Particle, pause and pattern in American Indian native verse

words l i k e 765 o r yEl! ' ( s a i d t o baby t o teach him something i s bad)',
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'it smells: ( s a i d t o c h i l d ) ' , n 6 n ~'hurt (baby t a l k ) ' and 5 :
' ( a sound of glad greeting t o s e e children, s a i d while p a t t i n g them
under t h e chin palm u p ) ' ) . There may even be several types of joking,
f o r example, hew0*6-m ' teasing1 and p6sqWt ' i n s u l t someone by referA t any r a t e , the examples given i n t h i s
r i n g t o p a r t of h i s body'.
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PARTICLE, PAUSE AND PATTERN I N AMERICAN INDIAN NARRATIVE VERSE
D e l l Hymes
University of Pennsylvania
In a r e c e n t i s s u e of t h i s j o u r n a l William Bright has presented a myth
c y c l e of t h e Karok of northwestern C a l i f o r n i a a s a sequence of l i n e s of v e r s e .
Bright remarks t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e Karok t e x t and t h e English t r a n s l a t i o n i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e s of r e c e n t work by Dennis Tedlock (1971, 1972)
and myself (Hymes 1976, 1977). The p r e s e n t a t i o n , indeed, combines a p r i n c i p l e
adopted by Tedlock i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of Zuni n a r r a t i v e s , w i t h a p r i n c i p l e
adopted by myself i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of n a r r a t i v e s of t h e Chinookan-speaking
peoples of Oregon and Washington. Tedlock and I both recognize t h a t American
Indian n a r r a t i v e s may have t h e s t r u c t u r e of p o e t r y , may c o n s i s t of l i n e s
organized i n v e r s e s ; b u t whereas Tedlock f i n d s Zuni n a r r a t i v e t o have l i n e s
on t h e b a s i s of pauses i n speech, I have found Chinookan n a r r a t i v e s t o have
l i n e s on t h e b a s i s of c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of s y n t a x , f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e d i s c e r n i b l e
i n w r i t t e n and p r i n t e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . Each p r e d i c a t i o n i n a t e x t is l i k e l y
t o be a l i n e , whether o r whatever t h e speaker may have paused. P a r t i c l e s t h a t
a r e t r a n s l a t e d a s "now", "then", and the l i k e a r e markers of l i n e s and groups
of l i n e s ( v e r s e s ) , and enable us t o d i s c o v e r t h e p o e t i c p a t t e r n of a n a r r a t i v e ,
even though t h e w r i t t e n record does not r e v e a l t h e i n t o n a t i o n a l phrasing and
pausing t h a t Tedlock can a t t e n d t o on t a p e recordings.
In p r e s e n t i n g t h e Karok c y c l e , "Coyote's Journey", Bright i s a b l e t o
r e c o n c i l e t h e s e two approaches. On t h e one hand, i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s , such a s
"now", "then" and t h e l i k e , occur i n t h e Karok myth. and Bright recognizes a
u n i t of v e r s e almost everywhere they occur. On t h e o t h e r hand, Bright knows
where minor and major pauses occur i n t h e t e l l i n g of t h e myth, and f i n d s t h a t
each l i n e ends w i t h a minor pause, while t h e groups of l i n e s t h a t form v e r s e s
each end with a major pause. Since v e r s e s almost always c o i n c i d e with t h e
occurrence of s e n t e n c e - i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s , t h e two kinds of f e a t u r e s , pauses and
p a r t i c l e s , cooperate i n marking t h e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e myth.
I s Karok t y p i c a l o r unique? I f one could go backward i n time t o h e a r
Louis Simpson t e l l Wishram n a r r a t i v e s a t Yakima i n 1905, o r V i c t o r i a Howard
t e l l Clackamas n a r r a t i v e s n e a r Oregon City i n 1929 and 1930, would pauses
f o r b r e a t h t u r n o u t t o coincide c l o s e l y w i t h u n i t s marked i n o t h e r ways? Do
t h e Zuni n a r r a t i v e s recorded by Tedlock have p a r t i c l e s and p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d
with p a r t i c l e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o l i n e s t h a t can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of
pause? And even i f t h e s e and o t h e r American Indian languages, have both pauses
and p a r t i c l e s i n t h e i r n a r r a t i v e v e r s e , a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s between pauses and
p a r t i c l e s always c o o p e r a t i v e and r e i n f o r c i n g , as seems t o be t h e case i n Karok?
I f we a r e t o go by what has been published, t h e answer would seem t o
be t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e v e r s e of t h e t h r e e c u l t u r e s , Chinookan, Zuni and Karok,
is a f t e r a l l q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n each case. Perhaps i t w i l l be found t h a t
Chinookan n a r r a t i v e s have pauses t h a t n o s t l y coincide w i t h l i n e s and v e r s e s
Ed note: Dell Hymes s e n t t h i s paper e x p l a i n i n g t h a t i t w i l l a l s o appear i n
American Indian Culture and Research J o u r n a l .
marked by particles--Michael
S i l v e r s t e i n h a s t a p e r e c o r d i n g s of some n a r r a t i v e s
i n Wishram (Wasco) from t h e l a t e I d a White and George Forman of Toppenish,
Washington. Even s o , t h e kinds of grouping of l i n e s i n t o v e r s e s and of
v e r s e s i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s , found i n Chinookan, seem r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t than those
i n Karok. And t h e one t e x t i n t h e Zuni language t h a t Tedlock has included i n
h i s book (1978: 76-83) looks very d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r Chinookan o r Karok,
a s p r e s e n t e d i n l i n e s marked by pauses.
I myself b e l i e v e t h a t Zuni and Karok a r e r a t h e r a l i k e i n c e r t a i n
e s s e n t i a l respects.
Indeed, I t h i n k t h a t Zuni and Karok s h a r e w i t h t h e
Takelma language of southwestern Oregon, t h e Tonkawa language of Texas, and
probably many o t h e r American Indian languages, c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
i n t h e p a t t e r n i n g of n a r r a t i v e v e r s e . This i s s o , I t h i n k , because t h e n a t u r e
of n a r r a t i v e v e r s e i n American Indian languages goes deeper than e i t h e r pauses
or particles.
It depends upon a conception of n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n a s f u l f i l l i n g
a r e c u r r e n t formal p a t t e r n . A l l American Indian n a r r a t i v e s , I b e l i e v e , w i l l
prove t o be organized i n terms of l i n e s and v e r s e s , and s e t s of v e r s e s .
Where s y n t a t i c p a r t i c l e s a r e p r e s e n t , they w i l l play a r o l e , o f t e n a major
r o l e , a s is t h e case i n Wishram Chinook; but t h e fundamental c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l
n o t be t h e presence of any p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c device. The fundamental
c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be t h e presence of a c e r t a i n conception of n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n .
That conception, which can be c a l l e d a r h e t o r i c a l conception, w i l l have i t
t h a t sequences of a c t i o n w i l l s a t i s f y one o r a n o t h e r of two b a s i c types of
formal p a t t e r n .
I n Zuni, Karok, Takelma and Tonkawa, t h e formal p a t t e r n i s
b u i l t up of p a i r s and f o u r s . I n t h e Chinookan languages, and i n t h e neighbori n g Sahaptin and Kalapuyan languages, t h e formal p a t t e r n i s b u i l t up of t h r e e s
and f i v e s .
more
tape
such
from
The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s hypothesis i s t h a t i t enables us t o a p p r e c i a t e
f u l l y t h e a r t i s t r y o f n a r r a t i v e s such a s t h o s e i n Zuni, f o r which modern
recordings e x i s t , and i t enables us t o d i s c o v e r t h e a r t i s t r y of n a r r a t i v e s ,
a s those of t h e Tonkawa, Taklema, and Clackamas Chinook, which a r e preserved
a time before tape r e c o r d e r s could be used.
I f l i n e s and v e r s e could be recognized only on t h e b a s i s of pauses,
only on t h e b a s i s of t a p e r e c o r d i n g s , i t would mean t h a t t h e p o e t i c n a t u r e of
many American Indian n a r r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s could never be known. When he f i r s t
published h i s book of Zuni n a r r a t i v e s , Tedlock was s o e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e
p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r , and about f i n d i n g a n a t u r a l b a s i s f o r
p o e t i c l i n e s i n t h e n a t u r a l pausing of t h e v o i c e , t h a t h e disparaged e a r l i e r
He d i d indeed seem t o imply t h a t one could never know whether
collections.
o r not they were p o e t r y , t a k i n g "poetry" t o mean t e x t s organized i n terms of
v e r s e s and l i n e s . But i n f a c t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o recover much of t h e t r u e
f a c e of t h e myths and t a l e s t o l d by t h e a n c e s t o r s of American Indian people
whose n a t i v e languages a r e no longer spoken, o r no longer used f o r t r a d i t i o n a l
n a r r a t i o n . R e p e t i t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s among words and grammatical f e a t u r e s ,
such a s p a r t i c l e s , d i s c l o s e a g r e a t d e a l . And, a s I have s a i d , t h e fundamental
key i s t h e presence of formal r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n .
I n t h i s a r t i c l e I should l i k e t o show t h e presence of such p a t t e r n i n
s e v e r a l languages w i t h which I have worked, and show t h a t such p a t t e r n i n g
appears t o be p r e s e n t a l s o i n Karok and ~ u n i . ' These examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c markers, such a s
pauses and p a r t i c l e s . and underlying form, is v a r i a b l e from one language t o
the o t h e r . Indeed, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p may vary from one speaker t o another o f
t h e same language. The work t h a t has been s o f a r i n d i c a t e s t h a t n a r r a t o r s
make c r e a t i v e use of l i n g u i s t i c markers, and of underlying r h e t o r i c a l form
a s w e l l . Because t h e r e a r e such markers, and because such underlying r h e t o r i c a l
form e x i s t s , one can discover l i n e s , v e r s e s and l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n
narratives.
These l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e p l a c e t h a t l i n e s and v e r s e s
have w i t h i n them, however, depend upon the s k i l l and i n t e n t i o n s of t h e n a r r a t o r .
The v a r i o u s d e v i c e s a r e means t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r s use f o r t h e i r own ends. They
s t r o n g l y c o n d i t i o n , and pervade, the t e x t , b u t do n o t of themselves c o n t r o l
i t s f i n a l shape. This being s o , when we d i s c o v e r t h e shape of a t e x t through
t r a c i n g such d e v i c e s , we a r e doing more than document a c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n . We
a r e r e v e a l i n g s o m t h i n g of t h e e x p r e s s i v e purpose of a p a r t i c u l a r person i n
a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e and time. No a n a l y s i s can r e s t o r e the a c t u a l human voice.
but a n a l y s i s of t h i s kind can b r i n g us much c l o s e r t o the weighting and
b a l a n c i n g of words, t h e rhythms and emphases, of t h e o r i g i n a l voice.
Let me now p r e s e n t a s e r i e s of examples. I n keeping with the Karok
"Coyote's journey", a l l but one a r e from adventures of Coyote. I n them Coyote
e s t a b l i s h e s a f i s h t r a p (Wishram Chinook), f o o l s Pheasant (Clackamas
Chinook), runs t o a g i r l ' s puberty dance (Takelma), t r i e s t o g e t himself a
raccoon c o a t (Karok), and t r i e s t o b i t e Old Lady Junco (Zuni).
In a d d i t i o n ,
t h e r e i s t h e ending of an impressive K l i k i t a t Sahaptin myth, t e l l i n g how a l l
good t h i n g s became c h i l d r e n of t h e Sun, when t h e land and t h e people changed.
This passage deserves t o be seen i n p o e t i c form, and demonstrates a p o i n t
about t h e working of underlying p a t t e r n .
I n p r e s e n t i n g t h e examples, I adopt a s e t of terms from t h e drama,
because a s e t of t e r n is needed t o name t h e s e v e r a l l e v e l s of r e l a t i o n s h i p
i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s , and because a c t u a l performances of n a r r a t i v e s a r e a k i n t o
dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Lines a r e numbered f o r convenience of r e f e r e n c e .
S e t s o f l i n e s a r e understood a s organized i n v e r s e s , which a r e i n d i c a t e d by
s m a l l l e t t e r s ( a , b , c ) . S e t s of v e r s e s a r e understood a s organized i n s t a n z a s ,
which a r e i n d i c a t e d by c a p i t a l l e t t e r s ( A , B. C). In longer t e x t s i t i s
necessary t o recognize groups of s t a n z a s , which can be c a l l e d s c e n e s , and
a r e i n d i c a t e d by small Roman numerals ( i , i i , i i i ) , and sometimes t o recognize
groups of scenes, which can be c a l l e d a c t s , and a r e i n d i c a t e d by c a p i t a l Roman
numerals ( I , 11, 111). Sometimes a t e x t has even l a r g e r u n i t s , which can be
i n d i c a t e d a s P a r t One, P a r t Two, e t c .
The t i t l e s and headings i n t h e examples a r e almost without exception
I n t h e case of t h e Wishram and
s u p p l i e d , r a t h e r than given by t h e n a r r a t o r .
Clackamas Coyote sequences, t h e whole has a Chinookan t i t l e , b u t n o t , s o f a r
a s we know, t h e p a r t s . The t i t l e s of the K l i k i t a t and Takelma myths were
The Karok p a r t is l i k e t h e Chinookan p a r t s ,
devised by t h e recorder.
a p p a r e n t l y , i n n o t having i t s i n d i v i d u a l t i t l e .
a Zuni t i t l e .
The Zuni s t o r y does have
It i s important t o provide headings, I t h i n k , even though they were
n o t given i n t h e language, because they s e r v e t o o r i e n t t h e r e a d e r , and
because they seem t o r e f l e c t r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r t h e n a r r a t o r himself o r
h e r s e l f . While we cannot know what words, i f any, t h e n a r r a t o r would have
used, we can s e e evidence t h a t t h e s t o r y was presented a s having p a r t s , each
p a r t having a p o i n t t h a t can be i n d i c a t e d i n words. Indeed, a t e n t a t i v e
model of t h e mind of a n a r r a t o r would have t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t mind as moving
along two p a r a l l e l t r a c k s simultaneously, one marked o u t i n u n i t s of p l o t ,
such a s t h e headings i n d i c a t e , and one marking o u t , a s i t were, u n i t s i n
terms of t h e p o e t i c p a t t e r n s of t h e c u l t u r e . One can imagine t h e n a r r a t o r
deciding t o e l a b o r a t e o r s h o r t e n a c e r t a i n u n i t of p l o t ( a s t h e end of t h e
Zuni myth i s e l a b o r a t e d ) ; t o i n t e r r u p t t h e flow of p l o t and p o e t i c form f o r
t h e sake of t h e person r e c o r d i n g ( a s i n t h e Wishram s t o r y ) ; t o slow t h e pace
of t h e event when Coyote is d e c e i v i n g Pheasant, o r enjoying h i s r e p a s t of
Pheasant i n t h e Clackamas s t o r y ; t o use "people" and "land" a s t h e words, and
i d e a s , around which t o o r g a n i z e t h e end of t h e K l i k i t a t myth; t o e l a b o r a t e
t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e of Coyote's rush t o t h e g i r l ' s puberty dance, and t h e
catalogue of g i r l s he f i n d s t h e r e , i n t h e Takelma s t o r y , while b u i l d i n g t h e
i n t e r v e n i n g e l a b o r a t i o n of h i s e a g e r e x e r t i o n and s e l f - d e c e p t i o n around a
constant r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n ; t o balance o u t t h e a c t i o n of Coyote's f i r s t
adventure on h i s way t o Klamath F a l l s with r a t h e r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d e l i n e a t i o n
i n terms of formal p a t t e r n , no one p a r t g e t t i n g much more emphasis than
a n o t h e r , i n t h e Karok episode; t o end t h e f i r s t h a l f of Coyote's encounter
w i t h Old Lady Junco on h e r song, and t o use t h e four-part formal p a t t e r n t o
s e t up an e x p e c t a t i o n of Coyote's f o u r t h coming f o r t h e song i n t h e next
p a r t , only t o delay i t , using i t s place t o e l a b o r a t e Old Lady Junco's preparat i o n s , and then making q u i t e a s e t p i e c e of t h e f o u r t h coming i n an e n t i r e
l a s t p a r t ( i n which t h e f o u r - p a r t , counted o u t demand, i s delayed u n t i l a f t e r
t h e demand h a s been made twice without counting), i n Andrew P e y n e t s a ' s t e l l i n g
of t h e Zuni myth.
