrosamine(NDMA),
aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD),
polychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCB),4hydroxynonenal,malondialdehydeandethanol.
Dietaryexposureassessment:
x
Achemicalcontentdatabasewasconstructedandeventuallyusedtocalculate
thelevelsofthematernalchemicalexposures,toprovideharmonisedexposure
estimatescomparableattheEuropeanlevel;
x
Dataontheregionalvariationofthedietaryexposuresofpregnantwomenin
Europetothetoxicchemicalsstudiedandtheirmaindietarydeterminants,as
well as information on the dietary habits of pregnant women in different
Europeanregions,havebeenproduced;
x
As regards acrylamide, significant geographic variation was observed, with
Bradford showing the highest exposure and Norway, Spain and Crete the
lowest. The main contributors to dietary acrylamide exposure are potato
products(frenchfries,potatochipsandcrisps).
Motherchildbirthcohortsandbiobanks:
x
During the first part of the project the project focused on (i) enrolling the
pregnant mothers and securing adequate study procedures; (ii) collection of
questionnairedataincludingfoodfrequencyquestionnaires;and(iii)obtaining
biologicalsamples;
x
Amajorachievementwasthelaunchingofnewstudies,e.g.,theRHEAmother
childcohortinCrete;
x
This work has been further exploited in other EUfunded projects such as
13
14
15
HIWATE ,ENVIROGENOMARKERS ,andESCAPE ;
x
Astrongassociationwasfoundbetweenincreasedacrylamideandglycidamide
adductsandreducedbirthweightofchildren.Theseresultsareimportantfor
publichealth,becauseriskfactorsforsignificantreductionsinbirthweighthave
rarelybeenidentified;
Paternalimpact:
x
ProtocolsforquantifyingDNAstrandbreaksonthebaselinelevelsandafterin
vitroexposuretothetwelvetestcompoundsofspermatozoaandlymphocytes
wereestablishedusingtheCometassay;
x
Sperm integrity appears to be resilient to chemical exposure and ionising
radiation in vitro, probably reflecting high packaging of protamineassociated
chromatin,andanabsencefromDNAofwatermolecules.
13
Describedelsewhereinthiscatalogue
www.envirogenomarkers.net
www.escapeproject.eu
14
15
138
Foetalexposure:
x
A validated ex vivo/in vitro system for the study of transport of selected
genotoxicants and immunotoxic substances across the placental barrier was
establishedandapplied;
x
Foetal exposure assessments demonstrated from maternal/umbilical cord
blood measurements in vivo benzo(a)pyrene (DNA adducts) and acrylamide
haemoglobinadducts; from human placental transport studies ex vivo
exposuretoallcompoundsstudiedexceptTCDD;andfromplacentaltransport
modelstudiesinvitrowithBeWocellsexposuretobisphenolA,PCBsandDON.
x
The placental barrier does not protect against exposures to the studied
compounds.
Biomarkersofexposure:
x
x
x
x
Three of the biomarkers were the haemoglobin adducts of acrylamide, its
metaboliteglycidamideandofethyleneoxide.Thelevelsoftheseadductswere
different in different countries and ethnic groups, probably reflecting
differencesindietaryhabitsandfoodpreparation;
Exposure to dioxin and dioxinlike chemicals, oestrogens and androgens was
analysedusingdioxinreceptormediatedassays.Differencesbetweencountries
wereobservedforexposurestodioxins;thereasoniscurrentlybeinganalysed;
The isolated DNA samples were used for analyses of bulky DNA adducts
including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were differences
betweencountriesandwithageneraltrendtowardshigheradductlevelsinthe
countriesofsouthernEurope.
Most biomarkers studied showed a correlation between cord and maternal
samplesandthelevelsinchildandmotherweresimilar.
Biomarkersofcarcinogenicandimmunogenicrisk:
x
x
x
x
Invitrogeneexpressionstudiesonhumanperipheralbloodmononuclearcells
for the 12 compounds studied resulted in the identification of genes that are
deregulatedbyspecificcompoundsaswellasgroupsofrelatedcompoundsand
genesthatcorrelatewithmicronucleilevels;
The studies revealed different transcriptomic responses to environmental
carcinogens between the sexes. While exposure levels did not differ
significantlybetweensexesatbirth,importantgenderspecificdifferenceswere
observedingeneexpressionsassociatedwithexposure;
Novel proteomic effect markers, based on expression profiles in different in
vitromodelsindicativeofDONandPhIPexposurehavebeendeveloped;
Childrenuptothreeyearsofage(BraMatsubcohort)wereexaminedforthe
association between maternal dietary intake of dioxins, PCBs and acrylamide
during pregnancy and immunerelated health outcomes. At three years there
wasanassociationbetweenincreasedprenatalexposurelevelstodioxinsand
PCBsthroughmother’sfoodandincreasednumbersofupperrespiratorytract
infections and wheeze during the first three years of life. A reduced immune
defenceagainstinfectionscouldbeamechanisticexplanation.
139
Genotypingmarkersofsusceptibility:
x
Two genomewide association studies have provided evidence that common
germlinevariationinfluencestheriskofacutelymphocyticleukaemia.
Alongsidethescientificexperimentalwork,NEWGENERIS
x
Setuptrainingprogrammesbothforyoungandadvancedresearchers.Over60
shortadhoctrainingortrainingcourseswereorganisedorcoorganised;
x
Organised over 30 scientific workshops and around 60 courses. Some will
continuebeyondthelifecourseoftheproject;
x
Developedtrainingmediaandteachingtoolsforcourses;
x
Organisedover100scientificexchangevisits;
x
Addressedethicalaspectsrelevanttoenvironmentalepidemiologicalstudies;
x
Networkedwithotherongoingprojects;
x
Implemented a range of innovative outreach initiatives to disseminate
informationandfacilitatepublicdiscussion,includingmanystakeholderevents.
Coordinator:
x
MaastrichtUniversity,NL(Prof.JosKleinjans)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NationalHellenicResearchFoundation,Athens
CentreforResearchonEnvironmentalEpidemiology,Barcelona
UniversityofBradford
UniversityofCopenhagen
UniversityofLeicester
KarolinskaInstitute,Huddinge
FreeUniversityofBrussels
GermanCancerResearchCenter,Heidelberg
UniversityofOslo
NationalInstituteforCancerResearch,Genoa
UniversityofLeeds
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
NorwegianInstituteofPublicHealth,Oslo
DanishEpidemiologyScienceCentre,Copenhagen
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
UniversityofEasternFinland(exUniversityofKuopio)
StockholmUniversity
NationalInstituteofEnvironmentalHealth,Budapest
InstituteforMedicalResearchandOccupationalHealth,Zagreb
AutonomousUniversityofBarccelona
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
BioDetectionSystemsBV,Amsterdam
Imstar,Paris
GenedataAG,Basel
140
Country
EL
ES
UK
DK
UK
SE
BE
DE
NO
IT
UK
BE
NO
DK
EL
FI
SE
HU
HR
ES
SK
NL
FR
CH
CONTRACTNUMBER:16253
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€15052317
ECCONTRIBUTION:€13434247
STARTINGDATE:February25,2006
ENDDATE:August24,2011
DURATION:66months
PHIME
PUBLICHEALTHIMPACTOFLONGTERM,LOW
LEVELMIXEDELEMENTEXPOSUREIN
SUSCEPTIBLEPOPULATIONSTRATA
Summary:
16
TheoverallaimofthePHIME integratedprojectwastoimproveassessmentofthe
publichealth impact of toxic and essential metals via food,
addressing the complexity of exposures, interactions (e.g.,
with nutrition) and risk groups (e.g., children). PHIME also
addressedmechanismsforuptakeofmetalsinplantsandthus
into the human food chain. Over 180 peerreviewed
publications have been produced so far and many training
activities, researcher exchanges and outreach activities were
undertaken. The results show, inter alia, that the exposure to lead and cadmium
seems to be fairly similar in many European countries, with the exception of
particularly polluted areas. The exposure to lead and mercury is decreasing, while
cadmiumdoesnotshowsuchafavourabletimetrend.Thetissueconcentrationsof
"catalytic converter elements" platinum, palladium and rhodium are much lower
than previously thought. The toxic effect of methylmercury on the central nervous
systemoffoetusesandthemyocardiumofadultsismarkedlymodifiedbynutrition.
Arsenicandmanganese,ingestedmainlythroughdrinkingwaterandfood,affectthe
developmentandhealthoffoetuses,infantsandchildren.Leadexposureistoxicto
children´s central nervous system at very low exposures. There is evidence of low
levelcadmiumexposurecausingtoxicboneeffects,withadecreaseofbonemineral
densityandanincreaseofosteoporosisandfractures.Preventiveactionsareneeded
in light of the continuous exposure worldwide. PHIME has also increased the
understanding of molecular mechanisms for the uptake of metals in plants, which
will enable breeding of cereals with increased levels of essential elements, and hopefullydecreasedtoxicity.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
Commission Regulation (EC)1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain
contaminantsinfoodstuffs
CommunityStrategyConcerningMercury[COM(2005)20]
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
Information on EU regulatory framework on heavy metals can be found at
http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/chemicalsafety/contaminants/cadmium_en.htm
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
16
www.phime.org
141
Mainresults:
Neurotoxicand–developmentaleffectsofheavymetals:
x
InFaroeIslands,acohortof490motherchildpairswasestablished,showingan
exposure level lower than the four previous cohorts. Mercury (Hg) was
measured in umbilical cord blood, maternal blood and hair, selenium in
maternal blood, and persistent organochlorine pollutants in maternal serum.
Thecohortisbeingfollowedup,andneuropsychologicalstatusisintendedto
beassessedattheageof60months;
x
The Seychelles Child Development Studies (SCDS) investigated the effects of
prenatalmethylmercury(MeHg)exposurefromfishconsumptioninearlychild
and adulthood and examined the nutritional factors which may modify the
effects.Psychologicaltestshavebeencarriedout.Theresultsareconfirmative
ofpreviousSCDSfindings,suggestingaconfoundingroleofmaternalnutrition
in studies examining associations between prenatal and postnatal MeHg
exposuresanddevelopmentaloutcomes;
x
Neurodevelopmental outcomes were measured in 1 439 children in the
Mediterranean coastal regions of Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Greece. Overall,
exposure to mercury was low and at these levels do not significantly affect
neurodevelopment by the age of 18 months. Exposure to higher Hg levels
duringpregnancydidnotcauselowerperformancesincognitive,languageand
motor neurodevelopmental testing, since other correlated variables (e.g.,
socioeconomic indicators, maternal IQ) predict these outcomes. Higher fish
consumption in pregnancy was associated with higher cognitive and language
(butnotmotor)neurodevelopmentalperformanceat18monthsofage;
x
TheresultsofthestudycarriedoutinBangladeshshowedthatextensivepre
and postnatal As exposure through drinking water and food resulted in
increasedinfantmorbidityandmortalityandlowercognitivefunctions;
x
TheresultsofastudycarriedoutinFaroeIslandssuggestthatlifetimeexposure
tocontaminants,i.e.,MeHgandpersistentorganicpollutants,fromtraditional
foodcontributetotheincreasedincidenceofParkinson'sdisease;
x
Workers as well as in adolescents and elderly residents in a manganese
polluted area in Italy showed preclinical deficit intremor, motor coordination
andodouridentification;
x
AstudycarriedoutinUpperSilesiashowedthathearingfunctionwasimpaired
by lowlevel lead exposure. Polymorphisms in the ALAD and VDR genes
significantly modify the effects. Effects on the central nervous system,
(disturbanciesofpostureandcognitivefunction),werepresentatverylowlead
exposure;
x
In Ecuadorian gold mines, there were few toxic effects of mercury, and no
significant interaction between biomarkers of exposure/risk and markers of
toxicity.
Cardioandcerebrovasculareffects
x
The results of studies conducted in Faroe Islands, northern Sweden, eastern
Finland indicate that high exposure to MeHg through fish is a risk factor for
myocardial infection, but the risk is modified by the simultaneous intake of
142
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which counteracts the methylmercury
effect.
Boneeffects
x
Studies conducted in Sweden and China provided evidence for an adverse
effectoflowenvironmentalcadmiumexposureonbone(decreasedbonemass
density,increasedriskofosteoporosisorfractures).
Diabetesandkidneyeffects
x
The conclusion of Swedish studies is that an association between risk for
diabetesmellitusandcadmiumexposurecanbeneitherprovennordisproven;
x
Doubt was cast by the results of studies carried out in Belgium, Morocco,
Bangladesh,Sweden,Chinaonthecausalityofassociationsbetweenmarkersof
renal tubular effects and lowlevel metals excretion. Albuminuria caused by
cadmiumexposure(attheobservedexposurelevels)isareversibleeffectthat
recoversaftercessationofexposure.
Trendsandpublichealthimplications:
x
Thereisnogeneralelevatedexposuretocadmiumorleadinanyofthestudied
Europeancountries,butindustrial‘hotspots’thatsignificantlyaffectchildren’s
exposure can be identified in some countries, e.g., Poland, Slovakia and the
CzechRepublic;
x
While Pb exposure has decreased, so have also the ‘safe levels’. Effects on
cognitivefunctions,hearingandpostureofPbareobservedatBPb<50g/Lin
blood,butthereappearstobenothreshold,implyingthattheeffectsoccurin
the general population. In addition, one PHIME study suggests longterm
effectsintheformofincreaseriskforkidneyfailureatthegeneralpopulation’s
Pb exposure levels. Therefore, there are reasons to decrease Pb exposure
further,despitethesuccessofabolishmentofPbinpetrol;
x
ThereisconcernforthehealtheffectofthecadmiumintakeinEuropetoday.
ResultsfromPHIMEonboneeffectssuggestthatpublichealtheffectsmaybe
even worse. It is, thus, worrying to note that cadmium concentrations do not
showanysignofdecrease;
x
Forthe "catalytic converterelements"Pt,PdandRh, muchlowerlevelswere
foundthanreportedearlier.Thisisbecauseofthegreatanalyticalchallengeof
theseelements.
Possiblesolutionsoftheproblems:
x
Plantsarethebasisofthefoodchainandaccumulatearangeofmetalsfrom
the soil. On one hand, we would like to avoid toxic concentrations of heavy
metalsinourfoodandfeedandontheotherhand,humansandotheranimals
need supply of 16 minerals, including some heavy metals and transition
elements,throughtheirdiet;
x
The uptake, transport and deposition of heavy metals in barley were
addressed:barleyisarepresentativeofthesmallgrainedcerealsthatcomprise
themajorfoodsourceforhumans,andisacloserelativeofwheat.Additionally,
the most promising genes were introduced into tomato and tobacco,
representativesoffruitandleafcrops;
143
x
By integrating state of the art technologies in plant physiology, molecular
biology and genetics, certain plant genes were identified, characterised and
manipulated. The genes of concern were those involved in (i) avoidance of
harmfulmetalsor(ii)inclusionofmetalsofnutritionalconcerninthegrainand
inleaves.ThefocuswasonCd,Hg,ZnandMn.
Coordinator:
x
LundUniversity,SE(Prof.StaffanSkerfving)
Otherbeneficiaries
Organisation
JožefStefanInstitute,Ljubljana
InstituteofChildHealth,Athens
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
UmeåUniversity
InstituteofBiomedicalResearch,KaunasUniversityofMedicine
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,Brussels
MinistryofHealth,Victoria,Seychelles
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
UlsterUniversity,Coleraine
OikonLtd.,Zagreb
OyJurilabLtd.,Kuopio
RegionalAuthorityofPublicHealthBanskáBystrica
FaroeseHospitalSystem,Tórshavn
InternationalCentreforDiarrhoealDiseaseResearch,Dhaka
UniversityofUdine
UniversityMedicalCentre,Ljubljana
UniversityofBrescia
FudanUniversity,Shanghai
UniversityofSouthernDenmark,Odense
InstituteofOccupationalMedicineandEnvironmentalHealth,
Sosnowiec
RoyalVeterinaryandAgriculturalUniversity(KVL),Frederiksberg
ResearchCentreFlakkebjerg,Slagelse
LeibnizInstituteofPlantBiochemistry,Halle
UniversityofSouthampton
UniversityofZürich
MaxPlanckInstituteofMolecularPlantPhysiology,Potsdam
UniversityofYork
InstituteforEcologyofIndustrialAreas(IETU),Katowice
UniversityofWarsaw
UniversityofRochester
144
Country
SI
EL
SE
SE
LT
BE
SC
CZ
UK
HR
FI
SI
DK
BD
IT
SI
IT
CN
DK
PL
DK
DK
DE
UK
CH
DE
UK
PL
PL
US
CONTRACTNUMBER:513991
PROJECTTYPE:Specific
targetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€3150000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€3000000
STARTINGDATE:
March1,2005
ENDDATE:February28,2008
DURATION:36months
PIONEER
PUBERTYONSETINFLUENCEOF
ENVIRONMENTALANDENDOGENOUS
REGULATORS
Summary:
17
ThemaingoalofPIONEER wastoimprovethe
understanding of precocious puberty, its
occurrence in Europe, and the role of nutrition
and specific food components in the regulation of reproductive maturation. A
significantamountofnewdatawasobtainedontheseaspects.Theoverallearlyage
at the onset of puberty and the increased incidence of sexual precocity in foreign
children, who migrate from developing countries
to Western Europe or to USA, further emphasize
the role of nutritional and environmental factors
in the timing of puberty. There is also a need for studies assessing the timing and
dynamics of pubertal development in association with the nutritional status in
developing countries. Through the work conducted by the PIONEER consortium
partner in Pakistan, collection of data on the pubertal development and the
nutritional status of Pakistani children was initiated, giving important and novel
information on the situation in a less developed country. Information generated in
PIONEER could be used to identify the individuals or groups at high risk, and to
design specific actions to prevent premature reproductive maturation and its long
term adverse consequences. However, considering the complexity of genetic and
environmentalfactorsthatregulatepubertyonset,asdemonstratedinPIONEER,no
simplerecommendationsforpreventivestrategiescanyetbegiven.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final;
x
A Strategy for Europe on Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity related health
issues[COM(2007)279final]
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
17
http://cascade.projectcoordinator.net/~pioneer
145
Mainresults:
x
Theclinicalandexperimentalstudiesconfirmedthatthegeneticbackgroundis
astrongdeterminantforthetimingofpubertyonset,andnewinformationon
thegeneloci,genesandthedownstreameffectsassociatedwiththetimingof
pubertyinhumanswasobtained;
x
The data set obtained in PIONEER allows modelling of pubertal development
data and gives more complete information about longitudinal changes on
pubertaldevelopmentanddifferencesbetweensexes;
x
It is not likely that changes in dietary habits could override the strongest
genetic impacts, but, on the other hand, PIONEER studies show that factors
that are regulated by both nutrition and the genetic background (e.g., body
weight)haveastrongeffectonthetimingofpuberty;
x
Novelmechanisticinformationwasobtainedonthefactorsandpathwaysthat
areinvolvedintheonsetofpubertyandsexualmaturation;
x
Novelmodellingapproachesweredeveloped(e.g.,geneticallymodifiedmouse
linesandsetsofbiomarkers)thatcanbeusedfortheinvestigationofpuberty
andsexualmaturationinexperimentalconditions.Thesemodelswereusedto
investigate the effects and mechanisms of nutritional interventions and
selecteddietderivedendocrinemodulators;
x
The impact of environmental factors influencing puberty onset cannot be
consideredinisolationfromendogenousfactors;
x
With a multidisciplinary and translational approach, PIONEER has and will
facilitate the identification of highrisk groups and the development of novel
experimentaltestmodelsneededforthedevelopmentofpreventivestrategies;
x
Several scientific papers, describing results obtained in PIONEER, have been
publishedinhighimpactscientificjournals.
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofTurku,Turku,FI(Prof.SariMäkelä)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge
UniversityofRome'LaSapienza'
NationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),Paris
KuopioUniversityHospital
UniversityofHelsinki
SemmelweissUniversity,Budapest
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,
London
UniversityofLeipzig
CharitéUniversityMedicalCenter,Berlin
TheAgaKhanUniversity,Karachi
146
Country
SE
IT
FR
FI
FI
HU
UK
DE
DE
PK
CHAPTERIIIProjectsFocusedontheDevelopmentofMethodsandToolsforEnvironmentandHealthRiskandImpactAssessment
CHAPTERIII
Projectsfocusedonthe
developmentofmethodsand
toolsforenvironmentandhealth
riskandimpactassessment
147
148
CONTRACTNUMBER:22936
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1087510
ECCONTRIBUTION:€633550
STARTINGDATE:April1,2006
ENDDATE:September30,2009
DURATION:42months
BENERIS
BENEFITRISKASSESSMENTFORFOOD:
ANITERATIVEVALUEOFINFORMATION
APPROACH
Summary:
1
ThegeneralobjectiveofBENERIS wasto
create a framework for handling
complicatedbenefitrisksituations,andapplyitfortheanalysisofthebenefitsand
risksofcertainfoods.Thefirstfoodcommoditytobeusedinthedevelopmentofthe
methodologywasfish.Onespecificobjectivewastodevelopimprovedmethodsfor
doseresponseassessment,combiningepidemiologicalandtoxicologicaldata,andto
apply them in combining epidemiological and toxicological information on fish
contaminants (especially dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The main
outcomesofBENERISare(i)improvedmethodology(openassessment)forbenefit
risk assessments; (ii) the web workspace Opasnet for performing them in a
collaborative way; (iii) and the Opasnet Base database containing readytouse
information needed in assessments. Interested
assessors have been identified and contacted for
workingwiththeirownassessmentsusingthewebsite.
These practical reallife examples will be a major
method for disseminating the results of BENERIS.
BENERIS formed a cluster with another project issued from the same call, namely
QALIBRA(describedelsewhereinthispublication).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs.
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
1
www.qalibrabeneris.eu
149
Mainresults:
x
Anewbenefitriskassessmentmethod(openassessment)hasbeendescribed
on the web workspace Opasnet (http://en.opasnet.org). This work has
continuedaftertheprojecthasended;
x
Opasnet is a website to collect, organise and distribute information on issues
relevantforbenefitriskanalysesoffood.Italsocontainsmaterialaboutmany
othertopicsthanfood,e.g.,climatechangepoliciesandhealth,healthrisksof
airpollution,andemissionsofmetalindustry.Thestatisticsofuseattheendof
2009wasasfollows:Therewere980webpages,450files,176users,and270
000 page views. The contents are open and freely available to all. Several
assessments are being worked on at the website. Interested parties are
welcometocontributetothecasestudieswiththeirowninformation,aslong
asitisofferedunderapropercopyright;
x
TheBENERISfishcasestudywasdescribedinOpasnetintwoparts:aseparate
subassessment was performed on methylmercury and omega3 fatty acids in
children, and the full assessment included also other pollutants and health
endpoints;
x
SeveralassessmentcasestudiesareunderwayoutsideBENERIS.Thewebsiteis
designed for assessments that are performed openly, allowing also for
stakeholderparticipation.AdatabasecalledOpasnetBasewasusedtoupload
modelresultsandnutritionstudiesperformedinBENERIS.
Coordinator:
x
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare,Kuopio,FI(Dr.JouniTuomisto)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
DelftUniversityofTechnology
NL
OyFoodfilesLtd,Kuopio
FI
FoodSafetyAuthorityofIreland,Dublin
IE
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
DK
DanishVeterinaryandFoodAdministration,Søborg
DK
LendacDataSystemsLtd,Dublin
IE
FundaciónPrivadaparalaInvestigaciónNutricional,
ES
Barcelona
150
CONTRACTNUMBER:22788
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearch
project
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€1252710
ECCONTRIBUTION:€800000
STARTINGDATE:
November1,2005
ENDDATE:January31,2008
DURATION:27months
DROPS
DEVELOPMENTOFMACROANDSECTORALECONOMIC
MODELSAIMINGTOEVALUATETHEROLEOFPUBLIC
HEALTHEXTERNALITIESONSOCIETY
Summary:
2
The overall objective of DROPS was to provide a full
chainanalysisrelatedtotheimpactofhealthprotection
measures related to priority pollutants as identified by the European Environment
andHealthActionPlan.Theprojectaimedatextendingexistingmethodologiesand
models to provide an impact pathwaybased model for
evaluationoftheroleofpublichealthexternalitiesonsociety,
made operational for the selected pollutants [ozone, heavy
metals (mercury, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead),
polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dioxins and indoor air
pollution]. Emission inventories have been collected for years
2000 and for two different scenarios (business as usual +
climatechange,maximumfeasibletechnicalreduction)for2010and2020,forheavy
metals, PCBs and dioxins. For PCBs and dioxins, this is the first time that such
emissionscenarioswereconstructed,andtheyareasubjectofdiscussionsbetween
emission experts in various European countries and their users within the United
Nations Convention on Longrange Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The
estimates of emissions and emission scenarios will be used in negotiations of
emission reductions on European level. A database of health endpoints has been
compiled including health endpoints relevant to heavy metals, PCBs and dioxins. A
valuation of health impacts from societal perspective was carried out. A review of
doseresponse functions and concentrationresponse functions for the impact of
ozoneoncropswasperformed.Theintegratedassessmentmodellingsystemusedby
theUniversityofStuttgartwasenhanced.TheE3MEmodel,alargescaleeconomic
model based on the system of national accounts, was expanded to include seven
additional emission types, which were linked to economic and energy demands
within the existing modelling framework. Detailed results are available at
http://cordis.europa.eu/search(useDROPSassearchword).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
ThematicStrategyonAirPollution[COM(2005)446]
CommunityStrategyConcerningMercury[SEC(2005)101]
ConventiononLongrangeTransboundaryAirPollution
EUfunding:
x
'Scientificsupporttopolicy'thematicpriority
2
http://drops.nilu.no
151
Mainresults:
x
Emissioninventoriesfortheyear2000,forselectedpersistentorganicpollutants
(POPs)andheavymetals:Emissioninventorieshavebeencollectedfortheyear
2000formercury,cadmium,arsenic,nickel,lead,PCBsanddioxins.Theinput
data has been extensively verified and compared to existing emission
inventories(EPER,CORINAIR).Differenceshavebeendiscussedandexplained.
The emission inventories have already contributed to the work of the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Longrange
TransboundaryAirPollutionConvention(LRTAP)andcanbeusedforresearch
and assessment. The results are available in a database, subject to revisions
basedonfurtherresearchandconsultations;
x
Emission scenarios for the years 2010 and 2020 for two different scenarios
(bysiness as usual [BAU] + climate, maximum feasible technical reduction
[MFTR]) for heavy metals, PCBs and dioxins: Emission scenarios have been
collected for year 2010 and 2020 for mercury, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead,
PCBs and dioxins. The results are available as a database, subject to revisions
pendingfurtherresearch;
x
Identificationandeconomicassessmentofpotentialhealthbenefits:Adatabase
of concentrationresponse functions for particulate matter (PM), selected
heavy metals (HM), dioxins and PCBs has been developed. A review of
monetaryvaluationresultsforthesamehealthendpointshasbeencarriedout;
x
Identificationandeconomicassessmentofbenefitstocropsfromreductionsin
ozone in Europe: A database and maps of expected changes in damage to
wheat, potatoes, grapes, tomatoes, and apples, based on the ozone
concentrations as predicted by the Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) initiative and
theUNECE,areavailable;
x
Evaluationofimpactontotalairexposureandinhalationofmeasurestoreduce
PM: Results of a modelling exercise are available, providing an individual
assessment of (inhalationrelated)exposures and inhaled doses for PM for 24
hours, based on outdoor concentrations of PM in two fractions on urban
backgroundandtrafficsitesfromHalle(DE),Krakow(PL)andTrondheim(NO),
smokingandopenfireplaceuseindoors,andindividualtimeactivitypatterns.
Thestudydemonstrateshowtheindividualexposurefactors(gender,activity,
time spent in different microenvironments, smoking) influence exposure and
inhaled dose, and to what extent indoor concentrations are modified by time
spentindoors,givenuniformpredefinedcharacteristicsofthebuilding.Thiscan
be used for the assessment of measures to reduce PM, both in relation to
concentrationchangesandtochangesinsizedistributionprofile;
x
Enhancement of an integrated assessment model: An integrated assessment
model has been improved, allowing the assessment of heavy metals and
selected POPs, covering emissions, transport and fate of pollutants, their
effects taking into account exposures through inhalation and ingestion, and
monetaryvaluationsoftheseeffects,onnationalandEuropeanlevel.Different
discountingoptionsandvaryingtimehorizonsareconsidered.Casestudiesfor
Poland,Norway,GermanyandtheCzechRepublicareavailable.
152
x
Enhanced macroeconomic model E3ME: The 'EnergyEnvironmentEconomy
ModelofEurope'(E3ME)hasbeenmodifiedtobecompatiblewithUNECEused
emissionscenarios,emissionrelatedactivityinformationandotherinformation
oneconomicandtechnologicalsectors.Themodelhasbeenextendedtocover
heavymetalsandPOPs.
Coordinator:
x
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller,NO(Dr.JozefPacyna)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofStuttgart
DE
CharlesUniversity,Prague
CZ
InstituteforEcologyofIndustrialAreas(IETU),Katowice
PL
MedicalUniversityofSilesia,Katowice
PL
NILUPolskaLtd.,Katowice
PL
CambridgeEconometricsLimited
UK
153
154
CONTRACTNUMBER:44232
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1050845
ECCONTRIBUTION:€900000
STARTINGDATE:March1,2007
ENDDATE:February28,2009
DURATION:24months
ENVIRISK
ASSESSINGTHERISKSOF
ENVIRONMENTALSTRESSORS:
CONTRIBUTIONTOTHEDEVELOPMENT
OFINTEGRATINGMETHODOLOGY
Summary:
The relevant call for proposals from
whichENVIRISKwasselectedaskedfortheexploitationofrecentorcurrentresearch
findingsandprojectresultsforthesupportofidentifiedEuropeanpolicies.Thegoals
3
ofENVIRISK werethereforeformulatedinagreementwiththeproposedobjectives
of the task 'Assessing the risks of environmental stressors'. ENVIRISK has reviewed
researchoftwogroupssystematicallystudyingenvironmentalhealtheffectsover20
years.Basedonthis,theprojectdevelopedanintegratedmethodologicalframework
toidentifyhealthriskscausedbyexposurestoenvironmentalfactors,withaviewto
provide
for
quantitative
assessment and comparison of the
benefits of alternative prevention
and targeted policy measures
against their respective costs. Specific aims included the assessment of existing
information on exposure and health effects, the establishment of links between
exposure and health including framework and protocol development, and the
contribution to the European Integrated Environment and Health Information
System(EHIS).However,assuchasystemwasnotinpreparationduringtheproject
lifetime,theplanonthissetoftaskswasrevisedandresourcesredirected.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Scientificsupporttopolicy'thematicpriority
3
http://envirisk.nilu.no
155
Mainresults:
x
ENVIRISKdevelopedandappliedamodelforinfantexposuretopolychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) through diet, for adult exposure to PCBs from diet, and a
framework for exposure assessment related to polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortium assessed the costs of protocol
implementation that would be required to implement monitoring on these
issues.Ittriedseveralmethodsforinterpolationofambientconcentrationsof
pollutantsbasedonmonitoringdatasources,andperformedareviewonPAH
sourcesandconcentrationsonEuropeanlevel;
x
Regarding evaluation of health effects, the consortium reviewed and
summarised research in two major reports. It also used these results for risk
assessment. Being informed by this work, the project has developed an
environmentalhealthsurveythatstartedin2009andwhichwilldocumentthe
effectsofPAHsonhumanhealthinahotspotpollutionlocation(Ostrava,CZ).
Thiswillinformthefuturedevelopmentofrequirementsforanenvironmental
healthinformationplatform;
x
The consortium further developed a tool that can be included in a
environmentalhealthinformationsystem,theexpoplatform;
x
Areviewwascarriedoutondoseresponsefunctionsrelevanttoendpointsin
thisproject.Inaddition,abenchmarkdoseapproachwasfurtherdeveloped;
x
To advance work on defining needs for exposure assessment, two existing
databases containing environmental, biomarker and health information were
sharedwithintheconsortium,andworkhasadvancedonestimatingindividual
exposuresbasedontheavailabledata;
x
Inordertoextrapolateinformationtoalargergeographicalscale,astudywas
performedonsources,sourcesignaturesandlevelsofPAHsinEurope;
x
Theprojectcoorganisedworkshoponbiomarkersinhealthimpactassessment,
andliaisedwithotherresearchprojects;
x
BasedonthefindingsandworkdoneinENVIRISK,theconsortiumsuggesteda
list of factors that should be included into an integrated methodological
framework for identification of health risks caused by exposures to
environmentalfactors.
Coordinator:
x
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller,NO(Dr.AlenaBartonova)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Helsinki,
Kuopio
InstituteofExperimentalMedicine,Prague
UniversityofHertfordshire,Hatfield
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
TechnionIsraelInstituteofTechnology,Haifa
156
Country
FI
CZ
UK
SK
IL
CONTRACTNUMBER:502527
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€1433056
ECCONTRIBUTION:€892078
STARTINGDATE:January1,2004
ENDDATE:March31,2007
DURATION:39months
ESPREME
ESTIMATIONOFWILLINGNESSTOPAYTO
REDUCERISKSOFEXPOSURETOHEAVYMETALS
ANDCOSTBENEFITANALYSISFORREDUCING
HEAVYMETALSOCCURENCEINEUROPE
Summary:
The aim of ESPREME was to develop methods
andstrategiestosupportEUenvironmentalpolicymakingforreducingtheemissions
andthustheharmfulimpactsofheavymetals.Theprojectcame,interalia,tothe
following conclusions: (i) Progress has been made in estimating emissions of heavy
metals to the atmosphere at a country and regional (European) level; (ii) Emission
estimates prepared by ESPREME are higher than the
estimates previously provided by countries within the
EuropeanMonitoringandEvaluationProgramme(EMEP);
(iii)Alistof48individualprocesses(activities)responsible
for heavy metal emission was the base for the selection
of abatement options of heavy metals emission to the air; (iv) 483 emission
abatement measures have been analysed; (v) The emission abatement measures
database contains information on each individual control method as well as
combinationsofthemethods;(vi)Pb,AsandHgcausehigheroverallhealthimpacts
and,thus,relatedcoststhanCd,Cr(VI)andNi;(vii)Undiscountedmarginalexternal
costsperkgreleasedrangefromseveral€[NiandCr(VI)],aboutseveralten€(Cd),
severalhundred€(AsandPb)toseveralthousand€(Hg);(viii)Agriculturalactivities
cause the highest (long term) human health damage for Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd and possess
the highest reduction potential; (ix) Combustion of fuels in stationary sources,
especially for cement production, iron and steel manufacturing, and nonferrous
metal production, is still the main source of ESPREME heavy metals, except for Pb
(gasolinecombustion);(x)Moreextensiveintroductionofrenewableenergysources
may result in reducing the coal combustion and thus heavy metal emissions. More
4
detailscanbefoundontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
x
Thematicstrategyonairpollution[COM(2005)446]
Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric
pollutants
Conventiononlongrangetransboundaryairpollution
Communitystrategyconcerningmercury
UnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforEurope(UNECE)Aarhusprotocolon
heavymetals
EUfunding:
x
4
'Scientificsupporttopolicies'programme
http://espreme.ier.unistuttgart.de
157
Mainresults:
x
Europeanwideemissiondataoftheheavymetalswasprovided,improvedand
consolidated;
x
Systematic collection of data was carried out on possibilities to reduce
emissions. Data on costs and effectiveness of abatement options have been
collected as well as stock and activity data and emission factors for 2000 and
2010;
x
Improvement of models was undertaken for the transport of heavy metals in
air, soil and water and their application to simulate the transport of heavy
metals in these media. Modelling results vs. measurement data have been
evaluated;
x
Collectionofinformationonexposureresponserelationshipsforhumanhealth
aswellasonthresholdsfordamagestoecosystemswascarriedout;
x
Assessment of avoided damage from heavy metal exposure by transferring
monetaryvaluesfromavailablecontingentvaluationstudieswasconducted;
x
Estimation of the health impacts and of the exceedances of critical loads for
ecosystems for two scenarios for 2010 was obtained: a business as usual
scenario (BAU), and a maximum feasible technical reduction (MFTR) scenario
where a number of economically feasible technical measures have been
implemented,inadditiontothosealreadyimplementedintheBAUscenario;
x
Estimationofoveralldamagecostspercountryandofcountryspecificcostsper
tonneofheavymetalsreleasedwascarriedout.
