Document 73928

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CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS
PERCEPTIONS
OF 'ACTION'
'ACTION' CARTOONS
CARTOONS
CHILDREN'S
OF
A Report
A
Report by
by
Sue Chambers,
Chambers, Nicki
Nicki Karet and
and Neil
Neil Samson,
Samson,
Broadcast Research Lld
Ltd
Broadcast
and
and Jane
Jane Sancho-Aldridge,
Sancho-Aldridge,
Independent
Commission
Independent Television
TelevisionCommission
March
March 1998
1998 .
PAGE
PAGE
i CONTENTS
••l§lli§il*
~
-
1
BACKGROUND
BACKGROUND
3
2
AIMS
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
OBJECTIVES
5
3
METHOD
METHOD
77
4
SAMPLE
SAMPLE
,
5
KEYFINDINGS
KEV
FINDINGS
11
11
6
HOBBIESAND
ACTIVITIES
HOBBIES
AND ACTIVITIES
13
7
TELEVISIONVIEWING
TELEVISION
VIEWING
21
21
8
CARTOON VIEWING
VIEWING
25
9
GRABS
MAPPING OF CARTOONS USING VIDEO GRABS
27
10
10
REACTIONSTO
CLIPS
REACTIONS
TO CARTOON CLIPS
29
11
CONCLUSIONS
39
12
12
APPENDICES
APPENDICES
43
9
"
"
APPENDIX
APPENDIXA: DETAILS
DETAILS OF
OF FIELDWORK
FIELDWORK
APPENDIX
APPENDIX B:
B: ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY DIARIES
APPENDIX
APPfNDIX C: INTERVIEW SCHEDULES
SCHEDULES
APPENDIX
APPENDIX D:
D: IMAGES
IMAGES FROM
FROM THE TWELVE
lWELVE ACTION
ACTION CARTOONS
CARTOONS
ISBN0
ISBN 0 900485
900485 69
69 8
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11
BACKGROUND
.~
Animation has
has been
bttn around
around for a very
very long
long time.
time. Most
Most parents
parents grew
grew up
up watching
watching
Animation
cartoons like Tom
Tom &
6-Jerry,
In-ry, without
without any
any ill
ill effects. Recently,
RKtnlly, however,
however, some
some have
have argued
arguw
cartoons
that children
children are
afC becoming
b«oming addicted
addicted to
to a diet
diet of
of cartoons,
cartoons, and
and that
that such
such a diet
diet could
could be
be:
that
harmful. Concern
Concern has
has been
been expressed
expressed about
about the
the- nature
nature of
of some
some of
of the
the imagery
imagery contained
containt'd
harmful.
cartoons, particularly
particularly the action-packed
action·packed ones.
ones. Morality
Moraliry tales
tates of
of good
good versus evil have
in cartoons,
been aa principal
principal ingredient
ingredient of
children '$ literature
literature and
and film
film for
for generations,
generations, so
what if
if
been
of children's
so what
anything is different
different about
about modern
modem cartoons?
cartoons?
anything
Perhaps one
onc of
of the
the key
key differences is their
their execution.
execution. As
As production
production techniques
techniques have
have
Perhaps
become ever more
more sophisticated,
sophisticated, so cartoons
cartoons have
have become
become more
mort realistic.
realistic. In
In addition,
addition,
become
the style and
and content
cartoons these days are influenced
influenced by computer
computer and
and video
the
content of cartoons
games. These
These games
games frequently
frequently challenge
challenge the player
player to
ro pit
pit his
his or
or her
her skills against
against all
games.
kinds
of
violent
or
gothic
characters.
Does
the
replication
of
these
images
cartoon
kinds of violent or gothic characters. Does the replication
these images in cartoon
of
a
greater
degree
of
violence
in
children's
television?
format
lead
to
the
imroduction
format lead to the introduction of greater
violence children's television?
Some parentS
material in modern
parents have registered their disquiet about
about material
modern cartoons
cartoons that they
to be too
too violent,
violent, or sinister, or frightening
frightening for younger
younger children
children to watch.
perceive to
perceive
watch. In the
past, the
[he Independent
Independem Television Commission
lITe) has
has received complaints
from
past,
Commission (ITe)
complaints from
parents about
and the computer-generated
Reboot.
parents
about Gargoyles and
computer-generated cartoon
cartoon Reboot.
what do children
adults simply out-of-touch
modern
But what
children themselves think?
think? Are adults
out-of-touch with modern
children's tastes,
or do
do children
cartoons frightening
frightening or
or
children's
tastes, or
children find some of these 'action'
'action' cartoons
upsetting? The
ITC decided to
ro conduct
research amongst
upsetting?
The ITC
conduct some research
amongst groups
groups of children
children to
ro examine
the role
role cartoon
cartoon viewing plays in children's
find out,
out, and
and to
examine the
children's lives.
CARTOON
CRAZY?l
CARTOON
CltAlY
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2
2.
i'
AIMSCAND OBJECTIVES
*413''4§i".,:I'H'W
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childr~n's viewing of cartoons
within the
the context
of their
their
To look at children's
cartoons within
context of the rest of
interests and
and activities.
television viewing, and
and also their other
other interests
activities.
evaluate
what children
children think
think aboul
cartoons in general,
particular 'action'
.• Tocartoons.
evaluate what
about cartoons
general, and in particular
'action'
cartoons.
the differences among
among key groups:
groups:
.• To look at the
boys and
and girls;
diffe rent school
years (age
range 5-9
5-9 years);
years);
different
school years
(age range
social classes;
cable/satellite homes versus terrestrial-only
terrestrial-only homes.
homes.
cable/satellite
determine whether
children find cartoons
.• To determine
whether children
cartoons scary.
.•
To find OUI
out mothers'
mothers' views of 'action'
'action' cartoons
cartoons and
and compare
compare them with children's.
children's.
parental concerns about
.• To assess any parental
about 'action'
'action'. cartoons.
cartoons.
CARTOON CAAZn
CRAZY?
CARTOON
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METHOD.
I •n.)..
'31
Th~
The
r6tarch
research rook
took rhe
the form of
of qualitative
qualitative groups. Over
Over 60 children.
children, aged berween
between 5 and
dips
from
a
range
of
rwc:lve
different
':Iaion'
cartoons.
9 years, were shown
shown clips
a
twelve different 'action' cartoons. The dips
clips
wc:re:
were ~lectc:d
selected on
on the:
the basis of
of the:
the action they contained,
contained, for example,
example, sword
sword fighting,
shooting,
shooting, explosions,
explosions, confrontations
confrontations between 'goodies'
'goodies' and
and 'baddic:s',
'baddies', general
general mayhem,
mayhem,
etc. Eath
Each dip
clip lasted between [Wo
two and six minutes and,
and, as
as far as possible, was edited
edited for
sense, and resolution
resolution of
of action. Evc:ry
Every arrempt
attempt was made [0
to c:nsurt
ensure that the:
the material
material was
was
nOT
presented OUI
not presented
out of context.
context. As
As aa means of checking
checking for any bias that might be
introduced
introduced through
through examining
examining dips,
clips, rather
rather than whole cartoons,
cartoons, half of the children's
children's
groups
pre-placed video <:omaining
groups received a pre-placed
containing fulllc:ngth
full length versions of three of the
cartoons
cartoons used in the study. The children in these groups
groups were asked to watch the
cartoons
participating in the study.
cartoons prior
prior to participating
study. The presentation
presentation order
order of the clips was
rotated
rotated throughout
throughout the groups.