One v a l u e of t h e discovery of p a t t e r n s , such a s proposed h e r e , is t h a t
i t enables us t o recognize and c a l i b r a t e such choices on t h e p a r t of t h e
n a r r a t o r , a s t o t h e r e l a t i o n between u n i t s of content and u n i t s of p o e t i c form.
We have t o g e t behind l i n e s t o underlying p a t t e r n s t o be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e
t h e f u l l a r t i s t r y involved.
Here now a r e t h e s e v e r a l examples.
Wishram Chinook.
The n a r r a t i v e s of Louis Simpson, t r a n s c r i b e d by Edward S a p i r a t Yakima,
Washington, i n J u l y and August of 1905 (Sapir 1909a), a r e a c l e a r example
To t h e study c i t e d by Bright of
of v e r s e s defined by i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s .
Simpson's n a r r a t i o n of "The Deserted Boy" (Hymes 1976), l e t me add a f r e s h
example. It i s p a r t of t h e Wishram v e r s i o n of "Coyote's Journey", b e i n g i n
I n Chinookan v e r s i o n s Coyote's adventures
t h i s c a s e up t h e Columbia River.
and misadventures a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h t h e establishment of customs about
f i s h i n g , t h e mainstay of sustenance and t r a d e . This s h o r t account of
e s t a b l i s h i n g a f i s h - t r a p has a b i t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c humor a s w e l l .
Louis Simpson marked v e r s e s by use of two i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s . 9
"now" and kwapt "then", most o f t e n p a i r e d a s "Now then".
Their occurience
was s o constant t h a t S a p i r a b b r e v i a t e d t h e w r i t i n g of them i n h i s f i e l d notebooks a s j u s t "A.K.".
A few o t h e r p a r t i c l e s could occur i n t h e same i n i t i a l
s l o t w i t h t h e same f u n c t i o n . Occasionally, a s i n t h i s s h o r t t e x t , "now" and
"then" might occur s i n g l y t o mark a v e r s e , and a t u r n a t t a l k could count a s
w e l l (see l i n e s 1, 4 , and 2 0 ) . The p a i r "now then" does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y
demarcate v e r s e s , then, b u t i f a t e x t is w r i t t e n w i t h each i n s t a n c e of "now
then" t o t h e l e f t , s t a r t i n g a new u n i t , most of t h e work of a n a l y s i s i n t o
v e r s e s i s done.
Even with s o r e g u l a r a device one h a s t o be a l e r t t o the course and
f o r c e of t h e s t o r y . Twice i n t h i s t e x t Mr. Simpson e v i d e n t l y i n s e r t s
explanatory comment t h a t i s n o t p a r t of t h e s t o r y i t s e l f . A f t e r l i n e 7 , he
r e p e a t s t h e f a c t t h a t white salmon were s e e n , and a n t i c i p a t e s t h e making of
t h e t r a p , probably because he had meant t o s p e c i f y t h a t t h e white salmon were,
a s t h e i n s e r t i o n adds, "jumping about" ( i t k s u b n s i u t )
A f t e r Coyote has
f i n i s h e d t h e s t o r y w i t h a pronouncement f o r f u t u r e times, t h e a l t e r n a t i v e names
of t h e p l a c e of t h e s t o r y a r e given i n a m e t a l i n g u i s t i c comment t h a t must
have been addressed t o S a p i r and would not have f i t t e d a n a t i v e audience.
(To a n a t i v e audience the most l i k e l y mode of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n would have been
t o begin by saying, "Now then Coyote g o t t o X", o r t o include t h e naming i n
the pronouncement a t t h e end.)
.
207
[Coyote e s t a b l i s h e s a f i s h - t r a p ]
[coyote e s t a b l i s h e s a fish-trap]
Aa
ha
Now C o y o t e w e n t ,
k?a gayGya I s k ' G l y a ,
n5:wit gay'uya,
gaEGguikl i t k ' B u w a n i4Eqw$ba.
s t r a i g h t on h e w e n t ,
h e saw w h i t e salmon i n t h e w a t e r .
b
Then h e t h o u g h t :
b
Kwspt g a l i i & b x w a i t :
" ~ e n g i andb5wa?"
c
"How s h a l l I g e t them?"
Now t h e n h e t h o u g h t :
c
hga kbJapt g a l i y 4 G x w a i t :
*'mG5w(a) a l b l a y . "
(GaEGguikl i t k ' b u w a n i t k s w b n s i u t ,
!'I s h a l l make a t r a p . "
(He saw t h e w h i t e s a l m o n jumping2 a b o u t ,
gaE6y $ l a l a y > .
h e made a t r a p ) .
Ba
Now t h e n h e t i e d t h e t r a p ,
b
c
Now t h e n h e jumped s t r a i g h t w a y r i g h t i n t o t h e t r a p .
Now t h e n C o y o t e t o l d t h e t r a p :
"iJhenever you become f u l l , t r a p ,
9
10
11
b
k 9 5 u gaZSilu5ix.
hga kwapt g a t s s 6 b n a n5wid d a t $ ? a i a l s l a ~ p a ,
c
hGa kwapt gaEGlxam a l h l a :
"Now t h e n you w i l l c r y o u t ,
13
"Aqa kwapt amgiluma,
n6&mst8,
14
I t m full1,
'6::::
15
'tiimgilurna,
"You v ~ i l lc r y o u t ,
16
'Now i t ' s f u l l o f v h i t e salmon a t t h e t r a p " ' .
Ca
Now t h e n i t c r i e d o u t :
b
I 1 m f u l l , the trap."
Coyote c r i e d o u t :
',ti: :::.
e
" T h i s i s t h e way you s b a l l g e t them f o r
"Coyote g o t them t h i s way.''
~ g kwapt
a
gayGya ~ s k ' G l y a ,
gaEGquikl,
25
d
Aga kwapt dbk g a t G 5 s l a l a ~ .
26
e
.%?a kwapt g a l i k i m l s k l b l y a :
"Gw5: :nasum q&:dau amEktby':~a;
23
now ( i t i s ) f u l l .
a q a pb:&.
24
all time.
( T h i s c o u n t r y ' s name i s Skal.gSlrna5 ( ' e a t i n > - p l & e t ) ,
o r 5 q 1 6 1 d a l p 4 ( ' i t k e e p s t e a r i n g o u t 1 - - a a' l a k e
c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r i v e r by a n a r r o w c r e e k ) .
Aga kwapt g a l a g l h m a :
0 6 : : : : nGkmst, a l S l a 5 . "
c
22
Now t h e n h e u n l o o s e n e d t h e t r a p .
Now t h e n C o y o t e s a i d :
itk'huwan a l b l a ~ p a " ' .
Galigfluma I s k ' b l y a :
rtc: :: : t t
21
Now t h e n C o y o t e w e n t ,
:&
b
20
h e saw,
d
Ca
19
.t
c
' Aqa ph:
17
18
"G::::,
1sk'61ya:
"Smbni p5:& amyC~wa a l h l a ? ,
l'Smbni p 5 : l i t k p&an i n i k u j x a t ,
12
":Xhenever y o u r mouth i s f u l l o f w h i t e salmon,
tfi::::,
Ba
8
h e t i e d i t on ( t h e s t r i n g ) .
Aga kwapt k ' s u g a i G 5 a l b l a z ,
27
28
"GaEtbx q&:dau l s k l G l y e . "
( ~ j u w
~ i al x 5 k a 4 y i l m a y i + l i u ,
awaEi ~ ~ ' Q l d a l p 4 , .
The t e x t shows n o t o n l y d e m a r c a t i o n o f v e r s e s , b u t d e l i n e a t i o n of a
c u l t u r a l r h e t o r i c . The f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s a r e t y p i c a l o f Chinookan d e p i c t i o n
of a c t i o n , p r e s e n t i n g i t a s t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e moments: h e went, he went
s t r a i g h t on, h e saw. T h i s t h r e e - p a r t p a t t e r n of o n s e t , ongoing, outcome i s
r e p e a t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s among v e r s e s . I n s t a n z a A, Coyote s e e s w h i t e salmon,
t h i n k s what t o do, d e c i d e s t o make a t r a p . I n s t a n z a B, he f i x e s t h e t r a p ,
jumps i n t o i t , t e l l s t h e t r a p what t o do. I n s t a n z a C, t h e t r a p c r i e s ,
(Within v e r s e c t h e t h r e e
Coyote c r i e s , Coyote goes and s e e s t h a t i t i s f u l l .
l i n e s show a n o t h e r common form of t h e t h r e e - p a r t p a t t e r n : he went, he saw,
t h e n t h e o b j e c t o f p e r c e p t i o n a s a d i s t i n c t l i n e , marked o f f by "now", a s
It is t h e f i t of t h i s p a t t e r n t h a t makes c l e a r
an i n d i c a t i o n o f outcome.
t h a t "now" is h e r e n o t t h e s t a r t of a new v e r s e , b u t an element completing o n e . )
The outcome of t h e f i r s t t h r e e l i n e s , t h e s e e i n g t h a t t h e t r a p is f u l l , a l s o
i n i t i a t e s a t h r e e p a r t sequence t h a t completes t h e s t o r y : h e s e e s t h e t r a p
f u l l , h e l o o s e n s t h e t r a p , he pronounces f o r t h e f u t u r e on t h e b a s i s of t h i s
I n i t two d i s t i n c t
s u c c e s s . The middle v e r s e ( c ) i s i n e f f e c t a p i v o t .
t h r e e - p a r t a r c s i n t e r s e c t w i t h i n a f i v e - p a r t whole.
The t h r e e - p a r t p a t t e r n is a l s o r e p e a t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s among s t a n z a s .
I n A Coyote d e c i d e s t o make a t r a p ; i n B h e makes a t r a p and i n s t r u c t s i t ;
i n C t h e t r a p works a s planned.
The p e r v a s i v e n e s s of t h i s p a t t e r n i n g i s one r e a s o n f o r b e i n g s u r e t h a t
t h e two p a r e n t h e t i c comments a r e p a r e n t h e t i c . Not o n l y a r e they n o t marked
a s v e r s e s , and commentary-like i n t o n e , b u t a l s o t h e y do n o t f i t i n t o t h e
t h r e e - p a r t p a t t e r n i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s a l l t h e o t h e r l i n e s a t e v e r y l e v e l . The
p a t t e r n i n g i n e f f e c t h e l p s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s t a t u s of two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s
of s p e e c h a c t , two d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of s p e e c h , one n a r r a t i v e and p o e t i c ,
the other metalinguistic.
Clackamas Chinook.
V i c t o r i a Howard's "Coyote and Pheasant" is t h e f i r s t e p i s o d e of a
s e r i e s of Coyote's t r a v e l s , t o l d i n Clackamas Chinook by V i c t o r i a Howard.
She
was t h e l a s t s p e a k e r of t h e language a b l e t o t e l l s t o r i e s , and we might know
n o t h i n g o f t h e r i c h n e s s of t h e t r a d i t i o n , had n o t M e l v i l l e J a c o b s found h e r
l i v i n g i n West L i n n , Oregon, n e a r t h e a n c e s t r a l home of t h e Clackamas, s o u t h
of P o r t l a n d , a y e a r o r two b e f o r e s h e d i e d . She had been born and grown up
on t h e Grande Ronde R e s e r v a t i o n , and l e a r n e d s t o r i e s from h e r mother's mother
and h e r mother-in-law.
J a c o b s t r a n s c r i b e d two volumes of t e x t s from h e r
d i c t a t i o n i n 1929 and 1930, and managed t o f i n d a p u b l i s h i n g o u t l e t f o r h i s
own t y p e d m a n u s c r i p t a g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r . The two volumes a r e now o u t o f
p r i n t ( J a c o b s 1958, 1959a). They s h o u l d b e r e p r i n t e d , o r , b e t t e r , y e t ,
r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e form now d i s c o v e r e d i n them. A l l of Mrs. Howard's
n a r r a t i v e s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n two o t h e r volumes (Jacobs 1959b, 1960).
I n t h i s f i r s t e p i s o d e of one v e r s i o n of Coyote's j o u r n e y , t h e i n i t i a l
particle
"Sow" o c c u r s a number of t i m e s , b u t i t does n o t r e g u l a r l y
i n d i c a t e t h e b e g i n n i n g of v e r s e s .
It is t h e f i r s t word i n t h e s t o r y , b u t
+
o c c u r s o n l y t h a t once i n t h e f i r s t p a r t . At t h e end o f t h e s t o r y i t o c c u r s
a t t h e end of p a r t s (D, E ) , i n t r o d u c i n g a s o r t of s d n g up o r c o n c l u s i o n .
I n t h e middle p a r t s (B, C) i t o c c u r s i r r e g u l a r l y , from t h e s t a n d p o i n t of
marking v e r s e s . Here i t s r o l e a p p e a r s t o b e t h a t of i n t e n s i f y i n g , p o i n t i n g
up t h e a c t i o n .
Thus we seem t o f i n d t h r e e k i n d s of use f o r t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e i n
t h i s s t o r y . I n one r o l e i t s t a r t s a s e c t i o n of t h e s t o r y going ( f i r s t word
of s t a n z a A, f i r s t word of s t a n z a B, f i r s t word of s t a n z a C, followed by
I n a n o t h e r r o l e i t i n t r o d u c e s summings-up ( l a s t p a r t of t h e l a s t
'again').
two s t a n z a s , D and E, when Coyote pronounces t h e name and n a t u r e of P h e a s a n t ,
ans when h e e a t s ) . I n a t h i r d r o l e i n t h e middle of t h e s t o r y i t i n t e n s i f i e s
t h e a c t i o n . A f t e r Pheasant h a s a c c e p t e d Coyote's i n v i t a t i o n , 'Now' o c c u r s
t h r e e times a s t h e y s t a r t t o dance. Presumably t h e t h r e e 'nows' e x p r e s s a n
a c c e l e r a t e d tempo.
The 'now' b e f o r e Coyote's s i n g i n g u n d e r s c o r e s t h e decept i o n w i t h i n whose c o n t e x t he is g o i n g t o k i l l t h e Pheasant g i r l s one by one.