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofStuttgart,DE(Prof.RainerFriedrich)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller
InstituteforEcologyofIndustrialAreas(IETU),Katowice
SwedishEnvironmentalResearchInstitute,Stockholm
InstituteofOccupationalMedicine,Edinburgh
MeteorologicalSynthesizingCentreEast,Moscow
InstituteforAtmosphericPollutionResearch,Rende
CzechHydrometeorologicalInstitute,Prague
EtzelMüszakiSzolgáltatóBt.(EtzelEngineeringService),
Budapest
NILUPolskaLtd.,Katowice
158
Country
NO
PL
SE
UK
RU
IT
CZ
HU
PL
CONTRACTNUMBER:36976
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€2581000
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1630000
STARTINGDATE:
February2,2007
ENDDATE:January31,2011
DURATION:48months
2FUN
FULLCHAINANDUNCERTAINTY
APPROACHESFORASSESSING
HEALTHRISKSINFUTUREENVIRONMENTAL
SCENARIOS
Summary:
Theprimaryaimof2FUNwastodevelopintegratedmethodsandriskanalysistools
to help the decisionmakers to define their priorities in environmental health
management.Asitwasnotpossibletobuildanentireintegratedframework,2FUN
therefore focused on the: (i) construction of longterm environmental and socio
economic scenarios at the regional scale; (ii) integration of multimedia transport
modelswithpredictivechemistryandhumanexposuremodels;(iii)advancementof
thestateofscienceoftoxicitypredictionformixturesofsubstances;(iv)accounting
for children populations in health risk assessments; (v) development of new and
improved tools for uncertainty analysis.
The tools developed were tested in
three casesstudies covering a wide
range of environmental, temporal,
spatial, sectoral and social problems in
three regions of Europe: (i) evolution of
air pollution, consequences of climate change and emissions of air pollutants in
Portugal; (ii) choices of industrial technologies to minimize the impact of the
industrial and agricultural activities on population health at the level of a river
watershedinFrance;(iii)healthriskassessmentforchildrenintheindustrialareaof
Upper Silesia in Poland. The tools developed are freely available on the project
5
website .TheywillultimatelybeincludedintheHEIMTSAtoolbox(projectdescribed
elsewhereinthiscatalogue).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
5
www.2fun.org
159
Mainresults:
x
Amethodologyandcasestudydataforidentificationandrankingofriskfactors
wasdeveloped;
x
Methodologies for downscaling global socioeconomic, technological,
meteorologicalandemissionscenariostoregionallevelsweredeveloped.They
werevalidatedagainstdataforPortugal;
x
AnimplementationinR(www.rproject.org)ofgnosticmethodsforrobustdata
treatmentanduncertaintyanalysiswasundertaken;
x
Multimediatransportanddispersionmodelsandsoftwarewereimproved;
x
A critical review of exposure pathways and parameters relevant for children
wascarriedout;
x
A generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (internal dose) model for
humans, coupled seamlessly with the above multimedia models, was
developed;
x
Specific quantitative structureproperty relationships (QSPR) models for
predicting physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model parameters
weredeveloped;
x
Methods and software for automated metabolic interactions modelling were
designed;
x
A coupling of PBPK and doseresponse models for risk assessment based on
toxicitydatawasattempted;
x
Databaseswerecreatedandcasestudiesdevelopedtodemonstratetheuseof
someoftheabovemodelsandmethods;
x
Joint use, training and dissemination activities were organised with INTARESE
andHEIMTSA(projectsdescribedelsewhereinthiscatalogue);
x
Disseminationactivitieswereundertaken:e.g.,projectleafletsweredistributed
in numerous meetings; eight newsletters and a finalbrochure were produced
and distributed; 21 scientific articles published (a few more have been
submitted),39posterspresentedand52oralcommunicationsgiven;
x
SevenPhDstudentsandnumerousmaster'sstudentsweretrained.
160
Coordinator:
x
French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS),
VerneuilenHalatte,FR(Prof.FrédéricBois)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
ElectricitédeFrance(EDF),Chatou
FR
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
IT
HelmholtzCentreforEnvironmentalResearch,Leipzig
DE
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
DK
FaciliaAB,Bromma
SE
InstituteforEcologyofIndustrialAreas(IETU),Katowice
PL
OstravaInstituteofPublicHealth
CZ
PT
UniversityofLisbon,FacultyofSciences
CatholicUniversityoftheSacredHeart,Milan
IT
UniversityofCa’Foscari,Venice
IT
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
BE
161
162
CONTRACTNUMBER:36913
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€7138904
€ECCONTRIBUTION:€4999780
STARTINGDATE:
February1,2007
ENDDATE:January31,2011
DURATION:48months
HEIMTSA
HEALTHANDENVIRONMENTINTEGRATED
METHODOLOGYANDTOOLBOXFORSCENARIO
ASSESSMENT
Summary:
6
ThemainobjectivesofHEIMTSA wereto:(i)Develop
andprovideimprovedmethodsforhealthimpactassessment(HIA)andcostbenefit
analysis (CBA) of environment and health issues, as reliably as practicable given
current knowledge. This means using the best uptodate scientific knowledge,
especiallyonissuesthathaveabiginfluenceonfinalanswers;
(ii) Develop an associated set of tools: a modular integrated
assessment system (IAS) for implementing the methodology
Europewide; (iii) Apply the methods and tools to selected
realisticpolicyscenariosattheEuropeanlevel.Theseincludebaselinescenarios,and
alternative scenarios developed with the aid of policymakers and other potential
endusers; (iv) Contribute to developing HIA/CBA capability in Europe, through its
improvementsinmethodsandtools,throughdisseminationandtraining,andmore
generally, through raising the profile of HIA/CBA methods, and by showing what is
possible. HEIMTSA and INTARESE (described elsewhere in this catalogue) have
together developed a general methodology of integrated environmental health
impactassessment(IEHIA),fromemissionsthroughtohealthimpacts,aggregatedvia
DisabilityAdjustedLifeYears(DALYs)and/orviamonetaryvaluesandincorporating
human health risk assessment as an integral component. The two projects have
elaborated that methodology by developing and working through the fullchain
approach for many pollutants and have demonstrated its application to the
environmentalhealthimpactassessmentofpoliciesinseveralsectors,includingthe
complex set of policies and measures to address climate change. The IEHIA
methodology developed and proposed has been related to other approaches to
environmental HIA, e.g., the (modified) DPSEEA (Drivingforcespressuresstate
exposureeffectaction) framework of WHO. This provides a significant progress
beyondthestateoftheartwhentheprojectbegan.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
ManysectoralEUpolicies(climate,airpollution,noiseetc)
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
6
www.heimtsa.eu
163
Mainresults:
x
Methods: HEIMTSA has helped clarify the overall methodology of integrated
environmentalhealthimpactassessmentandextendeditsrangeofapplication
by making numerous detailed contributions to methods and good practice in
termsof(i)generalissueswithineachstageofthefullchain;(ii)generalissues
of linkage across stages of the full chain; (iii) specific issues for particular
pollutantsorhealthendpoints,withinparticularstagesofthefullchain;and(iv)
fullchainanalysesofseveralpollutants(theHEIMTSAcasestudies);
x
Examples/case studies: Working jointly with INTARESE, HEIMTSA has shown
how the general methodology and many of the specific methods developed
during the project can be applied to a complex suite of policies affecting the
environmentandenvironmentalexposuresinnumeroussectorsandviaalarge
numberofpollutantsandresultanthealthoutcomes;
x
Tools: (i) HEIMTSA has contributed to the guidance system and toolkit,
conceived and designed by INTARESE; (ii) HEIMTSA has developed some
particular tools, including ones for the qualitative assessment of uncertainty
andforvisualisation,andhasincorporatedthesealongwithmanypreexisting
modelsandothernewinformationintoacomputationalsystemforintegrated
environmentalHIA.Thoughnotyetfullydeveloped,itformsthebasisforfuture
applications; (iii) The project also developed a ‘light’ version of the
computational system for training and learning purposes and other
explorationsofthefullchain;
x
Capacitybuilding:HEIMTSAhashelpedtogrowandstrengthenthecommunity
of practitioners and users of integrated environmental HIA; and this will
continue beyond the life of the project, as dissemination continues and as
relationshipsmadeandknowledgegainedareusedinnewcontexts.Thelegacy
ofHEIMTSAandINTARESEwillbesubstantiallybetterifthemethodsandtools
willbefurtherdeveloped,andexperiencecollatedfromapplyingthem;
x
SomeoftheworkiscontinuinginaprojectfundedbytheSeventhFramework
ProgrammecalledURGENCHE(Greenhousegasemissionreductionpoliciesand
theirimpactsonpublichealthandwellbeinginurbanareas).
164
Coordinator:
x
InstituteofOccupationalMedicine,Edinburgh,UK(Dr.FintanHurley)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofStuttgart
DE
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller
NO
UniversityofBath
UK
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,
UK
London
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
BE
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Utrecht,
NL
Zeist,Leiden
NILUPolskaLtd.,Katowice
PL
NorwegianMeteorologicalInstitute,Oslo
NO
IT
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
CzechHydrometeorologicalInstitute,Prague
CZ
SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,Zürich
CH
MeteorologicalSynthesizingCentreEast,Moscow
RU
AssociationforTechnologyandStructuresinAgriculture
DE
(KTBL),Darmstadt
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
DK
FR
ÉcoledesPontsParisTech,ChampssurMarne
UtrechtUniversity
NL
CharlesUniversity,Prague
CZ
SwecoGrønerAs,Oslo
NO
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
SK
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Kuopio
FI
UniversityofMünster
DE
UniversityofExeter
UK
165
166
CONTRACTNUMBER:18385
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€17341697
ECCONTRIBUTION:€12379832
STARTINGDATE:November1,
2005
ENDDATE:January31,2011
DURATION:63months
INTARESE
INTEGRATEDASSESSMENTOF
HEALTHRISKSFROMENVIRONMENTAL
STRESSORSINEUROPE
Summary:
7
The overall goal of INTARESE was to: (i)
devise both a conceptual and analytical
framework for integrated environmental
health impact assessment (IEHIA), based on the impact pathway; (ii) develop, test
anddemonstratethemethodsandtoolsneededtocarryoutIEHIA;(iii)illustratethe
useofIEHIAthroughaseriesofcasestudies,focusingonissuesofpolicyconcernin
the EU (sectors: transport, housing,
agriculture,
water,
wastes,
household chemicals and climate);
and (iv) create a computerbased
‘toolbox’, which captured all these
developments
(the
concepts,
methodsandcasestudies)andprovidedbothalongtermlegacyfortheprojectand
a practical means by which users in future could access relevant information and
tools.Workduringthefirstfouryearsoftheprojectconcentratedondevelopingthe
underlying principles for integrated assessment, developing the methods required
forintegratedassessment,testingandtriallingthesethroughaseriesofcasestudies,
anddesigningandbuildingatoolboxforintegratedassessment,tobedevelopedin
laterstagesoftheproject.Inthefinalyearoftheproject,thefocuswasonfinalising
themethodologicalworkandcasestudiescarriedoutinpreviousyears;conductinga
large, complex case study on integrated environmental health impact assessment
(thesocalledCommonCaseStudyfocusedonclimatechangeandpolicies,donein
collaborationwithHEIMTSA[describedelsewhereinthiscatalogue]);andintegrating
all the key results of the project into the toolbox (the Integrated Environmental
HealthImpactAssessmentSystem).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EuropeanEnvironment&HealthActionPlan20042010"[COM(2004)416]
ManysectoralEUpolicies(climate,airpollution,noiseetc)
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
7
www.intarese.org
167
Mainresults:
Bytheendoftheproject:
x
The concept of integrated environmental health impact assessment has been
developed, spelled out in a number of publications, and already incorporated
intootherEUprojects,e.g.,URGENCHE;
x
The methodology of integrated environmental health impact assessment has
beenworkedoutintheformofaclearanalyticalprocedure,whichprovidesthe
frameworkforalltheotheroutputsandresults;
x
The detailed methods and tools needed at each stage in the process of
integrated environmental health impact assessment (issueframing, design,
execution and appraisal) have been identified, evaluated, tested and, where
appropriate, developed from scratch, and described in the form of protocols
andguidancemanuals;
x
Detailedreviewsandevaluationshavebeencarriedoutofthedataneededto
supportthesemethods;
x
Routine use of integrated environmental health impact assessment, covering
environmental, biomonitoring and other (e.g., demographic, health) data sets
andstrategiesfordevisingmoreintegratedapproachestomonitoringhasbeen
supported;
x
An extensive series of case studies has been completed, covering individual
methods(e.g.,estimationofexposureresponsefunctions,uncertaintyanalysis,
expertelicitation),assessmentofindividualcausalpathwaysorsectors(relating
totransport,housing,agriculturallanduse,drinkingwaterquality,chemicalsin
householdarticlesandproducts,wastemanagement,andclimatechange),and
(in collaboration with the HEIMTSA project) a full integrated assessment of a
major policy area in the EU (health impacts of climate change mitigation and
adaptationpolicies);
x
All these materials and outputs have been brought together in a large and
comprehensiveonlineIEHIAsystem,whichprovidesseveralhundredpagesof
guidance on how to devise and carry out assessments, access to and
evaluations of key data sources, descriptions and downloadable copies of a
wide range of models and methods, an extensive library of detailed worked
examples and case studies, and gateways to external platforms for open and
integratedassessmentdevelopedaspartofrelatedprojects.Thisisavailableat
http://www.integratedassessment.eu;
x
Closecollaborationwithuserswascarriedoutthroughouttheproject,bothvia
a Project Advisory Group and purposedesigned consultation events, and a
wide range of dissemination and training materials (over and above the
toolbox) have been produced, including a series of Technical Briefs, project
workshops,presentationsatinternationalconferencesandpublishedpapersin
peerreviewedjournals;
168
x
x
x
x
Closecollaborationwasalsodevelopedand maintainedwitharangeofother
EUfunded projects, both formally (e.g., via organisation of joint meetings,
attendanceatplanningmeetings,exchangeofprotocols),andinformally(e.g.,
viasharedstaff,technicaldiscussions).Amongstthese,thestrongestandmost
productive collaboration was with HEIMTSA, and included joint working on a
numberofactivitiesanddeliverables,regularconsultationbetweentheproject
coordinators,andarangeofjointplanningandtechnicalmeetings.;
Attheendoftheproject,INTARESEhadproduced33publishedpapers;8were
inthereviewandpublicationprocess(submittedorinpress),andafurther15
inpreparation;
INTARESEmadecontributionstonumerousinternaltrainingcoursesinmember
institutions (e.g., master's courses in the University of Utrecht and Imperial
College London) and to external courses, including (i) a summer school in
geographical information systems (GIS) and social and environmental
epidemiology, Australian University of Technology, Canberra (April 2008); (ii)
theMasterofPublicHealth,EcoledesHautesEtudesenSantéPubliqueinParis
(January 2009); (iii) a summer school on spatial analysis in epidemiology and
health risk assessment, London (June/July 2009); (iv) several courses on risk
assessment and open assessment at the Finnish National Institute for Health
andWelfareinKuopioandHelsinki(20072010);
Theprojecthasformedamajorelementof11PhDtheses.
169
Coordinator:
x
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyandMedicine,London,UK(Prof.David
Briggs)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
LondonSchoolofHygieneandTropicalMedicine
UK
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
NL
Bilthoven
UtrechtUniversity
NL
FrenchAgencyforEnvironmentalandOccupationalHealth
FR
Safety(AFSSET),MaisonsAlfort
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Kuopio
FI
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller
NO
IT
RomeEnvironmentalHealthAuthority
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
EL
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,Munich
DE
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Delft
NL
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm
SE
EarthSciencesInstitute'JaumeAlmera',Barcelona
ES
WorldHealthOrganisation,Rome
IT
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,Brussels
BE
ES
MunicipalInstituteofMedicalResearch(IMIM),Barcelona
MaastrichtUniversity
NL
HealthProtectionAgency,London
UK
InstituteofExperimentalMedicine,Prague
CZ
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
BE
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
CZ
VincaInstituteofNuclearSciences,Belgrade
RS
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
SK
DE
UniversityofStuttgart
NationalInstituteforHealthSurveillance(INVS),StMaurice
FR
NationalInstituteforIndustrialEnvironmentandRisks(INERIS),
FR
VerneuilenHalatte
NationalCentreforPreventionofHeatHealthEffects,Rome
IT
ChemicalProcessEngineeringResearchInstitute,
EL
ThermiThessaloniki
EuropeanChemicalIndustryCouncil(CEFIC),Brussels
BE
FR
FrenchBuildingResearchandTechnologyInstitute(CSTB),
ChampssurMarne
BarcelonaSciencePark
ES
ICConsultantsLtd,London
UK
NetherlandsEnvironmentalAssessmentAgency,Bilthoven
NL
170
CONTRACTNUMBER:505368
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€1895802
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1200000
STARTINGDATE:January1,2004
ENDDATE:January31,2007
DURATION:37months
METHODEX
METHODSANDDATAONENVIRONMENTAL
ANDHEALTHEXTERNALITIES:HARMONISING
ANDSHARINGOFOPERATIONALESTIMATES
Summary:
Major advances have been made in recent
years in the analysis of externalities,
particularly through the EXTERNE project.
Following on from this, the key objectives of the METHODEX project were to: (i)
expandtheEXTERNEmethodologyconsistentlyintoothersectorsbeyondenergyand
transport,focusingonwaste,industryandagriculture;(ii)demonstratetheapproach
with case studies and identify remaining research gaps; (iii) explore and produce
guidance on benefit transfer, particularly for transferring values or study results
betweentheEU15andNewMemberStates;(iv)engagepolicymakersanddevelop
toolsforconsistentandharmonisedexternalityassessment.TheMETHODEXproject
madeamajorcontributiontothedevelopmentofexternalitiesinthewaste,industry,
and agricultural sectors. This recognises
that externalities in these sectors are
potentially important, but have received
limited attention to date. To extend the
current EXTERNE ‘best practice’ approach into these areas, the study undertook a
detailedliteraturereviewoftherelevantstudiesinthesenewsectors,andsurveyed
the methodologies used. Based on the review, the project identified the ‘priority
burdens’ for each of the three new sectors, i.e., the key impacts. The study also
developed harmonised approaches for quantification of the external costs of air
pollutants for the three new sectors. Finally, the project investigated innovative
approaches for assessing greenhouse gas externalities and communicating the
uncertaintyaroundtheseestimates.Theprojectalsoinvestigatedtheextensionand
transferabilityofexternalityvaluesormethods(benefittransfer)totheenlargedEU.
Finally, to improve the consistency and harmonisation of future externality
applications,theprojecthasdevelopedapolicytool.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Thematicstrategyonairpollution[COM(2005)446]
x
Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric
pollutants
x
EUwastepolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
171
Mainresults:
x
MethodEx policy study database: The METHODEX RED policy study database
was intended as a documental and bibliographic database that includes
previousstudiesorpapersdealingwiththeexternalitiesresearch.Thedatabase
wasprovidedasasourceofinformationforotherstouse,providingdetailsof
the studies, their abstracts, and allows searches by sector, author, or title, to
enabletheinformationtobeaccessedbyotherresearchersorpolicymakers;
x
Benefittransferguidance:Thebenefittransferguidancewasintendedtohelp
improve the reliability and consistency associated with valuation benefit
transfer.Theguidanceisprovidedasasourceofinformation;
x
Policy toolbox: The METHODEX policy toolbox was intended as a simple
harmonised tool for improving the consistency of externality assessment. The
toolboxwasprovidedasasourceofinformationforotherstouse,providinga
range of applications to allow quantification of externalities and socio
economic analysis studies. It includes an update of the air quality externality
damagecostvalues(updatedBeTa)tool,aswellasarangeofotherusefultools
andlinks.
Coordinator:
x
AEATechnologyPlc,Didcot,UK(Mr.DanielForster)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
PaulWatkissAssociatesLtd,Oxford
UK
TheCleanAirActionGroup,Budapest
HU
UniversityofHamburg
DE
InstituteofOccupationalMedicine,Edinburgh
UK
UniversityofStuttgart
DE
EMRC,Reading
UK
SwecoGrønerAs,Oslo
NO
CharlesUniversity,Prague
CZ
InstituteofStudiesfortheIntegrationofSystems,Rome
IT
Armines,Paris
FR
PL
UniversityofWarsaw
UniversityofBath
UK
172
CONTRACTNUMBER:3956
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€14413490
ECCONTRIBUTION:€10000000
STARTINGDATE:November1,
2004
ENDDATE:October31,2009
DURATION:60months
NOMIRACLE
NOVELMETHODSFORINTEGRATEDRISK
ASSESSMENTOFCUMULATIVESTRESSORSIN
EUROPE
Summary:
The NOMIRACLE project developed new
methodsforassessingtheinteractionsofpollutantsandotherstressorswhichmay
affect human health as well as the environment. The
projectusedtheterm‘cumulativeriskassessment’,which
can be defined as an analysis, characterisation, and
possiblequantificationofthecombinedriskstohealthor
the environment from multiple agents or stressors. The
NOMIRACLEprojectaddressedthefollowingseriesofmajorshortcomingsthatexist
within the current assessment approaches: (i) they bear on direct effects of single
compounds or products; (ii) they deal with uncertainty by applying default
assumptions(‘safetyfactors’),whicharenotstrictlybasedonscientificprinciples;(iii)
they do not account for multiple stressors and indirect effects in a dynamic and
heterogeneous environment; (iv) they typically do not account for cumulative
(integratedovertime,space,substances)effects;and(v)theydonotallowforsite
specific and other spatially detailed evaluations. Although it is generally
acknowledgedthatcombinedchemical,biologicalandphysicalstressorscancausea
variety of human health or ecological health effects, assessing the risks associated
with them will require considerably more complex methodological and
computationaltoolsthanthoseappliedincurrentriskassessmentpractices.Thekey
task of NOMIRACLE has been to meet and overcome such shortcomings, by
developing novel methods and an overall conceptual framework for such complex
riskassessments.NOMIRACLEresultsarethusofessentialvaluetogovernmentaland
industrialregulatorsandtothescientificcommunity.Theworkhasresultedinnew
tools and methods, scientific findings and draft guidance documents. The new
8
methodsarepubliclyavailableintheNOMIRACLEtoolboxonthewebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
Regulation (EC)1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of
substancesandmixtures
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
8
http://nomiracle.jrc.ec.europa.eu
173
Mainresults:
x
New tools that improve current risk assessment procedures have been
developed;
x
Improvedmechanisticunderstandingofmixtureeffectsandnewtoolshasbeen
gainedtodescribeandpredicteffectofchemicalmixtures;
x
Improved understanding of the interactions between substances and natural
stressors(e.g.,temperature)hasbeenachieved;
x
Newtoolsthatfocusonthereceptor(individualorecosystem)astheintegrator
ofmultiplestressorsinspaceandtime(e.g.,vulnerabilityconceptandspatially
explicit exposure models) have been developed. The tools integrate human
healthandecologicalriskassessment.Theexperimentalworkhasbeenbased
on analyses including a series of animal phyla, mammalian models (rodents)
andhumancelllines.Theseindicatorswillgenerallybeapplicableasproxiesfor
the assessment of cumulative stressors, thereby contributing to the
epidemiologicalassessmentofhumanpopulationhealth;
x
TheapplicationoftheNOMIRACLEframeworkforcomplexriskassessmentswill
greatlyimproveunderstandingoftheeffectsofcumulativeexposuresoccurring
under the variety of field conditions within Europe and will thus provide a
better scientific basis for forecasting risks and associated uncertainties. The
understanding of the complexity of cumulative risks is a prerequisite for the
development of more efficient guidelines on producing data for future
regulationofchemicals;
x
ThenewmethodsarepubliclyavailableintheNOMIRACLEtoolboxavailableat
http://nomiracle.jrc.ec.europa.eu;
x
The work has resulted in new tools and methods, scientific findings and draft
guidancedocuments;
x
Theworkhasbeendocumentedinabout200reports,by28PhDprojects,and
about 200 scientific peerreviewed papers. Some further 100 peerreviewed
paperswillbeproducedaftertheendoftheproject;
x
A series of review papers on the results obtained in the key areas of
NOMIRACLE have been published as a special issue on risk assessment of the
peerreviewed journal Science of the Total Environment (vol. 408, pp. 3719–
3724,2010);
x
Duringtheprojectperiod6openinternationalworkshopsorconferenceshave
been organised, and a specialised workshop resulted in a book on mixture
toxicity.
174
Coordinator:
x
AarhusUniversity,Aarhus,DK(Prof.HansLøkke)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
NaturalEnvironmentResearchCouncil,Wallingford
HelmholtzCentreforEnvironmentalResearch,Leipzig
RadboudUniversity,Nijmegen
UniversityofPiemonteOrientale"AmedeoAvogadro",Vercelli
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
King'sCollegeLondon
UniversityofCambridge
JagiellonianUniversityMedicalCollege,Cracow
UniversityofTübingen
EberhardKarlsUniversity,Tübingen
WageningenUniversity
AveiroUniversity
UniversityofAntwerp
WRcLtd,Swindon
LEMNATECGMBH,Würselen
UniversityofSalzburg
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
FinnishEnvironmentInstitute,Helsinki
KaunasUniversityofTechnology
AlterraBv,Wageningen
SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,Zürich
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
Bilthoven
LimCoInternational,Ibbenbüren
RWTHAachenUniversity
ECTOekotoxikologieGmbH,FlörsheimamMain
UniversityofMilan,Bicocca
EnvironmentParkSPA,Turin
LausanneInstituteofTechnology(EcolePolytechniqueFédérale
deLausanne)
LancasterUniversity
StockholmUniversity
DialogikGmBH,Stuttgart
Rovira&VirgiliUniversity,Reus
LHASALTD,Leeds
Bourgas'ProfessorAssenZlatarov'University,Bourgas
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Barcelona
UniversityofSouthampton
SymlogdeFranceInstitute,Cachan
175
Country
UK
DE
NL
IT
NL
CZ
UK
UK
PL
DE
DE
NL
PT
BE
UK
DE
AT
IT
FI
LT
NL
CH
NL
DE
DE
DE
IT
IT
CH
UK
SE
DE
ES
UK
BG
ES
UK
FR
176
CONTRACTNUMBER:22957
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€2998354
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1865000
STARTINGDATE:April1,2006
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:45months
QALIBRA
QUALITYOFLIFEINTEGRATEDBENEFIT
ANDRISKANALYSISWEBBASEDTOOLFOR
ASSESSINGFOODSAFETYANDHEALTH
BENEFITS
Summary:
9
The strategic goal of QALIBRA was to
developasuiteofquantitativemethodsfor
assessingandintegratingbeneficialandadverseeffectsoffoodsandapplythemto
selected food groups. The project developed a generalised modular approach to
benefitrisk analysis using menus of dose
response and valuation functions. These
covered different types of positive and
negative health effects that are commonly
encountered in food safety assessment. The
valuation functions integrated positive and
negativehealtheffectsusingcommonmeasuresofnethealthimpact(e.g.,Disability
AdjustedLifeYears(DALYs).ThebenefitriskanalysismethodsdevelopedinQALIBRA
wereimplementedinwebenabledsoftwareavailableforusebyallstakeholdersvia
anintegratedwebsite,withdifferentcomponentsadaptedtodifferentusergroups.
The methods and software developed by QALIBRA were used to carry out detailed
case studies on the benefits and risks of oily fish and functional foods. The project
establishedinformationsharingandjointactivitieswithBENERIS,anotherEUfunded
presentedelsewhereinthispublication.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final
x
Council Regulation (EEC)315/93 laying down Community procedures for
contaminantsinfood;CommissionRegulation(EC)1881/2006settingmaximum
levelsforcertaincontaminantsinfoodstuffs
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
9
www.qalibra.eu
177
Mainresults:
x
The consortium developed further an overall framework for benefitrisk
analysis, using common currencies such as DisabilityAdjusted Life Years
(DALYs)toquantifythebalanceofriskandbenefit,andprovidingtheoptionto
quantifyuncertaintyineveryelementofthecalculation.Theprincipaloutputs
of QALIBRA include comprehensive documentation and guidance on the
framework and a userfriendly, webbased software that implements the
QALIBRA framework and methods and makes them available for use by
stakeholders;
x
The QALIBRA consortium decided that, as other software packages (e.g.,
Proast) already provide menus of doseresponse models, it would be more
efficienttoequiptheQALIBRAwebtoolwithaflexibleinterfacetoacceptinput
from any form of doseresponse model, rather than duplicate the existing
functions.Thisflexibleapproachisanovelwaythatallowstheendusertobein
charge of the final datasets that are going to be used for the calculations
withoutanycompromisinginusageofstandardisedfunctions;
x
Work on the overall framework has included evaluation of doseresponse
models and functions for integrating and valuing health impacts, selecting
thosemostrelevanttofoodsafetyquestionsandrefiningforuseinthegeneral
framework. After discussing the options and the data demands within the
consortium, disabilityadjusted life years (DALYs) were regarded as the most
suitablemethodtointegratethepositiveandnegativeeffectsof certainfood
intakes.However,theQALIBRAframeworkandsoftwarealsoprovideforuseof
themainalternative,qualityadjustedlifeyears(QALYs);
x
Theconsortiumidentifiedsuitablemethodsforcharacterisingthemaintypesof
uncertainty affecting food benefitrisk assessments, and incorporated them in
theframework;
x
QALIBRA investigated the benefitrisk information needs and reactions of
technical users and developed solutions for effective benefitrisk
communicationstrategies.Considerabletheoreticaladvanceshavebeenmade
in the understanding of consumer decisionmaking associated with food
consumption choices, in particular under circumstances where both risks and
benefitsareinvolvedormayaccruetohumanhealth;
x
The QALIBRA methods and approaches were implemented as webbased
software for assessing and communicating net health impacts, and detailed
testingconductedwithendusers.Thesoftwarewasrefinedinresponsetoend
userteststomakeitasuserfriendlyaspossible;
x
The QALIBRA webbased software for benefit and risk assessment of food is
availableatwww.qalibra.eu.
178
Coordinator:
x
Matísltd,Reykjavik,IS(Dr.HelgaGunnlaugsdottir)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
FoodandEnvironmentResearchAgency,York
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment
(RIVM),Bilthoven
WageningenUniversity
UniversityofPatras,PlataniPatras
AltagraBusinessServicesandTravelAgencyLtd.,Gödöllo
NationalResearchInstituteonAgricultureandFisheries
(IPIMAR),Olhão
179
Country
UK
NL
NL
EL
HU
PT
180
CONTRACTNUMBER:506446
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€14628101
ECCONTRIBUTION:
€11576001
STARTINGDATE:April1,2004
ENDDATE:June31,2008
SAFEFOODS
PROMOTINGFOODSAFETYTHROUGHANEW
INTEGRATEDRISKANALYSISAPPROACHFOR
FOODS
Summary:
10
SAFE FOODS focused on the improvement of
riskassessmentmethodsandriskanalysispracticesforfoodsproducedbydifferent
production practices and with different breeding technologies. The main objectives
of the project were to: (i) design a European working
procedure for early identification of emerging chemical or
microbial risks in food production chains; (ii) develop
comparativesafetyassessmentmethodsforfoodsproducedby
differentbreedingapproachesandproductionpractices,using
modern profiling techniques and new qualitative and
quantitative riskbenefit assessment models; (iii) investigate consumers
confidence/preferences in risk analysis practices for foods, including labelling and
nutrition issues; (iv) understand differences in food risk perceptions of consumers,
experts, and decisionmakers, and to design informative risk communication
strategies; (v) investigate the role of institutions across Europe involved in risk
assessment and management; (vi) design a new risk analysis approach for foods,
integrating scientific principles, societal aspects and effective public participation;
(vii) apply, where necessary and appropriately, the different research activities
completed.Themajoroutcomeoftheprojectwasanewriskanalysisapproachfor
foods that integrates assessment of human health aspects, consumer preferences
and values, as well as impact analysis of socioeconomical aspects. The strength of
the model is the transparent and novel way of risk identification and assessment
using newly developed methods, and the inclusive way of risk management with
active involvement of all stakeholders, taking a broad range of ethical, social and
economicalfactorsintoaccount.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
x
Globalfoodsafetylegislation
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
10
www.safefoods.wur.nl
181
Mainresults:
x
First comparative, interoperable, and userfriendly databases for profiling of
foodsproducedbydifferentbreedingapproachesandproductionsystemswere
designed;
x
Auserfriendly,transparent,andeasytouseworkingprocedurewasdeveloped
for the identification of new emerging chemical and microbial risks in food
productionchains;
x
New approaches for risk modelling of food contaminants and natural toxins,
and the development of criteria for comparative risk analysis, including the
validationofthestatistics,wereattempted;
x
Analysis of food safety risk perceptions of experts, regulators, consumers and
otherstakeholdersregardingnovelandconventionalfoods,includinglabelling
andnutritionalaspectsandvalidationofthestatistics,wascarriedout;
x
Analysisofuncertaintiesinriskassessmentandidentificationofbestpracticein
communicating risk uncertainty with the public was undertaken, by linking it
alsotolabellingandnutritionalissues/policies;
x
Consumer preference for risk analysis strategies for foods across Europe,
includinglabellingandnutritionalinfluenceswereidentified;
x
Userfriendly guidance for evaluation and governance of systemic food risks,
showinghowlabellingandnutritionalaspectsareincluded,hasbeenprovided;
x
Realistic, practical, and costeffective recommendations for improvement in
risk management procedures and institutional structure, including their
influences/linkstolabellingandnutrition,havebeenproduced;
x
New risk analysis approach for food safety management that integrates risk
assessment of human health, consumer preferences and values, impact
analysis of socioeconomical aspects andnutrition as well as labelling issues,
basedonqualitativeandquantitativemethodologies,hasbeenproposed;
x
Fourelearningmodulesareavailableandcanbefreelyaccessedattheproject
website.