All
ys before attending
All the children were asked [0
to complete an activity diary for four da
days
attending
the groups.
groups. The diaries included two
two weekdays,
weekdays, and a Saturday
Saturday and Sunday. Each day
was split into
into three sections: morning,
morning, afternoon
was
afternoon and evening. The
The children
children were asked
to fill
part of the day, and to state whether
fill in what they did during each part
whether the activity was
performed indoors
performed
indoors or outdoors,
outdoors, alone, or in the company
company of others.
others. (A
(A copy of the
diaries
can
be
found
at
Appendix
B.)
diaries
Appendix B.)
Picture stills, or video grabs, of the characters
Picture
characters from the cartoons
cartoons were used as stimuli for
mapping
purposes. The children were asked to SOrt
mapping purposes.
sort the pictures
pictures according
according to which
their reasoning.
reasoning.
cartoons they felt were similar, and to explain
cartoons
explain their
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
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4
Children's Groups
Groups
emu
A total of 48 childt~n
children took part in the main groups
groups (six
(six children
children ~r
per group
group --~
see ChartS
Charts I1
and 2 a[
at Appendix
Appendix Al.
A). The groups, which took place al
at different
different locations
locations around
around the
country,
country, were split by sex, social class.
class, and school year.
year. Each group
group included a number
number
of children
children with cable/satellite
cable/satellite at home, and a number
number withoul.
without. They lasted
ap
proxima tely one and a half hours.
approximately
Children's De
Depths
pths
Children's
Eight depth interviews were conducted
conducted with friendship
friendship pairs:
pairs; that
that is,
is, a moderator
moderator
interviewed pairs of
of same sex friends. These 'paired
'paired depths'
depths' lasted around
around one
one and a
quarte
r
hours
(see
Chart
2
at
App(ndix
AJ,
quarter
(see
at Appendix A).
FamllyGroup
Family Group
The research included oone
ne family session with
lies, each with twO
with twO
tWo fami
families,
tWo children aged
between
five
and
nine
years.
This
grol,lp
was
moderated
by
twO
people.
The parents
parents aand
nd
betWeen
years.
gro1,lpwas moderated
tWo
rate rooms.
children
children were interviewed and shown the clips in twO
tWo sepa
separate
rooms. They were then
brought togethe
brought
togetherr so that
that their views could be compared.
compared.
Mothers'
Groups
M
others' Groups
between 5 and 9 years,
In addition,
addition, fou
fourr groups
groups of eight mums with children
children aged betWeen
unrelated to the children in the grou
ps, were interviewed.
unrelated
groups,
interviewed. The groups
groups were split by
social class and each included some mothers
mothers with cable/satellite
home, and
cable/satellite at home,
and some with
terrestrial television only (see
Appendix A).
terrestrial
(see Chan
Chart 3 at Appendix
CARTOON
CAIITOON CRAZY?
CRAzn
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bll".1I,,,'
13KEY FINDINGS
. Children take part in a wide range of different activities. Much of their leisure time is
• Children fake part in a wide range differcm activities. Much their leisure rime is
spent watching
watching television, but itit has to be fined
fitted around
around other things, such as playing
on a computer
r-school
computer or games console
console or with friends, reading,
reading, sport,
sport, and afte
after-school
activities.
.
• Children 3rc
have: a particular
particular role to
are not addicted to a diet of cartoons,
cartoons, but cartoons
cartoons have
play within children's television viewing.
•. Children's
ining humour,
Children's favourite:
favourite canoons
cartoons arc:
are ones conta
containing
humour, especially slapsrick
slapstick
comedy. They arc:
are less
less keen on 'action'
'action' cartoons
cartoons because they get less
less out of them.
•. The core viewers of 'action'
'action' cartoons
cartoons are 5- to 7-year-old
7-year-old boys; others
others only
watch
them
if
there
is
nothing
else
on.
Action
cartoons
are
not
popular
watch
is nothing else
cartoons
popular with younger
younger
girls; they find them noisy and think some of the characters
are
'scary',
characters
'scary', nor
nor with older
gi
rls, who
by girls
girls,
who find
find them
them boring.
boring. The
The exception
exception is
is Juman;l,
Juman;i, which
which is
is liked
liked by
girls
generall
y,
possibly
because
it
features
a
stong,
girl
character,
and
it
has
generally, possibly because it features a stong, girl character, and it has an
an on-going
on-going
storyline,
storyline, which gives it more meaning.
.
ually scared by cartoons
• Children aare
re not us
usually
cartoons because they know
know they are not real and
that
lright in the end. They make a distinction
between
that everything
everything will rurn
turn out aalright
distinction betWeen
'good
'good scary' and 'bad
'bad scary',
scary'. Good scary is exciting and
and involves enjoying the
suspense. Bad scary can be upsetting.
upsetting.
•. O
lder children
rdate to real
Older
children can feel
feel uncomfortable
uncomfortable with storylines
storylines which they can relate
life situations.
situations. Younger children tend not to pick up on scary concepts;
concepts; they go right
over their heads,
heads, but they are sometimes scared by the stimuli in 'action'
'action' cartoons,
cartoons,
such as the music, or images.
Mums found some of the cartoons
too violent
violent and
and aggressive. They were concerned,
.• Mums
cartoons too
concerned,
people in animated
especially, with cartoons
cartoons which featured real people
animated form, as they
thought
potential to
thought these had a greater
greater potential
to confuse and disturb
disturb children
children..
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY]
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6
HOBBIES AN'O ACTIVITIES
Before antnding
attending the groups,
groups, 2011
all respondents
respondents wefe
were asked to complete
complete an activity
activity diary
diary
over four days. The
The following charts illustrate what types of things children are doing
during
during the week, before school, after
after school and
and in the evening.
evening. The
The boxes containing
containing
ticks indicate
indicate what activities they are doing,
doing, while the boxes with crosSfi
crosses indicate the
things they art
are not.
Weekday MornIng
Morning
Before going to school, 50 per cent of
of the children
children interviewed watched television, either
on their own, or with brothers
brothers or sisters. Half
Half wuched
watched television while having breakfast.
breakfast.
und 20 per cent found rime
Around
Around 20 per cent said they listened (0
to the radio,
radio, and aro
around
time ro
to
read in bed, panicularly
particularly the older girls. At this time of the day, children
children are not playing
playing
on computers
computers or consoles, playing sport, playing games, watching
watching videos, or practising
practising
instruments.
musical instrumenrs.
WEEKDAY
WHKDAY
Mornhtg
Morning - before
before KhooI
school
~
w1Itching TV - on own
watching TV on own
or
550%
....
or with
with siblings
siblings
-
eating
eating bre1lkfast
breakfast and
and
w1ItchlngTV
watching TV
50%
listening
listening to
to radio
radio
20%
re1ldlng In
bedreading
in bed
p1lrticul1lriy
particularly
olderglr1s
older
girls
CARTOON
CAltTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY]
a
pi1l)'tng on computer/ consoles
playing on computer/consoles
pl~ngsport
playing sport
playing games
watching videos
watching
piaying muslc1l1lnstrument
playing
musical instrument
20%
-
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~.
Weekday Afternoon
Afternoon
put the
The first thing most (75 per cent) children
children do when they get home from school is put
the
television on (and raid the
the fridge, according
according re
to mums). One in five artends
attends after-school
after-school
activities,
brownies/cubs, swimming,
Nearly aa third
the computer
activities, such
such as
as brownieslcubs,
swimming, ete.
etc. Nearly
third play
play on
on the
computer or
or
games console after school, and a quarter
re play with friends. One in ten of the
quarter choose
choose to
younger ones
identical proportion
proportion say
younger
ones are
are painting,
painting, drawing,
drawing, or
or making
making something,
something, an
an identical
say
they
play sport,
per cent
practise aa musical
musical instrument.