The 'Now a g a i n ' t h a t b e g i n s C i s a common marker of r e p e a t e d a c t i o n ; t h e
'now' t h a t f o l l o w s two l i n e s l a t e r a p p e a r s t o h i g h l i g h t what Coyote i s doing;
and t h e 'now' of Cc h i g h l i g h t s P h e a s a n t ' s b e l a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of what i s
going on. I f we s i n g l e o u t j u s t t h e a c t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d by 'now', we have:
Now
Now
Now
now
now
they s t a n d up, now s h e s i n g s , now they dance;
he f o r h i s p a r t s i n g s ( b u t ) ;
again they go,
he t a k e s h o l d of a n o t h e r ;
she hears ( a t l a s t ) .
I n sum, t h e i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and d r a m a t i c
f o r c e of t h e s t o r y , b u t does n o t s u f f i c e t o d e f i n e i t . The p a t t e r n i n g of
t h e s t o r y depends upon a more a b s t r a c t , fundamental p r i n c i p l e , t h a t of t h e
r h e t o r i c of n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n . I n b r i e f , n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n i n Chinookan i s
o r g a n i z e d i n terms of t h r e e moments, an o n s e t , ongoing, and outcome, a s i t
were. The f i r s t l i n e s of t h e s t o r y a r e t y p i c a l : he went, h e ' s going a l o n g ,
he reached a house. The f i r s t l i n e s of t h e second p a r t , t h e t h r e e a c t i o n s
i n t r o d u c e d by 'Now', form such a sequence: t h e y s t o o d , s h e s a n g , t h e y danced.
Each v e r s e of B and C , i n d e e d , shows such a sequence: he c a l l e d o u t , he t o l d
h e r , he f o r h i s p a r t went; he took h o l d o f o n e , h e wrung h e r neck, h e s t u c k
h e r i n h i s b e l t ; they g o , t h e y dance ( a s one a c t i o n , doubly e x p r e s s e d ) , h e
took h o l d , he wrung; t h e y d a n c e , they go (one a c t i o n , doubly e x p r e s s e d ) , s h e
d i d n o t h e a r him, and t h e outcome a s t h i r d p a r t : a l l b u t a few; s h e h e a r d ,
s h e t u r n e d t o l o o k , and t h e outcome: no c h i l d r e n .
The s t o r y is b u i l t up of t h i s p a t t e r n a t each l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n .
I t concludes one
Where t h e r e a r e f i v e u n i t s , t h e t h i r d i s a p i v o t a l u n i t .
t h r e e - p a r t s e r i e s , and b e g i n s a n o t h e r . Thus i n t h e f i r s t p a r t (A), Coyote
r e a c h e s a house, f i n d s a woman w i t h many c h i l d r e n , p r e t e n d s t o i n v i t e h e r t o
a b i g g a t h e r i n g . That i n v i t a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s a t h r e e - p a r t c o n v e r s a t i o n a l
exchange: h i s i n v i t a t i o n , h e r a c c e p t a n c e , h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o p r a c t i c e .
(Notice t h a t w i t h i n t h e f i f t h v e r s e t o s t a n z a A, t h e l a s t s i x l i n e s (16-21)
form t h r e e p a i r s : you l e a d , t h e y f o l l o w ; you s i n g , t h e y dance; w e ' l l do,
w e ' l l a r r i v e (both t h e s e l a s t i n t h e f u t u r e t e n s e i n t h e o r i g i n a l ) . When
t h e p a i r i n g s a r e recognized, t h e v e r s e as a whole is s e e n t o have f i v e
elements. The f i r s t two elements, 'lie t o l d h e r ' and ' F i r s t l e t u s
p r a c t i c e ' l e a d i n t o t h e c r u c i a l arrangement, t h a t Pheasant go f i r s t , t h e
c h i l d r e n be behind h e r . This i n t e r m e d i a t e culmination i n turn i n t r o d u c e s
t h e t h r e e p a i r s . Prom sonre o t h e r t e x t s . I s u s p e c t t h a t p a i r i n g of l i n e s l i k e
t h i s h a s something of a l u l l i n g o r q u i e t i n g e f f e c t , a s a g a i n s t a c o n t i n u i n g
p r o g r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n . )
Stanza B has j u s t t h r e e v e r s e s : t h e Pheasants s i n g and dance, Coyote
p r e t e n d s t o t a k e p a r t , Coyote k i l l s a Pheasant g i r l . Stanza C h a s j u s t t h r e e
v e r s e s : Coyote k i l l s another Pheasant g i r l ; he k i l l s n e a r l y a l l , unheard;
t h e mother h e a r s and d i s c o v e r s what is going on. Each t h r e e - p a r t sequence
f i t s t h e p a t t e r n of o n s e t , ongoing, outcome. The next s t a n z a is simply a
t h r e e - p a r t sequence i n f i v e l i n e s : s h e f l i e s , t h e remaining c h i l d r e n f l y ,
Coyote pronounces.
The f i n a l s t a n z a is a three-part sequence i n p a i r s of
l i n e s (a p r a c t i c e found elsewhere i n Chinookan n a r r a t i v e s , when t h e a c t i o n
i s beginning o r ending): p r e p a r i n g a f i r e , cooking, e a t i n g .
(The next l i n e s
i n t h e longer journey s t a r t Coyote o f f a g a i n , going t h r e e times, t o another
house and adventure.)
The f i v e s t a n z a s seem t o group themselves i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , a c t u a l l y :
A i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t h a t s t a r t s t h e a c t i o n ; B and C p r e s e n t t h e complication
and climax of t h e a c t i o n , t h e k i l l i n g of m s t of t h e c h i l d r e n ; D and E p r e s e n t
t h e denouement--on t h e one hand, t h e r e w i l l be a few Pheasants around ( s i n c e
Coyote d i d n ' t k i l l them a l l ) , b u t j u s t a s Pheasants should be; on t h e o t h e r
hand, Coyote g e t s a meal. One could s e e t h e sequence of s t a n z a s A B C
a s a unit--the deceptive i n v i t a t i o n , t h e deceptive p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e dancing
and f i r s t k i l l i n g , t h e outcome of a l l t h a t . One can a l s o s e e t h e sequence of
C D E a s a unit--Pheasant d i s c o v e r s t h a t most of h e r c h i l d r e n have been k i l l e d ,
s h e f l i e s away a s Coyote pronounces h e r name and n a t u r e f o r t h e time t o come,
(Notice t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n t r e a t s
Coyote enjoys t h e f r u i t s of h i s t r i c k e r y .
t h e pronouncementas i n c i d e n t a l on t h e way t o dinner.)
One could recognize l i n e s i n t h i s t e x t by a s s i g n i n g a l i n e t o each
p r e d i c a t e o r c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h p r e d i c a t i v e f o r c e (such a s t h e p o s s e s s i v e phrase
i n l i n e 6 ) . To recognize p a t t e r n i n t h i s t e x t , a p a t t e r n i n g of l i n e s , one
has t o recognize an i m p l i c i t r h e t o r i c of a c t i o n . I n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s p a r t i c i p a t e , b u t do not s u f f i c e t o d e f i n e .
[ C o y o t e and p h e a s a n t ]
d
a
Aga g a y h y a ,
M~d$lxm
tgiiyu,
"ayw$li utxwfla."
d
"Ai.1
,
"
-- --
-.
- --
-- - ----
--
-
214
(co$e
[ C o y o t e and ~ h e a s a n t l
-A a
&
-
and p h e a s a n t , c o n t i n u e d )
a
kga g a 4 5 i n x a x i t .
aga naglalbmtk,
Now h e w e n t ,
.
nbyu?,
"~$:nit'aqinit'a,
3
h e ' s going along,
h e r e a c h e d a house.
b
ll~i:nit'aqinit'a."
H e entered,
Aga ga4wfyuEk.
a woman i s t h e r e ,
b
s h e h a s many c h i l d r e n .
c
He t o l d h e r ,
"I h a v e c o n e t o i n v i t e you.
~igalhma,
gaEGlxam,
" T * Q y a m6yZk:
"fia&gamk8s n i d a p x i 4 q s d u t i n k z . "
hga y 5 y t p a 5 n i & a ,
"~i:nit'aqinit'a."
"The p e o p l e a r e d a n c i n g ,
"The h o u s e i s s t a n d i n g ( r e a d y ) . "
d
"Very w e l l , "
s h e t o l d him,
e
He t o l d h e r ,
" F i r s t let u s practice.
c
~ a E g g l g as y x t ,
gaEiqx5lagwa iELtuk,
qw;t& n a y j 3 l u y a y a t ' a m a d i b a .
a
Aga w i t ' a y &Gyt,
&Gyu;
a g a agGna5 g a t s g l g a ,
gaEiqx5lagwa i % t u k .
"we w i l l go."
-C
"You l e a d ,
our children w i l l be t o the rear.
"You s i n g ,
b
now t h e y w i l l d a n c e .
" T h a t ' s how w e ' l l d o , o n c e
,
we a r r i v e . "
&swiyu,
&Gyt,
n&Zqi g a g i l i s m a q ;
k5:nawi k ' w s t 4 q i g a i $ & u 5 ,
aqswatkadik5.
c
hga n a y a l G m a q ,
E*Sk;
i w i nayu5,
k9b:::ya
iESquq,
ksnawi ~ t ' s l a p ' a s gaEdGdina.
216
21 5
(Coyote and pheasant -concluded)
(Coyote ad Pheasant, continued]
a
a
b
c
a
b
Now they stood,
now she started to sing,
she went,
"~f:nit'aqinit'a,
"~f:nit'aqinit'a."
Now they danced.
He called out,
he told her,
"Dance it right:
"YOU might mix up the children."
Now he for his part went,
"~i:nit'aqinit'a."
He took hold of one,
he wrung her neck,
he stuck her in his belt.
Now again they go,
they dance;
no?: he took hold of another,
he wrung her neck.
They dance,
they go,
she did not hear him;
that's how he did them
save a few.
c
all, ,
Now she heard,
squeak;
she turned to look,
no: :: chiIdren,
Coyote killed them all.
I2
I?
t~Gka,
qawatkdiks i?aquq ga2Gka;
Aga_T'$lapl.as nfkim,
"2&-iEi5~ S m G t m u tid$kaqw4!
"98naga kPwat2qi imisliw hm'smutmut."
GayGya ~'Qlap'as,
galayxelki&;
gaEdGlkE~lamEk,
gatgskgt;
aga ni52$lamEk,
nixk'it4xurn.
51
52
53
54
55
( C o y o t e and p h e a s a n t
.D.
-
concluded)
She flew,
a few o f h e r c h i l d r e n f l e w ;
now C o y o t e s p o k e ,
"'*en
s h o u l d P h e a s a n t h a v e a house:
51
52
53
54
" J u s t l i k e t h a t ' s y o u r name, y o u P h e a s a n t : " S S
5
Coyote went,
he b u i l t a f i r e ;
h e s t a r t e d t o r o a s t them,
t h e y got d o n e ;
now h e s t a r t e d t o e a t ,
K l i k i t a t Sahaptin.
The Sahaptin-speaking p e o p l e s of Oregon and Washington a r e n e i g h b o r s
of t h e Chinookan-speaking p e o p l e s , and s h a r e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r f i v e as
a p a t t e r n number. T h e i r myths, t a l e s and p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s , when t o l d i n t h e
language, show p a t t e r n i n g i n terms of t h r e e and f i v e of t h e s o r t found i n
Chinookan. That, a t l e a s t , is what h a s been found by Henry Morrison,
examining t e x t s recorded f i f t y y e a r s ago by M e l v i l l e J a c o b s (Jacobs 1934,
1937), and by my w i f e , V i r g i n i a Hymes, i n t e x t s t o l d a t Warm S p r i n g s Reservat i o n , Oregon, by M r . L i n t o n Winishut and M r s . Hazel Suppah.
I n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s p l a y a p a r t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s t o r i e s i n t o
l i n e s and v e r s e s , b u t t h e e x a c t n a t u r e of t h a t p a r t is n o t y e t c l e a r . One
s t o r y t o l d by J o e Hunt i n K l i k i t a t S a h a p t i n ( t r a n s l a t i o n i n J a c o b s 1934:
33-40, o r i g i n a l t e x t i n Jacobs 1937: 28-34), "His d a u g h t e r makes Sun f o r e g o
human food", i s b o t h moving i n c o n c e p t i o n and i n s t r u c t i v e i n form.
he finished.
The o u t l i n e of t h e s t o r y i s t h i s . A woman r e f u s e s men, b u t when one
man comes t o h e r , s h e opens t h e door. He shows e v i d e n c e o f p a r e r i n t h a t
s h e can n o t s e e him when s h e opens t h e d o o r , t u r n s , and f i n d s him a l r e a d y
s i t t i n g i n t h e back. She t e l l s him t o go away and r e t u r n . When he d o e s , s h e
demands h i s h a i r . He f i n a l l y l e t s h e r c u t i t , b u t when h e comes a t h i r d t i m e ,
s h e g i v e s i t back and s e n d s him away. Ashamed, h e s l e e p s f i v e days and b a t h e s ,
r e s t o r i n g h i s h a i r , t h e n t e l l s h i s younger b r o t h e r t h a t he is g o i n g t o go
where t h e sun r i s e s . He s e t s up a f e a t h e r and t e l l s h i s younger b r o t h e r t h a t
i f i t does n o t f a l l f o r f i v e y e a r s , he w i l l be coming home. No one e l s e
knows any of t h i s .
Having used up a l l t h e f i v e arrow b u n d l e s he c a r r i e d , p u t t i n g one
arrow i n t h e ground a t an i n t e r v a l , he r e a c h e s a house. A young woman comes
o u t , a d d r e s s e s him a s 'my husband', and warns him of h e r f a t h e r , a dangerous
b e i n g . The Sun k i l l s a person on h i s t r a v e l s e a c h day, b r i n g i n g him back t o
e a t . When t h e Sun a r r i v e s , he demands t h e t r u t h , and g e t s i t . H i s d a u g h t e r
s a y s s h e wants t h e man s h e h a s h i d d e n , and he a c q u i e s c e s . She t h e n t e l l s
t h e man n o t t o e a t what h e r f a t h e r does (humans), b u t e n a b l e s him t o s p e a r
Chinook salmon and hunt d e e r , which they e a t . She i n t e n d s t o change h e r
f a t h e r ' s food and succeeds.
She t e l l s h e r f a t h e r t h a t soon t h e l a n d w i l l b e
changed, t h e p e o p l e w i l l b e t h e r e , 'That i s how t h e l a n d s p e a k s ' , t h e f o o d s
w i l l be h i s own c h i l d r e n , when t h e l a n d h a s been changed. He a g r e e s :
"Everything w i l l be completed now."
The two have a boy and g i r l , g l a d d e n i n g
t h e Sun, h e r f a t h e r . She s a y s t h e p e o p l e , t h e I n d i a n s , w i l l c a l l t h e c h i l d r e n
of t h e l a n d , of t h e Sun, t h e r o o t s , b e r r i e s , f i s h e s , d e e r , o l d e r b r o t h e r and
older s i s t e r .
She then t e l l s h e r husband they s h o u l d r e t u r n t o h i s younger b r o t h e r .