182
Coordinator:
x
DutchInstituteofFoodSafety(RIKILT),Wageningen(Dr.HarryKuiper)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
ScottishCropResearchInstitute,Dundee
TechnicalUniversityMunich
UniversityofKuopio
PlantBreedingandAcclimatisationInstitute,Blonie
ItalianNationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
CouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch,Pretoria
BiomathematicsandStatisticsScotland,Edinburgh
ChineseAcademyofAgriculturalSciences,InstituteofCrop
GermplasmResources,Beijing
AshtownFoodResearchCentre
CatholicUniversityofPiacenza
PVDFoodandVeterinaryService,Riga
CentralFoodResearchInstitute,Budapest
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
Bilthoven
GermanFederalInstituteforRiskAssessment(BFR),Berlin
SwissFederalOfficeofPublicHealth,Bern
SwedishNationalFoodAdministration,Uppsala
ChineseNationalInstituteofNutritionandFoodSafety,Beijing
RoyalVeterinaryandAgriculturalUniversity(KVL),Frederiksberg
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
WageningenUniversity
InstituteofFoodResearch,Norwich
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
DialogikGmBH,Stuttgart
AgriculturalUniversityofAthens
UniversityofSussex,Brighton
MaastrichtUniversity
UniversityofGothenburg
King'sCollegeLondon
HungarianAcademyOfSciences,InstituteforSociology,Budapest
UniversityofRome"TorVergata"
EuropeanFoodInformationCouncil,Brussels
UtrechtUniversity
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch(INRA),
AgroParisTech,Paris
NorwegianFoodResearchInstituteMatforsk,Ås
SPIPortugal,Porto
A.N.BakhInstituteofBiochemistryoftheRussianAcademyof
Science,Moscow
183
Country
UK
DE
FI
PL
IT
ZA
UK
CN
IE
IT
LV
HU
NL
DE
CH
SE
CN
DK
CZ
NL
UK
DK
DE
EL
UK
NL
SE
UK
HU
IT
BE
NL
FR
NO
PT
RU
184
CONTRACTNUMBER:6529
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€998854
ECCONTRIBUTION:€998854
STARTINGDATE:January1,2006
ENDDATE:June30,2009
DURATION:42months
c
VERHICHILDREN
VALUATIONOFENVIRONMENTRELATED
HEALTHIMPACTSFORCHILDREN:ACCOUNTING
FORDIFFERENCESACROSSAGE,LATENCYAND
RISKCATEGORIESWITHAPARTICULARFOCUS
ONCHILDREN
Summary:
Thesmallnumberofeconomicvaluationstudiesestimatingthebenefitsofpollution
control policies for children‘s health provides little guidance for environmental
policymaking.Indeed,existingvaluesusedformonetisationofenvironmentalhealth
impactsfocusonadultpopulations,applyingscenariosthatoftendonotmatchwell
with environmental settings. As such, there is a
concernthatthecontinueduseofsuchestimatesmay
result in misguided policymaking and prioritisation.
Theobjectiveofthisprojectwasthereforetoimprove
the incorporation of environmentrelated health
impacts for children in environmental policymaking.
In addition to methodological contributions to the
valuation of environmentrelated health impacts for children, the work undertaken
in the context of the VERHI project contributed to the development of regulatory
standards, to policy development, and to risk assessment and communication
strategy.Apublication'ValuationofEnvironmentRelatedHealthRisksforChildren',
summarising the main results and policy implications of the project, is available on
11
theprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Economicandhealthbenefitsofenvironmentalpolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Scientificsupporttopolicy'programme
11
www.oecd.org/env/social/envhealth/verhi
185
Mainresults:
x
x
x
Estimation of values specific to children: It is reasonable to think that
differencesbetweentheestimatedValueofaStatisticalLife(VSL)foradultand
child populations are attributable in part to differences in age. However, age
differences do not capture all of the potential sources for differences in VSL
betweenadultandchildpopulations.Thedistinctiveroleofchildrenwithinthe
household,therelativeimportanceofpaternalaltruism,andotherfactors(i.e.,
the degree of voluntariness of exposure or perceptions of dread) may well
affect VSL for children relative to adults in a manner which is distinct from
simple differences in age. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research in this
area.Thisleaveslittleguidanceforpolicymakersonhowtovaluehealthrisks
to children. Due to the lack of empirical research on VSL, most economic
analysesrelyonadultVSLestimatesforchildren‘shealtheffects.Theresearch
hascontributedtofillingthisgapbyobtainingvaluesspecificallyforchildren;
Ratioofvaluesforchildrenandadults:Whilethereislikelytobeasignificant
degreeofuncertaintyassociatedwithanyspecificvaluesobtained(whetherfor
adultsorchildren),theratioofvaluesobtainedfromastudy,inwhichtheVSLs
estimated for both adults and children are directly comparable, can assist
policymakers in their evaluation of policies which affect both populations. In
principle, the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between the estimated VSL
forachildandforanadultcanbeusedtoadjustestimatedbenefitsforpolicy
and programmes should the MRS not equal one. However, clearly more
researchisrequired,andtheresultsofVERHIrepresentacontributiontothis
literature;
Contribution to methodological development: The values obtained are, of
course, important outcomes from the project. However, there are important
and contentious methodological issues, which need to be addressed when
valuing environmental health impacts differentiated according to risk and
individual characteristics. As such, through the preparation of the
methodologicalreviews,theveryextensivesurveydevelopmentwork, aswell
as the empirical work itself, it is anticipated that the project will also make a
moregeneralcontributiontodevelopmentsinthestateoftheartinthisarea.
Thus, by providing guidance on how to undertake such studies in the future,
the outcomes of the project will be of broader relevance to the research and
policycommunities.
Coordinator:
x
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Paris, FR
(Dr.NickJohnstone)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
EniEnricoMatteiFoundation,Milan
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
CharlesUniversity,Prague
Country
IT
UK
CZ
186
CHAPTERIVProjectsFocusedontheDevelopmentofinvitroToxicityTestingStrategies
CHAPTERIV
Projectsfocusedonthe
developmentofinvitrotoxicity
testingstrategies
187
188
CONTRACTNUMBER:512051
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€12112179
ECCONTRIBUTION:€7664665
STARTINGDATE:January1,2005
ENDDATE:June30,2010
DURATION:66months
ACUTETOX
OPTIMISATIONANDPREVALIDATIONOF
ANINVITROTESTSTRATEGYFOR
PREDICTINGHUMANACUTETOXICITY
Summary:
ThemainobjectivesofACUTETOXincluded
the compilation, evaluation and generation
of high quality in vitro and in vivo data on a set of reference chemicals for
comparative analyses, and the identification of factors that
influence the correlation between in vitro (concentration)
and in vivo (dose) toxicity, particularly taking into
consideration biokinetics, metabolism and organ toxicity
(liver,centralnervoussystem,kidney).Moreover,innovative
tools (e.g., cytomics) and new cellular systems for
anticipating animal and human toxicity were explored.
Ultimately,thegoalwastodesignasimple,robustandreliableinvitroteststrategy
amendableforrobotictesting,associatedwiththepredictionmodelsforacuteoral
toxicity.Theoutcomeofthefirstphaseoftheprojectwasalargetoolboxofinvitro
methods with associated optimised protocols. A list of eight in vitro and in silico
methods, which are the most promising candidates for inclusion in proposal of
potentialtestingstrategies,wasgenerated.Duringthelatterpartoftheproject,five
proposals for in vitro tiered testing strategies were formulated and evaluated in
terms of predictivity. Some of the knowledge derived from the project has been
already applied in the daily activities of companies which are ACUTETOX partners
(e.g., pharmaceutical sector). More information is available on the project website
andacatalogue' AlternativeTestingStrategiesProgressReport2011'.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes.
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
189
Mainresults:
x
ACUTETOX undertook the challenging goal to create an integrated testing
strategy to replace the animal testing used today for predicting human acute
oral systemic toxicity, which is based exclusively on in vitro and in silico
methods;
x
Theprojectrepresentsthefirstattempttoprevalidateatestingstrategybased
exclusively on nonanimal methods; therefore, it provided an excellent case
study for the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
(ECVAM) and helped to progress the discussions on validation of testing
strategies,whicharecurrentlyongoingatseverallevels.Indeed,thiscasestudy
has been already presented at the European Partnership for Alternative
Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA)/ECVAM workshop on Validation of
IntegratedTestingStrategiesin2009;
x
Inthefirstphase oftheproject,a verylargenumber ofin vitrotestmethods
(approximately 75 endpoints) have been evaluated in terms of their within
laboratory variability (and in some cases also the betweenlaboratory
variability), preliminary predictive capacity and the potential to identify alerts
fororganspecifictoxicity.Theoutcomeofthisphaseoftheprojectwasalarge
toolboxofinvitromethodswithassociatedoptimisedprotocols,someofthem
evaluatedtothelevelofprevalidation;
x
An indepth statistical analysis of the large dataset generated in this project
resulted in a list of 8 in vitro and in silico methods, which are the most
promisingcandidatesforinclusioninaproposalofpotentialtestingstrategies.
Protocols of all these methods will be available to the public as INVITTOX
protocols(Databankofinvitrotechniquesintoxicology),throughtheECVAM
databaseonalternativemethods(DBALM);
x
The last phase of the project focused mainly on the assessment of the
predictive capacity of the proposed tiered testing strategies and the
identification of assay combinations that give the best prediction in terms of
classifying chemicals into the official acute oral toxicity categories. Five
proposalsforinvitrotieredtestingstrategieswereformulatedandevaluatedin
termsofpredictivity;
x
The outcome of this analysis reinforced previous results obtained with the
3T3/NRU assays and supports the use of this validated cytotoxicity assay to
identifyunclassifiedsubstances(LD50>2000mg/kg),asafirststepinatiered
testingstrategy;
190
x
x
x
Several in vitro assays have proved to be useful to identify alerts for tissue
specific toxicities such as neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, the
resultsoftheclassificationanalysisshowedthatcomplementingthe3T3/NRU
assaywiththoseinvitroassaysdoesnotimprovesignificantlytheclassification
of compounds in toxicity categories 14. This outcome is largely linked to the
factthatthecurrentclassificationsystemsarebasedonarbitrarilyassignedcut
offs for the rat LD50 values and do not include more detailed scientific
(mechanistic) information on the compounds. Thus, a revision of the current
classifications schemes might be advisable and should be put forward to the
Europeanregulatoryagencies;
Mostoftheresultsobtainedinthecourseoftheprojecthaveresultedinpeer
reviewed publications, which proves the scientific quality of the data
generated;
Some of the knowledge derived from the project has been already applied in
the daily activities of companies, which are ACUTETOX partners (e.g.,
pharmaceuticalsector).ThisgoesbeyondthemainobjectiveoftheACUTETOX
project (prediction of acute oral toxicity) and helps to improve European
competitiveness.
191
Coordinator:
x
OuluUniversity,FI(Dr.LeilaRisteli)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
EnvironmentalCompetenceABExpertrådet,Sollentuna
LaFeUniversityHospital,Valencia
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
NosciraSA,Madrid
UtrechtUniversity
BiovitrumAB,Stockholm
UniversityofNottingham
UniversityofValencia
CentreforBioActiveMoleculesScreening(CMBA),Grenoble
CentreforEnergy,EnvironmentandTechnologyResearch
(CIEMAT),Madrid
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,LouvainlaNeuve
InstituteofBiomedicalResearch,Barcelona
InstituteofPublicHealth,Brussels
AdvancedInVitroCellTechnologies,Barcelona
StockholmUniversity
BayerHealthCareAG,Wuppertal
UniversityofAberdeen
UniversityofLausanne
FreeUniversityofBrussels
GAIKER,Zamudio
RoyalInstituteofTechnology,Stockholm
UniversityCollegeDublin
UmeåUniversity
ItalianNationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
UniversityofZürich
FraunhoferInstitute,Hannover
PalackýUniversity,Olomouc
InVitroTestingIndustrialPlatform,Rotterdam
UniversityofKonstanz
UppsalaUniversity
ArtoisUniversity,Lens
SwedishFundforResearchwithoutAnimalExperiments,Älvsjö
UniversityofBarcelona
192
Country
SE
ES
IT
SE
NL
SE
UK
ES
FR
ES
BE
ES
BE
ES
SE
DE
UK
CH
BE
ES
SE
IE
SE
IT
CH
DE
CZ
NL
DE
SE
FR
SE
ES
CONTRACTNUMBER:22674
PROJECTTYPE:Specifictargeted
researchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€2424954
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1464692
STARTINGDATE:April1,2006
ENDDATE:March31,2009
DURATION:36months
CAESAR
COMPUTERASSISTEDEVALUATIONOF
INDUSTRIALCHEMICALSUBSTANCES
ACCORDINGTOREGULATIONS
Summary:
1
One of the principal aims of the CAESAR project was to build models to predict
toxicity of chemical substances for the REACH regulation. A secondary goal was to
reduce animal testing and, in consequence, the cost of these tests. The third
objective was to gain wide applicability and acceptability of these models by
stakeholders for decision support. CAESAR
developed new quantitative structureactivity
relationship (QSAR) models specific for REACH for
five endpoints: bioconcentration in fish; skin
sensitisation, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity; and
developmental toxicity. These models have been
plannedtoallowaneasyaccessanduse:industryandregulatorscanfreelyusethe
models through the internet. Three simple steps allow the user to introduce the
chemical(s),gettheprediction,andsaveorprinttheresult.TheCAESARmodelsare
soundandscientificallybased:Globally,dataonabout7000compoundswereused
to build up the models. The chemical structures have been individually double
checked.Outofanumberofmodelsdeveloped,thebestwerechosenandvalidated.
The models provide guidance on how they can be applied. The models can run
hundredsofcompoundsinabatchwithinafewseconds,startingfromverysimple
andeasilyavailablechemicalformatssuchasSMILEsandsdf.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
EUfunding:
x
'Scientificsupporttopolicy'programme
1
www.caesarproject.eu
193
Mainresults:
x
CAESAR developed and made freely available quantitative structureactivity
relationship(QSAR)modelsforfiveendpoints,specificallydesignedforREACH.
The endpoints are: bioconcentration factor, skin sensitisation, mutagenicity,
carcinogenicityanddevelopmentaltoxicity(teratogenicity);
x
The results of predictions were superior or equivalent to those obtained with
other commercial or public models. Thus, new independent models are now
availablefortoxicityandpropertypredictionsofindustrialchemicals;
x
The models are based on experimental data. Highquality data was used,
verifying individually all structures, in order to have a robust basis for the
models.Themodelshavebeenvalidatedwithexternaltestsetsandaseriesof
statisticalmethods;
x
The models predict a continuous value or a category (such as toxic or not),
dependingontheendpointandREACHrequirements.Themodelsarebasedon
aseriesoffragmentsormoleculardescriptors,anduseseveralalgorithms;
x
The models have been optimised to be reproducible, transparent, freely
available,validated,andtailoredforREACH(inputdataofhighquality,output
datasuitableforclassificationandlabelling,prioritisationandriskassessment);
x
Aseriesofcollaborationswereinitiatedwithregulators,industryandscientists.
TheseincludetheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgency,theItalianFederation
of Chemical Industry Federchimica and the EUfunded projects OSIRIS
(describedelsewhereinthiscatalogue),CHEMPREDICT(DevelopmentofFreely
Available Predictive Models Based on Simple Chemical Descriptors),
CHEMOMENTUM (Grid services based environment to enable innovative
research)andCASCADE(describedelsewhereinthiscatalogue).
Coordinator:
x
Institute of Pharmacological Research Mario Negri, Milan, IT (Prof. Emilio
Benfenati)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
CentralScienceLaboratory,York
UK
BiochemicsConsultingSAS,Olivet
FR
MilanPolytechnicInstitute
IT
KnowledgeMinerSoftware,Panketal
DE
LiverpoolJohnMooresUniversity
UK
HelmholtzCentreforEnvironmentalResearch,Leipzig
DE
NationalInstituteofChemistry,Ljubljana
SI
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Delft
NL
194
CONTRACTNUMBER:37712
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€11986502
ECCONTRIBUTION:€10440000
STARTINGDATE:November1,2006
ENDDATE:April30,2012
DURATION:66months
CARCINOGENOMICS
DEVELOPMENTOFAHIGHTHROUGHPUT
GENOMICSBASEDTESTFORASSESSING
GENOTOXICANDCARCINOGENIC
PROPERTIESOFCHEMICALCOMPOUNDSIN
VITRO
Summary:
2
The CARCINOGENOMICS project aimed to develop in vitro methods to test the
carcinogenic properties of compounds as an alternative to the chronic rodent
bioassaysthatassesschemicalgenotoxicityandcarcinogenicity.Themajorgoalwas
to develop a series of mechanismbased in vitro tests that are representative of
various modes of carcinogenic
actionforanumberofmajortarget
organsforcarcinogenicaction,e.g.,
liver,lungs,andkidneys.Ithasalso
the objective of building an
iterativeinsilicomodelofchemical
carcinogenesis. This will enable the efficient assessment of high numbers of
compounds for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity as required under the REACH
initiative,whilereducinginvivotesting.Attheendoftheproject,akidneyRPTECT
model(normalrenalproximaltubuli)wassuccessfullyfinalised.Theliverembryonic
stemcellmodeldevelopedisverypromising.However,thetestingofmorechemicals
is necessary as is the lung primary bronchoalveolar cell model. The project gained
information on interlaboratory reproducibility of toxicogenomics assays. More
informationisavailableontheprojectwebsiteandacatalogue' AlternativeTesting
StrategiesProgressReport2011'.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
2
www.carcinogenomics.eu
195
Mainresults:
x
KidneyRPTECTmodel(normalrenalproximaltubuli)wassuccessfullyfinalised.
Aclearsegregationbetweengenotoxiccarcinogensvsnongenotoxic
carcinogensvsnoncarcinogenswasobserved.Anassayisreadyfor
submissiontoECVAM(theEuropeanCentrefortheValidationofAlternative
Methods):
x
Theliverembryonicstemcellmodelisverypromising.However,thetestingof
morechemicalsisnecessary.
x
AsregardstheliverHepaRGmodel,furtherquestionswereraised.Therewasa
clearsegregationbetweengenotoxiccarcinogensvsnongenotoxiccarcinogens
and noncarcinogens; however, there was no clear distinction between
nongenotoxiccarcinogensandnoncarcinogens;
x
The physiological relevance of the HepaRG system could possibly be too
limited;
x
Noncarcinogens included some liver toxicants: there is a possible overlap in
theresponsemechanismsfornongenotoxiccarcinogensandtoxicantsinthe
liver;
x
Thelungprimarybronchoalveolarcellmodelisverypromising.Nevertheless,
testingofmorechemicals,includinggases,isnecessary;
x
Elaborate experience was successfully gained on gathering information on
interlaboratory reproducibility of toxicogenomics assays (under the
supervisionbyECVAM);
x
Aprotocolforharmonisedbioinformaticsapproacheswasgenerated.
Coordinator:
x
MaastrichtUniversity,NL(Prof.JosKleinjans)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
LaFeUniversityHospital,Valencia
ES
FreeUniversityofBrussels
BE
Cellartis,Gothenburg
SE
LeidenUniversityMedicalCentre
NL
UniversityCollegeDublin
IE
Novozymes,Bagsvaerd
DK
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,London
UK
AdvancedInVitroCellTechnologies,Barcelona
ES
EuropeanBioinformaticsInstitute,Hinxton
UK
NL
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Delft
MaxPlanckInstituteforMolecularGenetics
DE
Munich
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
IT
BE
196
EuropeanConsensusPlatformforAlternatives(ECOPA)
Brussels
Unilever,London
InnsbruckMedicalUniversity
GenedataAG,Basel
BiopredicInternational,Rennes
LiverpoolJohnMooresUniversity
197
UK
AT
CH
FR
UK
198
CONTRACTNUMBER:37168
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€3011664
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2173492
STARTINGDATE:October1,2006
ENDDATE:March31,2010
DURATION:42months
EXERA
DEVELOPMENTOF3DINVITROMODELSOF
ESTROGENREPORTERMOUSETISSUESFOR
THEPHARMACOTOXICOLOGICALANALYSIS
OFNUCLEARRECEPTORSINTERACTING
COMPOUNDS(NRICS)
Summary:
3
The objective of the EXERA project was to
develop novel threedimensional (3D) in vitro models of mouse tissues from five
major organs for the pharmacotoxicological analysis of oestrogen receptor
interacting compounds: liver, skin and bone (nonreproductive systems), ovary and
testis(maleandfemalereproductivesystems).
The steps to reach the objectives involved
several complementary techniques: cell
isolation, constitutive and conditional
immortalisation, cell banking, 3Dcultures,
whole genome expression profiles, in vivo imaging, and application of 3Dculture
devices (Rotary cell culture system [RCCS] technology). Acute and longitudinal
studies identified the consistency of reporter mouse methodology, demonstrating
the direct relationship between the administered dose of the compound and the
intensity of photon emission measured in different body areas targeted by nuclear
receptor (NR)ligands.Theresultsfurthershowedthatbothprimarycellsandfresh
tissues, as well as immortalised cells derived from reporter mice, can be cultured
through 3D technologies. Investigations continue beyond the timeframe of the
project.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
relatingtocosmeticproducts(76/768/EEC)
x
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
3
www.altaweb.eu/exera
199
Mainresults
x
The improved systems generated and exploited in EXERA propose efficient
tools for the characterisation of newly synthesised drugs that interact with
nuclear receptors (NRs) and for the risk assessment of industrial “hormones”
thatmaycontaminatethefoodandtheenvironment;
x
Similartoinvitrosystems,advancedanimalmodelsmayalsofulfiltwoofthe
'3Rs'ofalternativetesting:refineandreduce.Theextensionoftheconceptof
the3Rstoanimalmodelsresidesintherealisticconsiderationthatthecurrent
rodenttestsystemsarelikelytoremaininuseforpharmacokinetic(i.e.,dosage,
formulation, administration, halflife), toxicological (systemic and organ
specific) and biological evaluations of candidate therapeutics and toxic xeno
compounds for years to come (in the context of REACH regulation). If
appropriatelyused,however,pathwayspecificinvivomodels,suchasreporter
mice, zebrafish or xenopus, while providing flexible and highly standardisable
parameters,maystronglydecreasetheoverallnumberofanimalsrequired;
x
A first example is reporter animals for hormone actions. These models have
beendevelopedduringthepastfewyearsbytheinsertionintothegenomeof
DNA elements, which provide the template for recognition by NRs, furnishing
major insights into the NR physiology. When used for toxicological purposes,
theyrepresentsuitablemodelsforstudyingxenohormones,givingacomplete
viewofthebodyregions,inwhichthesecontaminantsact.Byprovidingreliable
and informative data on physiological changes without animal sacrifice, they
fulfil two of the 3R’s principles ('refine' and 'reduce'). Because good
reproducibilityandsensitivityhavebeenachieved,thesereportersystemsmay
providenewapproachesforstudyingthetoxicodynamicsandtoxicokineticsof
severalwidespreadchemicals.Acuteandlongitudinalstudiescarriedoutbythe
EXERA consortium established the consistency of the reporter mouse
methodology,demonstratingthedirectrelationshipbetweentheadministered
dose of the compound and the intensity of photon emission measured in
differentbodyareastargetedbyNRsligands;
x
Thepossibilityofderivinginvitrosystemsforthetissuespecificevaluationof
thesamemarkersexpressedinreporteranimalsmayincreasetheefficiencyof
invitro/invivocorrelations,coveringthethird'R'inalternativetesting:'replace'.
Itwasshownthatbothprimarycellsandfreshtissues,aswellasimmortalised
cells derived from reporter mice, can be cultured through threedimensional
technologies, providing tools that generate data more similar to the in vivo
situation. By reproducing specific threedimensional tissuelike structures that
mimic the functions and responses of real tissues in a more physiological
manner, 3D cell culture bioreactors represent a potential bridge for covering
thegapbetweenanimalandhumanstudies.Thecouplingbetweenengineered
human cells, 3D culture methods and new luminescence/fluorescence
detection devices add further possibilities for the application of these
technologiestothemodernpharmacotoxicology.
200
Coordinator:
x
CivicHospitalofBrescia,IT(Dr.DiegoDiLorenzo)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofMilan
UniversityofTurku
AthloneInstituteofTechnology,Athlone
CELLONSA,Bereldange
HormosMedicalPharmacity,Turku
DNAVision,Charleroi
ArchportLtd,Dublin
ALTAsrl,Siena
201
Country
IT
FI
IE
LU
FI
BE
IE
IT
202
CONTRACTNUMBER:37017
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€14787639
ECCONTRIBUTION:€10000000
STARTINGDATE:April1,2007
ENDDATE:September30,2011
DURATION:54months
OSIRIS
OPTIMIZEDSTRATEGIESFORRISK
ASSESSMENTOFCHEMICALSBASEDON
INTELLIGENTTESTING
Summary:
4
ThegoalofOSIRIS wastodevelopintegrated
testingstrategies(ITS)fitforREACHthatmake
it possible to significantly increase the use of
nontesting information for regulatory decision making, and to effectively reduce
animaltestingtothelevelneededfromariskperspective.Theprojecthadfivemajor
objectives: (i)To develop methods andguidance
for transparent and scientifically sound use of
chemistrydriven information in ITS; (ii) To
provide efficient strategies and guidance for
exploitationofalltypesofbiologicalinformation
on toxic effects of chemicals in ITS, focusing on
reduced animal use and informed extrapolation across human and environmental
toxicology,species,endpointsandtimescales;(iii)Todevelopcriteriafor exposure
informed testing as foreseen in the REACH regulation, and to refine relevant
exposure assessment methods accordingly; (iv) To develop weightofevidence
approaches for ITS based on a computerised decision theory framework ready for
web access, optimising the use of existing data and nontest information, and
minimisingtheneedfornewtestinginriskassessmentprocedures;(v)Toevaluate
the feasibility and effectiveness of the new ITS methodologies and to provide
guidance for their use in concrete form, covering major human and environmental
endpoints.ThecentralsoftwareoutcomeofOSIRISistheOSIRISwebtool.Thistool
guidesinperformingITSonskinsensitisation,repeateddosetoxicity,mutagenicity,
carcinogenicity, bioconcentration factor, and aquatic toxicity. The webtool can be
accessed at http://osiris.simpple.com/OSIRISITS. To use the tool, a free online
registrationisrequired.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
4
www.osiris.ufz.de
203
Mainresults:
x
The central software outcome of OSIRIS is the web tool. It includes the
followingfeatures:(i)Theusercanmanagesubstances,testdata,insilicodata
and physicochemical properties of the substances, and can import data from
IUCLID5exportfiles;(ii)Theusercancreateassessmentsandexecutethemto
evaluatesubstancesusingtheimplementedITS;(iii)Thetoolallowstheuserto
manage user input elements that are required by the ITS execution; (iv) The
tool has a help system and user management functions; (v) The tool is
connectedwiththeOSIRISChemPropdatabase;(vi)Thetoolhasaninterfaceto
import model results from the ChemProp software; (vii) Software modules to
deal with advanced decision methods are provided; (viii) Exposurebased
waivingandphysicochemicalwaivingareprovided;
x
Supported endpoints are: aquatic toxicity, bioconcentration factor,
mutagenicityandcarcinogenicity,repeateddosetoxicityandskinsensitisation;
x
Thetoolguidestheuserthroughallthestepsrequiredtoevaluate.Toevaluate
asubstance,theuserisinstructedtocreatethesubstanceinthewebtool,add
knownrelevantinformationandimportdatafromIUCLID5andfromChemProp
software.Thentheusercancreateassessmentsforendpoints;
x
Thewebtoolispubliclyavailableattheaddresshttp://osiris.simpple.com,and
free online registration is required to use the tool. Registration and login is
requiredbecauseuserprovideddataneedstobestoredtobeusedbythetool;
x
The web tool also provides a single point of access to two tools developed
independently: the chemical and biological space navigation tool and the
OSIRISconsensustool;
x
TheITSforskinsensitisationaimstohelptheuserinweighingdifferentsources
of information (most of the sources mentioned in the REACH technical
guidance), and to specifically help answering the following question: When is
thebodyof(alternative)evidencesufficienttoreplacetherequiredREACHtest
result, i.e., to replace the need for performing a local lymph node assay
(LLNA)?;
x
TheITSRepDosewasdevelopedtoevaluatetheconditionsunderwhichanon
guideline study is still reliable preventing new guideline studies. The ITS
RepDoseisimplementedintheOSIRISwebtool;
x
TheITSformutagenicityandcarcinogenicityaredescribedindetailinanumber
of OSIRIS deliverables, the most important of which is deliverable D4.2.14,
availableontheprojectwebsite;
x
Bioaccumulationwaschosenasendpoint(i)forpracticalreasons:availabilityof
experimental data to make practical testing of the scheme, availability of
alternativemethodstolimitthenumber ofrequestedtests;(ii)forrelevance:
data for bioconcentration are required not only to satisfy the Annexes of
REACH but also for Classification and Labelling, Chemical Safety Assessment
and for the prioritisation through the PBT (Persistent, Bioaccumulative and
Toxic)/vPvB (Very Persistent and Very Bioaccumulative) assessment, and (iii)
becauseofthesubstantialnumberofanimalsrequiredforthetests(morethan
100 fish for each substance). The proposed scheme will be of help for the
204
x
x
registrant because it summarises the requirements and specific condition
identifiedbyREACH.Moreover,itincludesalternativemethodstohelptheuser
inthechoiceofthemostappropriatestrategy;
Aquatic toxicity was chosen as endpoint also for similar reasons as
bioaccumulation;
Workshops have established and continue a dialogue between project
membersandEUstakeholders.
Coordinator
x
HelmholtzCentreforEnvironmentalResearch,DE(Prof.GerritSchüürmann)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
Rovira&VirgiliUniversity,Reus
ES
LiverpoolJohnMooresUniversity
UK
UniversityofBern
CH
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
DE
Bilthoven
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
DK
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Delft
NL
InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,Milan
IT
CH
Procter&GambleInternationalOperationsSa,Lancy
SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,Zürich
CH
ItalianNationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
IT
UniversityofAntwerp
UK
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
NL
SIMPPLES.L.,Tarragona
ES
KWRWaterCycleResearchInstitute,Nieuwegein
NL
InstituteofPublicHealthoftheRepublicofSlovenia,Ljubljana
SI
EE
NationalInstituteofChemicalPhysicsandBiophysics,Tallinn
ECTOekotoxikologieGmbH,FlörsheimamMain
DE
FraunhoferInstitute,München
DE
AarhusUniversity,Roskilde
DK
StockholmUniversity
SE
Bourgas'ProfessorAssenZlatarov'University,Bourgas
BG
MerckKGaA,Darmstadt
DE
EcoleCentraledeLyon,Lyon
FR
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PL
IT
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
UniversityofExeter
UK
AnalytischesLaboratoriumLuhnstedt
DE
DialogikGmBH,Stuttgart
DE
CyprotexPLC,Macclesfield
UK
WageningenUniversity
NL
205
206
CONTRACTNUMBER:504761
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€3390254
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2259754
STARTINGDATE:September1,2004
ENDDATE:December31,2007
DURATION:40months
PREDICTOMICS
SHORTTERMINVITROASSAYSFOR
LONGTERMTOXICITY
Summary:
5
PREDICTOMICS aimedatdevelopinganovelplatformforpredictingliverandkidney
chronictoxicityelicitedbydrugsandxenobiotics.Bycombining'omics'technologies
andadvancedcellularmodels,PREDICTOMICSaimedtoprovidevaluabletoolsfora
reliable screening of new drug candidates by the pharmaceutical industry, as well
potential toxins. Using cellular models representing as well as possible the human
liver and kidney in vivo and appropriate assessment procedures, a platform was
developed that allows to give an early warning about chronic renal and hepatic
toxicants. As regards cholestasis flow cytometry, results of three independent
experiments either for noncholestasic
or cholestasic compounds showed that
thisassaywasabletoclassifytestedcompoundsaccordingtheirimpairmentofdrug
uptake.Therefore,thisstudywasfoundrobustandreproducibleasithassupported
results obtained with compounds previously tested by this method in other
laboratories. Concerning steatosis flow cytometry, results of three independent
experimentseitherfornonsteatosicorsteatosiccompoundsshowedthatthisassay
was able to classify most of compounds tested in this assay according to their
steatosiceffect,althoughmoreexperimentsshouldbeperformedtoreallyshowthe
robustness of this method. More details on results are available on the project
websiteandacatalogue'AlternativeTestingStrategiesProgressReport2009'.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
5
www.predictomics.com/principal.htm
207
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
Amethodtoidentifycompoundsthatmightcauselivercholestasisbymeansof
afluorescencebasedcytometryhasbeendesignedandexternallyprevalidated.
Themethodmonitorsrealtimekineticsuptakeofbileacidderivativesinfresh
suspensionsofhepatocytesandtheimpairmentcausedbydrugs;
Aseconddevelopedmethodwasa cytometrybased multiparametricassayto
identifydrugscausingliversteatosis.Makinguseofastablehumanhepatoma
derivedcellline(HepG2)treatedwithmodelsteatotichepatotoxinsandimage
analysisafterfluorimetricquantitationofthelipidcontentofcells,aswellother
cellular endpoint parameters, is was possible to distinguish among weak,
moderateandstrongsteatosiccompounds;
Athirddevelopedmethodmadeuseofagenomewidescaletoidentifygene
products whose expression levels or posttranslational features changed as a
consequence of exposure to steatosic drugs. On the basis of the results
obtained,a‘steatosisfingerprint’hasbeendefinedandwillbeexploitedinthe
formofaDNAmicroarray;
Concerningrenaltoxicity,ahumanproximaltubulemodelhasbeenestablished
for the purposes of conducting gene expression microarrays with the
AffymetrixHGU133plustwoplatforms.Aninterlaboratorycomparisonacross
four laboratories confirmed that the model is standardised, robust,
reproducible and transferable. The predictive ability of the model with an
additional 11 nephrotoxic compounds was investigated and a preliminary
predictionmodeldeveloped.Anumberoflimitationsofthemodelhavebeen
identified.Anumberofmarkergeneshavebeenidentifiedwhicharepotential
markersofearlyresponsetotoxicity.
Coordinator:
x
LaFeUniversityHospital,Valencia,ES(Prof.JoséV.Castell)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
InnsbruckMedicalUniversity
FreeUniversityofBrussels
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Montpellier
LeidenUniversityMedicalCentre
UniversityCollegeDublin
BayerHealthCareAG,Wuppertal
ProgenikaBiopharma,S.A.,Derio
PHARMAMAR,S.A.,ColmenarViejo
Johnson&JohnsonPharmaceuticalResearch&Development,Beerse
EuropeanConsensusPlatformon3RAlternativestoAnimal
Experimentation(ECOPA),Brussels
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
208
Country
AT
BE
FR
NL
IE
DE
ES
ES
BE
BE
IT
CONTRACTNUMBER:503257
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€13334891
ECCONTRIBUTION:€9100000
STARTINGDATE:July1,2004
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:66months
REPROTECT
DEVELOPMENTOFANOVELAPPROACHINHAZARD
ANDRISKASSESSMENTORREPRODUCTIVE
TOXICITYBYACOMBINATIONANDAPPLICATION
OFINVITRO,TISSUEANDSENSORTECHNOLOGIES
Summary:
Due to the complexity of the reproductive
cycle and for the lack of validated alternative
tests for most of the steps included in the
cycle,testinginlivinganimalsispresentlythe
only tool available for hazard assessment ofreproductive toxicants. The aim of the
6
33partner REPROTECT was to identify a novel approach to reproductive toxicity
hazard assessment. The project was set up in order to develop/optimise in vitro
models that are able to detect adverse effects and mechanisms associated with
reproductive toxicity. The REACH regulation and the 7th amendment to the
CosmeticsDirectivewillmostlikelyleadtoadramaticincreaseinanimaluseusedfor
toxicitysafetytesting.Ithasbeenestimatedthatreproductivetoxicitytestingwillbe
themostanimalconsumingareainthecontextofREACH.Intheperspectiveofthe
large amount of testing required by the legislation, the combination of alternative
testsinanintegratedtestingstrategyforreproductivetoxicityisstronglyencouraged.