Straight after
they play
sport, and
and eight
eight per
cent practise
instrument. Straight
after school,
school,
children
watch videos, listen re
children tend not re
to listen re
to the radio, watch
to music, or read.
WEEKDAY
WEEKDAY
Aft.,. sdtooI-1Mfon
After
school - before dinner
dinner
11
watching
watching TV
TV
after·school
after-school activities,
activities,
eg,
brownies/cubs,
eg, brownies/cubs,
20%
swimming
20%
swimming
g
listentoradio
El
listen to radio
watch aa video
video
watch
listento
music
to music
-listen
reading
playing
playing on
on computer/
computer/
games consoles
30%
painting, drawing
painting,
drawing or
or
making something
something
(younger
(younger children)
children)
10%
playing with friends!
friends/
siblings
siblings
25%
playing sport
playing
sport
10%
musical instruments
musical
--
75%
8%
CARTOONCRAZY?
CAHOONcwn
r
Weekday"Evening
lvenlng
Weekday
During weekday
weekday evenings,
evenings, 40
40 per
per cent
cent of
of the
the sample
sample are
a re watching
watching television,
television, usually
usually in
in
During
the
company
of
their
fami
ly,
brothers,
sisters,
mums
and
dads.
Again,lO
per
cent
play
the company of their family, brothers, sisters, mums and dads. Again, 20 per cent play
on the
the computer
computer or
or games
games console,
console, 45
45 per
per cent
cent read
rcad before
before bed,
bed, aa quarter
quarter play
play with
with their
their
on
siblings and
and 15
15 per
per cent
cent listen
listen to
to the
the radio.
radio. Activities
Activities that
tha t are
a re not
not occurring
occurring at
at this
this time
time
siblings
include watching
watching videos,
videos, playing
playing sport,
sport, painting,
painting, drawing,
drawi ng, etc,
etc, and
and playing
playing aa musical
musical
include
instrument.
instrument.
WEEKDAY
Evening
PI
PI
In front of th~ TV
in front of the TV
with
siblings, or
or
with siblings,
with
with mum and
ilInd dad
dad
40%
40%
comput~ rl
computer
/
gam~s consoles
games
20%
20%
Instrume nt
playing a11 musical instrument
wlltchlng videos
videos
watching
playing 11a sport
playing
sport
-
r~ilId ing - before
befor~ bed
bed
reading
(homework)
(homework)
painting, drillwlng or milking
painting, drawing or making
something
something
45%
~atlng dinner
dinn ~r
eating
CARTOON
CARTOON eMIn
CRAZY?
plllying with
playing
with siblings
siblings
25%
listen
radio -U st~n to rlldlo
before bed
15%
,,%
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Weekend Morning
(Saturday
(Saturday
and
and Sunday)
Sunday)
On
watching television
per cent).
On Saturday
Saturday mornings,
mornings, children
children tend
tend to
to be
be up
up early
early watching
television (50
(50 per
cent).
Some are involved in other
playing their own
other activities, such as reading
reading (15 per cent), playing
made-up
per cent),
painting/drawing, ete
made-up games
games (12
(12 per
cent), painting/drawing,
etc (10
(10 per
per cent),
cent), and
and playing
playing football
football
in
boys (10
per cent).
be on
playing
in the
the case
case of
of the
the boys
(10 per
cent). They
They appear
appear not
not to
to be
on the
the computer
computer or
or playing
outside,
months.
outside, although
although no
no doubt
doubt this
this changes
changes during
during the
the summer
summer months.
Children
Children tend
tend to
to be
be up
up slightly
slightly later
later on
on Sunday
Sunday mornings.
mornings. Fewer
Fewer watch
watch television
television (20
(20 per
per
cent),
possibly because
programmes, (or
cent), possibly
because they
they are
are less
less aware
aware of
of where
where to
to find
find children's
children's programmes,
for
example,
I. Sunday
example, on
on BBC2
BBC2 rather
rather than
than BBC
BBCl.
Sunday mornings
mornings are
are when
when kids
kids are
are most
most likely
likely to
to
amuse themselves with made-up,
made-up, imaginary
imaginary games (28
(28 per cent). Again, 20 per cent
cent play
on
on the
the computer/games
computer/games console,
console, while
while some,
some, especially
especially the
the older
older girls,
girls, listen
listen to
to music
music
((15
t 5 per
per cent),
cent), 88 percent
per cent draw/paint,
draw/paint, and
and aa small
small proponion
proportion (5
(5 per
per cent)
cent) watch
watch videos.
videos.
Sunday mornings are not spent
spent playing sport,
sport, playing a musical instrument
instrument or reading.
WEEKEND
WEEKEND
s.tumy
Saturday Morning
Momlng
11
watching TV
50%
painting,
drawing, etc.
10%
football
10%
reading
15%
playing own games
12%
g
watching video
playinga musicalinstrument
computer/games console
outside playing
Sunday Momlng
Momlng
11
11
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20%
watching TV
watching TV
made.up
made-up game
28%
computerl
computer/
games console
20%
listening to music
music
(older girls)
15%
15%
ag
playing sport
playing sport
playing musical
musical instrument
instrument
reading
drawing,
painting, etc.
painting,
etc.
8%
watching video
5%
5%
CARTOON
CRAZY?
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Weekend Afternoon
Afternoon
Weekend
(Saturday
and Sunday)
W~k~nd
Weekend
antrnoons
afternoons ar~
are not
not gtn~rally
generally spent
spent watching
watching (d~vision,
television, mainly becausc
because ther~
there is
is
at this tim~
for
children.
On
Saturdays,
childr~n
ontn
gtt
taktn
shopping
time
children.
Saturdays, children often get taken shopping (20
(20
per cent), or
or th~y
they play span
sport (20
(20 perctnt),
per cent), go on th~compl,l[tr
the computer (20 perc~nt),
per cent), makt
make up
their own
games
(15
per
cent),
or
watch
a
video
(20
per
ctnt).
Sunday
afternoons
own
(15
cent),
cent). Sunday afternoons ar~
are
pr~ny
similar,
although
the
younger
ones
will
ontn
do
some
drawing
10 pt:r
pretty similar, although the
ones will often do
drawing or
or painting
painting ((10
per
cent).
linl~
little on
-
-
WEEKEND
WEEKEND
Saturday Afternoon
11
may watch a vldeo
video
20%
computer!
computer/
games consoles
20%
20%
playing sport
20%
20%
shopping
shopping
20%
20%
playing own games
15%
a
not generally watching TV
not generally watching TV
to music
listening
listeningto
music
playing muslcaiinstrument
musical instrument
"...
Sunday Afternoon
11
computer!
computer/
games console
games
watching
watching video
games
playing own games
drawing,
drawing,
painting, etc.
painting,
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
"...
"...
"...
25%
15%
15%
a
not much on TV to watch
not much on TVto watch
listening to musk
music
playing muskallnnrument
musical instrument
reading
H'' '
10%
-
-
I
..
~
Weekend Evening
benlng
Weekend
(Satunt.y
and
(Saturday and
SUnday)
Sunday)
Around aa third
third of
of children
children are
art watching
watching television
television on
on Saturday
Saturday and
and Sunday
Sunday evenings.
evenings.
Around
One
in
ten
memions
having
take-a
way
dinners
over
t
he
wttkend,
and
one
in
ten spends
spends
One in ten mentions having take-away dinners over the weekend, and one in ten
on
the
computer,
or
watching
videos.