They go round t h e i s l a n d on which t h e y l i v e , r e t u r n i n g upstream from t h e
w e s t , watched over a l t e r n a t e l y by t h e Sun and h i s younger b r o t h e r , t h e Moon.
When t h e y r e t u r n , everyone i s e x c i t e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e haughty woman who had
r e j e c t e d t h e man. He u s e s h e r e a g e r n e s s t o make h e r f a l l i n t h e w a t e r , and
(The form of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s my
Jacobs
p r i n t s t h e a d d r e s s a s a s i n g l e paragraph. Within t h e paragraph h e p l a c e s
f i v e p a r e n t h e t i c numbers, which d i v i d e i t i n t o p a r t s of which t h e l a s t two
almost a g r e e w i t h t h e l a s t two p r e s e n t e d h e r e . )
then t h e myth ends w i t h t h i s address.
own, advised on s e v e r a l p o i n t s of grammar and meaning by my w i f e .
And h e t o l d h e r .
"Now you t r e a t e d me exceedingly badly.
"Now you have been t h i n k i n g , I suppose.
"I s h a l l never have a man,
"Now I , t h e r e I now, s h a l l be without a man now."
"Now d i f f e r e n t w i l l be t h e l a n d ,
" d i f f e r e n t t h e people;
"everything is ready,
"it w i l l be named s o h e r e ;
"Now t h a t is t h e law I b r i n g from t h e e a s t .
pg'aa.
" h a m n z ' i : i:&k is*am;i pgkutkuDna.
"Auxanam pvlga,
"'C'aunag-mun
t & w i ~ aawing,
TI'
~u-ku&~G:knaH-iu, wits awin~ninG~~au."'
"Au it&uV;Da
t i : z;m,
"tjnux t i : n ;
"wG&ani : i w i t*'~xut;n;
" i w g ~ awaniki : i r n a k ;
"Au k'pjnaknaz inak n&ks
t a m i n w i ~?;ixtknik.
"fmaknam p2ga~a'yafatang;
"~u;-&~k;k a y g y a ~awiya:?;,
,
"anak;k itg&aDa tanu5 t i :cam,
"tanu?ta?qti;n.,
"KLknam pawanikta, b u k - t a : tpas' ;
1.
" ~ * ~ a n a k ~ ~ aaukuk
m $ g w a ~ ai : m i &
waq i s ' w i ~t t i w a q t
"Eaunamun aniDa ?wins'.
" w a ~ a ~ i m a 5; t u y i D . "
1ku:nik pa'3na t4axu ponminak ti:nma.
"You caused me t o go f i n d i t ;
"And I , now, have found i t wonderful,
"when i t w i l l have become a d i f f e r e n t l a n d ,
"very d i f f e r e n t people.
"Then you w i l l be c a l l e d 'Black-dress';
"That i s what your h e a r t and l i f e now w i l l b e .
"You w i l l never accept a man,
"but you w i l l be s t r o n g i n power."
That is t h e way he spoke t o a l l h e r people.
. - -
p a w a p a d s i ma.,
" i u ~ ~ a n a m - i m ~waDa
'a
tjnu?,:i:miknik
"i5i:;-wa
iku:k ikua*k nami ti:nma.
As many a s t h e r e were of them,
he gave them n o t h i n g ,
he turned them away:
"Now you w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from t h e s e people.
"These many a r e now my own people.
ti:nmamiknik.
"~willatgmi:?wa z2u-t;n
j s ' a l a w i ~ a a l x a i ? , i : n , ?a:sl;,
"Kwenkink iwaga ti:;& waq'is',
"1:;ata
ti:nmiyai."
"Never a t any time w i l l the moon, sun, o r s t a r s weaken,
"Because of them t h e land w i l l have l i f e ,
"It w i l l l i e t h e r e f o r t h e people."
Now t h a t i s a l l .
KG
i u ik'wak t*'axu
28
T h i s a d d r e s s c o n t a i n s i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s , b u t t h e y p l a y a minor p a r t .
The p a r t i c l e 2 'now' marks t h e f i r s t l i n e s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e haughty woman,
o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y f o u r t i m e s , and p r o b a b l y f i v e .
( I t i s n o t c e r t a i n how t o
t a k e t h e f o u r t h l i n e of t h e s p e e c h , which seems t o r e p e a t
three times, but
whose f i r s t word, hyphenated by J a c o b s , might be an idiom i n K l i k i t a t . ) The
'then', occur, together with
f r e q u e n t S a h a p t i n p a r t i c l e s & ' a n d ' , &&
'now t h e n ' .
But t h e fundamental p a t t e r n of t h e a d d r e s s a p p e a r s t o depend
upon t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e woman b e i n g a d d r e s s e d , and h e r p e o p l e , on t h e
one hand, a s a g a i n s t t h e t r u e p e o p l e and l a n d a s t h e y w i l l b e i n t h e f u t u r e
a b o u t t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d . Her h a u g h t i n e s s h a s caused t h e journey which l e a d s
t o t h e new and b e t t e r o r d e r , y e t e x c l u d e s h e r and h e r p e o p l e from i t . I n
p u r s u i n g t h i s c o n t r a s t , t h e speech r e t u r n s f i v e t i m e s t o mention of ' p e o p l e '
(=-),
t h r e e t i m e s coupled w i t h ' l a n d ' (ti:K!im).
+
(1) you d i d and thought t h i s ,
The l o g i c of t h e s p e e c h a p p e a r s t o be:
b u t now i t w i l l b e t h i s way (with r e g a r d t o l a n d and p e o p l e ) ; (2) you caused
me t o go, and i t w i l l b e t h i s way w i t h t h e l a n d and t h e p e o p l e ( d i f f e r e n t ) ;
( 3 ) you y o u r s e l f w i l l b e w i t h o u t i s s u e (never a c c e p t a man), and s o a l s o a l l
y o u r people: (4) a l l of you w i l l b e d i f f e r e n t from t h e s e p e o p l e , my own p e o p l e ;
( 5 ) t h e heavens w i l l s u s t a i n t h e l i f e of t h e l a n d and of t h e p e o p l e . The f i r s t
t h r e e p a r t s s p e l l o u t t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , ending w i t h t h e d i r e c t pronouncement a s t o t h e f u t u r e i d e n t i t y of t h e haughty woman. The f o u r t h p a r t c o n t i n u e s
t h e theme of s e p a r a t i n g s h e e p from g o a t s i n i t i a t e d i n t h e t h i r d , and t h e f i f t h
a s s e r t s a g e n e r a l b l e s s i n g f o r t h e p e o p l e chosen.
I n s o f a r a s t h i s a c c o u n t of t h e l o g i c of t h e s p e e c h is c o r r e c t , one
f i n d s o v e r t l i n g u i s t i c marking of i t , n o t i n i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s s o much a s
i n key words, t h e m a t i c words, i n t h e l a s t l i n e s of e a c h p a r t . The key words,
' p e o p l e ' and ' l a n d ' occur i n t h e f i r s t two l i n e s of t h e t h i r d , l a s t v e r s e ,
I n t h e f o u r remaining p a r t s , which l a c k
of t h e p a r t i c l e - m a r k e d f i r s t p a r t .
much i n t h e way of p a r t i c l e - m a r k i n g , ' p e o p l e ' o c c u r s i n t h e l a s t l i n e i n a l l ,
accompanied by ' l a n d ' i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e i n t h e second and f i f t h ; by
a n o t h e r u s e of ' p e o p l e ' i n t h e p r e c e d i n g l i n e i n t h e f o u r t h ; and by ' d i f f e r e n t '
i n t h e second and f o u r t h .
(-)
The p r i n c i p l e a t work i n t h i s a d d r e s s seems t o b e widely used. A
speech by t h e l a t e Wishram Chinook, P h i l i p Kahclamet, r e t u r n s a t t h e end of
each o f i t s f i v e p a r t s t o t h e p e r v a s i v e theme of c o n t i n u i t y of n a t i v e r e l i g i o u s
t r a d i t i o n and eschewal of C h r i s t i a n i t y ( s e e c h . 6 of Hymes 1 9 8 1 ) . Many
t i m e s , when a sequence o f i n i t i a l l y marked l i n e s and v e r s e s does n o t seem t o
have a c l e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o p a r t s , t h e p a t t e r n i n g becomes c l e a r when one
The
h a s d i s c o v e r e d t h e r e c u r r e n t ending-point t o which e a c h p a r t b u i l d s .
s e c t i o n of a Takelma myth a b o u t Coyote, t o be p r e s e n t e d n e x t , i s an example.
The importance o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e can h a r d l y b e e x a g g e r a t e d . I t
makes c l e a r t h a t t h e p a t t e r n i n g of t h e s e t e x t s is n o t mechanical.
It is
n o t t h e f i l l i n g o u t o f a f i x e d form, s u c h a s t h e f o u r l i n e s of a q u a t r a i n ,
t h e f i v e l i n e s of a l i m e r i c k , t h e s i x l i n e s of a s t a n z a of a s e s t i n a , and
s o on. The t e x t i s b e i n g shaped t o e x p r e s s i v e p u r p o s e , a s i t p r o c e e d s ,
a r o u s i n g and f u l f i l l i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , a s is t h e c a s e w i t h a l l t r a d i t i o n a l
l i t e r a r y form (Burke 1931)--I would say. a l l s a t i s f y i n g l i t e r a r y form.
P a r t i c l e s and p a t t e r n s a r e made use o f ; d e v i c e s such a s t h e s e c o n d i t i o n
what can and w i l l b e done; b u t what i s done is c o n t r o l l e d u l t i m a t e l y by t h e
i m a g i n a t i o n and a r t i s t r y of t h e n a r r a t o r . R e c u r r e n t e n d i n g p o i n t s a l o n g t h e
way a r e a r e c u r r e n t c l u e t o what t h a t i m a g i n a t i o n and a r t i s t r y have f o c u s s e d
upon a s i m p o r t a n t . There w i l l n e v e r b e a mechanical p r o c e d u r e f o r r e c o g n i z i n g
t h e s h a p e of t h e r e s u l t , and some a s p e c t s of s h a p e may remain u n c e r t a i n .
We
can come c l o s e , b u t o n l y i n s o f a r a s we can e n t e r s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y i n t o t h e
i m a g i n a t i o n and a r t i s t r y t h a t produced t h e s h a p e , and s h a r e a s e n s e o f t h e
s a t i s f a c t i o n s , moment by moment, a s d e v i c e accumulates i n t o d e s i g n .
Takelma.
The Takelma language was spoken i n s o u t h w e s t e r n Oregon n o t f a r from t h e
Karok o f n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . What we can know o f t e x t s i n Takelma were
recorded i n 1906 a t S i l e t z R e s e r v a t i o n , Oregon, by Edward S a p i r from
Mrs. Frances Johnson ( S a p i r 1909b). One of t h e s t o r i e s a b o u t Coyote h e l p s t o
deepen u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s h a p i n g of n a r r a t i v e s through t h e l i n k i n g of l i n e s
and v e r s e s i n terms o f u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n .
I n t h i s s t o r y , "Coyote goes c o u r t i n g " ( S a p i r 1909b: 101-109). Coyote
l i v e s a l o n e , h u n t i n g gophers everyday, when he h e a r s t h e sound of a g i r l ' s
p u b e r t y dance. He r u s h e s o f f , f i n a l l y a r r i v e s , and immediately s i n g l e s o u t
t h e g i r l w i t h obvious w e a l t h ( j i n g l i n g d e n t a l i a ) .
When h e t r i e s t o j o i n i n
t h e s i n g i n g , h e g e t s t h e songs wrong (only ' h a l f - r i g h t ' ) .
A s one g i r l ( b i r d )
a f t e r a n o t h e r comes forward and s i n g s , t h e r e comes a song which mentions
Black B e a r ' s a n u s , and h e comes, i n d i g n a n t l y b u t h a r m l e s s l y . The s i n g i n g
i t s e l f a t t r a c t s G r i z z l y Bear, and some of t h e g i r l s p e r s i s t , d e s p i t e warnings
by o t h e r s , u n t i l G r i z z l y does a p p e a r and b r e a k s up t h e dance. No one is
harmed, and Coyote s e i z e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e i z e t h e c h i e f ' s d a u g h t e r and
t a k e h e r i n t o t h e b u s h e s . There he d i s c o v e r s t o h i s dismay t h a t s h e h a s no
p r o p e r feminine p a r t s . Pronouncing h e r merely ' F r o g ' , he goes o f f .
The theme of Coyote p u r s u i n g a woman, o n l y t o be f r u s t r a t e d o r l o s e
h e r e , i s widely e n j o y e d , and t h e p a i r i n g of Coyote w i t h Frog is f a i r l y common
i n s t o r i e s . Here t h e main p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t is i n t h e s h a p i n g of t h e Takelma
myth by means of i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s , on t h e one hand, and e n d i n g - p o i n t s , on t h e
other.
A s mentioned, Takelma was spoken n e a r Karok, and l i k e Karok, t h e
p a t t e r n number of t h e c u l t u r e is f o u r , r a t h e r t h a n f i v e , as i s t h e c a s e among
Chinookans and S a h a p t i n s . Whereas grouping i n t o t h r e e s goes a l o n g w i t h
grouping i n t o f i v e s among Chinookans and S a h a p t i n s , g r o u p i n g i n t o twos goes
(We s h a l l c o n s i d e r l a t e r
a l o n g w i t h g r o u p i n g i n t o f o u r s i n Takelma myths.
- --
-
7
224
COYOTE GOES TO A DANCE.
....
whether o r n o t t h e same is t r u e f o r Karok.)
The c l e a r e s t f e a t u r e of t h e p a t t e r n i n g of Takelma myths, indeed, is
t h e p a i r i n g of v e r s e s marked by a n i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e . The commn p a r t i c l e s
are
'then' and &: 'now'.
Both a r e o f t e n followed by an emphatic
element, -hi>. S a p i r construed t h i s element a s a q u o t a t i v e , and t r a n s l a t e d
i t a s ' i t is s a i d ' , b u t
b e a r s no resemblance t o any Takelma element f o r
' s a y i n g ' ; M r s . Johnson a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t s u g g e s t such a t r a n s l a t i o n ; and
discovery of p a t t e r n i n g i n v e r s e s opens up t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d i s c o u r s e
f u n c t i o n f o r [email protected], which indeed is almost i d e n t i c a l t o an emphatic p a r t i c l e ,
h i , t h a t follows pronouns and demonstratives.
(Cf. S a p i r 1922: 272, 274. 277-8).
Other p a r t i c l e s and adverbs may p l a y a p a r a l l e l r o l e , e s p e c i a l l y those containing the c o r r e l a t i v e o r contrastive s u f f i x ,
w:
-=
[HE HEARS AND HURRIES TO THE
[i.
H e h e a r s a q i r 1 8 s p u b e r t y dance]
(a)
Now h e h e a r d s o m e t h i n g ,
a round d a n c e o f n u b i l e g i r l s b e i n g danced.
18
19
(b)
Now h e l i s t e n e d .
20
(c)
Then,
"S'a!
Where i s t h e g i r l s 1 d a n c e b e i n g danced?"
s a i d Coyote.
21
22
23
(d)
Now h e d i s c o v e r e d ( t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h )
a g i r l s 1 d a n c e was b e i n g danced--
24
25
26
-
-s*.