Within its life time, REPROTECT explored the predictive power of a range of
pioneering in vitro tests. About 150 peerreviewed reproductive toxicants with
differenttoxicologicalmechanismswereselectedandtestedinordertosupportthe
optimisationprocessoftestprotocolsdeveloped.Moreover,inordertospeedupthe
process of validation of in vitro tests and to safeguard the consistency with
internationally agreed validation criteria, the test development/optimisation
followed the requirements laid down in the modular approach of the European
CentrefortheValidationofAlternativeMethods(ECVAM)principlesontestvalidity.
More information is available on the project website and a catalogue 'Alternative
Testing Strategies Progress Report 2009' and a special issue of Reproductive
Toxicology(August2010).
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
relatingtocosmeticproducts(76/768/EEC)
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
x
EUfunding:
x
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
6
www.reprotect.eu
209
Mainresults:
x
Adverse effects on mammalian female and male fertility were predicted by
more than 20 different tests reflecting various toxicological endpoints of the
reproductivecycle;
x
EffectsonLeydigandSertolicells,folliculogenesis,germcellmaturation,sperm
cells, steroidogenesis, the endocrine system, fertilisation and on the pre
implantationembryowereassayedbythevarioustestsystems;
x
The development/optimisation of each test has been performed according to
the ECVAM modular approach; INVITTOX protocols of most of the assays are
availableattheendoftheproject;
x
An independent statistical evaluation on the raw data generated has been
performedforthemajorityofthetestsinordertodefinetheirreproducibility;
x
The definition of teratogenicity assays using embryonic stem (ES) cells from
mouse and human origin has been finalised. Proteome analyses have been
performed on mouse and human ES cells treated with selected chemicals
duringneuronalandcardiacdifferentiation.Thepromisingresultsobtainedwill
bepublishedsoonandthepatentingofthemethodologyisplanned;
x
Anintegrationofametabolicsystemintotheembryonicstemcelltest(EST)has
beeninvestigated.TheoutcomeofaworkshopontheESThasbeenpublished.
In addition, a new reporter assay using genetically engineered mouse ES cells
hasbeendeveloped;
x
Theprojectwasextendedfor6monthstoallowtheconductionofafeasibility
study,inwhich10blindedchemicals,selectedbyanindependentexpertgroup,
wereanalysedinatestbatteryapproach.Theoutcomeofthestudyindicated
thattheknowninvivo(intheanimal)effectsofthe10testchemicalscouldbe
mostlyeventhoughnotinallcasescorrectlypredicted;
x
TheresultsofthefeasibilitystudywaspublishedinAugustof2010inaspecial
issueof'ReproductiveToxicology'alongwith19otherarticlesfromREPROTECT
partners,whodescribeindetailtheoutcomeofsomeoftheirresultsobtained
intheproject.
210
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofTübingen,InstituteofPharmacologyundToxicology(Prof.Michael
Schwarz)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
ErasmusUniversityMedicalCentre,Rotterdam
NL
BioDetectionSystemsBV,Amsterdam
NL
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
NL
Bilthoven
FreeUniversityofBrussels
BE
Johnson&JohnsonPharmaceuticalResearch&Development,
BE
Beerse
SpallanzaniInstitute,Cremona
IT
NationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
IT
UK
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,London
PfizerGlobalResearch,Amboise
FR
FederalInstituteforRiskAssessment(BFR),Berlin
DE
BayerHealthCareAG,Wuppertal
DE
ProteoSysAG,Mainz
DE
UniversityofVeterinaryMedicine,Hannover
DE
UppsalaUniversity
SE
Bourgas'ProfessorAssenZlatarov'University,Bourgas
BG
UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLifeSciences,
AT
Vienna
UK
LiverpoolJohnMooresUniversity
EggCentrisNV,Zellik
BE
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Zeist
NL
NationalAgencyforNewTechnologies,Energyandthe
IT
EnvironmentofItaly(ENEA),Rome
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
BE
UniversityofCopenhagen
DK
IT
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
InVitroTestingIndustrialPlatform,TresCantos
ES
UniversityofKonstanz
DE
UniversityofFreiburg
DE
UniversityofEasternFinland(exUniversityofKuopio)
FI
UniversityofSiena
IT
211
212
CONTRACTNUMBER:018681
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€14486665
ECCONTRIBUTION:€10999700
STARTINGDATE:October1,2005
ENDDATE:March31,2011
DURATION:66months
SENSITIV
NOVELTESTINGSTRATEGIESFORINVITRO
ASSESSMENTOFALLERGENS
Summary:
SENSITIV was an integrated EUfunded
researchprojectinvolving28partnerscoming
from across Europe. They were joined together by the
common goal of developing alternative strategies to
animal testing for the assessment of skin and/or
respiratory sensitising potential of chemicals. This
includedthedevelopmentofpredictiveinvitromethods.
Theprojecthas,interalia,usedinvitroandinvivogene
knockout systems to uncover a pivotal role of innate
immune mechanisms in the initiation of contact
sensitivity. Proteomic and genomic studies designed to identify new biomarkers,
which differentiate sensitisers from irritants and nonsensitisers, become highly
successful during the last year of the project. A twotiered assay, consisting of the
NCTC2544 keratinocyte test and the epidermal equivalent potency assay, has been
developed.TheSENSITIVtoolboxisthemajordeliverableoftheproject.Itcontains
the most advanced and promising assays developed within or with contribution of
SENSITIV. Since, in contrast to the local lymph node assay (LLNA), lung and skin
sensitisers very often are not detected by the same in vitro test system, different
assay systems had to be developed for the two types of allergens. The consortium
agreed to transfer the SENSITIV data bank after March 2011 to the more recent
European data banks ToxBank and OpenTox. SENSITIV intends to draft a White
Paper,summarisingallresultsobtainedandputintoawidercontext.SuchaWhite
Paper could form the basis for an in vitro testing strategy to replace (regulatory
required) in vivo testing of chemicals for allergenicity. More details on the project
7
outcomecanbefoundontheprojectwebsite includingnewsletters.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the Member States
relatingtocosmeticproducts(76/768/EEC)
Directive2010/63/EUontheprotectionofanimalsusedforscientificpurposes
Regulation (EC)1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of
substancesandmixtures
EUfunding:
x
7
'LifeSciences,GenomicsandBiotechnologyforHealth'thematicpriority
www.sensitiv.eu
213
Mainresults:
x
SENSITIV project contribution to reduction and replacement of animal
experimentation for allergen testing will be twofold: (i) First, the funding of
basic research in the field of skin and respiratory sensitisation has led to
significant contributions for a better understanding of the underlying cellular
and molecular mechanisms; (ii) Second, on this basis SENSITIV can deliver a
number of promising assays for nonanimal testing of allergenic sensitisers at
variousstagesofdevelopment,themostadvancedandpromisingofwhichare
part of what is termed the SENSITIV toolbox. All of these methods will be
made accessible to academic and industrial researchers. Although probably
none of these tests on its own will be able to replace the present regulatory
need for animal testing, combinations, also with other in vitro methods, may
eventuallyevensurpasstheinformativevalueoftheestablishedanimaltests;
x
However, none of all possible in vitro replacements for the local lymph node
assay (LLNA) within or outside SENSITIV have yet gone through the rigid
procedures for scientific validation and (hopefully) regulatory acceptance by
national and international authorities. This will require further financial input
andtimeconsumingexperimentalefforts;
x
Nevertheless, a number of these tests could be ready for nonregulatory use
earlier, specifically when used for research purposes or inhouse in the
compound discovery and development process, resulting in a significant
reductionofexperimentalanimals.TheSENSITIVtoolboxwasalreadyapplied
in a weightofevidence approach together with other data sources. This
exercise demonstrated that SENSITIV tools can be particular useful for the
purposeofregistrationundertheREACHregulationandclassificationunderthe
classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) regulation. The REACH Regulation
allows for such use of weightofevidence for filling certain endpoints, in
accordance with Annex XI of the legislation and the corresponding ECHA
guidance. Similarly, the CLP Regulation allows for weightofevidence with
expertopinionaspartoftheclassificationofsubstancesandmixtures.
214
Coordinator:
x
NovozymesA/S,Bagsvaerd,DK(Dr.ErwinRoggen)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
RuprechtKarlsUniversity,Heidelberg
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
L'Oréal,Paris
UnileverUKCentralResourcesLimited,Sharnbrook
LundUniversity
InstituteforResearchinBiomedicine,Bellinzona
VUUniversityMedicalCentre,Amsterdam
UniversityofLiverpool
UniversityoftheWestofEngland,Bristol
FraunhoferInstitute,Hannover
UniversityofMilan
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
MiltenyiBiotecGmbH,BergischGladbach
IDIhospital,Rome
MaxPlanckInstituteforImmunobiologyandEpigenetics,
Freiburg
UniversityofFlorence
EuropeanCosmeticToiletryandPerfumeryAssociation(COLIPA),
Brussels
CosmitalSA,Marly
InVitroTestingIndustrialPlatform,Rotterdam
ScientificWriting&ConsultancyS.C.,Pedreguer
RWTHAachenUniversity
LouisPasteurUniversity,Strasbourg
ProteomikaS.L.,Derio
AlbertLudwigsUniversity,Freiburg
UniversityofFreiburgFacultyofMedicine
EuropeanConsensusPlatformon3RAlternativestoAnimal
Experimentation(ECOPA),Brussels
ProteomeSciencesR&DGmbH&Co.KG,Frankfurt
215
Country
DE
IT
FR
UK
SE
CH
NL
UK
UK
DE
IT
BE
DE
IT
DE
IT
BE
CH
NL
ES
DE
FR
ES
DE
DE
BE
DE
216
CHAPTERV ProjectsFocusedonEmergingRisks
CHAPTERV
Projectsfocusedon
emergingrisks
217
218
CONTRACTNUMBER:32731
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€3651500
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2600000
STARTINGDATE:
November1,2006
ENDDATE:April30,2010
CELLNANOTOX
CELLULARINTERACTIONANDTOXICOLOGY
WITHENGINEEREDNANOPARTICLES
Summary:
CELLNANOTOX aimed at the development of
innovative multidisciplinary sets of tests and
indicatorsfortoxicologicalprofilingofnanoparticles(NPs),aswellasunravellingthe
correlation between the physicochemical characteristics of NPs and their toxic
potential,onvariousorgansofthehumanbody.Foracomprehensiveunderstanding
of the complex data to be obtained on toxicology of NPs, based on in vitro and ex
vivostudies,conventionaltoxicologywasemployedcombinedwithtoxicogenomics,
metabonomics,knowledgediscoveryfromdataanddatamining.Sinceitwasshown
that the penetration of NPs into the human body proceeds principally through
inhalation or orally, the lung and the intestine were chosen as the primary
interacting tissues/organs with NPs, while the liver,
kidneyandtheimmunesystemhavebeenselectedto
bethesecondary majorsites ofinteraction,following
thepenetrationofNPsintothebloodcirculation.The
interactionoftheNPswithtargetorganswasstudied
by making use of alternative methods to animal
experimentationbyemployinginvitrocellsystemsas
wellasexvivostudies,basedonprecisioncutslicesofthelung,liverandkidney.The
results showed that the various cellular systems showed somewhat different
susceptibility towards exposure to nanoparticles, although the overall trend of the
toxicological response was similar. Under the concentration range used, gold
nanoparticlesshowedalmostnotoxicity,whereascobaltaggregatesofnanoparticles,
cobaltferriteandquantumdotswereshowntobetoxic.Thetoxicologicalresponse
depended on the cellular model as well as on the duration of exposure to the
nanoparticles. One of the consequences of being exposed to nanoparticles was an
oxidative stress imposed on the cells and an inflammatory response of the cells to
1
theNPs.Moredetailedresultsareavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
EUfunding:
x
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
1
www.fp6cellnanotox.net
219
Mainresults:
x
Nanoparticlesareinternalisedbythedifferentcellsbydifferentmethods;
x
The activation of the immune system was assayed and patterns of
inflammatory molecules produced in response to exposure to the NPs
characterised;
x
ToxicologicalscreeningoffourtypesofNPswascarriedout,consistingofcobalt
NPs, gold NPs, cobaltferrite NPs and quantum dots, using in vitro model
systemsofthelung,intestine,liver,kidneyandtheimmunesystem.GoldNPs,
cobalt ferrite NPs, as well as corresponding, radioactively labelled NPs, were
synthesised by the consortium. The screening was based on alveolar type II
cellsandlungslicesforthelung,onCaco2cellsfortheintestine,onMDCKand
HEPG2cellsforthekidneyandtheliver,respectively,andonmurineprimary
dendritic cells for the immune system. Under the concentration range used,
goldNPsandquantumdotswereshowntobenontoxic,whereasaggregates
ofcobaltNPsandcobaltferriteNPswereshowntobetoxic;
x
Therewasdifferentialsensitivitytowardstoxicityofthedifferentcelllinesfor
cobaltionsandcobaltNPs.Thehierarchyofcellsensitivitytowardscobaltions
is:A549>MDCK>NCIH441>Caco2>HepG2>Dendriticcells,whereA549is
the most sensitive cell line and primary dendritic cells are the least sensitive
ones. However, a different hierarchical pattern emerged for CoNPs: A549 =
MDCK=NCIH441=Caco2>Dendriticcells>HepG2;
x
It can be concluded that nanoparticles are taken up by different cellular
systems and their internalisation depends on the properties of the particles,
theparticlechemistry,andthelengthofexposuretoNPs,andonthedifferent
cellularsystemsused;
x
ExperimentsontheoxidativestressinducedbycobaltferriteNPsinCaco2cells
demonstrate that they possess reactive oxygen species (ROS)generating
potential,beingabletodecreaseglutathionelevel(animportantantioxidantof
the cell) and to increase intracellular ROS measured by flow cytometry using
dichlorodihydrofluoresceinasanopticalprobe;
x
No genotoxicity and/or genomic instability in the in lymphoblastic (TK6) and
Balb/3T3fibroblastscellswasfound;
x
Lactate,glutamineandglucosemetabolismhasbeenstudiedinboththeliver
andthekidneyintheabsenceandthepresenceofthenanoparticlesofinterest.
Forthelung,onlyglucoseappearedtobemetabolisedatsignificantrates.The
results provide absolute values for fluxes through the key enzymes of lactate
and glutamine metabolism in the rat liver and kidney and of glucose
metabolismintheliver,thekidneyandthelung;
x
Experiments performed in the presence of carbon nanotubes (standard
multiwallnanotubesof 2050m)indicatethat,forthetested concentrations,
thereisnocytotoxicityandnoactivationofdendriticcells;
x
TheKnowledgeDiscoveryfromData(KDD)anddataminingmethodologywas
applied for the analysis of the toxicity of cobalt NPs and Coferrite NPs using
differentcellularmodels.
220
Coordinator:
x
TelAvivUniversity,FacultyofMedicine,IL(Prof.RafiKorenstein)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
FR
Grenoble,Lyon
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
IT
UniversityofMünster,InstituteofMineralogy
DE
JohannesGutenbergUniversity,Mainz
DE
BASFSE,Ludwigshafen
DE
CERICOL,Sovignana
IT
Tp21GmbH,Saarbrücken
DE
221
222
CONTRACTNUMBER:36961
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€13730066
ECCONTRIBUTION:
€10000000
STARTINGDATE:April1,2007
ENDDATE:June30,2011
DURATION:51months
CIRCE
CLIMATECHANGEANDIMPACTRESEARCH:THE
MEDITERRANEANENVIRONMENT
Summary:
2
CIRCE aimedatdevelopingforthefirsttimean
assessmentoftheclimatechangeimpactsinthe
Mediterranean area. The objectives of the
projectwereto:(i)predictandtoquantifyphysicalimpactsofclimatechangeinthe
Mediterraneanarea;(ii)evaluatetheconsequencesofclimatechangeforthesociety
andtheeconomyofthepopulationslocatedintheMediterraneanarea;(iii)develop
anintegratedapproachtounderstandcombinedeffectsofclimatechange;and(iv)
identifyadaptationandmitigationstrategiesin
collaboration with regional stakeholders. The
work package on human health aimed at (i)
identifying and assessing selected health
impacts of climate change in the
Mediterranean; (ii) contributing to the
Regional Climate Change assessment by
estimating the potential health impacts of
climatechangeinselectedMediterraneancountries;(iii)trainingepidemiologistsand
healthworkersinassessingthehealthimpactsofclimatechange;and(iv)discussing
with stakeholders meetings potential strategies in reducing health impacts. The
results show that potential climate change impacts can be attributed to various
factorssuchasexposureofhumanstoextremetemperatures,sealevelrise,flooding,
drought and fires, air pollution and ozone. This can lead to important health risks
including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, communicable diseases,
injuries,mentalhealth,andmalnutrition.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Climatepolicies
x
Publichealthpolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
2
www.circeproject.eu
223
Mainresults(relatedtohealth):
x
Thescopeoftheresearchlineonhumanhealthwastoraiseawarenessthatthe
manifold impacts of climate change considered in CIRCE have far reaching
health implications. This includes the exposure of humans to extreme
temperatures,sealevelrise,flooding,droughtandfires,airpollutionandozone
and leads to important health risks (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory
diseases,communicablediseases,injuries,mentalhealth,malnutrition);
x
The effect of temperature and air pollution as selected health impacts of
climate change have been assessed in ten Mediterranean cities (Athens,
Barcelona,Bari,Istanbul,Lisbon,Palermo,Rome,TelAviv,TunisandValencia);
x
Climate sensitive infectious diseases have been identified and the published
literaturehasbeenreviewedtoestablishthecurrentstateofknowledge;
x
Cutaneousleishmaniasisisaseasonalvectorbornediseasehighlyinfluencedby
rainfall in the previous 14 months and humidity in the environment. Inter
epidemicintervalrangesfrom4to7yearsdependingoftheforceofinfection;
x
An integrated and validated spatiotemporal database related to zoonotic
cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia as a vectorborne disease demonstrator of
theimpactoftheclimatechangeonhealthhasbeenbuilt;
x
Ageneralisedadditivemodelwasusedtostudytherelationship(assumedtobe
nonlinear) between zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence and rainfall,
adjusted on potential confounders (trend, seasonality, temperature and
humidity);
x
A generalised estimating equations (GEE) model was used to estimate the
effectofhighrainfallonzoonoticcutaneousleishmaniasisincidence,adjusted
onconfounders(trend,seasonalitytemperatureandhumidity);
x
This work contributed for the first time to demonstrate, using statistical
associativemodels,theenvironmentalcharacterofcutaneousleishmaniasis,a
historicalintuitiveassumptionfrequentlyreportedintheliterature.Theintra
cycle seasonality as well as the interepidemic interval was formally proven,
usingappropriatestatisticaltools;
x
Further work is required to accurately assess the effect of these climate and
environmentalfactorsonwiderareasandforothervectorbornediseases;
x
Training material for assessing health risks of climate change has been
developed and a workshop for epidemiologists, health workers and health
professionalhasbeenheld;
x
In two countries (Malta, Turkey), full climate change and health risk
assessmentshavebeenachieved.
224
Coordinator:
x
National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna, IT (Prof. Antonio
Navarra)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
InstituteofEarthSciences,Barcelona
ES
MediterraneanCentreforEnvironmentalStudies,Valencia
ES
CLUsrl,CastelfrancoEmilia
IT
DanishMeteorologicalInstitute,Copenhagen
DK
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
EL
NationalAgencyforNewTechnologies,Energyandthe
IT
EnvironmentofItaly(ENEA),Rome
EniEnricoMatteiFoundation,Milan
IT
ComplutenseUniversityofMadrid
ES
DE
InstituteforCoastalResearch,Geesthacht
InstituteofAcceleratingSystemsandApplications,Athens
EL
InstituteofAtmosphericSciencesandClimate,Bologna
IT
InstituteofBiometeorology,Florence
IT
WaterResearchInstitute,Bari
IT
PotsdamInstituteforClimateImpactResearch
DE
FR
InternationalCentreofCooperationinAgronomicResearch
forDevelopment(CIRAD),Montpellier
PierreSimonLaplaceInstitute,Guyancourt
FR
InternationalEnvironmentandDevelopmentResearchCentre
FR
(CIRED),NogentsurMarne
TechnicalUniversityofMadrid(UPM)
ES
WHOEuropeanCentreforHealthandEnvironment,Rome
IT
InstituteofSustainableDevelopmentandInternational
FR
Relations,Paris
NaturalEnvironmentResearchCouncil,SwindonWiltshire
UK
DE
MaxPlanckInstituteforBiogeochemistry,Jena
MaxPlanckInstituteforMeteorology,Hamburg
DE
MaxPlanckInstituteforChemistry,Mainz
DE
NationalObservatoryofAthens
EL
NationalInstituteofMarineScienceandTechnology,
TN
Salammbo
UniversityofHaifa
IL
AT
UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLifeSciences,
Vienna
IT
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
BarcelonaSciencePark
ES
RomeEnvironmentalHealthAuthority
IT
225
MétéoFrance,Paris
MetOffice,Exeter
UniversityofTuscia,Viterbo
UniversityofYork
UniversityofBirmingham
UniversityoftheBasqueCountry,Leioa
PolytechnicUniversityofCatalonia,Barcelona
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
TelAvivUniversity
UniversityofAlcaládeHenares,Madrid
Zadigromasrl,Rome
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
UniversityoftheBalearicIslands,PalmadeMallorca
UniversityofLisbon,FacultyofSciences
UniversityofHamburg
UniversityoftheAegean,Mytilene
CentreforEnvironmentandDevelopmentforArabRegion
andEurope,Cairo
UniversityofBern
UniversityofL'Aquila,Coppito
FreeUniversityofBerlin
UniversityofSalento,Lecce
EuropeanClimateForum,Potsdam
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
HebrewUniversityofJerusalem
UniversityofSantiagodeCompostela,Vigo
EuroMediterraneanCentreforClimateChange,Lecce
PasteurInstituteofTunis
AssociationforResearchonClimateandEnvironment,Oran
InternationalCentreforAgriculturalResearchintheDry
Areas,Aleppo
HellenicCentreforMarineResearch,AnavissosAttiki
UniversityofSouthampton
BenGurionUniversityoftheNegev,BeerSheva
PaulScherrerInstitute,Villingen
InstituteofCommunicationandComputerSystems,Athens
NationalInstituteforOceanographyandExperimental
Geophysics,SgonicoTrieste
UniversityofBologna
MediasFrance,Toulouse
226
FR
UK
IT
UK
UK
ES
ES
EL
IL
ES
IT
UK
ES
PT
DE
EL
EG
CH
IT
DE
IT
DE
NL
IL
ES
IT
TN
DZ
SY
EL
UK
IL
LX
EL
IT
IT
FR
CONTRACTNUMBER:32131
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€4535199
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2793235
STARTINGDATE:
November1,2006
ENDDATE:October31,2009
DURATION:36months
DIPNA
DEVELOPMENTOFANINTEGRATED
PLATFORMFORNANOPARTICLEANALYSISTO
VERIFYTHEIRPOSSIBLETOXICITYANDTHE
ECOTOXICITY
Summary:
3
The aim of the DIPNA project was to
provide knowledge about the impact of
four different nanoparticles (NPs) cobalt,
gold, cerium and iron oxide on different
types of cells to identify novel biomarkers
andtodevelopassaysfortheevaluationofnanotoxicity.Theprojectalsodeveloped
technologicalsolutionstosetupsingletNPcellinteractionswithbuiltinsensorsto
evaluatetheeffects,adeviceforautomaticevaluationofthetoxicologicalimpactof
NPs in work places, and a system for repeated spraying of dry NPs in the air. The
results have the potential to contribute to EU policies by providing (i)
recommendations for the handling of NPs in nanotechnological laboratories; (ii)
reference protocols for nanotoxicity tests. Such protocols, after appropriate
validation,couldbeadoptedasastandardtest;(iii)aprototypeforanautomatictest
to detect the possible toxicity of NPs according to biological parameters, a
nanodispensertobeusedinothernanotoxicologicaltests,andsprayersofNPsinthe
air; (iv) passive and active collectors of NPs in work places; (v) software to identify
andquantifyNPsinanairfilterthatcanconstitutethebasisfortheidentificationof
threshold concentrations of nanopollution; (vi) a databank for occupational micro
and nanopollution that can be used for traceability of human exposure; (vii)
recommendations for workers’ safety in occupational settings and for
nanotoxicologists. Two partners established in 2008 a startup company with the
purposeofdesigning,testingandplacingonthemarketacellbasedassaythatcan
beusedtoroutinelymonitorworkplacesafety.Anotherpartnerfoundedastartup
companytoconstructandcommercialisetheprototypeinstrumentfortheautomatic
evaluation of NP toxicity. More details on results can be found in a compendium
publishedin2010.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
EUfunding:
x
3
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
www.dipna.eu
227
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
NPsofdifferentcomposition(Au,Co,Fe 3 O 4 andCeO 2 ),size(from4to50nm),
shape(spheres,rodsanddisks),andsurfacestate(organicorbiologicalcoatings,
positive or negative surface charges) were synthesised. In addition, Ag NPs
were synthesised, characterised and distributed as reference material due to
theirwellknowngermicidaleffectsandtoxicityformammaliancells;
CommonprotocolsweredevisedandimplementedtoverifytheimpactofNPs
on different types of human immune defence cells: T cells, epithelial cells,
monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. NP genotoxicity and
carcinogenicitywerealsoassessedinmurineBalb/3T3cells;
Thereportercelllinesusingluciferaseasthereporteraresuitablefordetecting
cellularstressandimmunotoxiceffectsinNPpreparations.Thereportergene
assay is highly sensitive, technically easytouse, inexpensive, reproducible,
robustandsuitableformediumtohighthroughputscreening;
Using whole human genome transcriptomics, insight was gained into the
immunerelated genes and molecular processes that are induced in the
bronchialBEAS2Bcellline,alveolarA549epithelialcellline,andtheCaco2gut
epithelial cell line, exposed to cobalt and cerium oxide NPs at noncytotoxic
concentrations;
Protocols were developed and evaluated for cell assays in miniaturised cell
culturechamberstoenableasensitivedeterminationofNPthresholdscausing
toxiceffectsonsinglecells;
AnexposurechamberwasdevelopedtodepositairborneagglomeratesofNPs
oncellcultures;
A system was developed to assess the inflammatory effect of NPs on cell
culturesbyquantifyingthecytokineconcentrationsintheculturesupernatant;
Field analysis of nanotoxicity in industrial settings was carried out. Ten
nanotechnologyindustriesallowedonsiteanalysisinworkplaces,atchimney
outlets, and in their immediate surroundings. The analyses were performed
usinginexpensiveNPcollectors(gravimetricsensorsbasedonadhesivecarbon
discsoractiveairpumpswithNPtrappingcellulosefilters).
Coordinator:
x
UniversityofModena,IT(Dr.AntoniettaGatti)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofSalzburg
NationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Pisa
MagnaGræciaUniversity,Catanzaro
GrimmAerosolTechnikGmbh&CoKG,Ainring
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),Mol
CSEMSA,Neuchatel
CatalanInstituteofNanotechnology,Barcelona
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
228
Country
AT
IT
IT
DE
BE
CH
ES
IT
CONTRACTNUMBER:10284
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€15371752
ECCONTRIBUTION:€11497856
STARTINGDATE:
November1,2004
ENDDATE:May31,2010
DURATION:67months
EDEN
EMERGINGDISEASESINACHANGING
EUROPEANENVIRONMENT
Summary:
4
The EDEN consortium included 49 public and
private research institutes from 24 countries. The ecological and geographical
diversity of the project area covered all relevant European ecosystems from the
ArcticCircleintheNorthtotheMediterraneanbasininthesouth,andfromPortugal
in the west to the Danube delta in the east. There were also partners from Africa.
Thegoaloftheprojectwastoidentify,evaluateandcatalogueEuropeanecosystems
and environmental conditions linked to global change – including global warming which can influence the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics of
pathogenic agents. A coordinated European approach was adopted to provide
predictive emergence and spread models including global and regional preventive,
early warning, surveillance, and monitoring tools and
scenarios. Such tools will have a major impact on
improved EU policy development and decision making,
bothfornationalorinternationalagencies.Diseaseswere
selected according to the vectors and hosts involved in
tickborne
encephalitis,
their
epidemiology:
haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (rodents),
leishmaniasis (sandflies), West Nile and malaria
(mosquitoes).Also,AfricansourcesofWestNileandRift
Valley fever viruses were studied to improve control for the benefit of African
populations,andinvestigatetheriskofintroductioninEurope.Theresultsshow,in
general, that climate change alone cannot explain the upsurge or emergence of
vectorbornediseasesinEurope.Thiswasdemonstratedforthecaseoftickborne
encephalitis in Baltic countries and Central Europe, for which socioeconomical
factors (poverty) and human behaviour are tightly related to the disease risk. In
addition to research activities, the project trained a large number of PhD students
and produced more than 200 scientific publications in peerreviewed journals
(situation in January 2012). Parts of the activities continue in EDENext, a project
th
fundedbythe7 FrameworkProgrammeoftheEU.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
Climatepolicies
Publichealthpolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
4
www.edenfp6project.net
229
Mainresults:
Researchresults
x
Ingeneral, climatechangealone cannotexplainthe upsurge or emergenceof
vectorbornediseasesinEurope.Thiswasdemonstratedforthe case oftick
borne encephalitis in Baltic countries and Central Europe, for which socio
economical factors (poverty) and human behaviour are tightly related to the
diseaserisk;
x
An exception may be the effect of warmer climate on the increased risk of
rodentborne diseases such as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
(Hantavirus infection) in Fennoscandia and Belgium. In both cases,
environmental drivers are different (reduction of snow cover for the former,
masting in deciduous forests for the latter), and human behaviour is the
determinantfactorforexposuretotherisk;
x
The risk of malaria resurgence in the Mediterranean basin is very low, and
climate change has virtually no influence on it. In contrast, agriculture, the
management of agricultural pests, and agricultural policies play a role.
However, the early detection and treatment of autochthonous cases is the
most determinant factor to prevent malaria resurgence after a possible
reintroductionoftheparasite;
x
WestNilevirus(WNV)hasestablishedinseveralEuropeanterritories,including
RomaniaandSpain.Thereisnowevidencethatadultmosquitoes(Culexspp.)
canensureoverwinteringoftheWNV.Thus,virusintroductionfromAfricaby
migratory birds is not necessary to trigger WNV outbreaks. However,
understanding and quantifying this risk, and thorough surveillance of WNV
strains circulating in Europe and Africa, is of major importance to prevent or
alleviatelargescaleWNVepidemics;
x
Considerableprogresshasbeenmadeforintegratinglowandhighresolution
satellite imagery, as well as statistical and mathematical modelling, to build
quantitativepredictionmodelsfortheestablishmentofvectorbornediseases.
Themethodwasfirstlyusedtodevelopapredictivemodelfortheemergence
of canine leishmaniasis in southern France. This model can account for both
local(e.g.,landscape)andglobal(e.g.,climate)changes,andmaybeextended
toothervectorbornediseasesinthefuture.
Training
x
Attheendoftheproject,ca.60studentshaveusedEDENdataandattended
workshops, training courses and PhD meetings organised during the annual
consortiummeetings.Thus,theysharecommonmethodsandtools,andhavea
broadviewontheimpactofenvironmentalchangesonvectorbornediseases.
Many have now found postdoctoral or permanent positions, and form the
basis of a European multidisciplinary research network on vectorborne
diseases.
Dissemination
x
Around 200 scientific publications have been published in peerreviewed
journals(situationinJanuary2012).Anupdatedlistisavailableontheproject
websiteandwillbemaintainedaftertheendoftheproject;
230
x
x
Ahugesetofinformationhasbeencollectedandreshapedforthepurposeof
epidemiologicalstudiesconductedbythemembersoftheEDENconsortium.It
includes climatic, environmental and administrative information on a wide
range of spatial and temporal resolutions. These data will be used by
international public health agencies such as the European Centre for Disease
PreventionandControl(ECDC);
An international conference on the effect of environmental changes on the
emergence of vectorborne diseases was held in Montpellier in May 2010. It
gathered 400 scientists from Europe and other continents. Besides a
comprehensive presentation of the scientific results obtained during the
project, invited keynote speakers brought their views and promoted a high
levelscientificdebate.Theproceedingsareplannedtobepublishedinabook.
Networkingandexpertise
x
TheEDENconsortiumwasmobilisedtocarryoutexpertassessmentsonbehalf
ofpublichealthagencies.Thus,an“Assessmentofmagnitudeandimportance
of vectorborne diseases in Europe” was conducted for ECDC, with the
definitionofanactionplantoimprovethesurveillanceandcontrolofvectors
and vectorborne diseases. Consecutively, a European network of
entomologicalandpublichealthspecialistswasestablishedtoassistECDCinits
preparednessactivitiesonvectorbornediseases:VBORNET.