Sunday
evenings
are
the
times
when
kids
say
rime
time on the computer, or watching videos. Sunday evenings are the times when kids say
they
are
bored.
they are bored.
WEEKEND
Saturday Evening
11
watching TV
TV
watching
30%
'0%
family 'take
'take away'
ilWily'
family
dinner
dinner
10%
watching video
video
watching
10%
10%
computerl
computer/
games consoles
consoles
games
10%
a
Pl
'''''
painting. drawing. etc.
painting, drawing, etc.
Ibteoln9 to
to music
music
listening
reading
reading
playing musical
muskillllnstrument
playing
instrument
,,,,,,
Sunday Evening
Sunday
Evening
11
g
watching TV
watching TV
listening to
listening
to
rildio/ chilll'ts
radio/charts
35%
35%
10%
''''''
wiltching
watching video
video
10%
10%
hlmily
family dinner
dinner
10%
10%
Pl
a
painting, drOillwlng, etc.
painting, drawing, etc.
playing m\.I$i(allnstrument
musical instrument
reading
BORED!
BORED!
-
CARTOON CItAZY1
CRAZY?
CARTOON
r
:.,
Computer/ games consoles
Computer/games
consoles
Most of the
the children
pan in the
the research had
h.ad personal
person.al computers
Most
children who took part
computers (PCs) or
g.ames
.and were .able
between these MO
games consoles .at
at home, and
able to distinguish
distinguish betWeen
tWo forms of
belong to their parents.
parents. The younger
younge r children could nO(
technology. The PCs tended
tended to belong
not
permission and often didn't
know how to turn
turn them on. The
use them without
without permission
didn't know
The older
older
children were allowed to
to use them as and
and when
when they wanted.
wanted. The
were deemed to
children
The PCs were
to
be for educational
purposes
in
the
main,
but
also
they
were
regarded
as
fun.
educational purposes
main, but
were regarded
The games consoles
consoles belonged either
respondents, or to
to their
their older
older siblings. These
The
either to the respondents,
were regarded
regarded as pure
pure entenainment.
The types of console
console most
most frequently
frequently mentioned
mentioned
were
entertainment. The
were:
were:
•.
.•
.•
.•
Playstation;
Playstation;
Sega mega drives;
Segamegadrives;
Gameboys;
Gameboys;
Nintendo 64 (a
few).
Nintendo
(a select
selectfew).
Popular g.ames
amongst the umple
included:
Popular
games amongst
sample included:
play this g.ame
bttause it
•. Doom (although
(although some said they were not
not allowed
allowed to play
game because
was too violent);
•. Crash Bandicoot;
Bandicoot;
•. Mario;
Mano;
.• FIFA97/98;
FIFA 97/98;
.• Tomb
TombRaider.
Raider.
television, whereas
whereas computers
Children's
primary source of entenainment
Children's primary
entertainment was television,
computers and
games consoles came into their own when they got bored,
or
decided
they had had
bored,
of
television.
Also,
they
tended
to
turn
to
computers/games
consoles
when there
enough
enough
to
computers/games
programmes on television they wanted
watch. Playing on computers
were no programmes
wanted to watch.
computers and
games consoles was seen to have playground
playground currency
currency or credibility
credibility with their friends. It
is something
something they talk about
about at school, and they often play on the computer
computer or games
console
brothers or sisters or parents
parents
console with their friends. Sometimes they will play with brothers
(more usuall
happy to
usuallyy dad),
dad), but they are JUSt
just as happy
to play on their own.
Awareness of the Internet
Internet amongst
amongst the umple
sample was low. The younger
younger children
children were
completely
completely unaware,
unaware, and
and whilst
whilst aa few
few of
of the
the 9-year-olds
9-year-olds had
had heard
heard of
of the
the Internet,
Internet, they
they
were not yet interested
interested in it.
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
C!IAZY?
..
..
r~
~
In
playground
In the
the playground
The most popular
popular games are perennial:
perennial:
•.
•.
•.
•.
~
~
•"
'rag'
games;
'tag'games;
kiss-chase (younger children,
children, 5 to 7 years);
football (older boys, 7 upwards);
upwards);
pretending/acting out:
pretending/acting
Spice
Spice Girls;
Girls;
Batman
Batman &
& Robin;
Spiderman.
Spiderman.
"'1like
lib to play
ploy Mighty
Mighty Ducks.
Ducks. Th~
They on
are kind
kind off1ghws
of fighters ond
and on
are rtolly
really
strong,
tsptclolly
MUJcit
Duck.'
(Boy
S,
North)
strong, especially Muscle Duck.' (Boy 5, North)
The
[0 play
play at
be<:ause they
in
The only
only games
games they
they are
are not
not allowed
allowed to
at school
school because
they always
always ended
ended in
are:
tears are;
wrestling;
•. wrestling;
•. Power Rangers.
'It's
goodin and
prtttnd thtrt
'It's btst
best to bt
be tht
the goodies
and pretend
there on
are boddin.'
baddies.' (Boy S,
5, North)
North)
7ht
prtftnd they're
th~'rt Batman
Batman and
th~ only
'The boys
boys pretend
and they
only do
do up
up tht
the top
top button
button on
thtircoatJ.'
S, North)
their coats.' (Girl
(GirlS,
North)
'Wt
sing rhri,
'We prtttnd
pretend wt'n
we're Spiet
Spice Girls
Girls and
and sing
their lOngs.
songs.' ' (Girl
(Girl 8,
8, South)
South)
Magazines
Magazines and
and comics
comics
For children under
magazines and comics tends [0
under 9 years, the reading
reading of magazines
to be an
extension
of
thei
r
television
viewing,
or
of
the
toys
they
play
with.
Parems
extension
their
they
Parents are often the
ones to
initiate
buying
comics,
to
encourage
reading.
They
are
usually
bought
to initiate
to encourage reading.
bought on an
occasional
occasional basis. Some of the younger
younger girls said they pinched their older sisters'
sisters' comics
and magazines, especially Girl Talk.
The most commonly
commonly mentioned
mentioned magazines
magazines and comics read by boys and girls are:
BOYS
Boysl;;-
GIRLS
GIRLS
Comic
Sonic: The Comic
Barbie
Barble
Disney
Disney
GirlTalk
Girl
Talk
Tots TV
TV
Beano
Beano
Beano
Beano
Dandy
Dandy
Dandy
Dandy
Disney
Disney
Football
Football magazines:
magazines:
Tots TV
TV
Tots
Shoot
Shoot
Match
Match
---
CARTOONCRAZY?
CARTOON
C ltAZY7
....-
7.
-
-..
TELEVISION
.
.-
VIEWING'
WEEKDAYS
Mornings
Mornings
r'"
i
If
llowed to,
H aallowed
to, mOSt
most children
children will
will watch
watch television
television as
as soon
soon as
as they
they wake
wake up.
up. Mornings
Mornings are
are
always a rush during
during the week, so television has to
to be fitted in around
around what
what they are
doing. Man
y
watch
while
they
are
having
breakfast.
Some
are
permitted
Many
are
breakfast.
permitted to
to watch before
before
though
mums
complain
about
how
hard
it is
they get dressed for school, even
even
complain about
is to drag
them away from the screen to
ro get dressed. Others
Others are allowed 10
to watch only once they
are in their school uniform.
At
of day,
children need programmes
they can
At this
this time
timeof
day,childrenneed
programmesthey
can dip
dip in
in and
and out
out of:
of:
short items;
items;
•. short
short cartoons.
cartoons.