I f one r e a d s through t h e s e c t i o n of t h e myth presented h e r e , one w i l l
f i n d i t e v i d e n t , I t h i n k , t h a t a d j a c e n t v e r s e s belong t o g e t h e r . Thus,
Coyote h e a r s , l i s t e n s (11 1 a b ) ; a s k s 'where', d e c l a r e s ' t h e r e ' (I1 1 cd);
goes, runs u n t i l t i r e d and l i s t e n s ( g a b ) ; rushes and runs, then r e s t s again
(and i m p l i c i t l y h e a r s ) ( g cd) ; 'must be h e r e * , b u t no ( g e f ) ; 'where', must
be u p r i v e r ( g gh).
The use of p a i r i n g , and o c c a s i o n a l l y , of four-element p a t t e r n i n g , is
e v i d e n t along t h e way. Thus. 'he rushed o f f , h e r a n ' a r e p a i r e d twice i n
t h i s s e c t i o n ( l i n e s 33-34; 51-52), along w i t h t h e s i m i l a r p a i r , 'he went, he
rushed o f f ' (62-3).
Four times a n i n i t i a l 'he r a n ' , 'he rushed o f f ' , 'he
went', ' h e r a n ' is followed by t h e r h e t o r i c a l query, "How l o n g d i d he not
runlgo?" (48, 57, 64, 72). Lines 20-32 seem a n a t u r a l sequence of f o u r
The same f o u r elements
elements: "he r a n , was t i r e d , s t o o d s t i l l , l i s t e n e d " .
i n almost t h e same sequence occur a g a i n ( l i n e s 79-82), but an i n t e r v e n i n g
i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s e p a r a t e s them. The v e r s e denoted ( f ) i n 2 ( l i n e s 84-90)
h a s a kind of c o u p l e t , ' g i r l s i n g r e a t numbers/many kinds of g i r l s ' t o
i n t r o d u c e a c a t a l o g , and t h e f i n a l two v e r s e s (91-2) amplify t h e same i d e a
('What kind d i d n o t dancelmany k i n d s ' ) .
DAIICEI
11.
"Sh'a:
[g.
(a)
(b)
T h a t ' s where I ' l l go!"
He r u n s ]
Now h e w e n t ,
h e t h r e w away t h e g o p h e r s .
Now h e r a n ,
was t i r e d ,
stood still,
listened.
(c) Then now a g a i n h e r u s h e d o f f ,
he ran.
(dl
Then now a g a i n h e r e s t e d :
s t i l l t h e d a n c e was danced ( a s i f ) nearby.
(el
Then,
"Ah:
33
34
35
35
37
It must b e h e r e t h e d a n c e is b e i n g danced!"
38
(f)
There h e a r r i v e d :
no p e o p l e .
39
40
(g)
"S-where
t h i s dancing?"
he s a i d ,
41
h e spoke t o himself.
(h)
T h i s ( p l a c e ) n e a r b y t h e y were d a n c i n g t h e d a n c e ,
t h e y w e r e d o i n g i t ( i t seemed):
"It must be h e r e u p r i v e r . "
42
43
44
45
46
COYOTE GOES TO A DAIJCE.
....
11.
[HE HEARS AND HURRIES TO THE DANCE]
[i.
He h e a r s a g i r l ' s p u b e r t y d a n c e )
How l o n g
[x.
Aa
(a)
Mi:
w;:
(b)
(c)
Mi:
k h a i d::*agsn,
lham hoyodagw$n.
[u.
~ w i d w2:lham
i
Then a g a i n h e r u s h e d o f f ,
he ran.
hoyodagw&n?"
d
He would name t h e name o f t h e land-" T h e r e t h e y must b e d a n c i n g , "
Sgisi.
s a i d Coyote.
da:t'ay;kh,
wu:lham hoyodagw$nma'-Ge gin?khde!".
Ba
b.
(a)
Mi:hin y e ' ,
t h i : s h i ' he:kSu:wfi:.
(b)
Mi:
c
d
Ch&'kh,l
Then a g a i n h e r u s h e d o f f .
How l o n g d i d h e n o t r u n ?
He was t i r e d ,
he kept resting.
He r u n s ]
hikh,
Now a g a i n h e r a n .
How l o n g d i d h e n o t r u n ?
t h e y were d o i n g i t ( i t seemed).
nag;ihiv
"3';:
run?]
c
Gane:hiB,
Mi:
not
Nearby t h e y w e r e d a n c i n g ,
da:sg;ksi:.
"s*:!
(d)
b
does he
Always t h e r e i s s i n g i n g .
T h i s ( p l a c e ) , i t seemed t o b e done.
hu:linth,
Ca
s a s i n i :,
da:sgek9i:.
( c ) Gane:hi'
mi:
b
How l o n g d i d h e n o t go?
"S-where & t h e g i r l s ' d a n c e b e i n g d a n c e d ? "
he s a i d ,
h e l i s t e n e d about.
c
Then,
"S'a:
d
And i n d e e d t h e d a n c e was b e i n g d a n c e d i n t h e e a s t .
hono' h e : b i l f u ,
h8'kh.
(d)
G a n e : h i S m i : hono' l i g i : n t h ,
h8wi wu: lham hoyodagwan d a ' 6 1 .
(el
Gane:hil
"Ah:
(f)
Ge wb:kh,
hi: ' k h a i y a p p a .
wS-gemi.'di
nageihi'
Da
b
aga18 hoidisukh?"
,
8:khi wahimithgwith.
(h)
*Ali:
I t must b e h e r e u p r i v e r m - -
~ n 6 'm i : 'wa wu: l h a ~hoyodagv&-t."
c
(3)
Then a g a i n h e w e n t ,
he rushed o f f .
d a ' 6 1 wu:lham
hoidiaukhi*,
na'nagei' :
"rn6- m? :*bra hin!.!adf.. "
d
Now a g a i n h e r a n t h e r e .
How l o n g d i d h e n o t r u n ?
Then a l o n g t i m e p a s s e d .
Now h e was t i r e d ;
t h e r e h e became j u s t n e a r b y .
[
i
&
Aa
b
How lonq does he not run?]
Mi: honol hbekh.
Gwi:*n& di wede hbkh?
Da'bl hoidiaukhi',
napnag&i'
Gane:hiS h o d ' he:biliu*,
hb'kh.
Thgs: khwedei psu:w3: * aukh:-"Ge mi:'wa hoyodihu*,"
naghihi' Sgisi.
a
b
Then he went ahead again.
Then he came from below [downriver] nearby
(where) the dance was being danced.
c
d
Gane:hi' honb* he:biliuS,
~ w i :*n& di wede hbkh?
hu:linth,
ligilagsnth.
Ganga helelisuda*.
Ali: nh'naghi.
Now again he ran.
Then he stood still,
was tired,
listened.
e
f
Then now he arrived-Ahh girls in great numbers were dancing the
puberty round dance-many kinds of girls,
Swan,
Goose,
Bluejay,
Mouse,
Frog.
g
h
What kind did not dance the puberty dance?
Many kinds were standing there.
.
c
d
Ba
b
c
d
Ca
b
c
Da
b
c
d
Gane:hi9 hon6' ys*,
he:biliuS.
Gwi:'ne di wede yanekh?
'IS-gemg'di aga'a wu:lham hoyodaghn?"
naghihi' ,
da:sgek'ei:ha.
Gane:hiS,
" ~ ' 3 : ~ m & ' hinwade rni:*wav--
Mi: hono* ge hiwiliu'.
Gwi:'ne di wede h6kh?
Gane:hil gwi:'ne la:l&:.
Mi: hu:lfnttr;
ge' y2:hi da'bl 1a:le:.
a
Gane:hi
b
Gane:hi
-.
'
What i s n o t s o e v i d e n t i s any l a r g e r shaping of t h e elements of t h e
s t o r y . I f one looks f o r r e p e t i t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r words, such a s ' l a n d ' and
'people' i n the Sahaptin t e x t j u s t considered, one is disappointed.
There
i s indeed r e p e t i t i o n , b u t i t does not occur i n such a way as t o group t h e
p a r t s of t h i s s e c t i o n symmetrically o r r e g u l a r l y . One might, f o r example,
organize t h e m a t e r i a l i n t o u n i t s introduced by 'he r a n ' o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t .
The r e s u l t is not very s a t i s f y i n g . There would seem t o be t e n i n s t a n c e s
(allowing f o r p a i r i n g i n 76-77 a s one i n s t a n c e , and n o t counting ' a r r i v e d '
(83), one has 27, 29, 33-34, 47, 51-2, 56, 62-3, 71, 76-7, 79). To count
' a r r i v e d ' (39, 83) and 'became j u s t nearby' (75) a s implying running would
give t h i r t e e n i n s t a n c e s . The r e s t of t h e a c t i o n groups only l o o s e l y and
i r r e g u l a r l y around t h e s e t e n o r t h i r t e e n p o i n t s , taken e i t h e r as i n i t i a l o r
concluding elements.
ba:d&*yeweyskhw.
daPo:l dg'hiwilku'
wu: l h a m h o y o d a g w h n m a ' .
c
~ i h :o d '
hh'kh.
d
Gane:hi1
sasini:,
hu:linth,
da:sg&k*i:.
e
Gane:hiV m i :
f
A: : w a i w i :
g& w6:kh--
ney8:da'
wu:lhm
hoyodskhw,
k h s i g w a l a waiwi:,
~glph,
Hs'kha:,
Tslarn&:l,
[ I . ] He h e a r s a g i r l ' s puberty dance. This seems c l e a r enough. R.0 p a i r s
of v e r s e s i n t r o d u c e t h e complication of t h e a c t i o n . Coyote h e a r s and l i s t e n s ;
exclaims 'where?' and d e c l a r e s 'There' ( I ' l l go).
~aphs:m.
~ h & ni $ k ' a
d i 'sni:'
~ h . 3gwale sasini:.
One may n o t i c e t h a t ' l i s t e n ' occurs a s t h e second i n a sequence of
f o u r o r more elements i n t h e t e x t a s presented h e r e (32, 6 7 , 82). and t h a t
may be s i g n i f i c a n t . The p a t t e r n i n g of which i t i s p a r t , however, depends
upon r e c o g n i t i o n of a r e c u r r e n t element t h a t is not expressed each t i m e i n
t h e same words.
Let us review t h e b a s i s f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e c t i o n of t h e s t o r y a s
i s done here.
Ts1$i*s,
g
h
'
wu:lham
hoyod$kh~?
[ i i . ] He runs. I t is easy enough t o s e e t h a t 'Now he went' s t a r t s a new
p a r t , but not easy t o s e e where t h e new p a r t ends. The key, I b e l i e v e , i s
n o t t o count, b u t t o t h i n k . This i s t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e of Coyote's way of
f i n d i n g t h e dance, and i t is depicted e x t e n s i v e l y . Lines 27-46 a l l have t o
do w i t h only t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e . To be s u r e , Coyote runs and s t o p s , runs and
s t o p s (27-36), but a l l t h i s is b u i l d i n g up t o t h e discovery t h a t t h e r e a r e
no people where he had expected t o f i n d them (39-401, and t h e outcome of t h e
discovery. I n a p a i r of v e r s e s t h a t p a r a l l e l t h e f i n a l two v e r s e s of t h e
f i r s t of t h e s e f o u r scenes (22-26), he a s k s himself 'Where?' and d e c l a r e s
a g a i n , i n e f f e c t , ' t h e r e ' ('must be h e r e u p r i v e r ' ) .
Consider, now, t h e underlying r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e e i g h t v e r s e s t h a t
make up t h i s scene. A l l b u t one have an i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e (and a t u r n of
Each p a i r
speech appears t o count a s a v e r s e i n Takelma, a s i n l i n e s 41-3).
of v e r s e s seems t o f i t a p a t t e r n of o n s e t and outcome, o r i n i t i a t i o n and
r e s u l t . Even w i t h i n a v e r s e , t h e f o u r l i n e s of 29-32 seem t o show t h i s p a t t e r n
twice: r a n , and t h e r e f o r e , t i r e d ; stood s t i l l , and then, l i s t e n e d . Let us
summarize t h e r e l a t i o n s of t h e e i g h t v e r s e s i n t h i s regard:
(a-b):
(c-d)
(e-f)
(g-h)
s t a r t e d (throwing away t h e gophers), ran u n t i l stopping t o l i s t e n .
ran a g a i n , r e s t e d a g a i n (and heard a g a i n ) .
Decided i t must be h e r e , but no, no people.
Where then? Must be h e r e u p r i v e r .
It is n o t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n s i d e r each p a i r of v e r s e s a s r e l a t e d t o an
(a-b) a r e something of an i n i t i a t i o n t o t h e
a d j a c e n t p a i r i n t h e same way.
r e s u l t of (c-d), which ends by s t a t i n g t h a t he r e s t e d (which is more of a s t o p
perhaps than h e s t o o d s t i l l ) , and t h a t t h e dance was s t i l l as i f nearby
(which is more of an e x p l i c i t outcome than he l i s t e n e d ) . (e-f) i s c l e a r l y
an i n i t i a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t expressed i n (g-h).
way.
I t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r each p a i r of p a i r s a s r e l a t e d i n t h e same
(a-b-c-d)
have t h e running; (e-f-g-h) have t h e outcome.
I t seems then t h a t Takelma h a s a n underlying r h e t o r i c a l l o g i c , b u i l t
around sequences of two and m u l t i p l e s of two, a t each s u c c e s s i v e l e v e l of
o r g a n i z a t i o n of a myth.
To d i s c o v e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s l o g i c i n a given myth r e q u i r e s ,
however, sympathetic imagination, and acquaintance w i t h t h e n a t u r e of such
story-telling.
These e i g h t v e r s e s have been grouped t o g e t h e r on t h e b a s i s
of recognizing them a s an e x p r e s s i o n i n some f u l n e s s of t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e
of Coyote's running t o f i n d t h e dance. That r e c o g n i t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p a r t s b e f o r e and a f t e r t h i s s e c t i o n seem coherent u n i t s too.
Having considered &, l e t us t u r n t o
a.
The c o n s t a n t element i n & i s t h e r e p e t i t i o n , f o u r times, of t h e
emphatic r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n . 'How long d i d he n o t r u n ? ' What of t h e groups
formed around t h i s f o u r f o l d r e p e t i t i o n ? Each begins with a v a r i a n t of running
o r going. Each ends a v a r i a n t of the end of t h e preceding scene, Coyote's
e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e dance i s b e i n g danced a t t h e n e a r e s t p l a c e . Stanzas A
and C r e p e a t t h e 'must b e ' (perhaps, probably, a r e a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n s ,
b u t 'must b e ' i s i n keeping w i t h Coyote's c h a r a c t e r and a c t i o n ) t h a t framed
t h e second h a l f o f t h e preceding scene (38, 46).
There i s a p r o g r e s s i o n i n
t h e r e p e t i t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a , Coyote is s t i l l f a r away; t h e s t a t e m e n t
t h a t h e would name t h e name of t h e land (53) i m p l i e s a good many l a n d s t o be
named. I n t h e second s t a n z a t h e s i n g i n g makes i t seem t o be where he i s ,
t h i s p l a c e ; t h a t simply e l a b o r a t e s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e r e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n .