Coordinator:
x
International Centre of Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development
(CIRAD),Montpellier,FR(Dr.RenaudLancelot)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UtrechtUniversity
NL
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,LouvainlaNeuve
BE
UniversityofOxford
UK
EuroAEGISEuropeanAgroEnvironmentalHealthAssociates,
BE
Zoersel
UniversityofRome'LaSapienza'
IT
ItalianNationalReferenceCentreforVeterinaryEpidemiology
IT
'G.Caporale',Teramo
InstitutPasteur,Paris
FR
CarlosIIIHealthInstitute,Madrid
ES
FR
InterdepartmentalArrangementforMosquitoControlof
MediterraneanCoast(EID),Montpellier
InstituteofVertebrateBiology,Brno
CZ
ItalianNationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
IT
InstituteforResearchandDevelopment(IRD),Montpellier
FR
231
HacettepeUniversity,Ankara
NewUniversityofLisbon,InstituteofTropicalHygieneand
Medicine
NationalInstituteofHygiene,Rabat
UniversityofValencia
CentreforAlpineEcology,Trento
MedicalUniversityofBiaystok
LudwigMaximiliansUniversity,Munich
SlovakAcademyofSciences,DepartmentofMedicalZoology
NationalInstituteforHealthDevelopment,Tallinn
MedicalFacultyofLjubljana,InstituteofMicrobiology
NeikerTecnalia,theBasqueInstituteforAgriculturalResearch
andDevelopment,Derio
“JohanBéla”NationalCentreforEpidemiology,Budapest
PublicHealthAgency,Riga
CentreforCommunicableDiseasesPreventionandControl,
Vilnius
FinnishForestResearchInstitute,Vantaa
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch(INRA),
MontferriersurLez
SwedishInstituteforInfectiousDiseaseControl,Solna
UniversityofAntwerp
UniversityofHelsinki
UniversityofLiverpool
NaturalHistoryMuseum,London
EgeUniversityMedicalSchool,BornovaIzmir
LondonSchoolofHygieneandTropicalMedicine
SzentIstvanUniversity,Budapest
UniversityofBarcelona
UniversityofMontpellierI
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
HassanIIAgroveterninaryInstitute,Rabat
SenegaleseInstituteofAgriculturalResearch,Dakar
NationalInstituteofResearchandDevelopmentfor
MicrobiologyandImmunology"Cantacuzino",Bucarest
DanubeDeltaNationalInstituteforResearch,TulceaCounty
NationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Sevilla
PasteurInstitute,Alger
HungarianAcademyofSciences,DepartmentofViralVaccines
andPathogenesis,Budapest
PasteurInstitute,Dakar
AviaGis,Zoersel
TR
PT
MR
ES
IT
PL
DE
SK
EE
SI
ES
HU
LV
LT
FI
SE
BE
FI
UK
UK
TR
UK
HU
ES
FR
EL
MR
SN
RO
RO
ES
DZ
HU
SN
BE
232
CONTRACTNUMBER:505539
PROJECTTYPE:Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€22793
436
ECCONTRIBUTION:€15000000
STARTINGDATE:September1,
2004
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:64months
ENSEMBLES
ENSEMBLEBASEDPREDICTIONSOFCLIMATE
CHANGESANDTHEIRIMPACTS
Summary:
The ENSEMBLES consortium was composed of 66
institutes from 20 countries. The principal objective
of the project was to measure uncertainties in
climateprojectionssothataclearerpictureoffuture
climate can be formed. One specific aim was to
maximisetheexploitationoftheresultsbylinkingthe
outputsoftheensemblepredictionsystemtoarange
ofapplications,includingagriculture,health,foodsecurity,energy,waterresources,
insurance and weather risk management. Among the many impacts of climate
change,thoseonhealthareparticularlyimportantfortheirimmediateandobvious
relevance to human wellbeing, but also because of their implications for health
expenditures and for the productivity of the labour force. For these reasons,
dedicatedresearchwasdevotedtotheinvestigationofthistopicwithintheproject.
The results showed, among others, that climate change can affect human health
throughawiderangeofmechanismsandforarangeofdiseasesorhealthoutcomes
(deaths, injuries). The adverse impacts on health will outweigh the benefits.
Furthermore,themethodsforestimatingthehealtheffectsofclimatechangeareat
anearlystageofdevelopment.Detailsontheprojectoutcomecanbefoundinthe
5
finalreportavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
Climatepolicies
Publichealthpolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
5
www.ensembleseu.org
233
Mainresults(relatedtohealth):
x
Climatechangecanaffecthumanhealththroughawiderangeofmechanisms
andforarangeofdiseasesorhealthoutcomes(deaths,injuries);
x
The impacts on health will outweigh the benefits, and populations in low
incomecountriesarelikelytobeworstaffected;
x
Methods for estimating the health effects of climate change are at an early
stageofdevelopment.Inappropriateassumptionshaveoftenbeenincludedin
integratedassessmentmodelswithrespecttohealthoutcomesandthereisa
needtoimprovetherelevanthealthimpactmodels;
x
Future disease burdens are sensitive to the underlying assumptions about
populationgrowthandageing,andfuturehealthstatus;
x
Global climate change will increase outdoor and indoor heat loads, and may
impair health and productivity for millions of working people. A model was
developed that applies physiological evidence about effects of heat, climate
guidelines for safe work environments, climate modelling, and global
distributions of working populations to estimate the impact of climate
scenariosonfuturelabourproductivity;
x
Empiricalstatistical models were developed to estimate the direct impact of
daily temperature on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality (the direct
effects of heat and cold) and on diarrhoeal disease mortality, based on
observationalstudiesofexposureresponsefunctions;
x
Climatevariability,ascharacterisedbyextremeweathereventsandinterannual
variability,isknowntoaffectcertain infectiousdiseases.Theimpacts oflong
term shifts in climate conditions may lead to shifts in the distribution of
infectiousdiseasesandareassuitableforfoodproduction;
x
Although the interactions involved can be numerous, complex and subtle,
climatedeterminesthepotentialofmanyinfectiousdiseasestoflourish.Onthe
otherhand,healthcareinfluencestheactualincidenceofdiseases.Onewould
therefore expect that, in a scenario of economic growth, infectious diseases
would fall as health care improves. Likewise, in a scenario of global warming,
one would expect to see infectious diseases spread into new regions and
perhapsintensify.Itisthusextremelyimportantandscientificallychallengingto
assess the impacts on mortality in a scenario with both climate change and
economicdevelopment;
x
This assessment has been performed for subSaharan Africa. Scenarios for
threedeterminantsofdevelopment–percapitaincome,literacy,andabsolute
poverty – and for climate change have been used to project the future
incidenceofmalaria,assumingthatitchangesinproportiontoinfantmortality.
Itwasshownthatdeathsfrommalariawillfirstincrease,becauseofpopulation
growth and climate change, but will then fall, because of development. This
patternisrobusttothechoiceofscenario,parameters,andstartingconditions;
and also holdsfor diarrhoea, schistosomiasis and dengue fever. However, the
timingandlevelofthemortalitypeakisverysensitivetoassumptions.
234
Coordinator:
x
MetOfficeHadleyCentre,Exeter,UK(Dr.JohnMitchell)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
MétéoFrance,Paris
PierreSimonLaplaceInstitute,Paris
DanishMeteorologicalInstitute,Copenhagen
EuropeanCentreforMediumRangeWeatherForecasts,Reading
InternationalInstituteforAppliedSystemsAnalysis,Laxenburg
ItalianNationalInstituteofGeophysicsandVolcanology,
Bologna
RoyalNetherlandsMeteorologicalInstitute,DeBilt
UniversityofBristol
MaxPlanckInstituteforMeteorology,Hamburg
NationalObservatoryofAthens
SwedishMeteorologicalandHydrologicalInstitute,Norrköping
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
UniversityofFribourg
UniversityofHamburg
UniversityofReading
RegionalEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyforEmiliaRomagna
(ARPA),Bologna
AristotleUniversity,Thessaloniki
BureauofMeteorologyResearchCentre,Melbourne
CERFACS,Toulouse
CzechHydrometeorologicalInstitute,Prague
CenterforInternationalClimateandEnvironmentalResearch,
Oslo
Climpact,Paris
InstituteofAtmosphericSciencesandClimate,Bologna
CharlesUniversity,Prague
UniversityofFlorence,DepartmentofAgronomyandLand
Management
GermanWeatherService,Hamburg
ElectricitédeFrance(EDF),Chatou
EcoleNormaleSupérieure(ENS),Paris
SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,Zürich
EniEnricoMatteiFoundation,Milan
FoundationforClimateResearch,Madrid
FinnishMeteorologicalInstitute,Helsinki
UniversityofAppliedSciences,Stuttgart
FreeUniversityofBerlin
InstituteforCoastalResearch,Geesthacht
235
Country
FR
FR
DK
UK
AT
IT
NL
UK
DE
EL
SE
UK
CH
DE
UK
IT
EL
AU
FR
CZ
NO
FR
IT
CZ
IT
DE
FR
FR
CH
IT
ES
FI
DE
DE
DE
InstituteofAtmosphericPhysics,Prague
AbdusSalamInternationalCentreforTheoreticalPhysics,Trieste
SpanishNationalInstituteofMeteorology,Madrid
ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork
UniversityofStuttgart
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),Ispra
LondonSchoolofEconomics
LondonSchoolofHygieneandTropicalMedicine
NorwegianMeteorologicalInstitute,Oslo
SwissFederalOfficeofMeteorologyandClimatology,Zürich
NansenEnvironmentalandRemoteSensingCentre,Bergen
NationalInstituteofHydrologyandWaterManagement,
Bucharest
NationalMeteorologicalAdministration,Bucharest
ResearchCentreforAgriculturalandForestEnvironment,
Poznan
PotsdamInstituteforClimateImpactResearch
SMASH,Paris
FinnishEnvironmentInstitute,Helsinki
UniversityofCantabria,Santander
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,LouvainlaNeuve
UniversityofCastillaLaMancha,Toledo
UniversityofOslo
LundUniversity
UniversityofKassel
UniversityofLiverpool
UniversityofOxford
University'JosephFourier'Grenoble1
MetEireann(CommunityClimateChangeConsortiumfor
Ireland),Dublin
UniversityofBern
LeibnizInstituteofMarineSciences,Kiel
UniversityofGeneva
NetherlandsEnvironmentalAssessmentAgency,Bilthoven
AarhusUniversity
236
CZ
IT
ES
US
DE
IT
UK
UK
NO
CH
NO
RO
RO
PL
DE
FR
FI
ES
BE
ES
NO
SE
DE
UK
UK
FR
IE
CH
DE
CH
NL
DK
CONTRACTNUMBER:36306
PROJECTTYPE:Specific
targetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€2908065
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2400000
STARTINGDATE:
October1,2006
ENDDATE:March31,2010
DURATION:42months
HEALTHYWATER
ASSESSMENTOFHUMANHEALTHIMPACTSFROM
EMERGINGMICROBIALPATHOGENSINDRINKING
WATERBYMOLECULARANDEPIDEMIOLOGICAL
STUDIES
Summary:
6
Theoverallgoaloftheproject wastoadvancethe
knowledge on pathogenesis of emergent microbial
pathogens in drinking water to understand their
transmissiontohumans.Theprojectfocusedonall
majortypesofpathogens,i.e.,viruses,bacteriaand
protozoa,andconcentratedonarepresentativeset
ofEuropeandrinkingwatersupplysystemsandsourcewatersofspecificsensitivity
to human health. To reach the overall goal, the following detailed objectives were
set: (i) Validation and application of detection technologies for emerging microbial
pathogens based on nucleic acids; (ii) Molecular survey and comparative detailed
study of emerging pathogens in European drinking water sources and supply
systems; (iii) Understanding the human health impact of emerging pathogens by
primary epidemiological studies targeted at specific systems and pathogens; (iv)
Determination of epidemiological correlations with molecular and environmental
data and assessment of risk for waterborne microbial infections in Europe. An
integratedresearchapproachwaspursuedtoachievetheseobjectivesbycombining
molecular and classical detection, activity assessment and epidemiological
understanding of emerging pathogens in a specific set of drinking water systems
from different European regions. The project generated validated detection
technologiesforthetargetedwaterbornepathogensandrevealedpossibleroutesof
transmission to humans via drinking water consumption. This new knowledge
provides guidance to improve the quality of European drinking water supplies and
reducetheburdenofwaterborneinfectionsforEuropeanpopulations.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Council directive (98/83/EC) on the quality of water intended for human
consumption
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
6
www.helmholtzhzi.de/en/healthy_water
237
Mainresults:
Developmentandvalidationofmoleculardetectiontechnologies
x
2036samplesweretakenoriginatingfromSpain,Germany,France,theUnited
Kingdom and Hungary and covering raw water, finished drinking water, semi
treateddrinkingwaterandsamplesfromwaterstoragetanks,wereprocessed
fordirectmicroscopy,culturemethodsordifferenttypesofmolecularmethods.
Concentration technology was applied separately for viruses, bacteria and
protozoa, because they are too different to have a single concentration
procedure;
x
Primers and probes for most targeted pathogenic bacteria, viruses and
protozoa were validated. The primer sets for Legionella and Helicobacter,
includingL.pneumophila,andH.pylori,weretestedonalargesetofdrinking
watersamplesfromSpainandGermany;
x
For bacteria, genusspecific singlestrand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)
fingerprints were used to analyse the prevalence of Helicobacter spp. and
Legionella spp. Most of the screened samples from Spain and Germany
contained Legionella species, whereas for Helicobacter species only samples
fromSpain(theLlobregatriversystem)werepositive.
Molecularsurveyandcomparativedetailedstudy
x
In general, all water supply stations studied, except the most upstream river
station, showed contamination with pathogenic viruses, mostly noroviruses
TypeIandII,Sapoviruses,and,inonecase,hepatitisAvirus;
x
Substantial differences in the bacterial community structure were observed
betweenwinterandlatesummer;
x
Analysis of the smallscale network connected to the local drinking water
supply system of the city of Braunschweig (DE) showed that there were
pronounced differences between the species composition of bulk water and
biofilms.
Understandinghumanhealthimpactsofemergingpathogens
x
Virion capsid integrity of chlorinetreated viruses was tested for human
astroviruses and noroviruses. A decrease in the infectivity of astroviruses, a
representativeentericvirus,positivelycorrelatedwiththeamountofoxidative
damageofvirusparticles;
x
When human norovirus was treated with chlorine, virions could also be
recovered as oxidatively damaged particles. Therefore, the detection of
carbonylated viralparticlescouldbeapowerfultool fortheevaluationofthe
decreaseintheinfectivityofnonculturableviruses;
x
Genes associated with virulence were analysed in bacterial isolates, including
Legionella pneumophila (mip), Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli
(cdt, fla), and Escherichia coli O157 (stx1, stx2). Acrobacter and Aeromonas,
considered as emerging waterborne pathogens, were obtained and screened
forseveralvirulencefactors,suchasstx1andstx2;
238
x
Substantialprogresswasobtainedintheunderstandingoftheimpactofstrain
variationofvirulencefactorsforprotozoalpathogenssuchasCryptosporidium
spp.inEurope.
Determinationofepidemiologicalcorrelations
x
A diary study for private water supply consumers was completed to estimate
thediseaseburdenfromdrinkingwater.268householdswererecruitedinthe
UK.Watersampleswerecollectedandanalysedforindicatorbacteria;
x
Results of a UK telephone survey were used to estimate the disease burden
associatedwithpressurelosseventsandthediarrhoeariskrelatedtodistance
fromwatertreatmentworks;
x
For tracking sources of contaminations, foecal samples were taken from
aquaticbirdsonselectedareasinHungaryandthepresenceofCryptosporidium
species and Giardia duodenalis determined. The results indicate that aquatic
ducks, geese, coot and cormorant can play role in the environmental
disseminationofhumanpathogenicGiardiacystsandCryptosporidiumoocysts
inHungary.
Recommendationfordrinkingwatersafety
x
Standardisededucationaboutthehealthrisksofconsumptionofcontaminated
waterfromsmallruralsuppliesisveryimportant;
x
Increasingthefrequencyofcontactwithconsumersisrecommended;
x
The Water Safety Plans (WSP) are considered a key element in the
managementofdrinkingwatersystems;however,smallwaterindustriesseeit
asaadditionalloadofworkandrequiretrainingonitsprinciplesandbenefits;
x
Examination of water by microscopy should be considered an excellent
complementarymethodbesideschemicalandbacteriologicalparametersandis
veryusefulincombinationwiththeWSP;
x
For the molecular determination of the specific pathogen load of source and
drinking water, highly standardised methods are essential, validated with
certifiedmolecularreferencematerialintherespectivewater;
x
Molecular techniques should be used to complement classical indicators to
obtain a detailed understanding of the pathogen load, the infectivity and the
singlebacterialstrainsresponsibleforoutbreaksofwaterborneinfectionsfrom
drinkingwater.
239
Coordinator:
x
HelmholtzCentreforInfectionResearch,Braunschweig(Dr.ManfredHöfle)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
UK
InternationalAssociationforDanubeResearch,Vienna
AT
Rovira&VirgiliUniversity,Reus
ES
UniversityofBarcelona
ES
SUEZEnvironement,LePecq
FR
NationalInstituteofEnvironmentalHealth,Budapest
HU
UniversityofNiceSophiaAntipolis,Nice
FR
MolecularDiagnosticsCenter,Orihuela
ES
240
CONTRACTNUMBER:36224
PROJECTTYPE:Specific
targetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€3715600
ECCONTRIBUTION:€3469736
STARTINGDATE:
November1,2006
ENDDATE:August31,2010
DURATION:46months
HIWATE HEALTHIMPACTSOFLONGTERMEXPOSURETO
DISINFECTIONBYPRODUCTSINDRINKINGWATER
Summary:
Theoverallaimwastoinvestigatepotentialhuman
health risks associated with longterm exposure to
low levels of disinfectants (such as chlorine) and
disinfectantbyproducts(DBPs)occurringinwaterforhumanconsumptionanduse
in the food industry. The study made use of existing studies/databases and newly
collected information. Among the specific objectives were: (i) the determination of
the DBP composition and levels in drinking
waterinvariousregionsinEurope(ES,UK,LT,
FR, IT, EL); (ii) identification of the
determinants of DBPs and development of
predictivemodels;(iii)assessmentoftherisk
of reproductive effects in relation to disinfection practices and levels of DBPs; (iv)
assessment of the risk of bladder and colon cancer; (v) conduction of riskbenefit
analyses including quantitative assessments of risk associated with microbial
contamination of drinking water versus chemical risk, comparison of alternative
treatment options, and production of burden of disease estimates; (vi) review of
waterdisinfectioninEuropeandworldwide;(vii)assessmentofthewaterandhealth
policy implications of current disinfection practices, taking into account recent
environmental,toxicologicalandepidemiologicalfindingsandthefindingsofthethis
study.Theresultsshow,interalia,thattherearevariationsinDBPconcentrationsin
Europe. Trihalomethane concentrations were not associated with reproductive
outcomes.Thereseemstobeanexposureresponserelationshipbetweenexposure
toTHMsandbladdercancerinmenbutnotwithcoloncancer.Basedontheresults,
the consortium provided a number of recommendations for stakeholders. More
7
detailsareavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
x
x
x
EU water policies such as Council directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water
intendedforhumanconsumptionandCouncilDirective91/271/EECconcerning
urbanwastewatertreatment
CommunityStrategyforEndocrineDisruptersCOM(1999)706final
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Foodqualityandsafety'thematicpriority
7
www.hiwate.eu
241
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Therewassubstantialvariationintrihalomethane(THM)concentrationsacross
thestudyregions,withverylowlevelsinLithuaniaandCrete,andhighlevels,
well above the current guidelines of 100 g/l, in the Barcelona (ES) area.
MediumlevelswerefoundinFranceandtheUK.WithinSpain,mediumlevels
were also measured in Asturias and Valencia and low levels in the Basque
Country;
Haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations followed a similar pattern to the THMs,
butactuallevelswerelower;chloropicrinwasonlyobservedinafewsamples;
very low levels of haloketones were detected in samples from the UK and
Spain;
Concentrations of chloral hydrate were detected with the highest
concentrationsinSpain,andlowconcentrationsintherestofSpain,Franceand
theUK.ChloriteandchloratelevelswerefairlyhighattimesinItaly,becauseof
theuseofchlorinedioxideastreatment;
3Chloro4(dichloromethyl)5hydroxy2(5H)furanone) levels were generally
low, but noticeably higher in Bradford (UK) compared to the other study
regions;
Little evidence was found of any effects of THMs on reproductive outcomes
includingsemenquality,congenitalanomalies,stillbirth,pretermdelivery,and
birth weight. There was little evidence for geneenvironment interaction for
THMsandpretermdeliveryandbirthweight.However,therewerestatistically
significant associations between exposure to chlorite and chlorate and a
number of congenital anomalies in Italy, but the number of cases were
relatively small and there were generally no monotonic exposureresponse
relationships;
The pooled analyses of bladder cancer showed an exposureresponse
relationshipbetweenexposuretoTHMsandbladdercancerinmen(OR=1.32;
95%CI1.01to1.71foraveragelevelofTHM4>50g/L),buttherelationship
appearedlesssteepthanthatobservedinNorthAmericanstudies;
TherewaslittleevidenceforarelationshipbetweenTHMsandcoloncancer;
The comparative risk assessment framework that was developed allowed for
therisksfromchemicalandmicrobialagentsassociatedwithdrinkingwaterto
becomparedinastructuredandtransparentway;
The review of the best available technologies suggested that the first step in
reducing DBP formation is to use the best available source(s), which in
preferentialorderare:groundwater,surfacewatersubjecttosoilpassagesuch
asbankfiltration,andsurfacewatersources;
Basedonthefindings,theconsortiumrecommendsthat,basedonthecurrent
healthevidenceforbladdercancerandbirthweight:(i)thecurrentguidelines
forDBPsindrinkingwatershouldbereviewed;(ii)astrongereffortshouldbe
made to obtain information on DPBs levels and profiles in tap water in all
regionsinEurope,andotherpathwaysthandrinkingwater,suchasinindustrial
and food processes, where little information exists; (iii) routinely collected
informationonDBPsandtheirdeterminantsshouldbemadepubliclyavailable
242
and easily accessible; (iv) health evidence database for many DBPs should be
expanded, specifically for DBPs other than THMs and HAAs, such as chlorine
dioxide, outcomes not included in this work, and the possible biological
mechanisms;(v)watertreatmentplantsshouldlowertheirDBPlevelsasfaras
possible without compromising the effectiveness of the disinfection, e.g.,
through source water selection and use of appropriate technologies; (vi)
evidencebasedriskassessmentmethodsandtoolsshouldbeusedtoestimate
thepotentialhealthimpactsofwatertreatment;(vii)possiblehealthimpactof
climatechangeshouldbefurtherassessed.
Coordinator:
x
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyandMedicine,London,UK(Prof.Mark
Nieuwenhuijsen)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityoftheAegean,Mytilene
EL
NationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare(THL),Helsinki,
FI
Kuopio
VytautasMagnusUniversity,Kaunas
LT
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
EL
UniversityofRennes
FR
MunicipalInstituteofMedicalResearch(IMIM),Barcelona
ES
CentreforGenomicRegulation,Barcelona
ES
UniversityofModenaandReggioEmilia
IT
IT
InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,Milan
SwedishInstituteforInfectiousDiseaseControl,Solna
SE
HylobatesConsultingSrl,Rome
IT
ICConsultantsLtd,London
UK
Scarab,Stockholm
SE
ResearchCentreforResearchinEnvironmentalEpidemiology
ES
(CREAL),Barcelona
CatalanInstituteofOncology,Barcelona
ES
243
244
CONTRACTNUMBER:13968
PROJECTTYPE:
Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€699913
ECCONTRIBUTION:€699913
STARTINGDATE:
February1,2005
ENDDATE:October31,2008
DURATION:45months
IMPART
IMPROVINGTHEUNDERSTANDINGOFTHE
IMPACTOFNANOPARTICLESONHUMAN
HEALTHANDTHEENVIRONMENT
Summary:
Theprimaryaimof
the IMPART co
ordination action was to prevent the knowledge of the
health and environmental implications of nanoparticles
fromlaggingbehindthetechnologicaladvances.Inorder
to do this, IMPART fostered communication links
betweenanumberofregional,nationaland international
initiativesinordertoreduceduplicationsofeffort,topoolexpertiseandtofacilitate
cooperation between networks. This resulted in an improvement in the
understanding of the potential impact of nanoparticles on human health and the
environment. The specific scientific and technological objectives were to: (i) co
ordinatetheeffortsofregional,nationalandinternationalinitiativesrepresentedin
the consortium; (ii) create and enhance good communication and permanent links
betweenthepartners;(iii)carryoutareviewofthelatestscientificandtechnological
developmentsrelatedtotherisksofnanoparticleexposureonhumanhealthandthe
environment;(iv)disseminatetheprojectresultsthroughaspecialisedwebsiteand
knowledgetransferworkshops;(v)makerecommendationstomajorfundingbodies
for the future research directions in the field; (vi) produce guidelines and
recommendationsfortheinstitutionoffuturenanoparticlestandardsandexposure
limits.ThefinalresultsareavailableinaPowerpointpresentation.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
245
Mainresults:
x
Expertgroupleaderswereappointedduringthekickoffmeetingoftheproject.
Members were divided into four subareas: materials for consideration;
implicationsforhumanhealthandexposure;impactontheenvironment;and
resultinglegislativemeasures;
x
Many reports were produced, including (i) The publicly available report
'Working report on the status quo of nanomaterials impact on health and
environment';(ii)'Assessmentofexistingandidentificationofmissingdata'(not
publicly available); 'Existing legislation applicable to nanomaterials';
'Toxicology' (not publicly available); 'Assessment of Risks'; (not publicly
available); 'Best Practices' (not publicly available); 'Recommendations and
guidelines for legislation policy makers'; 'Recommendations and guidelines for
researchpolicymakers';'Guidancebookletonsafehandlingofnanoparticlesfor
industry,publicandotherstakeholders';
x
The publically available report can be downloaded from
www.temas.ch/IMPART/IMPARTProj.nsf. Nonpublically available reports, for
specialneeds,mayberetrievedfromthecoordinator:[email protected];
x
Themainrecommendationsforpolicymakersarethefollowing:Policymakers
should(i)bepreparedtoadoptandimplementseveralimmediatemeasures,if
morestudiesclearlyshowthatengineerednanoparticlesareharmfulforsafety
andhealthofhumansandtheenvironment;(ii)fosterthedevelopmentofnew
testingmethods(especiallytoxicologicaltesting)inordertoevaluatethesafety
and health risks of engineered nanoparticles; (iii) create new protection
measures at the workplace for the people that manipulate nanomaterials.
Immediate protection measures recommended by the consortium to be
adapted include the substitution options for nanomaterials, technical and
organisational protection measures. Specific longterm regulation on
nanotechnology seems technically problematic and politically improbable at
themoment.Itisnecessarytomakeaconsistentuseofexistinglegislation,as
longasthiscanbeeasilyappliedassuchorsuitablyamended;
x
The main recommendations for researchers are the following: A. Immediate
measures:(i)Develop,distributeandusemanufacturedreferenceNPmaterials
for toxicology studies (complete and accurate particle characterisation); (ii)
DevelopreferenceNPwithlowoxidativepotential;(iii)Developstandardised,
validated protocols for toxicity testing (attention to the parameters, systems,
cellular components); (iv) Develop models for predicting the potential impact
on health and environment; (v) Develop systems for evaluating the impact of
engineered NP over their entire life. B. Longterm measures: (i) Set up
mandatory registration and health–screening of all workers dealing with bulk
quantitiesofengineeredNP;(ii)Setuplongtermcohortstudiestofollowtheir
healthstatus;(iii)Establishabiobankforbiomaterialsfromthesecohorts;(iv)
Establishafund/departmenttocoordinatetheselongtermactivities.
246
Coordinator:
x
TemasAgTechnologyandManagementServices,Arbon,CH(Dr.JürgenHöck)*
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
BioMaDeTechnologyFoundation,Groningen
NL
JožefStefanInstitute,Ljubljana
SI
NanoPowdersIndustries(Israel)Ltd.,Caesarea
IL
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
EL
HelsinkiUniversityofTechnology
FI
DublinInstituteofTechnology
IE
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
BE
NationalInstituteofResearchandDevelopmentforTechnical
RO
Physics,Iasi
UK
UniversityofSurrey,Guildford
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PL
SwissFederalLaboratoriesforMaterialsTestingand
CH
Research,StGallen
KaunasUniversityofTechnology
LT
VDITechnologiezentrumGmbH,Düsseldorf
DE
UniversityofManchester
UK
InstituteofPhysicalChemistryI.G.Murgulescu,Bucharest
RO
LatvianSocietyofToxicology,Riga
LV
UniversityofCraiova
RO
BG
BulgarianAcademyofScience,Sofia
*Aftersuspensionandrestartoftheproject
247
248
CONTRACTNUMBER:36877
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€5599044
ECCONTRIBUTION:€5000000
STARTINGDATE:
February1,2007
ENDDATE:January31,2011
DURATION:48months
MICRODIS
INTEGRATEDHEALTH,SOCIALANDECONOMIC
IMPACTSOFEXTREMEEVENTS:EVIDENCE,
METHODSANDTOOLS
Summary:
The broad objectives were to (i) strengthen the
scientific foundation of the relationship between
extreme events and their health, social, and
economic impacts; (ii) develop and integrate
concepts, method, tools and databases towards a common global approach; (iii)
improve human resources and coping capacity in Asia and Europe though training
andknowledgesharing.Theconsortiumrepresentedthefullspectrumofexpertsin
health(e.g.,specialistsinepidemiology,disasterhealthmanagement,tropicalhealth
and hygiene, public health, health system analysis), social science (sociology, social
andmedicalanthropology,genderstudies),andeconomics.Attheendoftheproject,
all site survey and annex studies in
many locations in the EU and Asia,
with the production of a number of
summary reports, were completed.
Partners completed designs, protocols, survey reports, preliminary analysis and
submittedcleanedandvalidateddatasetsforeachstudy.Amoredetailedpolicybrief
persurveycountryhasalsobeencompleted,alongwithacombinedliteraturereview
onsocial,healthandeconomicimpactsofdisasters.Anotherimportantpublication
was“PublicHealthandFloodsinEurope”,providingdescriptiveanalysisandmapping
of various health impacts of floods across Europe and specific MICRODIS European
countries.Partnersalsosharedtheirresultsandknowledgeatanumberofdifferent
international conferences, workshops, visiting lectures and training events. More
8
detailsonresultsareavailableontheprojectwebsite .
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
International strategy for disaster reduction – Hyogo Framework for action
20052015
x
ACommunityapproachonthepreventionofnaturalandmanmadedisasters
[COM(2009)82final]
x
EU strategy for supporting disaster risk reduction in developing countries
[COM(2009)84final]
x
Directive2007/60/EContheassessmentandmanagementoffloodrisks
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
8
www.microdiseu.be
249
Mainresults:
x
During the first year, thematic groups worked together to develop draft
literaturereviewsforsocial,healthandeconomicimpactsofnaturaldisasters.
Conceptual models for each thematic group were also developed, along with
continueddiscussionsaboutintegrationstrategiesandsurveymethodologies;
x
Thesecondyearoftheprojectputmanyoftheconceptualtoolsdevelopedin
the first year into practical application. Through various meetings and
workshops, the consortium developed the integrated protocol with a social,
healthandeconomiccoresectiontobeusedinallsites.Theseprotocolswere
then adapted to the specific country and site context. Meanwhile, intense
survey designs were put into place for 8 different studies in Indonesia, India,
Vietnam,PhilippinesandtheUK;
x
Threemainstudiesandthreeannexstudieswereheldinthecourseofthethird
year. Integrated questionnaires were administered and qualitative research
was done for main studies in Morpeth (UK), and Hanoi and Quang nam,
(Vietnam). In addition, studies were conducted in India on the nutrition of
children under five after floods in Bahraich and Orissa, respectively. The first
annex study dedicated to economic impacts after floods in Quang nam,
Vietnam,wasperformed.Partnersperformedtrainingandawarenessactivities
insurveycommunities,institutionsandresearchcommunity;
x
Thelastyearsawthecompletionofallsitesurveyandannexstudies.Thefield
work included two main surveys in L’Aquila (IT) andGosaba (India). Six annex
studieswerealsoconducted(TwoannexstudiesinHanoiondenguefeverand
floodsandonchemicalcontaminationduetofloods;onlivelihoodimpactafter
cyclone Aila in West Bengal, India; health and safety risks and their
management in different international disasters assessed by rescue workers,
military officers and police officers in Finland; continuation on the health
impactsofthePadangearthquakeinIndonesiaaswellasfortheearthquakein
Sichuan,China.AsecondintegratedstudywasconductedinOrissa,India,and
an annex study focused on emergency assistance and rehabilitation efforts
after disasters in Southern Leyte and in the Philippines. Finally, many efforts
weremadeonadditionalstudiesontheimpactsoffloodsinbothMorpethand
TewkesburyintheUK;
x
Statistical briefs along with attractive onepage briefs for each site have been
developedanddisseminatedonthewebsiteandduringimportantevents;
x
Amoredetailedpolicybriefpersurveycountryhasalsobeencompleted,along
with a combined literature review on social, health and economic impacts of
disasters;
x
A publication entitled “Public Health and Floods in Europe”, providing a
descriptive analysis and mapping of various health impacts of floods across
EuropeandspecificMICRODISEuropeancountries,wasproduced;
x
Two important regional symposia took place in the fourth year that provided
publicity and knowledge sharing for the MICRODIS consortium and disaster
researchcommunity:inHue,Vietnam,andinNewcastleuponTyne,UK.
250
Coordinator:
x
Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Catholic University of
Louvain,Brussels,BE(Prof.DebaratiGuhaSapir)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofGreenwich
UK
UniversityofNorthumbria,Newcastle
UK
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki
FI
JadavpurUniversity,Calcutta
IN
UniversityofDelhi,NewDelhi
IN
UniversityofIndonesia,Depok
ID
XavierUniversity,CagayanDeOroCity
PH
EvaplanGMBH,Heidelberg
DE
VoluntaryHealthAssociationofIndia,NewDelhi
IN
PH
Citizens'DisasterResponseCenterFoundation,QuezonCity
HealthnetInternationalFoundation,Amsterdam
NL
FerurbatSARL,Clamart
FR
HueUniversity,HueCity
VT
UniversityofFlorence
IT
SwecoGrønerAs,Oslo
NO
UniversityHospitalHeidelberg
DE
HanoiSchoolofPublicHealth
VT
US
UnitedNationsOfficefortheCoordinationofHumanitarian
Affairs,NewYork
251
252
CONTRACTNUMBER:33231
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€4616544
ECCONTRIBUTION:€3300000
STARTINGDATE:Janary1,2007
ENDDATE:December31,2009
DURATION:36months
NANOINTERACT
DEVELOPMENTOFAPLATFORMAND
TOOLKITFORUNDERSTANDING
INTERACTIONSBETWEENNANOPARTICLES
ANDTHELIVINGWORLD
Summary:
9
TheoverarchingobjectiveofNANOINTERACT was to create a firm scientific and technical
basis for understanding and potentially
predicting the likely biological impacts of engineered nanoscale particulates
interacting with living systems. NANOINTERACT was built around the belief that a
fundamental understanding of the space and timeresolved interaction of
nanoparticlesintheirinsitubiologicalcontext(i.e.,withtheircoronaofproteinsand
otherbiomolecules)withlivingsystemsisessential
to ensure the safe implementation of
nanotechnologies. The project lead to no newly
identified hazard (solely due to nanoscale elements) for nanoparticles. However, it
hashighlightedseveralissuesrequiringfurtherinvestigation,inparticularrelatedto
the need for consideration of appropriateness of several of the established OECD
(theOrganisationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopment)andothertestsfor
chemicaltoxicitytoassessmentofnanoparticletoxicity.Italsounderlinedimportant
issues such as the lack of comparability across data generated using different
standard (e.g., OECD) test media, which have different ionic strengths and pH,
different sources of serum and treatments of the serum. This is in addition to the
particlerelated challenges such as the different surface properties for the same
materialmadebydifferentsynthesisroutes,nottomentionissuessuchasbatchto
batch reproducibility for a single nanoparticle synthesis route. More details on
resultsareavailableintheEuropeanNanoSafetyClusterCompendium2010.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
9
www.nanointeract.net
253
Mainresults:
x
AkeyaspectoftheNANOINTERACTprojectwastheuseofinternalroundrobin
typeapproaches,wherebyimportantresultsarereproducedandreplicatedin
at least one completely separate laboratory using the identical protocols and
startingmaterials,inordertoensurethattheresultsarescientificallyvalidand
reproducible;
x
In addition to addressing known risks from nanomaterials, such those
endpoints for which there are established mechanisms of action (e.g., DNA
damage), NANOINTERACT also addressed the potential for new toxicological
endpoints, such as nanoparticleinduced changes in protein aggregation and
fibrillation,aswellaschangesinsubtlegeneandproteinregulationpathways;
x
The investigations focussed on several key classes of nanoparticles – silicon
dioxide, cerium oxide, aluminium oxide (both particulate and monolithic
surfaces),polystyrene,quantumdotsandgoldnanoparticlesbeingtheprinciple
materialsusedacrossthestudies;
x
Localisation studies showed no evidence of direct contact between DNA and
the nanoparticles, which were never detected in the nuclei and were always
localisedinvesicularstructures,likelylysosomes;
x
The ecotoxicological research part of NANOINTERACT mainly involved aquatic
studies with SiO 2 and CeO 2 . The unicellular green alga Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata was used as the primary test organism in algal growth inhibition
assays. No toxicity was found for either SiO 2 or CeO 2 bulk powder at the
maximumtestconcentrationsof1000mg/l;
x
Perhaps one of the most striking aspects of nanoparticlecell interactions,
clearlydistinguishingnanomaterialsfromchemicals,istheissueofthe‘protein
corona’. In essence, chemicals (generally) interact directly with biological
elements,whereasnanoparticlesarecoatedbystronglyadheringproteinsand
lipids, the exchange times of which are so long that the effective biological
identity of the particles is greatly influenced (in some cases likely completely
determined)bytheproteinsandnotthematerials.Veryconsiderableprogress
has been made within the NANOINTERACT project towards elucidating the
nature, identify, conformation and aggregation of proteins incorporated into
nanoparticlecoronas, and towards understanding of the consequences of
theseinteractionsforbothparticleandproteinstability;
x
NANOINTERACThasresultedinover40originalpeerreviewedpublications;
x
SomeofthedetailedprotocolsthatresultedfromNANOINTERACTarealready
being shared with the wider scientific community via the NANOIMPACTNET
protocolsdatabase;
x
Many of the concepts developed in the NANOINTERACT project have been
taken up by the FP7funded project NEURONANO, and have fed into the
NANOIMPACTNETcoordinationactionandotherprojects.