•. short
During
prt-select what they
During weekday mornings, because of Time
time constraints,
constraints, children
children pre-select
want
want to watch.
watch. In other words it is
is 'appointment
'appointment television',
television',
School
After Schoof
During the winrer
months, most switch the television on the minute
minute they get back from
During
winter months,
school. Mums
oing
Mums are unaware
unaware of what they are watching
watching because they are busy ddoing
household chores,
preparing the
household
chores, preparing
the tea,
tea, washing
washing up.
up, ete.
etc. In
In the
the summer,
summer, other
other activities
activities may
may
take precedence,
precedence, such as playing OUTside.
Nevenheless, even during
outside. Nevertheless,
during winter, television has
to fit around
around a number
number of other things.
firty
Early Evening
Evening
The
The evenings
evenings are
are likely
likely to
to be
be family
family viewing
viewing times.
times. Respondents
Respondents said
said They
they usually
usually
watched
with
their
parents
and
brothers
and
sisters.
The
sorts
of
things
they watch
watched
parents
brothers
together
together include:
•.
•.
•
•.
soaps;
soaps;
nature
programmes;
nature programmes;
films;
ybe).
news (ma
(maybe).
. films;
WEEKENDS
WEEKENDS
Saturday Morning
Saturday
weekday afternoon.
Saturday morning
morning viewing is similar TO
to a weekday
afternoon. Kids like to 'veg out'
out'
(relax) in front of the tele\·ision.
television. Typicall~'
Typically the~'
they are watching:
watching:
•.
•.
•.
•.
Live and Kicking;
Live
cartoons
NetworkllTV;
cartoons on The Carroon
Cartoon Network/ITV;
Nickelodeon;
Nic kelodeon;
bors).
Sky
Sky Sports (older boys).
Mum
Mum ~nd
and dad are in
in bed (Saturday mornings
mornings are their time) unaware of what kids
kids ~re
are
wlltchlng.
watching.
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
..
El
Saturday Afternoon
Most
watching less television. They take
part in more active pursuits,
pursuits,
Most children
children are watching
take part
as:
such as;
football;
•11 football;
swimming;
•11 swimming;
out with
with friends;
friends;
•11 out
•11 shopping
shopping with
with parents.
parents.
Saturday Evening
Evening
Saturday
Saturday evenings
evenings are
are family
family viewing
viewing time
time when
when brothers,
brothers, sisters
sisters and
and parents
parents gather
gather
together
to
watch
programmes
such
as;
together to watch programmes such as:
Gladiators/Ice Warriors
Warriors
•11 Gladiators/Ice
Blind Date
Date
•11 Blind
•11 Casualty
Sunday Morning
On
On Sunday
Sunday mornings
mornings children
children are
are watching
watching television,
television, but
but nor
not as
as much
much as
as on
on Saturday
Saturday
bored with
mornings.
mornings. They
They wake
wake up
up later
later on
on Sundays,
Sundays, and
and may
may get
get bored
with television
television and
and turn
turn
to
to computers/games
computers/games consoles
consoles instead.
instead. The
The programming
programming on
on Sunday
Sunday mornings
mornings appears
appears to
to
be
be less
less appealing
appealing for
for kids,
kids, or
or possibly
possibly they
they have
have just
just had
had enough
enough by
by the
the time
time Sunday
Sunday
around.
comes around.
CHANNELSTHEY
CHANNELS
THEY WATCH
All the children in the study watched
watched Children's
Children's BBC
BBC (CBBC)
(CBBC) and Children's
Children's ITV
(CITV). CBBC often was more popular
popular with the older
children,
while
CITV was
was
older children,
by
the
younger
boys
because
it
was
thought
to
have
more
and
bener
favoured
favoured by the younger boys because it was thought to have more and better cartoons.
cartoons.
boys liked
The
boys watched
watched Nickelodeon.
Nickelodeon. The
The older
older girls
girls and
and boys
The younger
younger boys
liked The
The Cartoon
Cartoon
Network, and the older girls would
bored. 5- to 7-year-old boys
Network,
would watch
watch it when bored.
of
all
the
action
boys,
specifically
enjoyed
Fox
Kids
because
specifically enjoyed Fox Kids because of all the action cartoons
cartoons it
it offered.
offered. Older
Older boys,
liked
watching
Sky
Sports.
especially those who followed or played football,
football,
watching
WHAT THEY'RE WATCHING
Weekdays
pm (contmued)
.:c"/'pm(continued)t3
Rugrats
Rugrats (Nickelodeon)
(Nickelodeon)
Telerubbies/Blue
TeletubbieslBlue Peter
Peter (CBBC)
(CBBC)
The
The Ward(ClTV)
Ward (CITY)
Dexter's
Dexter's Loboratory(Cartoon
Laboratory (Cartoon Network)
Network)
Cow
&
Chicken
Cow & Chicken (Cartoon
(Cartoon Network)
Network)
Animaniocs
Animaniacs (CITV)
(CITY)
GrangeHil/(CBBC)
Grange Hill (CBBC)
Fudge
Fudge (CBBC)
(CBBC)
Art Attack
Attack (CITV)
Art
(CITY)
..
-
The
The Really
Really Wild
Wild Show(CBBC)
Show (CBBC)
Hey
Amold! (CITV)
Hey Arnold!
(CITY)
Hey
Hey Amold!
Arnold! (Nickelocleon)
(Nickelodeon)
The
The Wild House(CBBC)
House (CBBC)
The
The Demon
Demon Headmaster(CBBC)
Headmaster (CBBC)
...
Soaps;
Soaps:
EastEnders
EastEnders
Coronation Street
Rescue
Pet Rescue
Animal Hospital
Animal
Hospital
Sky
Sky Sports/n<lture
Sports/nature programmes
programmes
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
r
_.....
WHAT THEy'RE
]'~W'HAT
niEY'REWATCHING
Weekends
,
"
,~,
'"
,",
;'
c;-
",',
,
Sunday
Sunday am
am
'~,''"
",
Live
Live &
& Kicking
Kicking (CBBC)
(CB BC)
RvgrcJf5,
Rugrats, Spidermon
Spiderman
Jonny
jonny Qutsr
Quest (CBBC)
(CBBC)
Jumanji
jumanji (ClTV)
(CITV)
Scooby
Scooby 000
000 (CITV)
(CITV)
The
The Wild
Wild House
House (CBBC)
(CBBC)
",i"
'5
,
.",
'
'
~und"y pm
Sunday
The
The Simprons
Simpsons (BBC2)
(BBC2)
EasrEnders
EastEnders (BBC1)
(BBC1)
(If
(If watching
watching TV)
TV)
(If
(If watching
watching TV)
TV)
videos
cable/satellite
cable/satellite
children's channels
channels
children's
cable/satellite
cable/satellite
'","
"
.
Nickelodeon &:
& Cartoon
Cartoon Network
Network
Nickeladeoo
Saturd~pm.;>
,
""
Grange
Grange Hi//(CBBC)
Hill (CBBC)
Sabrina
Sabrina (CITV)
(CITV)
Nickelodeon &:
& Cartoon
Cartoon Network
Network
Nickeladeon
""
,,'
"
Saturda}',am,
videos
videos
children's channels
channels
children's
,-
Saturday evening
~'
c'
Sunday ..evening'
venong
'Sunday
Casualty
Casualty
Films
Films
Blind
Blind Dote,
Date, etc
etc
Coronation Street
THE ROLE
ROLEOFTELEVISION
THE
OF TELEVISION
Television plays a number of different roles for children.
children. It is
is a means
means of relaxing
relaxing and
unwinding
unwinding after school:
school: they see
see itit as entertaining
entertaining and fun and it relieves
relieves boredom;
boredom; it isis
part of their lives,
part
lives, providing
providing them with company;
company; it is a fun way of learning; and it
provides them with things to talk about
about in the playground
playground with their friends.