In the t h i r d s t a n z a t h e n a r r a t o r confirms t h a t he h a s t h e d i r e c t i o n r i g h t .
He r e p e a t s , 'must be h e r e u p r i v e r ' , and t h e n a r r a t o r completes t h e s t a n z a
with the s t a t e m e n t t h a t indeed it i s i n t h e e a s t . The f o u r t h s t a n z a s t a t e s
(And indeed he w i l l now come up
t h a t a f t e r a long time he i s j u s t nearby.
j u s t where t h e dance is b e i n g danced.)
But what about l i n e s 49-50? They a r e q u i t e p a r a l l e l , e x p r e s s i n g t h e
i d e a t h a t t h e dance is b e i n g danced nearby, i t s e e m . Why a r e they n o t t h e
end of a u n i t , c o o r d i n a t e w i t h t h e r e s t ? And indeed, they a r e followed by
Given
a p a i r of l i n e s t h a t can i n i t i a t e , 'he rushed o f f , he r a n ' (51-2).
t h e very r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s j u s t s t a t e d , should i t n o t be granted t h a t t h e
number of s t a n z a s , c o o r d i n a t e u n i t s , i n t h i s p a r t of t h e s t o r y is n o t f o u r .
but f i v e ? Whatever t h e Takelma p a t t e r n number?
I do n o t t h i n k s o . The r e p e t i t i o n of t h e r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n . 'How
long d i d he not r u n ? ' , seems t o m e an important device, probably s e r i o u s l y
intended a s p a r t of t h e
an important c l u e . The
by t h i s q u e s t i o n . That
with t h e f o u r i n s t a n c e s
r h e t o r i c a l question.
s t r u c t u r e of t h e scene. I t s f o u r occurrences seem
'he rushed o f f , h e ran' of l i n e s 51-2 is n o t followed
i s a s t r o n g reason f o r n o t c o n s i d e r i n g i t c o o r d i n a t e
of 'he r a n ' , and t h e l i k e , t h a t a r e followed by t h e
A second reason is t h a t t h e double occurrence of an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t
t h e dance is nearby, i n a c e r t a i n p l a c e , seems t o m e p a r a l l e l t o the double
occurrence of such an i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e preceding s c e n e g . I n t h a t s c e n e
t h e f i r s t occurrence of 'nearby' (36) seemed t o be a moment on t h e way t o
t h e outcome of a continuous i n c i d e n t (44-6).
This next i n c i d e n t (47-55)
seems t o me a somewhat condensed e q u i v a l e n t . F i r s t a f u l l - s c a l e d e p i c t i o n
of Coyote's rushing o f f (scene g ) , t h e n a f o r e s h o r t e n e d d e p i c t i o n , i n t r o ducing a scene whose focus is progression tovard t h e dance, while r i n g i n g
changes on Coyote's behavior, anchored by t h e c o n s t a n t r h e t o r i c a l t h r u s t ,
'How long d i d he n o t run?' Scene g d e p i c t s Coyote's over-anxious misjudgement and e x e r t i o n f u l l s c a l e ; scene
d e p i c t s him going and going u n t i l
he is almost t h e r e .
*
C e r t a i n l y scenes ii and
a r e c l o s e l y a k i n . It i s s t r i k i n g t h a t
t h e e x p r e s s i o n s 'nearbyl<nd
'must be' each occur f o u r times, and occur only
i n t h e s e two scenes. Their r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r is s t r i k i n g a l s o . 'Nearby1
occurs i n one v e r s e , 'must b e ' (&:%a) i n t h e next (36. 38); then
nearby' and 'must be' occur i n t h e same o r d e r w i t h i n t h e same v e r s e a t t h e
end of g (44, 46). 'Nearby' and 'must be' occur a g a i n i n t h e same order.
s e p a r a t e d by a v e r s e , i n the next s t a n z a (49, 54)--one reason I think t h a t
t h i s s t a n z a i s a reduced r e p r i s e of t h e preceding scene. And then t h e two
occur i n r e v e r s e o r d e r , a t t h e ends of s u c c e s s i v e , s e p a r a t e s t a n z a s , a t t h e
end of t h e scene (70, 75), n e i t h e r t o occur again. This r e v e r s a l t h e f o u r t h
time round seems t o me s i g n i f i c a n t . It i m p l i c i t l y p r e p a r e s f o r t h e change
from mistaken optimism t o a c t u a l a r r i v a l .
(a)
Each p a i r of v e r s e s can be s e e n a s i n i t i a t i o n and r e s u l t , and such a
r e l a t i o n can be seen between p a i r s of p a i r s , a s w i t h s c e n e
The connection
is r a t h e r loose i n some i n s t a n c e s , t o be s u r e . It i s perhaps s t r o n g e s t i n
t h e second p a i r of s t a n z a s , C and D.
u.
I n scene &, t h e f i r s t f o u r v e r s e s seem t o f i t t h e l o g i c of t h e
r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n w e l l enough: went ahead, came from below; r a n , stopped
and l i s t e n e d . The second s e t of f o u r v e r s e s seem t o e l a b o r a t e a s i n g l e
p a i r i n g : he a r r i v e s , t h e r e a r e a l l kinds of g i r l s
.'
The f o u r scenes of the a c t show the p a t t e r n r e a d i l y enough: he h e a r s ,
he runs; he runs long, he a r r i v e s . The p a t t e r n of i n i t i a t i o n and r e s u l t ,
o r of o n s e t and outcome, appears i n t h i s s e c t i o n of t h e myth, not a s a
s t r a i g h t j a c k e t , o r e x a c t formula, b u t a s a p e r v a s i v e , p e r s i s t e n t way of
formulating a c t i o n , and r e l a t i o n s among a c t i o n s .
A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n appears i n t h e myths of another c u l t u r e , remote from
t h e Takelma where t h e p a t t e r n number is a l s o f o u r . In John Rush Buffalo's
[coyote t r i e s t o shoot raccoons]
Aa
"Coyote and Eagle's daughter", a s t o l d i n t h e Tonkawa language of Texas,
i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s a g a i n s e r v e t o i d e n t i f y v e r s e s , and groups of v e r s e s
a g a i n e x p r e s s a l o g i c of a c t i o n a s c o n s i s t i n g of o n s e t and outcome, o r
i n i t i a t i o n and r e s u l t . Within t h i s g e n e r a l framework, t o be s u r e , some
s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s occur. The very f a c t t h a t almost every p a r t of t h e
myth f i t s t h e p a t t e r n j u s t d e s c r i b e d f o r c e s one t o recognize t h a t one v e r s e
does n o t : i t i s a s e t of s i x l i n e s , and t h e r e is nothing two-by-four about
i t . The c l e a r coherence of t h e a c t i o n a l s o f o r c e s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e p a t t e r n of a c t i o n i s more fundamental than t h e number of p a r t i c l e s .
I n one s e c t i o n of t h e myth, Coyote's w i f e goes t o f i n d him, and comes f o u r
times t o a camp. The d e t a i l s a r e s t r i c t l y p a r a l l e l i n each of t h e f o u r
encounters, y e t a s t r i c t counting o f p a r t i c l e s would d e s t r o y t h e p a r a l l e l i s m .
The f i r s t encounter h a s two p a r t i c l e s , b u t each of t h e remaining t h r e e h a s
t h r e e . The n a r r a t o r h a s minipulated t h e r e l a t i o n among p a r t i c l e s , v e r s e s and
l o g i c of a c t i o n . F u r t h e r s t u d y of t h e s m a l l s e t of Tonkawa t e x t s ?veserved
f o r us may d i s c l o s e t h e e x p r e s s i v e purpose.
(This myth is analyzed i n
Humes 1980.)
I f d i s t a n t Tonkawa and nearby Takelma have an underlying l o g i c of
a c t i o n , what about Karok? It seems p o s s i b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t does a s w e l l .
b
The f i r s t episode of 'Coyote's journey' concerns Coyote's attempt t o
shoot raccoons f o r new c l o t h e s . It does appear t o c o n s i s t of groups of
v e r s e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e a m u l t i p l e of f o u r , namely, e i g h t . The a s s o c i a t e d
l o g i c of a c t i o n seems t o have a somewhat d i f f e r e n t f l a v o r than t h a t of t h e
Takelma t e x t s from Frances Johnson.
I t does not seem s o o f t e n t o be p a i r w i s e ,
t h i s , then t h a t ; t h i s , then t h a t . Each s e t of f o u r elements seems t o proceed
more d i r e c t l y from f i r s t t o l a s t .
The Karok t e x t can be c o n s u l t e d , of course, i n B r i g h t ' s a r t i c l e (1980).
Let me mention a few minor changes i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e English here.
In o r d e r t o b r i n g o u t t h e r o l e of i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s i n marking s t r u c t u r e , i t
i s necessary, I t h i n k , t o t r a n s l a t e a given p a r t i c l e always i n t h e same way.
When one is concerned simply w i t h a c l e a r and readable English e q u i v a l e n t ,
such i n v a r i a n c e i s of course n o t e s s e n t i a l , and may be d e t r i m e n t a l . Throughout the p r e s e n t a t i o n t o follow, t h e n , I have t r a n s l a t e d kian always as
=eems
t h e word
always a s ' t h e n ' .
' t h e r e ' ; & always a s 'now';
&
I is rendered always a s ' a g a i n ' .
a p p r o p r i a t e l y t r a n s l a t e d always a s ' a n d ' ; $
The t r a n s l a t i o n of an i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e i s always p u t a t t h e beginning of a
l i n e ( a s i n l i n e 3). Each i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e i s counted as coordinate i n
determining l a r g e r u n i t s . Thus p a r t i c l e s a r e taken a s o v e r r i d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s
i n degree o f pause (as a comparison of t h e f i r s t l i n e s t o follow and t h e
f i r s t l i n e s i n Bright 1980 w i l l i l l u s t r a t e ) .
T h e r e C o y o t e saw him,
h e saw him m e a s u r i n g s h e l l - m o n e y ,
t h a t person there.
c
Now t h e n C o y o t e s a i d ,
" d h e r e d o you f i n d i t ,
d
Now t h e n t h a t p e r s o n s a i d ,
" A t Klamath F a l l s . "
t h a t money?"
Ba
b
c
Karok.
The t e s t of t h e hypothesis t h a t Karok shows an underlying p a t t e r n i n g
i n t h e s e n s e of a l o g i c of a c t i o n , and a r e s u l t i n g grouping of v e r s e s i n t o
s e t s , must depend upon a c l o s e knowledge of t h e language. Only Bright himself
i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o c a r r y o u t such a t e s t . The m a t e r i a l he has s o c a r e f u l l y
p r e s e n t e d , however, permits t h e s u g g e s t i o n of such a p a t t e r n by someone
f a m i l i a r w i t h analogous p a t t e r n i n g i n o t h e r languages.
T h e r e a man l i v e d ,
h e had many s t r i n g s o f shell-money;
Now t h e n C o y o t e ,
t h e n h e w e n t home.
Now t h e n h e t h o u g h t ,
"1'11 make some s t r i n g !
"I h a v e t o g o t o Klamath F a l l s !
" I ' l l g o g e t t h a t money,
d
"I l i k e i t s o much."
Then h e made a l o t o f i t ,
that string.
Ca
So h e t i e d i t i n a b u n d l e ,
that string.
b
Now t h e n h e t h o u g h t ,
c
"1'11 j u s t s t a r t o u t . "
Now t h e n h e h u r r i e d u p r i v e r ,
t h e s t r i n g i n a pack,
t h e l i t t l e b i t s of s t r i n g ,
d
what h e was g o i n g t o s t r i n g i t w i t h ,
t h a t money.
When h e had p a c k e d i t u p ,
h e c a r r i e d it u p r i v e r ,
that string.
235
F i n a l l y h e had g o n e f a r u p r i v e r .
Then h e l o o k e d u p s t r e a m .
There a t r e e was standing,
h e saw t e n r a c c o o n s s i t t i n g t h e r e .
The s t a n z a s s o revealed appear t o have coherent r e l a t i o n s h i p s in
terms of a f o u r f o l d p a t t e r n .
Each of t h e e i g h t can be summrized a s follows:
Then h e s a i d :
(A)
Coyote f i n d s o u t about money a t Klamath P a l l s .
(B)
Coyote d e c i d e s t o go g e t some.
(C)
He s t a r t s out.
(D)
He s e e s raccoons and decides t o s t o p t o g e t new c l o t h e s .
(E)
He t e a r s up h i s o l d c l o t h e s .
(F)
He s h o o t s and misses every raccoon.
I ' l l make new p a n t s ,
"and a s h i r t f o r m y s e l f ,
"and a q u i v e r ,
"Aha,
good!
"and s h o e s f o r myself."
Then h e r i p p e d them a p a r t ,
h i s clothes.
Then h e t o r e them t o b i t s ,
(G) He f i x e s up h i s o l d c l o t h e s .
again ( t o ) l i t t l e b i t s .
hen h e t h r e w them downslope.
Then h e s t o o d naked.
Then now t h u s ( h e s a i d ) :
"1'11 j u s t s h o o t one!"-b u t h e m i s s e d it.
Then t h e r a c c o o n .jumped away downslope.
d he he
s h o t a t one again,
i t jumped down a g a i n .
Then h e m i s s e d e v e r y o n e o f them.
Then a g a i n h e f e l t r e a l l y
bad.
Then h e c r e p t away downslope.
Then h e c o l l e c t e d them,
a l l h i s torn-up
clothes.
(8)
He p u t s h i s o l d c l o t h e s back on and goes on.
There appears t o be a n a t u r a l p a i r i n g among (A-B). (C-D), (E-F), and
(A-B-C-D) seems t o form one reasonable sequence, having t o do w i t h
(GH).
t h e s t a r t i n g o u t , and t h e d i v e r s i o n from h i s i n i t i a l purpose, w h i l e (E-P-G-H)
seems t o form a n o t h e r sequence, having t o do w i t h t h e attempt t o shoot t h e
raccoons.
I f such f i n d i n g s o b t a i n throughout t h e r e s t of 'Coyote's Journey', and
i n o t h e r Karok t e x t s , then Karok w i l l be, a t l e a s t f o r t h e p r e s e n t , t h e
f u l l e s t and b e s t example of t h e r e l a t i o n s among p a r t i c l e s , pauses, and p a t t e r n s .
P a r t i c l e s and pauses w i l l be s e e n t o c l o s e l y cohere i n t h e c o n t e x t of
l a r g e r p a t t e r n i n g . The nuances introduced by v a r i a t i o n i n kinds of pause
may be a b l e t o be e a s i l y understood.
Such is not p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e t e x t s f o r which we have no recordings-Wishram t e x t s from Louis Simpson. Clackamas t e x t s from V i c t o r i a Howard,
Sahaptin t e x t s from Joe Hunt, Takelma t e x t s from Frances Johnson, Tonkava
t e x t s from John Rush Buffalo. Such may be p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e tape-recorded
t e x t s of Zuni n a r r a t i o n , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between pauses and p a r t i c l e p a t t e r n i n g seems f a r l e s s c l e a r , f a r more remote. That t h e r e is p a t t e r n i n g ,
however, t h a t Zuni is not an exception t o t h e kind of p a t t e r n i n g found i n
o t h e r languages, can now be shown.