254
Coordinator:
x
University College Dublin, Centre for BioNano Interactions, Ireland
(Prof.KennethDawson)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
NationalUniversityofIreland,Galway
IE
LudwigMaximiliansUniversity,Munich
DE
UniversityofOxford
UK
TrinityCollege,Dublin
IE
UlsterUniversity,Coleraine
UK
UniversityofParisSud,Orsay
FR
LundUniversity
SE
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment(RIVM),
NL
Bilthoven
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PL
BE
GhentUniversity
RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas
US
GlantreoGlan,Cork
IE
Medtronic,Galway
IE
L'Oréal,Paris
FR
Intel,Leixlip
IE
Umicore,Olen
BE
DSM,TeHeerlen
NL
WeizmannInstituteofScience,Rehovot
IL
255
256
CONTRACTNUMBER:515843
PROJECTTYPE:
Integratedproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€12402348
ECCONTRIBUTION:
€6999837
STARTINGDATE:April1,2005
ENDDATE:March31,2009
NANOSAFE2
SAFEPRODUCTIONANDUSEOFNANOMATERIALS
Summary:
10
NANOSAFE2 was the followup of a first study
supported by the European Commission from 2003
to2004entitledNANOSAFE(Riskassessmentinthe
production and use of nanoparticles with the
development of preventive measures and practice
codes). NANOSAFE2 intended to develop innovative detection, traceability and
characterisation techniques for engineered nanoparticles. It supplied
nanotoxicologistswithamethodologybasedonaninnovativegenericapproachfor
analysing the toxicity of nanoparticles. It also developed safe and costeffective
measurestominimisetheexposureofworkers,consumersandtheenvironmentto
manufactured nanoscale entities. It also supported a wide range of studies to
evaluate current and future projected levels of
exposure, the adequacy of current approaches to
control exposure and propose measures and
recommendations. One part of the project was
devoted to the detection and the characterisation
of engineered nanoparticles. Another part was
concentratedonthetoxicityandthebodydistributionofnanomaterials.Athirdpart
focused on the development of secure industrial production system and safe
applications.Theprojectalsocarriedoutworkonlegislationandstandardisation,risk
assessment and life cycle analysis, and pursued training dissemination activities.
More details on results are available in the European NanoSafety Cluster
Compendium2011.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
10
www.nanosafe.org
257
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
New traceability labels, specifically adapted to nanomaterials, were set up
usingphosphornanotagsandoligonucleotides;
Methodsandtoolsweredevelopedtomeasurethedensephasepropertiesof
nanoparticles for explosion risk, the characterisation of nanoparticles in
biologicalmedia,etc.;
Numerous pieces of information on the actual levels and behaviour of the
nanoparticles at workplaces were obtained. The results highlighted the
necessity to develop new specific measurement tools less sensitive to
backgroundfluctuations;
It could clearly be shown that there are ways to produce and handle
nanoparticles securely in an industrial environment using currently available
toolsandmeans;
New online aerosol measurement pieces of equipment were developed, such
as a new condensation particle counter and two inexpensive pieces of
equipment,specificallydesignedforcontinuousmonitoringofearlyevents:an
electrostatic device without clogging effect and a device based on a smoke
detector;
Collection of nanoparticles on ultrapure filters before detection by elemental
analysiswasinvestigated.Workfocusedonhowtopurifyultimatelythefilters
intermsofmetalliccontamination;
Two types of nanolabels carrying information such as manufacturer name,
batchproductionnumber,toxicity,physicalproperties,etc.,weredeveloped;
Theconsortiumshowedthatthecytotoxicityofnanomaterialswasinfluenced
by several confounding factors and therefore several controls have to be
includedtoproduceconclusivedata;
Translocationstudiescarriedoutinratswereusedtofeedthedevelopmentof
generic numerical physiological toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic (PBPK) model,
predictiveofnanoparticleinternalexposureandpotentialhealtheffects;
AthoroughreviewofmainEUlegislationandstandardswasperformedandled
toapositionpaperpresentedattheNanosafe2008conference,andpublished
inthe'JournalofPhysicsConferenceSeries'.
The project contributed to the development of the following ISO and CEN
documents:(i)ISO/TR27628'WorkplaceatmospheresUltrafine,nanoparticle
and nanostructured aerosols Inhalation exposure characterisation and
assessment'; (ii) PG5/WG3 'Guidance on physicochemical characterisation of
engineered nanoscale materials for toxicological assessment' (ISO TC229); (iii)
PG10/WG2 'General Framework for determining nanoparticle content in
nanomaterials by generation of aerosols (e.g. dustiness)' (ISO TC 229); (iv) TR
ISOTR27628'Ultrafine,nanoparticleandnanostructuredaerosolsInhalation
exposure characterization and assessment'; and (v) 'Guide of nanoparticle
measurementmethodsandtheirlimitations'(CEN/TC352);
NANOSMILE portal was constructed to help bridge the societal gap between
research&industryandthepublic.Thisportal,freeofcharge,providesabout8
hoursofmaterialconsultation.
258
Coordinator:
x
FrenchNuclearEnergyCommission(CEA),Grenoble(Dr.FrédéricSchuster)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Procter&GambleEurocorNV,StrombeekBever
BASFSE,Ludwigshafen
ARKEMA,Paris
IntrinsiqMaterialsLtd,Bristol
NanogateAdvancedMaterialsGMBH,Saarbrücken
OxonicaLtd,Kidlington
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
CSEMSA,Neuchatel
CenterofAdvancedEuropeanStudiesandResearch(CAESAR),
Bonn
UniversityofOxford
UniversityofGlasgow
NationalInstituteofHealthandMedicalResearch(INSERM),
Paris
VTTTechnicalResearchCentre,Espoo
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,Munich
JožefStefanInstitute,Ljubljana
UniversityCollegeLondon
NationalInstituteforIndustrialEnvironmentandRisks(INERIS),
VerneuilenHalatte
HealthandSafetyExecutiveHealthandSafetyLaboratory,
Buxton
SwissiInstituteforthePromotionofSafetyandSecurity,Zürich
GermanSocialAccidentInsurance(DGUV),SanktAugustin
DekatiOy,Tampere
Umicore,Olen
259
Country
BE
DE
FR
UK
DE
UK
BE
CH
DE
UK
UK
FR
FI
DE
SI
UK
FR
UK
CH
DE
FI
BE
260
CONTRACTNUMBER:32777
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€3995225
ECCONTRIBUTION:€2399234
STARTINGDATE:November1,2006
ENDDATE:October31,2009
DURATION:36months
NANOSH
INFLAMMATORYANDGENOTOXIC
EFFECTSOFENGINEERED
NANOMATERIALS
Summary:
11
The overall goal of the project was to
characterise the levels of exposure to
specific engineered nanoparticles and to
delineate the health effects of selected
nanosizedparticlesrelevanttotheoccupationalenvironment.Exposurelevelswere
evaluated both under laboratory conditions and during the manufacture of the
particles. The particles were characterised with respect to their morphology and
particle size distribution, surface activity, and potential for agglomerate formation.
The health effects studied included
genotoxicity, pulmonary inflammatory
responses, and effects on the vasculature.
The information gathered, together with
the stateoftheart technology utilised in
these studies, increased our knowledge on nanoparticles and helped to create a
reliable basis for the evaluation of possible health risks associated with these new
materials. The consortium developed models for a thorough characterisation of
nanoparticlesandtheirdispersions,whichwereusedinthetoxicitytestsperformed
during the project. Exposure measurements were carried out in many types of
workplaces.Methodsweredevelopedforgenotoxicityassessmentofnanomaterials
in vitro and in vivo. In addition to size and shape, the surface chemistry of
nanomaterialsstronglyaffectstheirfateaswellastheirbiologicaleffectsinvitroand
in vivo. The project provided essential information, which can be used on a wider
basisforassessingoccupationalandothersafetyrisksassociatedwiththeproduction
and use of nanoparticles. More details on results are available in the European
NanoSafetyClusterCompendium2010.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledgebased multifunctional
materialsandnewproductionprocessesanddevices'thematicpriority
11
www.ttl.fi/partner/nanosh
261
Mainresults:
x
Particle characterisation: The consortium developed models for a thorough
characterisationofnanoparticlesandtheirdispersions,whichwereusedinthe
toxicity tests performed during the project. The models have been published
and can be utilised by people outside the consortium. A number of
nanomaterials were selected for the NANOATLAS database (available both in
printed and electronic form), providing examples of the most relevant
nanomaterials used in commercial applications, such as carbon nanotubes,
fullerenes, metal particles, metal oxide particles, quantum dots and some
experimentalnanoparticles;
x
Exposure assessment: A strategy for assessing exposure to engineered
nanoparticles (ENPs) in a range of workplaces was developed. Solutions for
background discrimination were explored. A decision logic for determining
whether workers were likely to be exposed to ENPs was developed.
Measurements were carried out in many types of workplaces from university
research laboratories to largescale production plants, where a wide range of
ENPsareproducedorhandled;
x
Genotoxicity of nanoparticles: Methods were developed for genotoxicity
assessmentofnanomaterialsinvitroandinvivo.Mostnanoparticleswereable
to damage DNA in vitro, and for TiO 2 this seemed to be due to primary
oxidative DNA damage. Some nanomaterials were also capable of increasing
chromosomedamageinvitro,zincoxideshowingtheclearesteffect.Inhalation
ofTiO 2 didnotaffectthelevelofDNAorchromosomedamageinmice;
x
Pulmonary inflammation: In vivo tests showed that healthy mice elicited
pulmonary neutrophilia accompanied by chemokine CXCL5 expression, when
exposedtonanosizedTiO 2 .Asthmaticmiceshowedremarkablesuppressionof
mostmediatorsandsignsofallergicasthma,whenexposedtoeithernanosized
orcoarseTiO 2 ;
x
Microvasculareffectsparticles:Thefindingsstronglycorroboratetheviewthat,
inadditiontosizeandshape,thesurfacechemistryofnanomaterialsstrongly
affectstheirfateaswellastheirbiologicaleffectsinvitroandinvivo;
x
Theprojectprovidesessentialinformation,whichcanbeusedonawiderbasis
forassessingoccupationalandothersafetyrisksassociatedwiththeproduction
and use of nanoparticles. Essential products that serve these scientific and
technologicalgoalsaremeansandmethodstocharacteriseparticleproperties,
waystocarryoutreliableexposureassessments,andmodelsforassessingkey
health effects all important components of the safety evaluation of
engineerednanoparticles;
x
Theresultsobtainedhavebeenpublishedasoriginalscientificarticles.
262
Coordinator:
x
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki(Prof.KaiSavolainen)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
UniversityofMunich,InstituteforSurgicalResearch
DE
CentralInstituteforLabourProtection–NationalResearch
PL
Institute,Warsaw
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Zeist
NL
HealthandSafetyExecutiveHealthandSafetyLaboratory,
UK
Buxton
GermanSocialAccidentInsurance(DGUV),SanktAugustin
DE
UniversityofLeicester
UK
263
264
CONTRACTNUMBER:18486
PROJECTTYPE:Coordinationaction
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1899831
ECCONTRIBUTION:€1899831
STARTINGDATE:September1,2005
ENDDATE:November30,2008
DURATION:39months
NORMAN
NETWORKOFREFERENCELABORATORIES
ANDRELATEDORGANISATIONSFOR
MONITORINGANDBIOMONITORINGOF
EMERGINGENVIRONMENTALPOLLUTANTS
Summary:
There are great numbers of emerging
substancesthatarepotentiallyresponsiblefor
adverse environmental effects. They include pharmaceuticals, phytosanitary
products, surfactants, personal care products, etc. The need to look beyond the
traditional target pollutants, when assessing the hazards of chemicals to human
health and to ecosystems, is now generally
recognisedasapriorityissueinallpolicyareasat
both the European and national level. The
12
NORMAN network started its activities in
September 2005 and it is now established as a
permanent selfsustaining network of reference laboratories, research centres and
related organisations for the monitoring and biomonitoring of emerging
environmentalsubstances.Itsmissionisto(i)enhancetheexchangeofinformation
and collection of data on emerging environmental substances; (ii) encourage the
validation and harmonisation of common measurement methods and monitoring
toolssothatthedemandsofriskassessors canbebettermet;and(iii)ensurethat
knowledge on emerging pollutants is maintained and developed by stimulating
coordinated, interdisciplinary projects on collaborative, problemoriented research
andknowledgetransfertoaddressidentifiedneeds.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Regulation (EC) no 1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
Council directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human
consumption
x
CouncilDirective91/271/EECconcerningurbanwastewatertreatment
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Sustainabledevelopment,globalchangeandecosystems'thematicpriority
12
www.normannetwork.com/index_php.php
265
Mainresults:
x
Identification of the key European organisations and experts in the field of
emerging pollutants in order to prepare the ground for the extension of the
corenetwork;
x
Creation of a permanent website describing continuous activities undertaken
bythenetwork(newsletters,meetings,positionpapersetc.);
x
Appointment of NORMAN Contact Points facilitate the regular exchange and
gathering of information on emerging substances from national reports and
research initiatives, including information that appears in the socalled grey
literature;
x
Development of three databases: EMPOMAP (database of leading experts,
organisations and projects dealing with emerging substances), EMPODAT (a
database of georeferenced monitoring data accompanied by ecotoxicological
information from bioassays and biomarkers; contains over 8000 entries) and
EMPOMASS (database of mass spectrometric information on provisionally
identifiedandunknownsubstances);
x
Creation of the NORMAN in February 2009 as a nonprofit association under
FrenchLaw1901.Theorganisationsthathadexpressedaninterestinbecoming
ordinary members were invited to apply formally to become members of the
association with formal acceptance of the statutes. In 2010, the NORMAN
Association has eight founding members and more than 40 organisations as
ordinary members, many of them among the most highly regarded in Europe
andonememberfromCanada.
266
Coordinator:
x
National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS), Verneuilen
Halatte,France(Dr.ValeriaDulio)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
OfficeofGeologicalandMiningResearch,Orléans
FR
FrenchResearchInstituteforAgriculturalandEnvironmental
FR
Engineering(CEMAGREF),Antony
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
NL
FederalEnvironmentAgency,Berlin/DessauRosslau
DE
WaterResearchCentre(IWW),MülheimanderRuhr
DE
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Madrid
ES
JožefStefanInstitute,Ljubljana
SI
NO
BiosenseLaboratoriesAS,Bergen
StockholmUniversity,DepartmentofAppliedEnvironmental
SE
Science,Stockholm
EnvironmentAgency,Rothley
UK
WaterResearchInstitute,Bratislava
SK
EnvironmentalInstitute,Koš
SK
NationalPhysicalLaboratory,Teddington
UK
CommissionoftheEuropeanCommunitiesDirectorate
IT
GeneralJointResearchCentre,Ispra
FraunhoferInstitute,München
DE
NL
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandtheEnvironment
(RIVM),Bilthoven
267
268
CONTRACTNUMBER:12912
PROJECTTYPE:
Specifictargetedresearchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:
€1115878
ECCONTRIBUTION:€799576
STARTINGDATE:June1,2005
ENDDATE:August31,2008
DURATION:39months
PARTICLE_RISK
RISKASSESSMENTOFEXPOSURETO
PARTICLES
Nowebsite
Summary:
Some new and emerging sciences and
technologies (NEST) have the potential to
generate particulates, which can enter the
bodyviainhalation,ingestionordermalabsorption.Asnewmaterialsaregenerated
from sources as diverse as novel combustion systems, nanotechnology or
pharmaceutical drug delivery in the life sciences, there is potential for human
exposure. Inhalation exposure to dusts leads to pulmonary diseases and particle
toxicityincreaseswithdecreasingparticlesize.Informationisneededregardingthe
possible risks from exposure to these particles
including: the routes of exposure and subsequent
disposition; their potential toxicity; appropriate
toxicological testing procedures; and susceptible
subpopulations. This project has acquired a bank
of particles potentially generated by NEST (NESTP)
and assessed the health risk from exposure to
thesematerialsthroughairorthefoodsupplywith
aworkprogramme,integratinginvitroexperiments,
animalmodelsofhealthy/susceptibleindividualsandexposure/riskassessment.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
TheEuropeanstrategyfornanotechnologyandthenanotechnologyActionPlan
x
Regulation (EC)1907/2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation,
AuthorisationandRestrictionofChemicals(REACH)
x
EuropeanEnvironmentandHealthStrategy[COM(2003)338]
EUfunding:
x
'Newandemergingscienceandtechnologies(NEST)'programme
269
Mainresults:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Techniquesweredevelopedforcharacterisingthephysicochemicalproperties
oftheselectedNESTP.Itwasfoundthatnoindividualtechniquecansatisfya
meaningfulcharacterisationofNESTP.Theoptimumsetofrequiredtechniques
shouldbeselectedonthebasisoftheinvestigatedNESTPtype;
It was found that positively charged quantum dots (QD621) have effects on
glutathione (GSH) depletion, cytotoxicity and inhibition of bile production in
vitro;
Asregardsinvivopulmonaryeffectsinmice,itwasfoundthattheexpression
of inflammatory marker mRNA was increased in lung tissue for positively and
negativelychargedQDsand,toalesserextent,singlewalledcarbonnanotubes
andcarbonblack;
Allnanoparticles(NPs)showedincreasedgenotoxicitymeasuredbythecomet
assayonbronchoalveolarlavage(BAL)cells3hoursafterinstillation;
Fourlinesofevidence(LOEs)wereintegratedintoaweightofevidence(WoE)
approach to assess the hazard of NPs. The use of physicochemical
characterisation and biological responses under laboratory conditions may be
considered a preliminary tool to carry out hazard ranking of tested NPs. This
methodology, based on the evaluation of a set of NPs properties and effect
endpointsunderanintegratedframework,allowstheprovisionofafirstlineof
hazard evidence, where data and information on exposure and effect of
manufacturedNPsareveryscarce;
Various measured physicochemical properties and effect data were obtained.
However, the measurement data differed in uncertainty and in reliability for
suggesting harm to humans. It was assumed that all LOE and indicators were
equallyimportantintheoverallcalculationofhazard,butfurtherdevelopment
of the WoE method could be included an “ad hoc” procedure for weighting
them and then for highlighting their relative importance, e.g., by expert
judgment.
This case study showed then the utility of the WoE procedure and suggested
thatvariousLoEscanbedefinedtoprovideconclusionabouthazardofNPs.
Coordinator:
x
InstituteofOccupationalMedicine,Edinburgh(Dr.LangTran)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
UniversityofEdinburgh
NapierUniversity,Edinburgh
VeniceResearchConsortium(CVR)
UniversityofVenice
InstituteofLungBiologyandDisease,Neuherberg
NationalInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Copenhagen
270
Country
UK
UK
IT
IT
DE
DK
CONTRACTNUMBER:12719
PROJECTTYPE:Specifictargeted
researchproject
TOTALPROJECTCOST:€1132900
ECCONTRIBUTION:€795000
STARTINGDATE:October1,2005
ENDDATE:March31,2008
DURATION:30months
POLYSOA
POLYMERSINSECONDARYORGANIC
AEROSOLS
Summary:
Recent experiments have shown that
organic material in secondary organic
aerosols(SOA)canpolymerise,leadingto
newhighmolecularweightcompoundswithmassupto1000Da.Suchpolymersare
of concern regarding their potential adverse health
effects and impact on air quality and climate. High
molecular weight compounds have been found in
ambientaerosols,buttheiroriginisunknownandtheir
13
identification rudimentary. The POLYSOA project appliedanddevelopeddifferentsophisticatedanalytical
methodstomeasurehighmolecularweightcompounds
of this SOA polymer fraction and characterised its
chemicalandphysicalbulkparameters.Injointmeasurementcampaignsinasmog
chamber, a combined effort was undertaken to identify and characterise these
polymersproducedfromdifferentprecursors,whichdominateinanthropogenicand
biogenicemissionsources.Simultaneously,theseSOApolymerswereappliedonline
to cell culture systems, which are representative of the inner surface of airways
and/orpulmonaryalveoli.
Potentialcontributiontothefollowingpolicies:
x
Climatechangepolicies
EUfunding:
x
'Newandemergingscienceandtechnologies(NEST)'programme
13
http://polysoa.web.psi.ch
271
Mainresults:
x
The exposure experiments occurred under realistic conditions and the results
ofthePOLYSOAcampaignsindicatethatSOA(inconcentrationscomparableto
environmental concentrations) may induce distinct effects on lung cells. The
dataobtainedhavedemonstratedthatatwohourexposureofthevariouslung
3
celltypestoSOAatambientairconcentrationsofabout104particles/cm leads
toonlymoderatecellularresponses;
x
However,thereisevidenceforcellspecificeffectsandfordifferent effectsof
SOA originating from anthropogenic and from biogenic precursor molecules,
i.e.,1,3,5trimethylbenzene(TMB)and
pinene;
x
SOA affected the phagocytic activity of macrophages, the release of lactate
dehydrogenase(LDH)aswellasthereleaseof(pro)inflammatorycytokines.In
addition,thereisfirstevidencefromthePOLYSOAcampaignsfordifferencesof
thecellularresponsesdependingontheprecursormoleculesofSOA;
x
Controlexperimentswithinertpolystyreneparticles,however,didnotresultin
changesinanyofthebiologicalendpointsthatwereassessed.
Coordinator:
x
PaulScherrerInstitute,Villingen,Luxembourg(Dr.UrsBaltensperger)
Otherbeneficiaries:
Organisation
Country
InstituteofAtmosphericSciencesandClimate,Rome
IT
UniversityofBern
CH
UniversityofMainz
DE
JohannesGutenbergUniversity,Mainz
DE
TechnicalUniversityofVienna
AT
272
CHAPTERVI – OtherProjectsofInterest
CHAPTERVI
Otherprojectsofinterest
273
274
H EALTH
Otherprojectsofinterest,notdetailedinthecatalogue
BRAFOSpecificsupportactionto
investigatetheriskbenefitanalysis
forfoods
(Specificsupportaction) CAIR4HEALTHCleanairforhealth–
researchneedsforsustainable
developmentpolicies
(Specificsupportaction) CAIR
COST281Potentialhealth
implicationsfrommobile
communicationsystems
(COSTaction)
CRESCENDOConsortiumfor
researchintonuclearreceptorsin
developmentandaging
(Integratedproject)
EUROLYMPHCollaborative
Europeanactionintoenvironmental,
nutritionalandgeneticfactorsinNon
hodgkin’slymphomaaetiology
(Specificsupportaction)
NANOTOXInvestigativesupportfor
theelucidationofthetoxicological
impactofnanoparticlesonhuman
healthandtheenvironment
(Specificsupportaction) RAINBOWResearchonanimaland
invitrostudiesandnumerical
methods:bridgingopportunities
throughaworkshop
(Specificsupportaction)
RETHINKMinipigsasmodelsforthe
toxicitytestingofnewmedicinesand
chemicals:impactassessment
(Specificsupportaction)
TESTMETEDECODevelopmentof
testmethodsforthedetectionand
characterisationofendocrine
disruptingchemicalsinenvironmental
species
(Specificsupportaction)
275
www.brafo.org
www.cair4health.eu
www.cost.esf.org/domains
_actions/ict/Actions/281
www.crescendoip.org
www.rainbowproject.eu
http://minipigs.dk/fileadmi
n/filer/Publications/Rethin
k__Article_1.pdf
276
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
AnnexA
Participatingcountriesandinstitutesin
FP6fundedenvironmentandhealthprojects
277
278
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
EUROPEANUNIONMEMBERSTATES
AUSTRIA(AT)
ARCSeibersdorfResearchGmbh,Seibersdorf
AustrianFederalEnvironmentAgency,Vienna
BiomayAG,Vienna
FactlineWebservicesGmbH,Vienna
InnsbruckMedicalUniversity
InterdisciplinaryCentreforComparativeResearchin
theSocialSciences,Vienna
InternationalAssociationforCerealScienceand
Technology,Vienna
InternationalAssociationforDanubeResearch,Vienna
InternationalInstituteforAppliedSystemsAnalysis,
Laxenburg
MedicalUniversityofVienna
TechnicalUniversityofGraz
TechnicalUniversityofVienna
UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLife
Sciences,Vienna
UniversityofSalzburg
UniversityofViennaMedicalSchool
VBCGenomicsBioscienceResearchGmbh,Vienna
WebbStephenMatthew,Vienna
BELGIUM(BE)
AviaGis,Zoersel
CatholicUniversityofLeuven
CatholicUniversityofLouvain,Brussels,
LouvainlaNeuve
Centred'EconomieRurale–Hormonology
Department,Marloie
DNAVision,Charleroi
EggCentrisNV,Zellik
ExxonmobilPetroleum&ChemicalBVBA,Antwerp
279
EMFNET
ESBIO
EUROPREVALL
FOOD&FECUNDITY
CARCINOGENOMICS,
PREDICTOMICS
MONIQA
MONIQA
HEALTHYWATER
ENSEMBLES
EUROPREVALL,PRONET
EMFNET
POLYSOA
CIRCE,GABRIEL,MONIQA,
REPROTECT
DIPNA,NOMIRACLE
2
GA LEN
EUROPREVALL
MONIQA
EDEN
ECNIS,ESBIO,IMPART,
NANOSAFE2,NEWGENERIS
ACUTETOX,DEVNERTOX,
EDEN,ENSEMBLES,
INTARESE,MICRODIS,PHIME
MONIQA
EXERA
REPROTECT
NHRDEVTOX
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
FlemishInstituteforTechnologicalResearch(VITO),
Mol
FreeUniversityofBrussels
GhentUniversity
InstituteofPublicHealth,Brussels
Johnson&JohnsonPharmaceutical
Research&Development,Beerse
NanocylSA,Auvelais
Procter&GambleEurocorNV,StrombeekBever
Umicore,Olen
UniversityofAntwerp
BULGARIA(BU)
AppelEuropa,Sofia
Bourgas'ProfessorAssenZlatarov'University,Bourgas
BulgarianAcademyofSciences,Sofia
MedicalUniversity,Sofia
UniversityofFoodTechnologies,Plovdiv
CYPRUS(CY)
StateGeneralLaboratory,Nicosia
CZECHREPUBLIC(CZ)
CharlesUniversity,Prague
CzechHydrometeorologicalInstitute,Prague
FacultyHospitalBulovka,Prague
InstituteofAtmosphericPhysics,Prague
280
ATHON,DIPNA,EMFNET,
ESBIO,2FUN,HEIMTSA,
INTARESE,REPROTECT,
SENSITIV
ACUTETOX,
CARCINOGENOMICS,ECNIS,
NEWGENERIS,PREDICTOMICS,
REPROTECT
2
GA LEN,NANOINTERACT
ACUTETOX
PREDICTOMICS,REPROTECT
NANOTOX
BRAFO,NANOSAFE2
NANOINTERACT,NANOSAFE2
EDEN,HENVINET,
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS
EUROPREVALL
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS,
REPROTECT
IMPART,NANOTOX
EUROPREVALL
MONIQA
ESBIO,VIROBATHE
DROPS,ENSEMBLES,ENVIE,
HEIMTSA,METHODEX,
NHRDEVTOX,PHOEBE,
VERHICHILDREN
ENSEMBLES,ESPREME,
HEIMTSA
EUROPREVALL
ENSEMBLES
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
InstituteofExperimentalMedicine,Prague
InstituteofMolecularGeneticsASCR,Prague
InstituteofVertebrateBiology,Brno
NationalInstituteofPublicHealth,Prague
OstravaInstituteofPublicHealth
PalackýUniversity,Olomouc
RegionalInstituteofPublicHealth,Kolin
UniversityofDefence,HradecKrálové
VeterinaryResearchInstitute,Brno
DENMARK(DK)
AarhusSchoolofBusiness
AarhusUniversity,Aarhus,Roskilde
AarhusUniversityHospital
DanishEpidemiologyScienceCentre,Copenhagen
DanishMeteorologicalInstitute,Copenhagen
DanishNationalEnvironmentalResearchInstitute,
Roskilde
DanishVeterinaryandFoodAdministration,Søborg
DHIWaterandEnvironment,Horsholm
EllegaardGottingenMinipigsAPS,Dalmose
FaroeseHospitalSystem,Tórshavn
NationalInstituteofOccupationalHealth,
Copenhagen
Novozymes,Bagsvaerd
OdenseUniversityHospital
ReflabAPS,Copenhagen
ResearchCentreFlakkebjerg,Slagelse
RoyalVeterinaryandAgriculturalUniversity(KVL),
Frederiksberg
TechnicalUniversityofDenmark,KongensLyngby
UniversityofCopenhagen
UniversityofSouthernDenmark,Odense
281
DIEPHY,ENVIRISK,INTARESE
CRESCENDO
EDEN
ESBIO,INTARESE,
NOMIRACLE,PHIME,
SAFEFOODS
2FUN
ACUTETOX
ENVIRISK
NHRDEVTOX
ATHON
EUROPREVALL
ENSEMBLES,ENVIE,
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL,