Parents
Parents view television as a babysitter. It pacifies their children and allows them to relax,
parents' way. Mums feel
while at the same time keeping them occupied and out of parents'
feel that
that
children are emided
entitled to relax arrer
after coming home from school.
CONTROLOFTELEVISION
CONTROL
OF TELEVISIO N
Often,
Often, whoever gets to the television first decides what
what is watched
watched and who is in conrrol
control
of the remote. This tends to
be
older
siblings
who
could
be
called pre-planned
pre-planned schemers.
to
Sometimes they will allow younger brothers
brothers and sisters some conrrol,
control, but this is usually
when there is nothing
on
they
themselves
wam
to
watch.
They
trick them by saying, for
nothing
want to watch.
example,
jim and then it's my turn'.
example, 'You can watch Rosie && Jim
turn'.
If
particularly if sportS
If dad is
is home, he is generally in charge of the remote
remote conrrol,
control, particularly
sports and
news programmes
programmes are on.
Over a third of
of the sample had televisions in
in their bedrooms.
bedrooms. Some
Some six-year-olds had
been given sets
sets as Christmas
Christmas presents. When watching
watching in their own rooms they have far
more freedom to
to make their own viewing choices. The children admitted
admitted TO
to trying to
to
watch
watch programmes
programmes that
that are
are not
not targeted
targeted at
at them.
them. These
These are
are possibly
possibly the
the more
more
violent/scary programmes.
programmes.
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
..
r
Parents do, however, seem to try to enforce strict rules
rules about wh"t
what children can and
cannot watch in
in their rooms.
cannot
Programmes
parents mentioned
Programmes which
which parents
mentioned they
they prderred
preferred their
their children
children nOt
not to
to watch
watch in
in their
their
bedrooms
bedrooms included:
The Bill;
Bill;
Casualty;
-
films - tOO
too old;
some
soaps -- too
somesoaps
tOo controversiaL
controversial.
These
neral television viewing in the
These rules applied also IQ
to ge
geI1eraltelevision
the home.
home. Parents
Parents are aware,
aware,
houses.
however, that
however,
that they
they cannot
cannot control
control what
what their
their children
children watch
watch at
at their
their friends'
friends' houses.
I1
them
It's~ Ju~llo()
just too h<lrd
hard lot
forthem
nol
not to
to put
put ttw
the TV
TV on
on.
MUM,, NORTH
Olm<
foe
. "Cc
"
..."
.
Tlwy
n' at
They're
at \(hnnl
school \0
so much
much .lnd
and I1it's\ Ilk"
like th,'
the mmu!\'
minute th.,y
they 'l'-!
get horn
home..
they
they have
ha~e 10
to turn
turn on
on the
the TV
TV and
and thro'n
then they
they (dn
can'tt take
take their
their eye\
eyes off.\
off it.
I
'RTH
TH
Mum never wal(he\ With me \he 11 alway! (ookmg or wdlhmg Ilull
,
..
-
----.-.-.------
-- --
SOY 8, NORTH
~ ~-
CARTOON CItAZY1
CRAZY?
CARTOON
rr
t1i
8
CARTOONVIEWfNG
~
~
.
~
Children will watch
watch cartoons
any time
rime of the
the day. The
The amount
amounl varies in relation
relation to
to the
the
Children
cartoons at any
Ihe child.
child.
and sex of the
age and
Boys between
between the
Ihe ages of 5 and
and 7 years are the core
walchers of 'action'
'action' cartoons.
cartoons. If
Boys
core watchers
allowed, some
would watch
from morning
morning to
to night.
night.
allowed,
some would
watch from
walch 'action'
Ihere is
Older children
Older
children (those aged between 7 and
and 9) will watch
'action' cartoons
cartoons when there
nothing else on.
on, Although
Although they do have some cartoons
cartoons in their
theif favourite
favourile repertoire
repertoire of
of
nothing
programmes these
these tend to be the
the older
older classics, or the funnier
funnier cartoons
cartoons such as:
as;
programmes
Rugratsj
Rugrats;
•.. The
5impsons;
Simpsons;
•. Loony
Loony Tunes;
•. Tom 6'& ferry.
jerry,
•
The above
above are the
Ihe kinds of cartoons
make appointments
appointments to see. When
When
The
cartoons that
that children
children make
cartoons best,
besl, the children
Ihey were:
wefe;
asked why they liked these cartoons
children said it was because they
.• funny;
funny;
and colourful;
brIght and
.• bright
colourful;
.• excitingj
exciting;
likeable characters.
•. lIIt.ellble
'Cartoons are
good and
6, North.
North.
'Cartoons
are good
and cool.
cool.'' Boy
Boy 6,
Children
nor to
10 watch
parents. Mothers
MOlhers ra
rdy watch
Children tend not
watch carroons
cartoons with
with their parents.
rarely
watch cartoons,
cartoons,
but
children view with their
bUI some children
Iheir dads at the
Ihe weekend.
weekend.
'M y dad
turday morning.'
morning.' Boy 6, North.
North.
'My
dad and
and me wlltch
watch Wacky
Wacky Races on Sa
Saturday
None of tht.'
None
the childrt.'n
children menrioned
mentioned not being allowed 10
to watch certain cartoons,
cartoons, except for
l'olller
Rangers.
Power
CARTOON
C"'~lOON
CRAZY?
ClAZY?
-
,r
lL.
...
CHILDREN'S
DEFINITION OF
OF 'SCARY'
'SCARY'
CHILDREN
' S DEFINITION
When
When asked
asked generally
generally whether
whether they
they t."ver
ever found
found cartoons
cartoons scary,
scary, most
most of
of the
the children
children said
said
they
nd IQ
they did
did not.
not. But
But the
the issue
issue was
was fou
found
to be
be morc
more complex
complex than
than Ihis.
this. When
When shown
shown
specific
specific images
images from
from carlOons
cartoons (the
(the video
video grabs)
grabs) and
and after
after watching
watching the
the acrual
actual dips,
clips, the
the
children
children started
started to
to talk
talk in
in more
more detail
detail about
about some
some of
of the
the things
things in
in or
or about
about cartoons
cartoons that
that
can
can make
make them
them scary.
scary.
When
When discussing
discussing 'scary',
'scary', children
children talked
talked about
about good
good scary
scary (or
(or 'Kary
'scary good'
good' in
in their
their
terms),
and
bad
scary
('scary
bad').
Good
scary
was
exciting
and
involved
enjoying
terms), and bad scary ('scary bad'). Good scary was exciting and involved enjoying the
the
suspense
re. Bad
suspense and
and aa good
good atmosphe
atmosphere.
Bad scary
scary was
was frightening
frightening or
or upsening
upsetting and
and left
left aa
lasting
lasting impression,
impression, possibly
possibly even
even causing
causing nightmares.
nightmares. Bad
Bad scary
scary made
made them
them want
want to
to
switch
off
or
switch
over.
This
rarely
happened
with
carroons,
but
some
of
the
unger
switch off or switch over. This rarely happened with cartoons, but some of the yo
younger
gi
rls (5
rs ) did
k the
girls
(5 to
to 66 yea
years)
did as
ask
the researchers
researchers to
to turn
turn off
off aa couple
couple of
of the
the clips
clips because
because they
they
disliked the imagery in
in them.