Then t h u s h e mended h i s c l o t h e s .
Then h e ' d b e e n c a r r y i n g a l o t o f s t r i n g - T h a t ' s what h e was g o i n g t o s t r i n g i t w i t h ,
h i s money.
Then h e p u t h i s c l o t h e s on.
Then h e h u r r i e d downstream.
Zuni.
I n t h e 1978 r e p r i n t i n g of Finding t h e Center Tedlock i n c l u d e s t h e
Zuni t e x t of Andrew Peynetsa's t e l l i n g of 'Coyote and Junco' ( s e e p. x i i of
t h e new p r e f a c e ) . The n o t e s r e p o r t t h a t t h e performance took f o u r minutes.
and t h a t M r . Peynetsa had l e a r n e d t h e s t o r y from a man who had a r e p u t a t i o n
f o r t e l l i n g only very s h o r t s t o r i e s . Old Lady Junco is an Oregon junco,
and h e r ' s h i r t ' i n t h e s t o r y is t h e hood-like a r e a of dark gray o r b l a c k
a
AlJDREX PEYIIETSA'S "COYOTE AiJD JU:ICO"
[i-.
C o y o t e rne$ts ~ u n c o l
e
t h a t covers t h e head, neck, and p a r t of t h e b r e a s t .
I n reworking and i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z i n g the o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n by
Tedlock, I do n o t wish t o be misunderstood.
I have g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r Tedlock's
work. He has been foremost i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t American Indian n a r r a t i v e s must
be recognized a s p o e t r y , both through h i s own work and through t h e e d i t i n g
of t h e j o u r n a l Alcheringa. My i n t e n t i o n is t o add t o t h e understanding of
Zuni n a r r a t i v e s , not t o d e p r e c i a t e what Tedlock has a l r e a d y contributed.
Here i s a s e c t i o n of t h e s t o r y , a s presented i n Finding t h e Center
(1978:
78-79).
"What a r e you DOING?" t h a t ' s what he asked her.
"Well,
I'm winnowing." s h e s a i d .
"What a r e you winnowing?" he s a i d . ''Well
pigweed and tumbleweed"
t h a t ' s what s h e t o l d him.
[in small p r i n t ]
"Indeed.
What's t h a t you're saying?" "Well, t h i s is
my winnowing song," she s a i d .
"NOW SING IT FOR ME
so that I
may s i n g i t f o r my c h i l d r e n , " he s a i d .
Old Lady Junco
sang f o r Coyote:
(blowing)
(blowing)
HINA
YULiWA
HINA
YWWA
HINA
YU
PFFF
HINA
W
PFFF
HINA
YrnA
HINA
YrnA
HINA
YU
PFFF
HINA
YU
PFFF
That's what s h e s a i d .
Here now is t h e f u l l t e x t of the s t o r y . presented i n terms of the
d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s t h a t follows.
A
Son1ahchi.
S o n t i Lo::: :ng ago:
A t S t a n d i n g Arrows,
Old Lady J u n c o h a d h e r home.
B
I4eanuhile Coyote,
C o y o t e was t h e r e a t S i t t i n g Rock w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n ,
h e was t h e r e w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n .
C
M e a n w h i l e O l d Lady J u n c o w a s w i n n o w i n g ,
pigweed a n d t u m b l e w e e d s h e w a s w i n n o w i n g ;
w i t h h e r b a s k e t s h e winnowed t h e s e b y t o s s i n g them i n t h e a i r ,
s h e was t o s s i n g t h e n i n t h e a i r .
D
[
1,leanwhile C o y o t e ,
Coyote was g o i n g around h u n t i n g ,
goina around hunting f o r h i s c h i l l r e n t h e r e ,
when h e came t o s e e ,:)here J u n c o was w i n n o v ~ i n g .
Coyote a s k s ~ u n c o l
A
"'iihat a r e y o u d o i n g ? " ,
t h a t ' s what h e asked h e r .
" X e l l , I'm w i n n o w i n g , "
she said.
B
W h a t a r e y o u winno:.lin?;"
he said.
" Y e l l , p i e ? . ~ e e dand tun3le.;:eel,"
t h a t ' s what s h e t o 1 3 hi=.
C
"Indeed.
ilhat's t h a t you're sayinq?"
";.!ell,
t h i s i s my w i n n o w i n g s o n s , "
she said.
D
"NOW s i n g i t f o r m e ,
s o t h a t I may s i n g i t f o r a y c h i l d r e n , "
he said.
Old Lady J u n c o sanc; f o r C o y o t e :
"Yuuwa h i n a , yuuwa h i n a ,
"Yuuwa h i n a , yuuwa h i n 3 ;
"Yuhina,
pfif,
yuhina,
p f f f (blowing);
"Yuhina, yuhina,
pfff, p f f f (blowing)",
t h a t ' s what s h e said.
15
1
239
Coyote keeps
[s.
Aa
b
c
d
Ba
l o s i n g t h e song]
[a.C o y o t e
now I c a n g o ,
q l I ' l ls i n g i t f o r my c h i l d r e n . "
C o y o t e w e n t o n t o Oak A r r o y o ,
a s he got there,
mourning doves f l e w up,
and h e l o s t h i s song.
"YES,
He w e n t b a c k :
"Quick:
s i n g f o r me,
"some m o u r n i n g d o v e s made m e l o s e my s o n g , "
he said.
A g a i n s h e s a n g f o r him.
H e l e a r n e d t h e song.
Again, h e b r o k e through a gopher h o l e ,
a g a i n h e l o s t h i s song.
c
A g a i n , h e came f o r t h e t h i r d t i m e
t o ask f o r it.
d
Again,
Ca
b
S l a c k b i r d s flew up,
a g a i n h e l o s t h i s song.
c
Ho w a s c o m i n g f o r t h e f o u r t h t i n e .
d
O l d Lady J u n c o s a i d t o h e r s e l f ,
"Oh h e r e y o u come,
"but I won't sing,"
t h a t ' s what s h e s a i d .
Da
b
C o y o t e w s c o m i n g f o r t h e f o u r t h time.
'When h e came,
"Quick!
s i n g it f o r me,
"I l o s t t h e s o n g a g a i n ,
"Come o n , "
t h a t ' s what h e t o l d h e r .
Junco s a i d nothing.
B
"Quick:"
t h a t ' s what h e t o l d her.
She d i d n ' t speak.
C
"One, "
he said.
"The f o u r t h t i n e I
" i f you h a v e n ' t
"1'11 b i t e
that's
She looked f o r a round rock,
s h e f o u n d a r o u n d rocl:,
s h e d r e s s e d it with h e r Junco s h i r t ,
s h e p u t h e r b a s k e t of s e e d s wit:? t 5 e Junco rock.
" A s f o r you, g o r i g h t ahead and ask.
Junco went i n s i d e h e r house.
speak,
sung,
you,"
what h e t o l d her.
D
"Second t i m e , Two,"
he said.
"Quick s i n g f o r me,"
he said.
She d i d n ' t s i n g .
E
"Three.
"I'll c o u n t o n c e more,"
h e said.
F
Coyote s a i d ,
"Quick s i n g u ,
t h a t ' s what h e tobd her.
She d i d n ' t s i n g .
Ga
J u n c o had l e f t h e r s h i r t f o r Coyote.
s h e s a n g f o r him.
He v e n t o n f o r t h e t h i r d t i n e ,
a g a i n h e c a n e t o Oak A r r o y o ;
.
A
hgain h e went on;
h e \lent t h r o u g h a f i e l d t h e r e .
b
threatens Junco t o h i s cost]
b
"
c
d
H
H e b i t t h e Junco,
CRU;ICH, h e b i t t h e r o u n d r o c k
r i g h t h e r e h e knocked o u t t h e t e e t h ,
t h e rows of t e e t h i n Sack.
"So now I ' v e r e a l l y d o n e i t t o you."
"AY!
AY!"
t h a t ' s what h e s a i d .
The P r a i r i e 2 o l f w e n t b a c k t o h i s c h i l d r e n ;
by t h e t i m e h e g o t b a c k t h e r e ,
h i s c h i l d r e n were dead.
Because t h i s V J ~ ; l i v e d long ago,
Coyote h a s no t e e t h here.
24 2
[G.
"COYOTE &?ID JUrJCO"
AFJDRE>I PEYNETSA*S
Aa
[
"Ee,
Coyote m e e t s Junco]
A
Sonsahchi.
\
S o n t i ino::::te:
Shoplhuwayal' an,
S i l ' o k y a t t s i k ky'akwappa.
B
Taachi Suski,
Suski lak a l l iimulhan holh cha'lliye,
cha'llapa.
C
Coyote keeps l o s i n g t h e song]
T a a c h i s i l ' o k y a t t s i k h o l h i kyawashey'a,
t e s h u k ' o t a a p k ' u s h u t s ' i holh kyawashey'a;
i l-' a n n a w o l u n h o l h l e s n a k y a w a s h n a n a l l a c h e l h k y ' a k k y a ,
allachelhky'ap.
b
S u s k i aakya l a k wiimayaauan,
holh lottikyap,
niishapak'o aala'hippa,
t a a yam t e n a n o k k y ' a k k y a .
c
Ikya ina:
"Hanatte!
tom'an t e n a ' u ,
" n i i s h a p a k hom t e n a n o k k y ' a n a p k y a , "
d
Taas an tenne.
Tenan y a a n i k w a t i n a n .
-.
.
le*
10
-
*
Ba
D
Taachi Suski,
Suski's l h a t allu'ya,
yan chal'aakran l h a t a l l u ' y a l a k s ,
S i l o kyewashennenkwin t e c c h i k y a .
[
Coyote a s k s J u n o l
,q
" ~ o pt o l e y e ' a ? " ,
l e ' anikwap.
"l~la' h o kys:.:ashey' a , "
le'.
B
.
teshuk'o t a a p k'ushuts'i",
l e ' h o l h ani!::.:a?.
C
c
Taas, haUiky'annan
itekkunakkya.
Taas, an tenne.
d
Ca
hon'aan teni'u,
"akkv h o ' y z n chawotenna,"
ie..
"yuhina, yuhina,
p f f f , p f f f (Slos..~ing);
"Yuhina, y u h i n a ,
p f f f , p f i f ( b l o w i n g ) ,"
l e ' h o l h i'.
HaUiky'annana s'anne,
t a a s rriimaya h o l h t e c c h i p p a ;
k'eccho aala'hip,
t a a s yam t e n a n o k k y ' a k k y z .
c
Aawitenaky'annan iyappa.
d
S i l ' o k y a t t s i k leskwikkya,
"Aa l a k t o ' i y a p p a ,
"kva'so tenaashukwa, "
le'kwanas.
Da
-
S i l ' o k y a t t s i k s yam S u s k i a n t e n a k k y a :
"Yuuwa h i n a , yuurra h i n a ,
" Y u u ? . I ~h i n a , yuuwa h i n a ;
inan
b
"Hayi.
k o p t o ' i!:\.ieta?"
'';.:a' horn l u k k y a : . ~ a s h n a k k y a t e n s n n e , "
le'
''&a
Taas aakya;
l a k teshoktaawan holhi.
T a a s i s k o n y e y y e a n ' a kwachukya,
t a a s yam t e n a n o k k y ' a k k y a .
.
D
-,
b
"Kwap t o kya.:;ashey ' a ? "
le'
h o ' s o ' a k k y a rna'so anna,
"yam h o ' c h a ' a g w a n t e n a ' u n n a . "
b
A'ky
' man t e s h u n a ,
a ' k y ' a a o n awana,
yam s i l ' u c c h u n u l l u n a n ,
an sil a'unan k y a l a W u .
"Shema): y e m a n t e k o ' l e ' o n a . "
S i l o yam k y ' a k w e n k w a t o k y a .
[z.Coyote
threatens Junao t o his cost]
A
Suskis aawitenaky'anndn iya.
Inan,
"Hanatte!
tom' aan tena'u,
ntaas an tenan okky'anakkya,
IqIya,"
le' anikwappa.
K w ~ ' Silo peyena'ma.
B
"Hanatte:"
le'anikwap.
Kwa' penamkya.
C
"Toopa,"
le'.
"kawitenaky ' annan ho' penap,
"kwa'hom'an
to' tena'ma,
"tom ho' uttenna,"
le' anikwappa.
D
"Kwiliky'annan, Kwiili,"
le'
"Sanat tom'aan tena'u,"
le'
Kwa' tena'ma.
E
"Eaa"i.
hlhnat
"Alhnat ho' penuk!a,"
le'.
F
Suskis,
"Hanat tena'u,"
le' aniky.,!appa.
Kwa' tena'ma.
Ga
c
Sil'ucchun Suski a"u.
S i l uttep,
KWAM:, a'ky'anon s'olh uttekya,
liilhno luky'anna ko' yo'nashky'an,
akkyaluk yo'na yalhakwin.
''Luhappa tenhish tom ho' leyan."
d
"AY!
.
.
b
XI'!"
le'kwana.
H
Sani yam cha'likwin tecchip,
kyaakyanash ko'an,
chawe yashekkya tekkwin tecchikya.
Le'n inoote teyatikko'akkya,
kwa' Suski liilhno aawo'nawamme.
LEE: :::::::S E t I K ~ I ~ A .
I f we examine t h i s s e c t i o n , we can s e e t h a t i t does indeed have f o u r
t u r n s a t speech f o r Coyote, and f o u r f o r Old Lady Junco, f o u r exchanges
between them. That i t ends with Old Lady Junco s i n g i n g seems r i g h t .
S e c t i o n s of n a r r a t i v e s seem r e g u l a r l y t o b u i l d up t o t h e s a y i n g , o r s i n g i n g ,
of t h e wst important t h i n g a t t h a t p o i n t . The song i t s e l f seems t o be
b u i l t up of two-part r e p e t i t i o n s , and t o have i n f a c t t h r e e groups of f o u r
elements. The f i r s t group appears t o c o n s i s t of t h e f o u r occurrences of
Yuwahina; t h e second group c o n s i s t s of t h e s h o r t e n e d yuhina (twice) and
blowing ( t w i c e ) ; t h e t h i r d group is i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e second. The i n i t i a l
and concluding statements perhaps c o n s t i t u t e a f o u r t h c o n s t i t u e n t . Alternat i v e l y , perhaps t h e i n i t i a l and concluding s t a t e m e n t s a r e t h e f i r s t and
e i g h t h of a s e r i e s of e i g h t elements, t h e o t h e r s i x elements c o n s i s t i n g of
t h e s i x l i n e s of t h e song a s presented by Tedlock. The two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
a r e mutually compatible: e i g h t elements, on t h e one hand, grouped i n t o f o u r
c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s , on t h e o t h e r .
The evidence of w e of t h e p a t t e r n number f o u r is not r e s t r i c t e d t o
t h i s s e c t i o n . Such evidence is found throughout t h e t e x t .