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS
FOOD&FECUNDITY
NEWGENERIS
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
PRONET
BENERIS
RETHINK
PHIME
PARTICLE_RISK
CARCINOGENOMICS,
SENSITIV
2
GA LEN
EUROPREVALL
PHIME
PHIME,SAFEFOODS
BENERIS,ENVIE,
EUROPREVALL,2FUN,
HEIMTSA,OSIRIS,
SAFEFOODS
ECNIS,ESBIO,NEWGENERIS,
REPROTECT
HENVINET,PHIME
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
ESTONIA(EE)
EstonianGenomeProjectFoundation,Tartu
NationalInstituteforHealthDevelopment,Tallinn
NationalInstituteofChemicalPhysicsandBiophysics,
Tallinn
FINLAND(FI)
DekatiOy,Tampere
FinnishEnvironmentInstitute,Helsinki
FinnishForestResearchInstitute,Vantaa
FinnishInstituteofOccupationalHealth,Helsinki
FinnishNationalInstituteforHealthandWelfare
(THL),Helsinki,Kuopio(exKTL)
FinnishMeteorologicalInstitute,Helsinki
HelsinkiUniversityCentralHospital
HelsinkiUniversityofTechnology
HormosMedicalPharmacity,Turku
KuopioUniversityHospital
RadiationandNuclearSafetyOrganization(STUK),
Helsinki
OuluUniversity
OyFoodfilesLtd,Kuopio
OyJurilabLtd.,Kuopio
UniversityofEasternFinland(exUniversityofKuopio)
UniversityofHelsinki
UniversityofTurku
VTTTechnicalResearchCentre,Espoo
282
PHOEBE
EDEN,ESBIO
OSIRIS
NANOSAFE2
ENSEMBLES,NOMIRACLE
EDEN
ECNIS,EMFNET,ESBIO,
MICRODIS,NANOSH
ATHON,BENERIS,ENVIE,
ENVIRISK,GABRIEL,HEIMTSA,
HIWATE,INTARESE,PHOEBE
CAIR4HEALTH,ENSEMBLES,
HENVINET
2
GABRIEL,GA LEN
ENVIE,IMPART,NANOTOX
EXERA
PIONEER
EMFNET
ACUTETOX
BENERIS
PHIME
EMFNET,NEWGENERIS,
REPROTECT,SAFEFOODS
CASCADE,CRESCENDO,EDEN,
PIONEER
CASCADE,EXERA,PIONEER
MONIQA,NANOSAFE2
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
FRANCE(FR)
ARKEMA,Paris
Armines,Paris
ArtoisUniversity,Lens
BiochemicsConsultingSAS,Olivet
BiopredicInternational,Rennes
CentreforBioActiveMoleculesScreening(CMBA),
Grenoble
CERFACS,Toulouse
Climpact,Paris
EcoleCentraledeLyon,Lyon
EcoleNormaleSupérieure(ENS),Lyon,Paris
ElectricitédeFrance(EDF),Chatou
ÉcoledesPontsParisTech,ChampssurMarne
FederationofFrenchElectrical,Electronic&
CommunicationIndustries(FIEEC),Paris
FERURBATSARL,Clamart
FranceTelecom,IssylesMoulineaux
FrenchAgencyforEnvironmentalandOccupational
HealthSafety(AFSSET),MaisonsAlfort
FrenchBuildingResearchandTechnologyInstitute
(CSTB),ChampssurMarne
FrenchNationalCentreforGenotyping,Evry
FrenchNationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),
Nouzilly
FrenchNationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),
Paris
FrenchNationalCentreforScientificResearch(CNRS),
Villejuif
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch
(INRA),MontferriersurLez
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch
(INRA),Nouzilly
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch
(INRA),Paris
FrenchNationalInstituteforAgriculturalResearch
(INRA),Toulouse
FrenchNationalInstituteforHealthSurveillance
(INVS),StMaurice
FrenchNationalInstituteforIndustrialEnvironment
andRisks(INERIS),VerneuilenHalatte
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Evry
283
NANOSAFE2
METHODEX
ACUTETOX
CAESAR
CARCINOGENOMICS
ACUTETOX
ENSEMBLES
ENSEMBLES
OSIRIS
CASCADE,ENSEMBLES
ENSEMBLES,2FUN
HEIMTSA
EMFNET
MICRODIS
EMFNET
INTARESE
INTARESE
GABRIEL
FOOD&FECUNDITY
CASCADE,CRESCENDO,
PIONEER
EMFNET
EDEN
FOOD&FECUNDITY
EUROPREVALL,SAFEFOODS
CASCADE
ESBIO,INTARESE
2FUN,INTARESE,
NANOSAFE2,NORMAN
GABRIEL
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Grenoble
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Lyon
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Paris
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Toulouse
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Villejuif
FrenchNationalInstituteofHealthandMedical
Research(INSERM),Montpellier
FrenchNuclearEnergyCommission(CEA),Grenoble,
Paris
FrenchResearchInstituteforAgriculturaland
EnvironmentalEngineering(CEMAGREF),Antony
GraduateSchoolofChemistry,BiologyandPhysics ofBordeaux(ENSCBP)
HenriPoincaréUniversity,Nancy
Imstar,Paris
InternationalCentreforToxicology,Evreux
InternationalEnvironmentandDevelopment
ResearchCentre(CIRED),NogentsurMarne
InstituteforResearchandDevelopment(IRD),
Montpellier
InstituteofGeneticsandMolecularandCellular
Biology,Illkirch
InstituteofSustainableDevelopmentand
InternationalRelations,Paris
InstitutPasteur,Paris
InterdepartmentalArrangementforMosquito
ControlofMediterraneanCoast(EID),Montpellier
InternationalCentreofCooperationinAgronomic
ResearchforDevelopment(CIRAD),Montpellier
L'Oréal,Paris
LouisPasteurUniversity,Strasbourg
MediasFrance,Toulouse
MétéoFrance,Paris
OfficeofGeologicalandMiningResearch(BRGM),
Orléans
PfizerGlobalResearch,Amboise
Servier,Suresnes
PierreSimonLaplaceInstitute,Guyancourt,Paris
SMASH,Paris
StrasbourgUniversityHospital
SUEZEnvironement,LePecq
SymlogdeFranceInstitute,Cachan
284
CELLNANOTOX
CELLNANOTOX
CRESCENDO,FOOD&
FECUNDITY,NANOSAFE2
PHOEBE
2
GA LEN
CASCADE,PREDICTOMICS
NANOSAFE2
NORMAN
EMFNET
VIROBATHE
NEWGENERIS
RETHINK
CIRCE
EDEN
CRESCENDO
CIRCE
EDEN
EDEN
CIRCE,EDEN
NANOINTERACT,SENSITIV
SENSITIV
CIRCE
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
NORMAN
REPROTECT
CRESCENDO
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
ENSEMBLES
EUROPREVALL
HEALTHYWATER
NOMIRACLE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
UniversityofFrancheComté,Besançon
University'JosephFourier'Grenoble1
UniversityofMontpellier1
UniversityofNiceSophiaAntipolis,Nice
UniversityofParisSud,Orsay
UniversityofRennes1
GERMANY(DE)
AlbertLudwigsUniversity,Freiburg
AnalytischesLaboratoriumLuhnstedt
AssociationforTechnologyandStructuresin
Agriculture(KTBL),Darmstadt
BASFSE,Ludwigshafen
BayerHealthCareAG,Wuppertal
BavarianHealthandFoodSafetyAgency,
Oberschleissheim
BiochemicalInstituteforEnvironmentalCarcinogens,
Prof.Dr.GernotGrimmerFoundation,Grosshansdorf
BIPROGMBH,Munich
CenterofAdvancedEuropeanStudiesandResearch
(CAESAR),Bonn
CharitéUniversityMedicalCenter,Berlin
DialogikGmBH,Stuttgart
EberhardKarlsUniversity,Tübingen
ECTOekotoxikologieGmbH,FlörsheimamMain
EMCMicrocollectionsGmbH,Tübingen
EurofinsAnalytikGMBH,Hamburg
EurohandelsinstitutGMBH,Köln
EuropeanClimateForum,Potsdam
EvaplanGMBH,Heidelberg
FederalEnvironmentAgency,Berlin/DessauRosslau
FoodInformationServiceEurope,BadBentheim
FraunhoferInstitute,Hannover
FraunhoferInstitute,München
FraunhoferInstitute,St.Ingbert
FreeUniversityofBerlin
GermanCancerResearchCenter,Heidelberg
GermanFederalInstituteforRiskAssessment(BFR),
Berlin
GermanSocialAccidentInsurance(DGUV),Sankt
Augustin
285
GABRIEL
ENSEMBLES
EDEN
HEALTHYWATER
NANOINTERACT
HIWATE
SENSITIV
OSIRIS
HEIMTSA
CELLNANOTOX,NANOSAFE2
ACUTETOX,PREDICTOMICS,
REPROTECT
VIROBATHE
DIEPHY,ECNIS
ESBIO
NANOSAFE2
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL,
GA2LEN,PIONEER
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS,
SAFEFOODS
CASCADE,NOMIRACLE
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS
GABRIEL
MONIQA
EUROPREVALL
CIRCE
MICRODIS
ESBIO,NORMAN,VIROBATHE
EUROPREVALL
ACUTETOX,EMFNET,
SENSITIV
NORMAN,OSIRIS
DIPNA
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
CRESCENDO,ECNIS,
EUROLYMPH,NEWGENERIS
REPROTECT,SAFEFOODS
NANOSAFE2,NANOSH
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
GermanStatutoryAccidentInsurance,Bochum
GermanWeatherService,Hamburg
GeorgAugustUniversity,Göttingen
GrimmAerosolTechnikGmbh&CoKG,Ainring
HelmholtzCentreforEnvironmentalResearch,Leipzig
HelmholtzCentreforInfectionResearch,
Braunschweig
HelmholtzResearchCentreforEnvironmentalHealth,
Munich
IALAutomationundLogistikGMBH,Rötgen
InstituteforCoastalResearch,Geesthacht
InstituteofLungBiologyandDisease,Neuherberg
JohannesGutenbergUniversity,Mainz
KnowledgeMinerSoftware,Panketal
KraftFoodsR&D,Munich
LeibnizInstituteofMarineSciences,Kiel
LeibnizInstituteofPlantBiochemistry,Halle
LEMNATECGMBH,Würselen
LimCoInternational,Ibbenbüren
LudwigMaximiliansUniversity,Munich
MaxPlanckInstituteforBiogeochemistry,Jena
MaxPlanckInstituteforChemistry,Mainz
MaxPlanckInstituteforImmunobiologyand
Epigenetics,Freiburg
MaxPlanckInstituteforMeteorology,Hamburg
MaxPlanckInstituteforMolecularGenetics
Munich
MaxPlanckInstituteofMolecularPlantPhysiology,
Potsdam
MaxPlanckInstituteofPsychiatry,Munich
MaxRubnerInstitute,Karlsruhe
MerckKGaA,Darmstadt
MiltenyiBiotecGmbH,BergischGladbach
MinistryoftheEnvironmentandConservation,
AgricultureandConsumerProtectionoftheStateof
NorthRhineWestphalia,Düsseldorf
MunichUniversityChildren'sHospital
NanogateAdvancedMaterialsGMBH,Saarbrücken
PaulEhrlichInstitute,Langen
PotsdamInstituteforClimateImpactResearch
ProteomeSciencesR&DGmbH&Co.KG,Frankfurt
ProteoSysAG,Mainz
286
ATHON
ENSEMBLES
CASCADE
DIPNA
CAESAR,2FUN,NOMIRACLE,
OSIRIS
HEALTHYWATER
CASCADE,CRESCENDO,
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL,
INTARESE,NANOSAFE2
EUROPREVALL
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
PARTICLE_RISK
CASCADE,CELLNANOTOX,
ECNIS,POLYSOA
CAESAR
EUROPREVALL
ENSEMBLES
PHIME
NOMIRACLE
NOMIRACLE
2
EDEN,GA LEN,
NANOINTERACT
CIRCE
CIRCE
SENSITIV
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
CARCINOGENOMICS
PHIME
CRESCENDO
BRAFO
OSIRIS
SENSITIV
PRONET
GABRIEL
NANOSAFE2
EUROPREVALL
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
SENSITIV
REPROTECT
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
PublicHealthServiceofBadenWürttemberg,
Stuttgart
ResearchCenterBorstel
ResearchAssociationforRadioApplications,Bonn
RuhrUniversity,Bochum
RuprechtKarlsUniversity,Heidelberg
RWTHAachenUniversity
TechnicalUniversityMunich
Tp21GmbH,Saarbrücken
UniversityofAppliedSciences,Stuttgart
UniversityHospitalHeidelberg
UniversityofBonn
UniversityofFreiburg
UniversityofHamburg
UniversityofKassel
UniversityofKonstanz
UniversityofLeipzig
UniversityofMunich
UniversityofMünster
UniversityofStuttgart
UniversityofUlm
UniversityofVeterinaryMedicine,Hannover
UniversityofWürzburg
TechnicalUniversityofKaiserslautern
VDITechnologiezentrumGmbH,Düsseldorf
VerumFoundationforBehaviourandEnvironment,
Munich
WaterResearchCentre(IWW),MülheimanderRuhr
GREECE(EL)
AgriculturalUniversityofAthens
AristotleUniversity,Thessaloniki
ChemicalProcessEngineeringResearchInstitute,
ThermiThessaloniki
HellenicCentreforMarineResearch,AnavissosAttiki
InternationalQualityandEnvironmentServicesS.A.,
Athens
InstituteofAcceleratingSystemsandApplications,
Athens
287
VIROBATHE
GABRIEL
EMFNET
GABRIEL
SENSITIV
NOMIRACLE,SENSITIV
2
GA LEN,SAFEFOODS
CELLNANOTOX
ENSEMBLES
MICRODIS
MONIQA,PHOEBE
REPROTECT,SENSITIV
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES,
METHODEX
ENSEMBLES
ACUTETOX,REPROTECT
PIONEER
NANOSH
CELLNANOTOX,HEIMTSA
ENSEMBLES,ESPREME,
DROPS,HEIMTSA,INTARESE,
METHODEX
GABRIEL
REPROTECT
FURANRA
ATHON,FURANRA
IMPART
EMFNET
NORMAN
EUROPREVALL,
SAFEFOODS
CAIR4HEALTH,EMFNET,
ENSEMBLES,NHRDEVTOX
INTARESE
CIRCE
MONIQA
CIRCE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
InstituteofCommunicationandComputerSystems,
Athens
InstituteofChildHealth,Athens
NationalandKapodistrianUniversityofAthens
NationalCentreforScientificResearchDemokritos,
AghiaParaskevi
NationalHellenicResearchFoundation,Athens
NationalObservatoryofAthens
NationalTechnicalUniversityofAthens
UniversityofCrete,Heraklion
UniversityoftheAegean,Mytilene
UniversityofPatras,PlataniPatras
HUNGARY(HU)
BudapestUniversityofTechnologyandEconomics
CentralFoodResearchInstitute,Budapest
EtzelMüszakiSzolgáltatóBt.,Budapest
"FredericJoliotCurie"NationalResearchInstitutefor
RadiobiologyandRadiohygiene,Budapest
HospitaloftheHospitallerBrothersofStJohnofGod,
Budapest
HungarianAcademyofSciences,DepartmentofViral
VaccinesandPathogenesis,Budapest
HungarianAcademyOfSciences,Institutefor
Sociology,Budapest
“JohanBéla”NationalCentreforEpidemiology,
Budapest
JózsefFodorNationalCenterforPublicHealth,
Budapest
NationalInstituteofEnvironmentalHealth,Budapest
SemmelweissUniversity,Budapest
SzentIstvánUniversity,Budapest
TheCleanAirActionGroup,Budapest
UniversityofPécs
288
CIRCE
PHIME
CIRCE,EUROPREVALL,
2
GA LEN,INTARESE,PHOEBE
HENVINET
ECNIS,ESBIO,NEWGENERIS
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
MONIQA
CIRCE,EDEN,HIWATE,
IMPART,NEWGENERIS
CIRCE,HIWATE
QALIBRA
MONIQA
SAFEFOODS
ESPREME
EMFNET
EUROPREVALL
EDEN
SAFEFOODS
EDEN
ENVIE,EPIBATHE
ECNIS,HEALTHYWATER,
NEWGENERIS
PIONEER
EDEN
METHODEX
CASCADE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
IRELAND(IE)
ArchportLtd,Dublin
AshtownFoodResearchCentre
AthloneInstituteofTechnology,Athlone
DublinInstituteofTechnology
FoodSafetyAuthorityofIreland,Dublin
GlantreoGlan,Cork
Intel,Leixlip
LendacDataSystemsLtd,Dublin
MetEireann(CommunityClimateChangeConsortium
forIreland),Dublin
Medtronic,Galway
NationalUniversityofIreland,Galway
TrinityCollege,Dublin
UniversityCollegeCork
UniversityCollegeDublin
ITALY(IT)
ALTAsrl,Siena
AntonDohrnZoologicalStation,Naples
CatholicUniversityoftheSacredHeart,Milan
CatholicUniversityofPiacenza
CentreforAlpineEcology,Trento
CERICOL,Sovignana
CivicHospitalofBrescia
CLUsrl,CastelfrancoEmilia
ConsortiumforInformationSystems(CSI)Piemonte,
Turin
CSGI,SestoFiorentino
EniEnricoMatteiFoundation,Milan
EnvironmentParkSPA,Turin
EuroMediterraneanCentreforClimateChange,Lecce
GeneticsResearchInstitute&OspedalePoliclinics,
Milano
HylobatesConsultingSrl,Rome
IDIhospital,Rome
InstituteforAtmosphericPollutionResearch,Rende
InstituteforScientificInterchangeFoundation,Torino
289
EXERA
SAFEFOODS
EXERA
IMPART
BENERIS
NANOINTERACT
NANOINTERACT
BENERIS
ENSEMBLES
NANOINTERACT
NANOINTERACT
DEVNERTOX,NANOINTERACT
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL
ACUTETOX,
CARCINOGENOMICS,
NANOINTERACT,
PREDICTOMICS
EXERA
CRESCENDO
2FUN
SAFEFOODS
EDEN
CELLNANOTOX
EXERA
CIRCE
HENVINET
NANOTOX
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES,
VERHICHILDREN
NOMIRACLE
CIRCE
ECNIS
HIWATE
SENSITIV
ESPREME
ECNIS
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
InstituteofAtmosphericSciencesandClimate,
Bolognaandotherlocations
InstituteofBiometeorology,Florence
InstituteofPharmacologicalResearchMarioNegri,
Milan
InstituteofSciencesofFoodProduction(ISPA),Rome
InstituteofStudiesfortheIntegrationofSystems,
Rome
InteruniversitaryConsortiumforMagneticResonance
ofParamagneticMetalloproteins,SestoFiorentino
InteruniversityMarineBiologyandAppliedEcology
Centre"G.Bacci"(CIBM),Livorno
ItalianNationalAgencyforNewTechnologies,Energy
andtheEnvironmentofItaly(ENEA),Rome
ItalianNationalCentreforPreventionofHeatHealth
Effects,Rome
ItalianNationalInstituteforOceanographyand
ExperimentalGeophysics,SgonicoTrieste
ItalianNationalInstituteofGeophysicsand
Volcanology,Bologna
ItalianNationalReferenceCentreforVeterinary
Epidemiology'G.Caporale',Teramo
ItalianNationalHealthInstitute(ISS),Rome
ItalianNationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Milan
ItalianNationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Pisa
ItalianNationalResearchCouncil(CNR),Rome
ItalianNationalResearchInstituteforFoodand
Nutrition(INRAN),Rome
MagnaGræciaUniversity,Catanzaro
MBNNanomaterialiaSPA,Carbonera
MilanPolytechnicInstitute
NationalInstituteforCancerResearch,Genoa
NationalInstituteforOccupationalsafetyand
Prevention,Rome
RegionalEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyforEmilia
Romagna(ARPA),Bologna
RegionalEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyfor
Lombardia(ARPA),Milan
RomeEnvironmentalHealthAuthority
SanCarloClinic,PadernoDugnano
SecondUniversityofNaples
SpallanzaniInstitute,Cremona
UniversityofBologna
UniversityofBrescia
290
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES,POLYSOA
CIRCE
ATHON,CAESAR,CASCADE,
HIWATE,OSIRIS,RAINBOW
MONIQA
METHODEX
EUROPREVALL
ENVIE
CIRCE,EMFNET,HENVINET,
REPROTECT
INTARESE
CIRCE
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
EDEN
ACUTETOX,CASCADE,
EDEN,EMFNET,FURANRA,
OSIRIS,REPROTECT,
SAFEFOODS,VIROBATHE
EMFNET
DIPNA
EUROPREVALL,GA2LEN
CASCADE,MONIQA
DIPNA
NANOTOX
CAESAR,RAINBOW
HENVINET,NEWGENERIS
EMFNET
ENSEMBLES
ESBIO
ENVIE,INTARESE
EUROPREVALL
CRESCENDO,MONIQA
REPROTECT
CIRCE,EMFNET,MONIQA
PHIME
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
UniversityofCagliari
UniversityofCa’Foscari,Venice
UniversityofFlorence
UniversityofGenoa
UniversityofL'Aquila,Coppito
UniversityofMilan
UniversityofModenaandReggioEmilia
UniversityofPalermo
UniversityofParma
UniversityofPavia
UniversityofPiemonteOrientale"Amedeo
Avogadro",Vercelli
UniversityofPisa
UniversityofRome'LaSapienza'
UniversityofRome"TorVergata"
UniversityofSalento,Lecce
UniversityofSiena
UniversityofTrieste
UniversityofTuscia,Viterbo
UniversityofUdine
UniversityofVenice
UniversityofVerona
VeniceResearchConsortium(CVR)
WaterResearchInstitute,Bari
Zadigromasrl,Rome
LATVIA(LV)
LatvianSocietyofToxicology,Riga
PVDFoodandVeterinaryService,Riga
PublicHealthAgencyofLatvia,Riga
LATVIA(LV)LITHUANIA(LT)
CentreforCommunicableDiseasesPreventionand
Control,Vilnius
KaunasUniversityofMedicine
KaunasUniversityofTechnology
VilniusUniversity
VytautasMagnusUniversity,Kaunas
291
EUROLYMPH
2FUN
ENSEMBLES,MICRODIS,
SENSITIV
2
EMFNET,GA LEN
CIRCE
CASCADE,CRESCENDO,
ENVIE,EXERA,NOMIRACLE,
SENSITIV
DIPNA,HiWATE
2
GA LEN
DEVNERTOX
DEVNERTOX
NOMIRACLE
VIROBATHE
EDEN,EMFNET,PIONEER
SAFEFOODS,VIROBATHE
CIRCE
REPROTECT
PHOEBE
CIRCE,DIEPHY,FURANRA
PHIME
PARTICLE_RISK
GABRIEL
PARTICLE_RISK
CIRCE
CIRCE
IMPART
SAFEFOODS
EDEN
EDEN
PHIME
IMPART,NOMIRACLE
EUROPREVALL
HIWATE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
LUXEMBOURG(LU)
CELLONSA,Bereldange
InitiativLiewensufankasbl,Itzig
NETHERLANDS(NL)
AcademicMedicalCentreofUniversityofAmsterdam
Agrotechnology&Foodlnnovations,Ijmuiden
AlterraBv,Wageningen
BioDetectionSystemsBV,Amsterdam
BioMaDeTechnologyFoundation,Groningen
DelftUniversityofTechnology
DSM,TeHeerlen
DutchInstituteofFoodSafety(RIKILT),Wageningen
EcobabyFoundation,Amsterdam
EnvironmentHealthSciencesInternational(EHSI),
Hulst
ErasmusUniversityMedicalCentre,Rotterdam
GroningenUniversityHospital
HealthnetInternationalFoundation,Amsterdam
InstituteofAppliedScientificResearch(TNO),Utrecht,
Zeist,Leiden,Delft
InVitroTestingIndustrialPlatform,Rotterdam
KWRWatercycleResearchInstitute,Nieuwegein
LeidenUniversity
MaastrichtUniversity
MinistryforHousing,SpatialPlanningand
Environment,DenHaag
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthandthe
Environment(RIVM),Bilthoven
292
EXERA
ESBIO
2
EUROPREVALL,GA LEN
EUROPREVALL
NOMIRACLE
NEWGENERIS,REPROTECT
IMPART
BENERIS
NANOINTERACT
SAFEFOODS
HENVINET
ESBIO
PHOEBE,REPROTECT
EUROPREVALL
MICRODIS
CAESAR,CARCINOGENOMICS,
GABRIEL,HEIMTSA,
HENVINET,INTARESE,
NANOSH,OSIRIS,REPROTECT
ACUTETOX,RAINBOW,
SENSITIV
OSIRIS
CARCINOGENOMICS,
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL,
PREDICTOMICS
CARCINOGENOMICS,ECNIS,
EUROPREVALL,INTARESE,
NEWGENERIS,SAFEFOODS
PRONET
BRAFO,FOOD&FECUNDITY,
INTARESE,MONIQA,
NANOINTERACT,NOMIRACLE,
NORMAN,OSIRIS,RAINBOW,
REPROTECT,RETHINK,SAFE
FOODS,VIROBATHE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
NetherlandsAnaphylaxisNetworkFoundation,
Dordrecht
NetherlandsEnvironmentalAssessmentAgency,
Bilthoven
PublicHealthServicesGelderlandMidden,Arnhem
RadboudUniversity,Nijmegen
RoyalNetherlandsMeteorologicalInstitute,DeBilt
SanquinBloodSupplyFoundation,Amsterdam
UniversityofGroningen
UniversityofMaastricht
UtrechtUniversity
VUUniversity,Amsterdam
WageningenUniversity
POLAND(PL)
BuildingResearchInstitute(ITB),Warsaw
CentreforMedicalBiology,PolishAcademyof
Medicine,ód
CentralInstituteforLabourProtection–
NationalResearchInstitute,Warsaw
InstituteforEcologyofIndustrialAreas(IETU),
Katowice
lnstituteofAnimalReproductionandFoodResearch,
Olsztyn
InstituteofOccupationalMedicineand
EnvironmentalHealth,Sosnowiec
JagiellonianUniversityMedicalCollege,Cracow
MedicalResearchCenter,PolishAcademyofSciences,
Warsaw
MedicalUniversityofBiaystok
MedicalUniversityofód
MedicalUniversityofSilesia,Katowice
MedicalUniversityofWarsaw
NationalFoodandNutritionInstitute,Warsaw
NETIXSkrzypczynski,KrzysztofowiczSp.J.,Warsaw
293
EUROPREVALL
ENSEMBLES,INTARESE
HENVINET,PRONET
NOMIRACLE
ENSEMBLES
EUROPREVALL
GABRIEL
EUROPREVALL
ACUTETOX,CAIR4HEALTH,
ECNIS,EDEN,EUROPREVALL,
2
GABRIEL,GA LEN,HEIMTSA,
INTARESE,SAFEFOODS
ATHON,CIRCE,FURANRA,
NOMIRACLE,NORMAN,
OSIRIS,PHOEBE,SENSITIV
EUROPREVALL,HENVINET,
NOMIRACLE,QALIBRA,
OSIRIS,SAFEFOODS
ENVIE
NHRDEVTOX
EMFNET,NANOSH
DROPS,ESPREME,2FUN,
PHIME
EUROPREVALL
PHIME
2
EUROPREVALL,GA LEN,
NOMIRACLE
NHRDEVTOX
EDEN
2
EUROPREVALL,GA LEN
DROPS
ACUTETOX
MONIQA
ECNIS
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
NicolausCopernicusUniversity,CollegiumMedicumin
Bydgoszcz
NILUPolskaLtd.,Katowice
NoferInstituteofOccupationalMedicine,ód
PlantBreedingandAcclimatisationInstitute,Blonie
ResearchCentreforAgriculturalandForest
Environment,Poznan
UniversityofWarsaw
WroclawMedicalUniversity
PORTUGAL(PT)
AveiroUniversity
InstituteofMechanicalEngineering,Lisbon
LisbonFacultyofMedicine,PreventiveMedicine
Instutute,EnvironmentalHealthUnit
NewUniversityofLisbon,InstituteofTropicalHygiene
andMedicine
SPIPortugal,Porto
UniversityofCoimbra
UniversityofLisbon,FacultyofSciences
UniversityofPorto
ROMANIA(RO)
DanubeDeltaNationalInstituteforResearch,Tulcea
County
InstituteofFoodBioresources,Bucharest
InstituteofPhysicalChemistryI.G.Murgulescu,
Bucharest
NationalInstituteofHydrologyandWater
Management,Bucharest
NationalInstituteofResearchandDevelopmentof
MicrobiologyandImmunology"Cantacuzino",
Bucarest
NationalInstituteofResearchandDevelopmentfor
TechnicalPhysics,Iasi
NationalMeteorologicalAdministration,Bucharest
UniversityofCraiova
294
ECNIS
DROPS,ESPREME,HEIMTSA
DEVNERTOX,DIEPHY,ECNIS,
ESBIO,IMPART,
NANOINTERACT,NANOTOX,
NHRDEVTOX,OSIRIS
SAFEFOODS
ENSEMBLES
METHODEX,PHIME
GABRIEL
NOMIRACLE
ENVIE
ESBIO
EDEN
SAFEFOODS
2
GA LEN
CIRCE,2FUN
VIROBATHE
EDEN
HENVINET
IMPART
ENSEMBLES
EDEN
IMPART
ENSEMBLES
IMPART
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
SLOVAKIA(SK)
EnvironmentalInstitute,Koš
SlovakAcademyofSciences,InstituteofExperimental
Endocrinology,Bratislava
SlovakAcademyofSciences,DepartmentofMedical
Zoology
SlovakMedicalUniversity,Bratislava
SlovakTechnicalUniversity,Bratislava
WaterResearchInstitute,Bratislava
SLOVENIA(SI)
InstituteofPublicHealthoftheRepublicofSlovenia,
Ljubljana
JožefStefanInstitute,Ljubljana
MedicalFacultyofLjubljana,InstituteofMicrobiology
NationalInstituteofChemistry,Ljubljana
RegionalAuthorityofPublicHealthBanskáBystrica
UniversityMedicalCentre,Ljubljana
SPAIN(ES)
AdvancedInVitroCellTechnologies,Barcelona
AssociationforResearchandIndustrialCooperationof
AndalusiaF.dePaulaRojas"(AICIA),Sevilla
AutonomousUniversityofBarccelona
AutonomousUniversityofMadrid
BarcelonaSciencePark
CarlosIIIHealthInstitute,Madrid
CatalanInstituteofNanotechnology,Barcelona
CatalanInstituteofOncology,Barcelona
CentreforEnergy,EnvironmentandTechnology
Research(CIEMAT),Madrid
CentreforGenomicRegulation,Barcelona
CentreforResearchonEnvironmentalEpidemiology
(CREAL),Barcelona
ComplutenseUniversityofMadrid
CMPCientificaSl,LasRozas
295
NORMAN
CASCADE
EDEN
ENVIRISK,HEIMTSA,
HENVINET,INTARESE,
NEWGENERIS
HENVINET
NORMAN
OSIRIS
IMPART,NANOSAFE2,
NORMAN,PHIME
EDEN
CAESAR
ESBIO,PHIME
PHIME
ACUTETOX,
CARCINOGENOMICS
ENVIE
NEWGENERIS
2
GA LEN
CIRCE,INTARESE
EDEN
DIPNA
ECNIS,EUROLYMPH,
HIWATE
ACUTETOX,EUROREVALL
HIWATE
HIWATE,NEWGENERIS
CIRCE
NANOTOX
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
FoundationforBiomedicalResearchatRamonyCajal
UniversityHospital,Madrid
FoundationforClimateResearch,Madrid
FundaciónHospitalAlcorcon,Madrid
FundaciónPrivadaparalaInvestigaciónNutricional,
Barcelona
GaikerFoundation,Zamudio(Bizkaia)
HospitalClinicoSanCarlosdeMadrid
InstituteofBiomedicalResearch,Barcelona
InstituteofEarthSciences,Barcelona
InVitroTestingIndustrialPlatform,TresCantos
LaFeUniversityHospital,Valencia
LaPazUniversityHospital,Madrid
MediterraneanCentreforEnvironmentalStudies,
Valencia
MolecularDiagnosticsCenter,Orihuela
MunicipalInstituteofMedicalResearch(IMIM),
Barcelona
NeikerTecnalia,theBasqueInstituteforAgricultural
ResearchandDevelopment,Derio
NosciraSA,Madrid
PHARMAMAR,S.A.,ColmenarViejo
PompeuFabraUniversity,Barcelona
PolytechnicUniversityofCatalonia,Barcelona
PublicHealthAgencyofBarcelona
PrinceFelipeResearchCentre,Valencia
ProgenikaBiopharma,S.A.,Derio
ProteomikaS.L.,Derio
Rovira&VirgiliUniversity,Reus
ScientificWriting&ConsultancyS.C.,Pedreguer
SimppleS.L.,Tarragona
SpanishNationalInstituteofMeteorology,Madrid
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Barcelona
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Madrid
SpanishNationalResearchCouncil(CSIC),Sevilla
TechnicalUniversityofMadrid(UPM)
TechnologicalInstitutefortheMarineEnvironment
ControlofGalicia,VillagarciadeArousa
UniversityofAlcaládeHenares,Madrid
UniversityofBarcelona
UniversityofCantabria,Santander
296
EUROPREVALL
ENSEMBLES
EUROPREVALL
BENERIS
ACUTETOX,MONIQA
EUROPREVALL
ACUTETOX
CIRCE
REPROTECT
ACUTETOX,
CARCINOGENOMICS,
PREDICTOMICS
EUROPREVALL
CIRCE
HEALTHYWATER
GA2LEN,HIWATE,INTARESE
EDEN
ACUTETOX
PREDICTOMICS
PHOEBE
CIRCE
PRONET
ATHON,DEVNERTOX
PREDICTOMICS
SENSITIV
EPIBATHE,HEALTHYWATER,
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS
SENSITIV
OSIRIS
ENSEMBLES
INTARESE,NOMIRACLE
CRESCENDO,NORMAN
EDEN
CIRCE
CIRCE
CIRCE
ACUTETOX,EDEN,
HEALTHYWATER,
VIROBATHE
ENSEMBLES
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
UniversityofCastillaLaMancha,Toledo
UniversityofGranada
UniversityofSantiagodeCompostela,Vigo
UniversityoftheBalearicIslands,PalmadeMallorca
UniversityoftheBasqueCountry,Leioa
UniversityofValencia
SWEDEN(SE)
AxcentuaPharmaceuticals,Huddinge
BiovitrumAB,Stockholm
CellartisAB,Gothenburg
EnvironmentalCompetenceABExpertrådet,
Sollentuna
FaciliaAB,Bromma
KaroBioAB,Huddinge
KarolinskaInstitute,Stockholm/Huddinge
LeocordiaAB,Stockholm
LundUniversity
NationalFoodAdministration,Uppsala
NationalInstituteforWorkingLife,Stockholm
PhadiaAB,Uppsala
RoyalInstituteofTechnology,Stockholm
Scarab,Stockholm
StockholmCountyCouncil
StockholmUniversity
SwedishEnvironmentalResearchInstitute,
Gothenburg/Stockholm
SwedishFundforResearchwithoutAnimal
Experiments,Älvsjö
SwedishInstituteforInfectiousDiseaseControl,Solna
SwedishMeteorologicalandHydrologicalInstitute,
Norrköping
SwedishNationalTestingandResearchInstitute,
Borås
UniversityofGothenburg
297
ENSEMBLES
CASCADE
CIRCE
CIRCE
CIRCE
ACUTETOX,EDEN
CRESCENDO
ACUTETOX
CARCINOGENOMICS
ACUTETOX
2FUN
CASCADE,CRESCENDO
ATHON,CASCADE,
CRESCENDO,DIEHY,ECNIS,
EMFNET,ESBIO,GABRIEL,
INTARESE,NEWGENERIS,
PHIME,PHOEBE,PIONEER,
RAINBOW
ECNIS
ECNIS,ENSEMBLES,
NANOINTERACT,PHIME,
SENSITIV
SAFEFOODS
EMFNET
EUROPREVALL
ACUTETOX
HIWATE
PRONET
ACUTETOX,DIEPHY,
HENVINET,NEWGENERIS,
NOMIRACLE,NORMAN,
OSIRIS
ESPREME
ACUTETOX
EDEN,HIWATE
ENSEMBLES
ENVIE
2
GA LEN,SAFEFOODS
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
UmeåUniversity
ACUTETOX,ATHON,
HENVINET,PHIME
ACUTETOX,DEVNERTOX,
REPROTECT
UppsalaUniversity
UNITEDKINGDOM(UK)
AEATechnologyPlc,Didcot
AnaphylaxisCampaign,FarnboroughHampshire
BaigentLtd,Chesham
BiomathematicsandStatisticsScotland,Edinburgh
BuildingResearchEstablishment(BRE),Watford
CampdenBRI,ChippingCampden
CambridgeEconometricsLimited
CentralManchesterandManchesterChildren's
UniversityHospitalsNationalHealthServiceTrust
CentralScienceLaboratory,York
ChalexResearchLtd,StMarychurch
CranfieldUniversity
CyprotexPLC,Macclesfield
CXRBiosciencesLTD,Dundee
EcoTraceLimited,Camberley
EMRC,Reading
EnvironmentAgency,Rothley,Starcross
FoodandEnvironmentResearchAgency,York
FrancisCarpanini,Crownthorne
HealthandSafetyExecutiveHealthandSafety
Laboratory,Buxton
HealthProtectionAgency,variouslocations
HospitalityandLeisureManpower,KingstonUpon
Thames
ICConsultantsLtd,London
ImperialCollegeofScience,TechnologyAndMedicine,
London
InstituteofCancerResearch,Sutton
InstituteofFoodResearch,Norwich
InstituteofOccupationalMedicine,Edinburgh
IntrinsiqMaterialsLtd,Bristol
IPPragmatics,TheLondonBioscienceInnovation
Centre,London
298
METHODEX
EUROPREVALL
EUROPREVALL