GOOD SCARY
BAD SCARY
exciting
'makes
'makes yoo
you jump'
jump'
don't want to miss
miss it
don't
bright/colourful
bright/colourful
sometimes funny
fun
involving
involving
good atmosphere
atmosphere
enjoy suspense
horrible -- frightening/
can't watch
frightening/can't
want to switch off/over
sad
~d
dull
dull
be upsetting
late to
can
can be
upsetting- especially
especially if
if can
can re
relate
to
real
life
situations
(older
kids)
real life situations (older kids)
leaves lasting impression
gives kids
kids
bad atmosphere/darkness
atmosphere/darbless gives
bad
nightmares
nightmares
'""
..
-
-
CA RTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY1
CARTOON
r
9. ·
9
MAPPINGOFCARto9N~S
OSINGVIDEO
GRABS
Picture
Picture stills, or video grabs, were taken from the:
the twelve cartoons
cartoons used in the stud)'
study and
the
children
were:
asked
to
son
thtm
into
groups
of
cartoons
that
were
similar.
The
the children were
sort them into groups
canoons that
younger
children
simply
grouped
them
accordi
ng
to
cartoons
they
liked
and
those
ther
younger children
grouped
according
cartoons
and
they
didn't,
or
according
ro
which
channel
ther
were:
on.
Some
of
the
older
children
sorted
didn't,
according to
they were
them by more
transformed
them
more sophisticated
sophisticated categories,
categories, such as those
those with characters
characters who transformed
into other
Batman &
Robin, and The Incredible Hulk,
Hulk. and
into
other beings, such as Spiderman,
Spiderman, Batman
& Robin,
and
those
characters which did not.
those with characters
Those
Those aware
aware of the films from which some cartoons
cartoons had been derived, suggested that
that
one
Black,Juman;i
one category
category should
should be cartoons
cartoons from films, for example
example Men In Black,
Jumanji and
Batman
& Robin.
Batman &
Robin.
Another
by the younger
younger children,
particularly
Another category
category was scary cartoons,
cartoons, put forward
forward by
children, particularly
girls aged 5 to 6 years. Within this category
category they placed Street Sharks,lumanii
Sharks, Jumanji
(sometimes it was scary), and Batman
Batmall &Robill. X-Men,
X-Men, Gargoyles
Rehoot were
& Robin.
Gargoyles and Reboot
mat children
not,
omers
others that
children mentioned
mentioned could go in the scary category.
category. More
More often than
than not,
because nearly
nea rly all the children
however., Rebootended
however,
Reboot ended up in a category on its own because
children felt it
was unlike
unlike any of the other
was
other canoons.
cartoons.
MAPPING OF CARTOONS (USING VIDEO GRABS)
~
~
~
,,'.,
-'0
lid
',Irt,)(ln~
new cartoon
~
.c.
,. -.. _"':~
.CARTOON
CAATOON CRAZY?
CItAZYI
..--
-
... _ - - - - - - - - --,
--.--
r
WHAT
WHAT MUMS
MUMS AND
AND KIDS
KIDS HAD
HAD TO
TO SAY
SAY ABOUT
ABOUT CARTOONS
CARTOONS
r1
him
Sonlt'I"',,' .... 1" fl my boy" w,,', h""1 '''''""n\ yu" (,m ,I\k him
,o"wttlllUJ .lnd Iw 11 {ompl.,t.·ly 'gnat!' you
,~
, NORTH
,,,,',,on, IU" foil .. 'JJp lut my kllh wlwll nothing
','
','
--
-
-
-
-
-,'
-",
--'
t'I\"""
-,
Th,' (d,toon pt·"pl.·
!tw"
Theca-rt()()n
people, th"r'"
they're only
only "p"nll'q
()penir'tgtheir
mouth
.nd ttlt'
who, 'p"<lk"'\j throw)h
mouth •arid
the p"""n
personwho'sspeaking
through th.·
the
tht' no,,,
.nll{fophon.
miCrophone m.,k."
makesthe
noise of
of tt,..m
them.
-
'
:,
'--'
-
"
"-""--"
--',,-',c'-'
--":
,',,:'
"•
nORTH
NORTH
,,-,:--
"',
"
'
ry .....
·,ul wllh
IU,' ""ump
-,--II ttllnk
think you
you hJVP
have to
to h.
be v,
very
careful
with, '''''""n,
cartoons ht'{,)UH'
because yu"
you just
assume '
It,..)' .In' h.:.rmln' ,tilt! '''IT''
ot them
1.11 '"''
'J,own up
for young
you'''1 dllldr
..n
,theyarehanyllessand
some,of
the,m <If.
are far
too grown
up for
children"
,ome oH,' '1",1< "'l'h"\'(.II<·d dJHI.,,,ll,,d.:at
(hddr"n
'son,earequitesophisticatedilnd
aimed at older
older children.
UTH
MUM, SOUTH
All< r school
,d",,,llh,,
k,.h.,r<
.... ",d,nq
After
the kids
are winding'
dow"
Ih
•
."
IIhto
t,..
..
bl
..
to
I.lugh at
.11
--down: They like to be ableto laugh
("rl"",,, I think
nunk my
my son
,on sees
"'t" it
,\.H
\lily
cartoons.!
as silly.
,•nORTH
0""
"
-
"
-
-,
-
,--,
-
,-
-
-
-
--
r'>'
A lotof
I", of cartoons;
''''loon, if,/ you
yo" did_sit
d,d ,,' down
down and
,,.,d watch
w"ld, you'd
yuu d think
thmk yes it's
It \
A
(lullt· violent,bu!
VIOlent but because,
b. (,!ul,' it's
,t \ ad cfJrto8n
(Mt""" mychildrend()n't
my (,,,1<1'('11 don t realise.
rj'dhH'
quite
MUM,, nORTH
OATH
. "
think with my hltl., nllP\ wlll'n thl'Y rj' w,ltdllnq
-{drtu"",
II thinkwithmylittleones
whenthey're
watching
thl'Y IUlt look dt Ihl' pl(turl'\ Ihl'Y don t
-- --- - -
-
..
cartoonsthey
-
justlooKat
the pictures...they
don't
llnd,,"tdnd It11 goes
'lot" overtheir
"v,'r th\'" heads.
h"d,1I
understand.
", nORTH
ORTH
..
El
CARTOONCRAZY?
CItAZY?
CARTOON
10
10
'Q@.,.""C"i1j.i·X.'§UCUPi1iSej
~
~
-
~
REACTIONS
.
~
TO CARTOON
r.
•
JUMANJI
IUMANII
TM.tq
The key choroctrn
characters an
are involwd
involved in"
in a ~
new 9"~
game cal/m
called Bradford, whtrr
where Ihq'
they hon
have to soIw
solve tM
the
riddle: 'KnowltdfP
'Knowledge Is
is by
key to this I/Iusion,
illusion, ignoronct
ignorance Is
is no solutlOll',
solution'. In ottrmpting
attempting to soln
solve ~
the riddlr
riddle
tMy
pick up
they trlltt
enter tM
the library.
library. It is
is ~
portrayed os
as aa maze,
maze, and
and thtu
there Is
is Jomt
some urlt
eerie musk.
music. As'My
As they pick
up
books,
books, wild animals
animals Jump
jump out
out oftMm,
of them, Including"
including a /Ion,
lion, "crocod/lr
a crocodile and"
and a I"rge
large dinosaur.
dinosaur. Thq
They
thtn
then comlt
come across
across Qa hunttr
hunter with"
with a gun who slom
starts shooting
shooting at
at them.
them. Hr
He Isis ottocktd
attacked by IlK
the //On
lion and
and
thq
they tscopl
escape from
from tM
the library.