The t e x t b e g i n s w i t h a n i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e two a c t o r s . Coyote and
Old Lady Junco, following a formal opening. F i r s t we a r e t o l d where Old
Lady Junco i s , where Coyote is. Then we a r e t o l d what Old Lady Junco is
doing, what Coyote is doing (and t h a t b r i n g s him t o where s h e i s ) . These
f o u r elements of c o n t e n t appear t o be marked by i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s . A f t e r
t h e formal opening, which is u n t r a n s l a t a b l e , b u t whose ending i n -=may
be s i g n i f i c a n t , we a r e t o l d where Old Lady Junco i s . Each of t h e remaining
t h r e e elements of content is introduced w i t h t h e p a r t i c l e t a a c h i . Its
meaning is e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of 'meanwhile', of something c o r r e l a t i v e . It
is t r a n s l a t e d t h e same way i n each occurrence here.
(Tedlock t r a n s l a t e d its
t h i r d occurrence ( l i n e 13) with ' w h i l e ' , b u t t h e f i r s t two occurrences w i t h
'and'.
I t i s n o t , however, t h e u s u a l Zuni word f o r 'and'.)
-*,
These f o u r elements, marked by i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e s ending i n
comprise t h e f i r s t scene of t h e s t o r y . The second scene, as we have noted,
c o n s i s t s of t h e four-exchanges i n which Coyote a s k s Old Lady Junco and s h e
r e p l i e s . Here t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n of i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e i n t h e f i r s t word
u t t e r e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e exchanges by Old Lady Junco, Ma' 'Well'.
And
t h e r e is balancing o f f of t h e exchanges by t h e d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n , followed
by f o m of t h e verb ' t o s a y ' , le' even when t h e Old Lady b u r s t s i n t o song
a t t h e end.
I n t h e f i r s t h a l f of the s t o r y , t h e n , Coyote encounters Old Lady
Junco and g a i n s h e r song. I n t h e second h a l f h e l o s e s t h e song and keeps
r e t u r n i n g t o g e t i t again. There is a good d e a l of p a i r and f o u r - p a r t
o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e n e x t , t h i r d scene, although n o t a t every p o i n t . Coyote's
response of p l e a s u r e a t having t h e song is two l i n e s . His d e p a r t u r e and l o s s
of t h e song is t o l d i n f o u r , a s is h i s r e t u r n and second r e q u e s t . Old Lady
'again'.
Junco's response is two l i n e s , introduced w i t h
The second round of l o s s and r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t h a s taas 'again' a l l
t h e way through, f o u r times. The t h i r d round s u b o r d i n a t e s taas t o t h e second
l i n e of each of t h e f i r s t two v e r s e s .
Then, when Coyote is coming f o r t h e
f o u r t h time i n a l l , t h e four-part p a t t e r n is s h i f t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y . Previously,
Coyote h a s gone, h a s l o s t t h e song, h a s r e t u r n e d , has received t h e song again.
Here he goes, l o s e s t h e song, i s r e t u r n i n g , b u t t h e f o u r t h element is not
r e c e i p t of t h e song, b u t a r e s o l v e on Old Lady Junco's p a r t t h a t enough i s
enough.
In four l i n e s she declares t h a t resolve. A fourth stanza leaves
Coyote s t i l l i m p l i c i t l y on h i s way, and t u r n s t o d e s c r i b i n g h e r p r e p a r a t i o n s
i n n e a t l y p a i r e d l i n e s : s h e looks f o r a round rock, she f i n d s a round rock;
she conceals i t w i t h h e r Junco s h i r t , s h e conceals t h e Junco rock.
Now we ( t h e s t o r y , r a t h e r ) a r e ( i s ) ready f o r Coyote t o come t h e
f o u r t h time. This formal d e v i c e , a s o r t of n a r r a t i v e e x t r a p o s i t i o n , p u t t i n g
over t h e culminating t u r n t o a c o o r d i n a t e s e c t i o n of i t s own, is found i n
o t h e r American Indian n a r r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n s ( c f . Louis Simpson's 'The d e s e r t e d
boy' (Hymes 1976)) and may be found i n a l l .
The f o u r t h scene i s t h e culmination, d r a m a t i c a l l y and a r t i s t i c a l l y , of
the s t o r y . Coyote t e l l s Old Lady Junco he w i l l count f o u r times, and b i t e
h e r i f s h e does not s i n g on t h e f o u r t h , b u t t h e r e is nothing simple o r
mechanical about t h e handling of the f o u r p a r t p a t t e r n here. Old Lady Junco
is s a i d t o say nothing f o u r times ( l i n e s 78, 81, 92, 9 9 ) , b u t t h e s e f o u r
occurrences, a l l beginning w i t h t h e n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e
are distributed
a t i n t e r v a l s i n a complex s t r u c t u r e . The f i r s t two occur t h e f i r s t two
times Coyote a s k s h e r t o s i n g . The t h i r d time Coyote asks i s t h e time he
begins t h e four-part countdown. He counts (two l i n e s ) and d e c l a r e s h i s plan
(four l i n e s ) without s t a t e d response. The f o u r t h time Coyote asks--the
second time of t h e countdown, he i n s i s t s i n f o u r l i n e s , and s h e is s a i d t o
not s i n g (92). The t h i r d time of t h e countdown ( f i f t h time o v e r a l l ) , no
response is s t a t e d . The f o u r t h time of t h e countdown ( l i n e s 97-99), a g a i n
s h e i s s a i d not t o s i n g (99). I n e f f e c t , t h e e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s t h a t Old
Lady Junco does not s i n g o r g a n i z e t h e f i r s t s i x v e r s e s , o r s t a n z a s , of t h i s
e l a b o r a t e d scene. The s t a t e m e n t s p a i r (AB); then, i n s t e a d of r e p e a t i n g t h a t
s h e d o e s n ' t s i n g each time Coyote s p e a k s , t h e s t a t e m e n t s j o i n (CD) and (EF).
Each p a i r (AB, CD, EF) c o n t a i n s two t u r n s of speech by Coyote. I i n f e r t h a t
M r . Peynetsa has intended t o hold t o a four-part use of Old Lady Junco's
s i l e n c e , while e l a b o r a t i n g t h e f i n a l scene i n t o twice f o u r p a r t s , by f i r s t
e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e relevance of t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t s h e does not s i n g (AB),
then spacing o u t t h e remaining u s e s of t h e s t a t e m e n t (CD, EF).
w,
Coyote's i n s i s t e n t r e p e t i t i o n i s thus b u i l t up i n s i x i n s t a n c e s t o
t h e p o i n t of t h e culmination. We a r e reminded of Old Lady Junco's p r e p a r a t i o n
of h e r s h i r t ( l o o ) , then Coyote b i t e s , CRUNCH, followed by t h e f i n a l exchange
between t h e two (105-107).
The s t o r y concludes w i t h a denouement, b r i e f l y
t e l l i n g what happened a f t e r w a r d s , and with a f i n a l formal c l o s e .
That t h e t e l l i n g of t h e s t o r y took f o u r minutes can be put down t o
coincidence. It i s n o t coincidence, I t h i n k , t h a t s o much of t h e s t o r y
shows r e p e t i t i o n and p a t t e r n i n g i n terms of two and f o u r . The f o u r p a r t
i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e a c t o r s ; t h e f o u r p a r t exchange t o g e t t h e song; t h e f o u r
times of l o s i n g t h e song and r e t u r n i n g , transformed i n t o two s c e n e s , t h e
second of which ( t h e f o u r t h of t h e s t o r y ) i s i t s e l f consumately elaborated-a l l t h i s , I t h i n k , shows an a r t i s t r y i n t h e use of t r a d i t i o n a l form. To
recognize t h i s kind of p a t t e r n i n g adds, I b e l i e v e , t o o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n of
t h e a r t i s t and t h e s t o r y .
Early i n t h i s century t h e complex and unexpected p a t t e r n i n g of t h e
grammars of American Indian languages was h a i l e d by Pranz Boas as r e q u i r i n g
a r e t h i n k i n g of conventional assumptions about t h e n a t u r e of language. Boas
d e c l a r e d a s t h e g o a l of t h e grammars he wrote and caused t o be w r i t t e n t h e
i d e a l of p r e s e n t i n g t h e language a s i f t h e speaker were t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e
form of h i s own thoughts (1911). The e x t e n t t o which t h e granrmar of s e n t e n c e s
does, and does n o t , r e p r e s e n t forms of thought h a s been much debated, o f t e n
i n connection w i t h t h e names of S a p i r and Whorf. Whether o r n o t t h e grammar
of sentences r e p r e s e n t s t h e forms of thought of t h e speaker a t t h e moment,
t h e r e is no doubt t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e grammar of a language r e p r e s e n t s t h e
accumulated s e l e c t i n g and grouping t o g e t h e r of semantic d i s t i n c t i o n s over
t h e g e n e r a t i o n s of previous speakers. I n t h e p o e t i c shaping of n a r r a t i v e s .
we seem t o have much more d i r e c t evidence of t h e very t h i n g t h a t Boas postul a t e d . The i n t e r p l a y between content and form is evidence of t h e n a r r a t o r
The process may be l a r g e l y
a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e form of h i s o r h e r am thoughts.
unconscious, j u s t a s e x p e r t performance of o t h e r k i n d s may be l a r g e l y
The pervasive p a t t e r n i n g of t h e
unconscious a t t h e moment of performance.
r e s u l t must r e f l e c t the cumulative e f f e c t of a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n .
Certainly
such p a t t e r n i n g makes any q u e s t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n of language t o c u l t u r e
I n t h e p o e t i c p a t t e r n i n g of n a r r a t i v e , language and c u l t u r e a r e
redundant.
one and t h e same.
The s e v e r a l examples can be compared a s follows:
Pause
Wishram
Clackamas
Klikitat
Takelma
Tonkawa
Karok
?
?
?
?
?
+
+
(Yes)
Yes
Particle
Yes
(Yes
(Yes)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Pattern
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Zuni
The q u e s t i o n marks i n d i c a t e t h a t we do n o t p r e s e n t l y know about t h e s t a t u s
of pauses i n t h e languages i n question. Old recordings o r unanalyzed
recordings may y e t shed a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t i n some of t h e s e c a s e s . The
parentheses around 'yes' i n d i c a t e t h a t p a r t i c l e s e n t e r i n t o t h e p a t t e r n i n g
of l i n e s and v e r s e s , b u t not i n a d e f i n i t i v e way, s o f a r as t h e examples i n
q u e s t i o n a r e concerned. The p a r t i c l e s p a r t i c i p a t e , b u t only p a r t l y d e f i n e ,
t h e p a t t e r n i n g . The most important outcome of our c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s e
248
examples i s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t p a t t e r n i n g of v e r s e and l i n e i s p r e s e n t i n a l l
c a s e s , whatever t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between pause and p a r t i c l e , and between pause,
p a r t i c l e and p a t t e r n . The presence of such p a t t e r n i n g is t h e fundamental
f a c t . There is much t o be l e a r n e d about i t . Only a few t e x t s have been
analyzed i n t h i s way. The o l d e d i t i o n s need a l l t o be redone i n terms of
such p a t t e r n i n g . Here i s t h e g r e a t challenge f o r t h e r e s t of t h e century
t o s t u d e n t s of American I n d i a n language and c u l t u r e . It i s e s p e c i a l l y a
challenge i n c a s e s such a s t h o s e of t h e Indians of Oregon, whose o r i g i n a l
a r t i s t r y i n m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s h a s l a r g e l y been l o s t . I t is c h i e f l y through
such of t h e i r words a s have o r can b e recognized a s p o e t r y t h a t t h e i r s t a t u r e
a s a r t i s t s can be demonstrated. It i s a sad and shameful t h i n g t o have t o
s a y , b u t t h e r e a r e s t i l l many c i t i z e n s of Oregon and of t h e United S t a t e s
who do n o t recognize t h a t s t a t u r e . P o e t i c a n a l y s i s can perhaps make them
face the fact.
REFERENCES
Boas, Franz
1911
I n t r o d u c t i o n . Handbook of American Indian languages, P a r t I.
(Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 40). Washington, D. C.
B r i g h t , William
1980
Coyote's journey. American Indian Culture and Research
J o u r n a l , 4(1-2).
21-48.
Burke, Kenneth
1931
H o i j e r , Harry
1972
Hymes, Dell
1976
The psychology of form. Counterstatement. New York:
Harcourt, Brace.
(Reprinted, Chicago: Phoenix Books P14,
1957; Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a
Press.
Tonkawa t e x t s .
(University of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n
l i n g u i s t i c s , 73). Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y
of C a l i f o r n i a Press.
Louis Simpson's "The d e s e r t e d boy".
P o e t i c s 5.119-155.
1977
Discovering o r a l performance and measured v e r s e i n American
Indian n a r r a t i v e . New L i t e r a r y H i s t o q 8.431-457.
1980
Tonkawa p o e t i c s : John Rush B u f f a l o ' s "Coyote and Eagle's
daughter".
I n On l i n g u i s t i c anthropology: Essays i n honor
of Harry H o i j e r , ed. by Jacques Maquet, pp. 33-88.
Malibu, C a l i f o r n i a : Undena p u b l i c a t i o n s , f o r t h e UCLA
Department of Anthropology.
1981
I n vain I t r i e d t o t e l l you.
( S t u d i e s i n Native American
L i t e r a t u r e , 1 ) . P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of P e ~ s y l v a n i a
Press.
ms.
Myth a s v e r s e i n Tonkawa, Takelma, Kathlamet.
and published i n 1982).
(To be r e v i s e d
Jacobs, M e l v i l l e
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1909b
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1977
Toward a n o r a l p o e t i c s .
i n t h e second p a r t and p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c t e x t i n
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T h i s p a p e r is i n t h r e e p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t i s t h e t e x t ,
t h e t h i r d p a r t . The page numbering of t h e t e x t i s i n lower c a s e Roman
numerals; the f i n a l
two p a r t s a r e numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y i n A r a b i c
numerals.
I n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e t e x t , s t a n z a s a r e i n d i c a t e d by upperc a s e l e t t e r s of t h e a l p h a b e t and v e r s e s a r e i n d i c a t e d by numbers i n
p a r e n t h e s e s . I n t h e t a b l e of c o n t e n t s which p r e c e d e s t h e s t o r y p r o p e r
Stanzas a r e l a b e l l e d with t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r but v e r s e s w i t h i n
a s t a n z a a r e n o t numbered; e a c h i s summarized i n a l i n e . At t h e b e g i n n i n g
of t h e t a b l e of c o n t e n t s e a c h o f t h e two a c t s i s summarized. I n t h e
t a b l e i t s e l f e a c h s c e n e is summarized b e f o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t a n z a s a r e
p r e s e n t e d . A t a b l e of c o n t e n t s s u c h a s t h i s i s h e l p f u l t o r e a d e r s who
a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e myths of t h e a r e a , b u t more i m p o r t a n t l y
perhaps i t s e r v e s a s a check t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n s i n t o v e r s e s and s t a n z a s ,
made p a r t l y on t h e b a s i s of l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s , do i n f a c t f i t t h e
s t o r y l i n e of t h e myth.Being a b l e t o make such a t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i s an
e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h e method of a n a l y s i s b e i n g used i n t h i s p a p e r ; b e i n g
a b l e t o s t a t e t h e l i n g u i s t i c and r h e t o r i c a l j a s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d i v i s i o n
i n t o v e r s e s . s t a n z a s , s c e n e s and a c t s ( p a r t t h r e e of t h e p a p e r ) is ano t h e r e s s e n t i a l p a r t of t h e method.