SAFEFOODS
ENVIE
MONIQA
DROPS
EUROPREVALL
CAESAR,HENVINET,
MONIQA,VIROBATHE
NANOTOX
ENVIE
OSIRIS
NHRDEVTOX
FURANRA
METHODEX
NORMAN,VIROBATHE
QALIBRA
NHRDEVTOX
NANOSAFE2,NANOSH
ESBIO,INTARESE,VIROBATHE
EUROPREVALL
HIWATE,INTARESE
BRAFO,CARCINOGENOMICS,
ECNIS,EUROPREVALL,
GABRIEL,HEIMTSA,
HIWATE,INTARESE,PHOEBE,
PIONEER,REPROTECT
ECNIS
EUROPREVALL,MONIQA,
SAFEFOODS
ESPREME,METHODEX,
PARTICLE_RISK
NANOSAFE2
EUROPREVALL
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
King'sCollegeLondon
LancasterUniversity
LHASALTD,Leeds
LiverpoolJohnMooresUniversity
LondonSchoolofEconomics
LondonSchoolofHygieneandTropicalMedicine
MetOffice,Exeter
NapierUniversity,Edinburgh
NationalPhysicalLaboratory,Teddington
NationalRadiologicalProtectionBoard,Harwell
NaturalEnvironmentResearchCouncil,Wallingford/
SwindonWiltshire
NationalHeartandLungInstitute,London
NaturalHistoryMuseum,London
OxonicaLtd,Kidlington
PaulWatkissAssociatesLtd,Oxford
RothamstedResearchLimited,Harpenden
ScottishCropResearchInstitute,Dundee
SurfaceTherapeutics,Oxford
TepnelBiosystemsLTD,Deeside
UlsterUniversity,Coleraine
UnileverUKCentralResourcesLimited,Sharnbrook
UnitedBristolHealthcareNHSTrust
UniversityCollegeLondon
UniversityofAberdeen
UniversityofBath
UniversityofBirmingham
UniversityofBradford
UniversityofBristol
UniversityofCambridge
UniversityofDundee
UniversityofEastAnglia,Norwich
UniversityofEdinburgh
UniversityofExeter
UniversityofGlasgow
UniversityofGreenwich
UniversityofHertfordshire,Hatfield
299
EUROPREVALL,NOMIRACLE,
SAFEFOODS
NOMIRACLE
NOMIRACLE
CAESAR,
CARCINOGENOMICS,OSIRIS,
REPROTECT
ENSEMBLES
EDEN,ENSEMBLES,INTARESE
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES
PARTICLE_RISK
NORMAN
EMFNET
CIRCE,NOMIRACLE
2
GA LEN
EDEN
NANOSAFE2
METHODEX
EUROPREVALL
SAFEFOODS
GABRIEL
EUROPREVALL
NANOINTERACT,PHIME
CARCINOGENOMICS,
EUROPREVALL,SENSITIV
ATHON,HENVINET
NANOSAFE2
ACUTETOX
HEIMTSA,METHODEX
CIRCE,FURANRA
EMFNET,NEWGENERIS
ENSEMBLES,GABRIEL,
PHOEBE
NOMIRACLE
ECNIS
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES,
EPIBATHE,EUROPREVALL,
HEALTHYWATER,
VERHICHILDREN
PARTICLE_RISK
HEIMTSA,OSIRIS
NANOSAFE2
MICRODIS
CAIR4HEALTH,ENVIRISK,
HENVINET
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
UniversityofLeeds
UniversityofLeicester
UniversityofLiverpool
UniversityofLondon,StGeorge's
UniversityofManchester
UniversityofNorthumbria,Newcastle
UniversityofNottingham
UniversityofOxford
UniversityofReading
UniversityofSouthampton
UniversityofSurrey,Guildford
UniversityofSussex,Brighton
UniversityoftheWestofEngland,Bristol
UniversityofWales,Aberystwyth
UniversityofYork
UKBiobankLtd,Stockport
WessexInstituteofTechnology,Southampton
WRcLtd,Swindon
300
EMFNET,NEWGENERIS
ECNIS,NANOSH,
NEWGENERIS,PHOEBE
EDEN,ENSEMBLES,
SENSITIV
GABRIEL
IMPART,NANOTOX
MICRODIS
ACUTETOX
EDEN,ENSEMBLES,GABRIEL,
NANOINTERACT,
NANOSAFE2
ENSEMBLES
CIRCE,EUROPREVALL,
2
GA LEN,NOMIRACLE,PHIME
IMPART
SAFEFOODS
SENSITIV
EPIBATHE,VIROBATHE
CIRCE,EUROLYMPH,PHIME
PHOEBE
FOOD&FECUNDITY
NOMIRACLE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
COUNTRIESFROMOUTSIDETHEEUROPEANUNIONEUROPE
CROATIA(HR)
InstituteforMedicalResearchandOccupational
Health,Zagreb
OikonLtd.,Zagreb
ICELAND(IS)
LandspitaliUniversityhospital,Reykjavik
NORWAY(NO)
BiosenseLaboratoriesAS,Bergen
CenterforInternationalClimateandEnvironmental
Research,Oslo
NorwegianFoodResearchInstituteMatforsk,Ås
NansenEnvironmentalandRemoteSensingCentre,
Bergen
NationalVeterinaryInstitute,Oslo
NorwegianInstituteforAirResearch(NILU),Kjeller
NorwegianInstituteofPublicHealth,Oslo
NorwegianMeteorologicalInstitute,Oslo
NorwegianSchoolofVeterinaryScience,Oslo
SwecoGrønerAs,Oslo
UniversityofOslo
RUSSIANFEDERATION(RU)
A.N.BakhInstituteofBiochemistryoftheRussian
AcademyofScience,Moscow
InstituteofBiochemistry&Genetics,Ufa
InstituteofMedicalGenetics,Tomsk
MeteorologicalSynthesizingCentreEast,Moscow
SiberianStateMedicalUniversity,Tomsk
301
ESBIO,HENVINET,
NEWGENERIS
PHIME
EUROPREVALL
NORMAN
ENSEMBLES
MONIQA,SAFEFOODS
ENSEMBLES
HENVINET,VIROBATHE
DROPS,ENVIE,ENVIRISK,
ESPREME,HEIMTSA,
HENVINET,INTARESE
NEWGENERIS,PHOEBE
ENSEMBLES,HEIMTSA
HENVINET
HEIMTSA,METHODEX,
MICRODIS
ATHON,CRESCENDO,
2
ENSEMBLES,GA LEN,
HENVINET,NEWGENERIS
SAFEFOODS
GABRIEL
GABRIEL
ESPREME,HEIMTSA
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
SERBIA(RS)
VincaInstituteofNuclearSciences,Belgrade
SWITZERLAND(CH)
CosmitalSA,Marly
CSEMSA,Neuchatel
FoundationforResearchonInformationTechnologies
inSociety,Zürich
GenedataAG,Basel
InstituteforResearchinBiomedicine,Bellinzona
InstituteofAllergyandAsthmaResearch,Zürich
LausanneInstituteofTechnology(EPFL)
NESTECSA,Vevey
NestléResearchCentre,Lausanne
PaulScherrerInstitute,Villingen
Procter&GambleInternationalOperationsSa,Lancy
SwissFederalOfficeofPublicHealth,Bern
SwissFederalInstituteofTechnology,Zürich
SwissFederalLaboratoriesforMaterialsTestingand
Research,Dübendorf,StGallen
SwissFederalOfficeofMeteorologyandClimatology,
Zürich
SwissiInstituteforthePromotionofSafetyand
Security,Zürich
TemasAgTechnologyandManagementServices,
Arbon
UniversityofGeneva
UniversityofBasel
UniversityofBern
UniversityofFribourg
UniversityofLausanne
UniversityofZürich
TURKEY(TR)
EgeUniversityMedicalSchool,BornovaIzmir
HacettepeUniversity,Ankara
TubitakMarmaraResearchCenterFoodInstitute,
GebzeKocaeli
302
DIEPHY,INTARESE
SENSITIV
DIPNA,NANOSAFE2
EMFNET
CARCINOGENOMICS,
NEWGENERIS
SENSITIV
2
GA LEN
NOMIRACLE
EUROPREVALL
FURANRA
CIRCE,POLYSOA
OSIRIS
SAFEFOODS
ENSEMBLES,HEIMTSA,
NOMIRACLE,OSIRIS
IMPART
ENSEMBLES
NANOSAFE2
IMPART
CRESCENDO,ENSEMBLES
GABRIEL
CIRCE,ENSEMBLES,OSIRIS,
POLYSOA
ENSEMBLES
ACUTETOX,CRESCENDO
ACUTETOX,EUROPREVALL,
PHIME
EDEN
EDEN,MONIQA
MONIQA
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
COUNTRIESFROMOUTSIDETHEEUROPEANUNIONAFRICA
ALGERIA(DZ)
AssociationforResearchonClimateandEnvironment,
Oran
PasteurInstitute,Alger
EGYPT(EG)
AinShamsUniversity,Cairo
CentreforEnvironmentandDevelopmentforArab
RegionandEurope,Cairo
GHANA(GH)
RoguchiMemorialInstituteforMedicalResearch,
Accra
MOROCCO(MR)
HassanIIAgroveterninaryInstitute,Rabat
NationalInstituteofHygiene,Rabat
SENEGAL(SN)
PasteurInstitute,Dakar
SenegaleseInstituteofAgriculturalResearch,Dakar
SEYCHELLES(SC)
MinistryofHealth,Victoria,Seychelles
SOUTHAFRICA(ZA)
CouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch,Pretoria
eThekwiniMunicipality,Durban
303
CIRCE
EDEN
MONIQA
CIRCE
EUROPREVALL
EDEN
EDEN
EDEN
EDEN
PHIME
SAFEFOODS
HENVINET
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
TUNISIA(TN)
NationalInstituteofMarineScienceandTechnology,
Salammbo
PasteurInstituteofTunis
304
CIRCE
CIRCE
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
COUNTRIESFROMOUTSIDETHEEUROPEANUNIONAMERICAS
ARGENTINA(AR)
ArgentineanAssociationofDoctorsforthe
HENVINET
Environment(AAMMA),BuenosAires
CANADA(CA)
HealthCanada,Ottawa
ATHON
McGillUniversity,Montreal
PHOEBE
UniversityofMontreal
PHOEBE
ECUADOR(EC)
UniversidadSanFranciscodeQuito
GABRIEL
MEXICO(MX)
NationalInstituteforPublicHealthofMexico,
HENVINET
Cuernavaoa,Morelos
UNITEDSTATESOFAMERICA(US)
ColumbiaUniversity,NewYork
ENSEMBLES
RiceUniversity,Houston,Texas
NANOINTERACT
UniversityofRochester,NewYork
PHIME
305
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
COUNTRIESFROMOUTSIDETHEEUROPEANUNIONASIA
BANGLADESH(BD)
InternationalCentreforDiarrhoealDiseaseResearch,
Dhaka
INDIA(IN)
AllergyAsthmaAssociates,Mysore
IntegralUniversity,Lucknow
JadavpurUniversity,Calcutta
UniversityofDelhi
VoluntaryHealthAssociationofIndia,NewDelhi
INDONESIA(ID)
InstitutePertanianBogor,Bogor
UniversityofIndonesia,Depok
ISRAEL(IL)
AnalystResearchLaboratoryLtd,Rehovot
BenGurionUniversityoftheNegev,BeerSheva
HebrewUniversityofJerusalem
NanoPowdersIndustries(Israel)Ltd.,Caesarea
OSMDANLtd,Rehovot
TechnionIsraelInstituteofTechnology,Haifa
TelAvivUniversity
TheVolcaniCenter,BetDagan
UniversityofHaifa
VocaltagLtd,MigdalHaemek
WeizmannInstituteofScience,Rehovot
PAKISTAN(PK)
TheAgaKhanUniversity,Karachi
306
PHIME
EUROPREVALL
HENVINET
MICRODIS
MICRODIS
MICRODIS
MONIQA
MICRODIS
FOOD&FECUNDITY
CIRCE
CIRCE
IMPART
FOOD&FECUNDITY
ENVIRISK
CELLNANOTOX,CIRCE
FOOD&FECUNDITY
CIRCE
MONIQA
NANOINTERACT
PIONEER
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
PEOPLE'SREPUBLICOFCHINA(CN)
BeijingUniversity
ChineseAcademyofAgriculturalSciences,
InstituteofCropGermplasmResources,Beijing
ChineseCerealsandOilsAssociation,Beijing
ChineseNationalInstituteofNutritionandFood
Safety,Beijing
ChineseUniversityofHongKong
FudanUniversity,Shanghai
SichuanUniversity,Chengdu
PHILIPPINES(PH)
Citizens'DisasterResponseCenterFoundation,
QuezonCity
XavierUniversity,CagayanDeOroCity
SINGAPORE(SG)
GenomeInstituteofSingapore
SYRIA(SY)
InternationalCentreforAgriculturalResearchinthe
DryAreas,Aleppo
VIETNAM(VN)
HanoiSchoolofPublicHealth
HanoiUniversityofTechnology
HueUniversity,HueCity
307
HENVINET
SAFEFOODS
MONIQA
SAFEFOODS
EUROPREVALL,GABRIEL
PHIME
MONIQA
MICRODIS
MICRODIS
CRESCENDO
CIRCE
MICRODIS
MONIQA
MICRODIS
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
COUNTRIESFROMOUTSIDETHEEUROPEANUNIONAUSTRALIAAND
OCEANIA
AUSTRALIA(AU)
BureauofMeteorologyResearchCentre,Melbourne
NEWZEALAND(NZ)
InstituteofEnvironmentalScienceandResearch,
Christchurch
308
ENSEMBLES
MONIQA
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
INTERNATIONALORGANISATIONS
EUROPEANUNION(EU)
EuropeanCommission,JointResearchCentre(JRC),
Ispra
ACUTETOX,CAIR4HEALTH,
CARCINOGENOMICS,
CELLNANOTOX,CIRCE,DIPNA,
EMFNET,ENSEMBLES,ENVIE,
2FUN,GABRIEL,HEIMTSA,
HENVINET,MONIQA,
NOMIRACLE,NORMAN,OSIRIS,
PREDICTOMICS,REPROTECT,
SENSITIV
ORGANISATIONFORECONOMICCOOPERATIONAND
DEVELOPMENT(OECD)
EnvironmentDirectorate
TESTMETEDECO,
VERHICHILDREN
UNITEDNATIONS(UN)
InternationalAgencyforResearchonCancer,Lyon
AbdusSalamInternationalCentreforTheoretical
Physics,Trieste
UnitedNationsOfficefortheCoordinationof
HumanitarianAffairs,NewYork
WorldHealthOrganization,Geneva,Rome
EMFNET,ECNIS,EUROLYMPH
ENSEMBLES
MICRODIS
CIRCE,EMFNET,EPIBATHE,
HENVINET,INTARESE
OTHERINTERNATIONALORGANISATIONS
EuropeanAcademyofAllergologyandClinical
GA2LEN
Immunology(EAACI),Brussels
EuroAEGISEuropeanAgroEnvironmentalHealth
EDEN
Associates,Zoersel
EuropeanBioinformaticsInstitute,Cambridge
CARCINOGENOMICS
EuropeanCentreforMediumRangeWeather
ENSEMBLES
Forecasts,Reading
EuropeanChemicalIndustryCouncil(CEFIC),Brussels
INTARESE
309
AnnexA ParticipatingCountriesandInstitutesinFP6FundedEnvironmentAnd HealthProjects
EuropeanConsensusPlatformon3RAlternativesto
AnimalExperimentation(ECOPA),Brussels
EuropeanCosmeticToiletryandPerfumery
Association(COLIPA),Brussels
EuropeanFederationofAllergyandAsthmaPatients
Associations(EFA),Brussels
EuropeanFoodInformationCouncil,Brussels
EuropeanMolecularBiologyLaboratory(EMBL),
Heidelberg
EuropeanOilCompanyOrganisationforEnvironment,
HealthandSafety(CONCAWE),Brussels
EuropeanTechnicalTradeUnionOfficeforHealthand
Safety,Brussels
EuropeanTelecommunicationNetworkOperators'
Association(ETNO),Brussels
GsmAssociation,London
ILSIEurope,Brussels
InternationalCommissiononNonIonizingRadiation
Protection,Oberschleissheim
InternationalGlobalEthicsAssociationIgea,Ghent
MobileManufacturersForum,Brussels
UnionoftheElectricityIndustryEurelectric,Brussels
310
CARCINOGENOMICS,
PREDICTOMICS,SENSITIV
SENSITIV
EUROPREVALL,GA2LEN
SAFEFOODS
CRESCENDO
ESBIO
EMFNET
EMFNET
EMFNET
BRAFO
EMFNET
EMFNET
EMFNET
EMFNET
AnnexB– VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
AnnexB
Variousissues
addressedbyFP6projects
Explanationofsymbolsused:
Projectrelatedto:Chemicals[
foodallergens[
[
];Ambientairpollutants[)],Environmental/
],Indoorairpollutants[]],Climaticfactors[¾],Extremeevents
],Nanoparticles[€],Microbialagents[×],Ultravioletradiation[Ò],Ionising
radiation[
],Nonionisingradiation[ª],Noise[”],Pharmaceuticals[
],waste
[
]
Projectaddressinghorizontal/crosscutting/coordinatingissues[4]
Project of some relevance to environment and health research and/or policy
making,butinwhichhealthorenvironmentalaspectsareminor[Ä]
Whentherearetwosymbols,theprojectaddressestwoissues,thefirstofwhichis
consideredtobethemajorfocusoftheproject
311
312
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Support,toolsandmethodsdevelopmentfor
environmentandhealth
313
314
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Reviewofknowledge,
Nb
projects
27
Projectacronyms
[4]:CAIR4HEALTH,HENVINET,PHOEBE
coordination,
[4,]]:ENVIE
metaanalysis
[4,ª]:EMFNET
[4,€]:IMPART
[4,],”]:PRONET
[4,
[4,
[
]:RAINBOW,ECNIS,ESBIO
,×,)]:GA2LEN
]:BRAFO,CARCINOGENOMICS,
CASCADE,NHRDEVTOX,QALIBRA,
TESTMETEDECO
[),
]:ENVIRISK
[),
,
[4,
,
[),
,]]:DROPS
]:METHODEX
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[
]:EUROPREVALL
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[¾,×]:EDEN
, Ò]:INTARESE
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
Databaseandinventory
building
27
[ ]:MICRODIS
[4]:HENVINET,PHOEBE
[4,
]:ECNIS,ESBIO
[4,],”]:PRONET
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
]:ATHON,CARCINOGENOMICS,
CASCADE,NEWGENERIS,OSIRIS,REPROTECT,
SENSITIV
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[
,×]:SAFEFOODS
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
]:ENVIRISK
[
[),
]:EUROPREVALL
,¾]:2FUN
[¾,×]:EDEN
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
315
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6 Projects
[
]:MICRODIS
[
[),
,×,)]:GABRIEL
,
]:METHODEX
[4,
,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[€]:DIPNA,NANOINTERACT
Invitromethods,
intelligenttesting,
alternativetesting
methods
22
]:ACUTETOX,CAESAR,
[
CARCINOGENOMICS,DEVNERTOX,EXERA,
NHRDEVTOX,OSIRIS,PREDICTOMICS,
REPROTECT,RETHINK,SENSITIV,
TESTMETEDECO
[
[4,
,Ä]:PIONEER
]:RAINBOW
[
]:FOOD&FECUNDITY
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,NANOINTERACT,
NANOSAFE2,NANOSH,PARTICLE_RISK
[4,€]:IMPART
[)]:POLYSOA
Biomarkers
17
]:ATHON,CASCADE,DEVNERTOX,
[
FURANRA,NEWGENERIS,PHIME,
PREDICTOMICS
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[),
]:DIEPHY,ENVIRISK
[4,
]:ECNIS,ESBIO
[
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[€]:DIPNA
[4,
'omics'
17
,
, Ò]:INTARESE
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
]:ATHON,CARCINOGENOMICS,
[
CASCADE,NEWGENERIS,NHRDEVTOX,
OSIRIS,PHIME,FURANRA,PREDICTOMICS,
REPROTECT,SENSITIV
]:ECNIS
[4,
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,DIPNA
[
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[Ä]:CRESCENDO
316
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Standardisation/
validation/
harmonisationof
methods
14
]:ESBIO,ECNIS
[4,
[
]:ACUTETOX,CARCINOGENOMICS,
CASCADE,PHIME,PREDICTOMICS,
REPROTECT,TESTMETEDECO
[),
,
]:METHODEX
[4,
,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[€]:DIPNA,NANOINTERACT
[×]:HEALTHYWATER
Goodpractices,
guidelines
11
[
]:BRAFO,QALIBRA
[),
[4,
]:DIEPHY
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
[¾,×]:EDEN
[4,],”]:PRONET
[€]:DIPNA,NANOSAFE2
[4,€]:IMPART
Analyticalmethods,
diagnostictools,
therapeutics
9
[
]:CASCADE,NEWGENERIS
[
]:EUROPREVALL
[
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA LEN
[×]:HEALTHYWATER
[€]:NANOSAFE2,NANOSH
[)]:POLYSOA
2
Geographical
informationsystems,
spatialmodelling,
remotesensing,
earthobservation
9
[
]:OSIRIS,PHIME
[),
]:ENVIRISK
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[¾,×]:EDEN
,
[4,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[
,
317
, Ò]:INTARESE
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Environmentandhealth
informationsystems,
decisionsupport
systems
Risk/benefit
analysis/methodsof
food/environmental
contaminants
3
[4]:HENVINET
[
[),
7
[
[),
[
318
]:OSIRIS
]:ENVIRISK
]:BENERIS,BRAFO,PHIME,QALIBRA
]:ENVIRISK
,×]:SAFEFOODS,HIWATE
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Hazardidentification
319
320
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Epidemiology,cohorts,
populationstudies,
biobanking
Nb
projects
23
Projectacronyms
[4]:PHOEBE
[4,
]:ECNIS,ESBIO
[4,
,Ò]:EUROLYMPH
[4,ª]:EMFNET
[4,
[
[),
,×,)]:GA2LEN
]:BENERIS,NEWGENERIS,PHIME
]:DIEPHY
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[
,×]:HIWATE
[
]:FOOD&FECUNDITY
[×]:EPIBATHE,VIROBATHE
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[¾,×]:EDEN
[ ]:MICRODIS
[×]:HEALTHYWATER
Transgenicanimals
9
[
]:EUROPREVALL
[
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
]:CASCADE,DEVNERTOX,EXERA,
[
NHRDEVTOX,REPROTECT,SENSITIV
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[
[Ä]:CRESCENDO
Ecotoxicology
7
QSAR(Quantitative
StructureActivity
Relationship)modelling,
insilico
models/screening
Epigenetics
6
]:CAESAR,CASCADE,OSIRIS,
[
TESTMETEDECO
[€]:NANOINTERACT,NANOSAFE2
[4,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
]:ACUTETOX,CAESAR,
[
CARCINOGENOMICS,CASCADE,OSIRIS
[),
2
,
,¾]:2FUN
]:FURANRA
[
[Ä]:CRESCENDO
321
322
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Exposureassessment
323
324
AnnexB – VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Exposureassessment
Nb
projects
38
Projectacronyms
]:ATHON,BENERIS,BRAFO,CASCADE,
[
DEVNERTOX,FURANRA,NEWGENERIS,
OSIRIS,PHIME
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[),
]:DIEPHY,ENVIRISK,ESPREME
[),
,]]:DROPS
[4,
]:ESBIO,ECNIS
[4,€]:IMPART
[4,
,Ò]:EUROLYMPH
[),
,¾]:2FUN
[
,×]:HIWATE
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,DIPNA,NANOINTERACT,
NANOSAFE2,NANOSH,PARTICLE_RISK
[
]:FOOD&FECUNDITY
[×]:EPIBATHE,VIROBATHE
[
]:EUROPREVALL
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[),
,
, Ò]:INTARESE
]:METHODEX
,
, ),],¾,
[
[4,],”]:PRONET
325
,×]:NOMIRACLE
AnnexB – VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Cumulativeexposure,
mixtureissues,
combinedexposure,
chemicalcocktails
Occupationalexposures
10
8
]:ATHON,CASCADE,DEVNERTOX,
[
NEWGENERIS,PHIME
[),
]:DIEPHY
[),
,¾]:2FUN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[
,
[
]:PHIME
, Ò]:INTARESE
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
[4,
]:ECNIS
[4,€]:IMPART
[€]:DIPNA,NANOSAFE2,NANOSH
[4,ª]:EMFNET
[
(Bio)monitoring,
surveillance
7
[4,
[
,×,)]:GABRIEL
]:ESBIO
,),],¾,
[¾,×]:EDEN
, Ò]:INTARESE
[ ]:MICRODIS
[×]:HEALTHYWATER
[
[4,
326
,×]:HIWATE
,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
AnnexB–VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Healthimpactassessment
327
328
AnnexB – VariousIssuesAddressedbyFP6Projects
Nb
projects
Cost/benefitanalysis, 11
economicvaluation,
lifecyclecosting,
burdenofdisease
Projectacronyms
[4]:VERHICHILDREN
]:OSIRIS,QALIBRA
[
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
]:ENVIRISK,ESPREME
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[),
[
[
Integratedassessment
tools/models,
healthimpact
assessment(HIA)
8
,
]:METHODEX
]:EUROPREVALL
]:MICRODIS
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
]:ENVIRISK
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[
]:MICRODIS
[),
Emissionfactors,
inventories
, Ò]:INTARESE
5
,¾]:2FUN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[
,
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
]:ESPREME
[
, Ò]:INTARESE
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[),
, ]:METHODEX
[)]:POLYSOA
Fullchain(impact
pathway)approach
5
[),
[),
2
,¾]:2FUN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[),
Lifecycleassessment
(LCA)
,]]:DROPS
,
, Ò]:INTARESE
]:METHODEX
[),
, ]:METHODEX
[€]:NANOSAFE2
329
330
AnnexC EnvironmentalFactors(Stressors)AddressedbyFP6Projects
AnnexC
Environmentalfactors(stressors)
addressedbyFP6projects
Explanationofsymbolsused:
Projectrelatedto:Chemicals[
foodallergens[
[
];Ambientairpollutants[)],Environmental/
],Indoorairpollutants[]],Climaticfactors[¾],Extremeevents
],Nanoparticles[€],Microbialagents[×],Ultravioletradiation[Ò],Ionising
radiation[
],Nonionisingradiation[ª],Noise[”],Pharmaceuticals[
],waste
[
]
Projectaddressinghorizontal/crosscutting/coordinatingissues[4]
Project of some relevance to environment and health research and/or policy
making,butinwhichhealthorenvironmentalaspectsareminor[Ä]
Whentherearetwosymbols,theprojectaddressestwoissues,thefirstofwhichis
consideredtobethemajorfocusoftheproject
331
332
AnnexCEnvironmentalFactors(Stressors)AddressedbyFP6Projects
Stressor
Nbprojects
Projectacronyms
Chemicalpollution
Environmental
andfoodchemical
contaminants
37
[
]:ACUTETOX,ATHON,BENERIS,CAESAR
CARCINOGENOMICS,CASCADE,DEVNERTOX,
EXERA,FURANRA,NEWGENERIS,NHRDEVTOX,
OSIRIS,PHIME,QALIBRA,REPROTECT,RETHINK,
SENSITIV,TESTMETEDECO
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
[
,×]:HIWATE,SAFEFOODS
[
,
]:PREDICTOMICS
[4,
]:ECNIS,ESBIO
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[4,
,
[),
]:DIEPHY,ENVIRISK,ESPREME
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
,
[4,
,Ò]:EUROLYMPH
[),
,¾]:2FUN
]:METHODEX
]:RAINBOW
[4,
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
,
, ),],¾,
[
[4]:HENVINET
Pharmaceutical
products
5
[
[
€
]:FOOD&FECUNDITY,RETHINK
,
[4,
[
Ultrafineparticles
Nanoparticles,
ultrafineparticles
10
,×]:NOMIRACLE
]:PREDICTOMICS
,
,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,DIPNA,IMPART,
NANOINTERACT,NANOSAFE2,NANOSH,
PARTICLE_RISK
[4,€]:IMPART
,
, €,Ä]:NORMAN
[4,
[4]:HENVINET
333
AnnexCEnvironmentalFactors(Stressors)AddressedbyFP6Projects
Waste
Exposuretowaste
3
[),
, ]:METHODEX
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
,
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
[
Airpollution
Ambientair
pollutants
[
16
)
[4]:CAIR4HEALTH,HENVINET
[4,
]:ECNIS
[)]:POLYSOA
[),
]:DIEPHY,ENVIRISK,ESPREME
[),
,]]:DROPS
[),
,¾]:2FUN
[),
,
]:METHODEX
[¾,)]:CIRCE
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
Indoorairquality
andcontaminants
8
]
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
,
, ),],¾,
[
[4,]]:ENVIE
[4,],”]:PRONET
[),
,]]:DROPS
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
[
,
[
]:EUROPREVALL
, Ò]:INTARESE
, ),],¾,
Allergeniccompounds
Environmental/
foodallergens
,×]:NOMIRACLE
3
[
[4,
,×,)]:GABRIEL
,×,)]:GA2LEN
334
,×]:NOMIRACLE
AnnexCEnvironmentalFactors(Stressors)AddressedbyFP6Projects
Microbialpathogenicagents
Microbial
9
pathogens
×
[×]:EPIBATHE,HEALTHYWATER,VIROBATHE
[¾,×]:EDEN
[
,×]:HIWATE,SAFEFOODS
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
,
[
Radiation
Nonionising
radiation(EMF)
ª
Ultraviolet
radiation
1
1
, ),],¾,
,×]:NOMIRACLE
[ª,4]:EMFNET
,),],¾,
[
, Ò]:INTARESE
Ò
Environmentalnoise
Coexposureto
noiseandother
stressors
1
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
”
Globalchange
Climatechange,
climatefactors,
globalwarming
8
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[¾,×]:EDEN
¾
[),
,¾]:2FUN
[
,),],¾,”]:HEIMTSA
[
,),],¾,
, Ò]:INTARESE
,
, ),],¾,
[
[4]:HENVINET
Extremeevents
Extremeevents
1
[
]:MICRODIS
*canbethemainfocusorpartiallyaddressed
335
,×]:NOMIRACLE
336
AnnexD – HealthEndpointsAddressed byFP6Projects
AnnexD
HealthendpointsaddressedbyFP6projects
Explanationofsymbolsused:
Projectrelatedto:Chemicals[
foodallergens[
[
];Ambientairpollutants[)],Environmental/
],Indoorairpollutants[]],Climaticfactors[¾],Extremeevents
],Nanoparticles[€],Microbialagents[×],Ultravioletradiation[Ò],Ionising
radiation[
],Nonionisingradiation[ª],Noise[”],Pharmaceuticals[
]
Projectaddressinghorizontal/crosscutting/coordinatingissues[4]
Project of some relevance to environment and health research and/or policy
making,butinwhichhealth(orenvironmental)aspectsareminor[Ä]
Whentherearetwosymbols,theprojectaddressestwoissues,thefirstofwhichis
consideredtobethemajorfocusoftheproject
337
338
AnnexD–HealthEndpointsAddressed byFP6Projects
Endpoint
Nb
projects
18
Cancer,genotoxicand
mutageniceffects
Projectacronyms
]:ATHON,CAESAR,
[
CARCINOGENOMICS,CASCADE,FURANRA,
NEWGENERIS
[),
]:DIEPHY
[4,
,Ò]:EUROLYMPH
[4,
]:ECNIS
[
,×]:HIWATE
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,DIPNA,
NANOINTERACT,NANOSH,PARTICLE_RISK
[ª,4]:EMFNET
[4,]]:ENVIE
[4]:HENVINET
(Neuro)developmental
disordersand/or
neurogenerativediseases,
mentaldisease,
CNStoxicity,
behavioural/neuro
endocrineeffects
Reproductionand
reproductivedisordersand
toxicity,impairmentof
fertility
13
]:ACUTETOX,ATHON,CAESAR,
[
CASCADE,DEVNERTOX,NHRDEVTOX,
PHIME,TESTMETEDECO
[
[
,×]:HIWATE
[Ä]:CRESCENDO
[ª,4]:EMFNET
[4]:HENVINET
11
]:ATHON,CAESAR,CASCADE,
[
REPROTECT,TESTMETEDECO
]:FOOD&FECUNDITY
[
[ª,4]:EMFNET
[4]:HENVINET
[
,Ä]:PIONEER
,Ä]:PIONEER
[
,×]:HIWATE
[Ä]:CRESCENDO
339
AnnexD–HealthEndpointsAddressedbyFP6Projects
Respiratorydiseases
includingallergy,asthma;
lungtoxicity
11
[4,]]:ENVIE
[4]:HENVINET
[)]:POLYSOA
]:EUROPREVALL
[
[
[4,
,×,)]:GABRIEL
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
]:SENSITIV
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,NANOSH,
PARTICLE_RISK
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
Immunesystemeffects
7
,×,)]:GABRIEL
[4,
,×,)]:GA2LEN
[
]:NEWGENERIS
[
[ª,4]:EMFNET
Infectiousdiseases
6
[
]:SENSITIV
[€]:CELLNANOTOX,DIPNA
[×]:EPIBATHE,HEALTHYWATER
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[¾,×]:EDEN
[
Cardiovasculardisease,
metabolicdisorders,
obesity,diabetes,stroke
5
Kidney(renal)toxicity
4
Liver(hepatic)toxicity
4
]:MICRODIS
[
]:CASCADE,PHIME
[ª,4]:EMFNET
[4,]]:ENVIE
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
]:ACUTETOX,PHIME,PREDICTOMICS
[
[€]:CELLNANOTOX
]:ACUTETOX,FURANRA,
[
PREDICTOMICS
[€]:CELLNANOTOX
340
AnnexD–HealthEndpointsAddressedbyFP6Projects
2
[¾,)]:CIRCE
[¾]:ENSEMBLES
Effectsofaudition,hearing
1
[ª,4]:EMFNET
Bonetoxicity
1
Digestivesystemtoxicity
Vascularsystem,
endothelialcell
functioning
Thyroiddisease
1
1
Generalmortality
1
]:PHIME
[
[€]:CELLNANOTOX
[€]:NANOSH
[
]:ATHON
Pleasenotethatotherprojectsalsoaddressvarioushealthendpointsbuttheirexact
naturearecurrentlynotyetknownorwillbedeterminedduringthecourseofthe
project.
341
European Commission
EUR 25409 — European Research on Environment and Health Funded by the Sixth Framework Programme
Snapshots of final results
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10.2777/19018
How to obtain EU publications
Free publications:
a• SF>•#2• LLHPELM•EQQM?LLHPELMBROLM>BR
a• >Q•QEB•#ROLMB>K•2KFLK|P•OBMOBPBKQ>QFLKP•LO•ABIBD>QFLKP•6LR•@>K•L?Q>FK•QEBFO•@LKQ>@Q•ABQ>FIP•LK•QEB•
'KQBOKBQ•[email protected]>BR•LO•?V•PBKAFKD•>•C>U•QL••
Priced publications:
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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Directorate-General for Research and Innovation
Directorate I – Environment
Unit I.4 – Climate Change and Natural Hazards
E-mail: [email protected]uropa.eu
Contact: Tuomo Karjalainen
European Commission
B-1049 Brussels
E-mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
EuropeanResearchOnEnvironment&HealthFundedByFP6 COVER PgsLim 06 indd 4-6
KINA25049ENC_001.pdf 2
1/06/12 11:58
25/07/12 10:50
Project information
European Research on Environment and Health Funded by the Sixth Framework Programme
Snapshots of final results
KI-NA-25-049-EN-C
Sixty-six multidisciplinary pan-European
research projects dealing with environment
and health issues were funded by
the European Commission’s Research
Directorate- General (now called DG
Research and Innovation) in the Sixth
Framework Programme of Research (20022006). The main results are presented
in this catalogue. All of these projects
have now ended and have produced a
wealth of new and interesting results that
have improved the science base and that
have the potential to support various EU
policies. The projects presented addressed
a multitude of issues ranging from health
impacts of climate change to improved
integrated environment and health risk
assessment methodologies. This overview
should be useful to many stakeholders
policy makers at national, EU and global
level.
European Research on
Environment and Health
Funded by the Sixth
Framework Programme
Research and
Innovation
EuropeanResearchOnEnvironment&HealthFundedByFP6 COVER PgsLim 06 indd 1-3
KINA25049ENC_001.pdf 1
1/06/12 11:58
25/07/12 10:50