This was onc:
one of the most popular
popular cartoons
cartoons shown. It is
is an 'appointment-to-view'
'appointment-to-view'
cartoon
girls under the age of 8 years. The on-going
cartoon for some, esp«:ially
especially boys and
and~irls
on-going
sloryline
hallhe
storyline possibly gives
gives it more meaning 10
to children.
children. They understand
understand tthat
the characters
characters
are taking parr
in
a
game.
Jumonii
was
the
only
cartoon
out
of
the
three
on
the prepart
a
Jumanji
cartoon
placed rape,
tape, which rhe
the children who watched
watched rhe
the rape
tape could recount
recount later when they
attended
the
groups.
attended
groups.
Likes
Brighr and colourful
colourful
. Brightand
storyline
. On·going
On-goingstoryline
Fil.m supports
suppom recognition
recognition
. Fil.m
•
•
• Exciting
.• Exciting
.• 'Good'scary
'Good' scary
.• Animals
Animals
nd understand
understand
.• Easy to follow aand
.• Easy to watch
watch
Dislikes
Dislikes
the younger
you nger girls found parts
parrs of the clip a little scary (when the wild animals
.• Some of the
animals
jumped our
the books).
jumped
out of the
Mums generally thinkJumanji
had seen the film with their
their
Mums
think Jumanji is a good cartoon.
cartoon. Some had
children. Mums
Mums with younger
younger kids
kids were
were concerned
concerned that
that they might
might find some of the
the
children.
animals frightening.
frightening.
animals
'TM elephant
tkphant who
who had
had sharp
sharp teeth
tnth would
would scare
Jcan my
my son
SOIl who's
who 's three.
thne. He thinks
thlnb
7he
aftMm
as
~rlul
animals.
'
Mum,
North.
of them
peaceful animals.' Mum, North.
X-MEN
X-MEN
Mlltant children
childnn with
with special
sp«ial powers
pawrn are
an being
bdng looked
loobd after
afl~ at
at an
an orphanage.
orphQno~. A
Aman
man called
called
Mutant
Iofr Kilgrave
/Cllgrove is adopting
adopdng them
tMm and
and brainwashing
brainwoshlng them
lMm to
to obey
obr( him.
him. One
OM child,
child, Rusty,
RIISty, has
has run
'IIn
Mr
owoy from Mr
Iofr Kilgrave
KifgTOve and
and tells
ttlls Scott
Scott (one
(one of
of the
IM X-Men)
X·Men) that
thot he
he is
Is afraid
ofrald and
and doesn't
doesn't want
want to
to go
go
away
bock. He is
Is ignored
Ignored and
and forced
forced to
to do
do Mr
lofT Kilgrave's
Kllgrove 's bidding,
bidding, who
who commands
commands him
him with
with blazing
blazing eyes.
eyes.
back.
This was
was not
not a particular
particular favourite
favourite for any
any group
group of children.
children. The
The younger
younger boys (under
(under
This
eights) would
would watch
watch if it was
was on
on but
but they don't
don't make
make an appointment
appointment to
to view. Most
Most of
of
eights)
the children
children thought
thought X-Men
X·Men was
was not
not scary, but
but a few of
of the
the older
older ones
ones felt
the
uncomfortable with the story about
children being kidnapped.
kidnapped.
uncomfortable
about children
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CItAlY?
..
Likes
Likes
•. Bright colours
colours
Transformations
•. Transformations
r-l
."-.
Dislikes
•. Possession (of children)
• Lack of action - slow paced
•. Evoked bad feelings
feelings in some children
music
• Eerie
Eerie music
• Dark/dull
pictures
Dark/dull pictures
•. Notexciting
Not exciting
.
.
.
Mums
Mums reacted
reacted negatively
negatively co
to this
this clip.
clip. They
They particularly
particularly disliked
disliked the
the fact
fact that
that aa young,
young,
frightened boy is handed
over
to
a
bad
man
by
the
people
who
were
supposed
handed oveno
supposed to
to be
looking after him. The police are seen
to
be
on
the
side
of
the
bad
man.
The
mums
seen to
of
thought
thought this reversal of the herolbaddie
hero/baddie roles might confuse children.
children. They were
disturbed
also
by
the
'blazing
eyes'
duri
ng
the
scene
where
the
disturbed also by the 'blazing eyes' during the scene where the children
children are
are being
being
brainwashed.
They
thought
this
depiction
of
possession
could
scare
younger
brainwashed. They thought this depiction of possession could scare younger children.
children.
believed much of the sinister
Mums felt
felt the scoryline
storyline was tOO
too complicated,
complicated, although
although they believed
overtones
would
be
lost
on
younger
children,
they
felt
quite
strongly
overtones would be lost on younger children, they felt quite strongly that
that featuring
featuring human
human
characters
characters made
made itit tOO
too realistic
realistic and
and they
they worried
worried that
that older
older children
children might
might not
not be
be able
able to
to
tell
tell the difference.
difference. To some extent,
extent, they are right. The more realistic cartoons
cartoons are, the more
more
what is real and what is
blurred the edges
edges become between
betWeenwhat
is not. Older children
children have a
bener
better understanding
understanding of concepts such as
as threat, danger, fear,
fear, and they can
can relate to these
on a personal level.
level. Cartoons with people, especially children,
children, who are threatened
threatened in some
way can make them feel
feel uncomfortable.
uncomfortable. It is
is different when the characters
characters are not human.
X-MEN
X-MEN
('y
dOIng 10 their
,
eye~?
"
n""
That's~ wh<l\
wnat got
got me
me,
19
GIRl6, NORTH
""
they
~tllll(>\
they were
were With
with an <ldull
adult and
and still
let
the
(hi
Id
go
away
Adult
~
<lr('
\uppowd
to
prolHI
(hlldren
,)fen
the child go away. Adults are" supposed to protect children aren't I they?
they?
But If It h,ld a happy ending my ~oo would be OK
"
be{,lU~e
because
"
But if it had a happy endingr1Jyson woulci beCK.
. UTH
UTH
"
11
would be dlffl(ult
10 dl~tlngullh
the
Itwould
difficultto
distinguish the
good
the baddle In Ih'l and thill
goodiele from
fromthebaddieinthisand
that would
would
wnd
send funny
funny meHilgel
messages 10
to kids
kids.
UTH
UTH
""
"
"
11 \ bOTlng, <lnd
we don I re<llly know
."It'sboring,
and wedon'tr~ally
know what
what~s\
Ihere, not
much gOing
h<lppenlng and
"happening
and there's
notmuch
going on
on."
BOY 6, SOUTH
0"'"
-..
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZYl
STREETSHARKS
STREET SHARKS
Tilt: Street
Strn:t Sharks
Sharks are
Oft involved
/nvolv~ in
In aQ fight
fight with
with some
some other
orhtr sharky-Iooking
shorky-/ooklng characters.
choroclrfS. The
Tht scene
scent
The
tolces place
plocf: in
In a0 dockyard.
dockyard. There
Thtf't are
Oft a0 lot
lot of
ofexplosions,
up/as/om, falling
failing scaffolding,
scaffolding, use
Ust of
ofradar
rodor guns,
guns, etc.
de.
takes
kvtrol oft~
Sfrfft Shorb aft str/dle" down
down with
with some
somt sort
sort of
ofvirusand
virus and end
rod up on
on the
lM floorwith
floor with
Severalof
the StreetSharksarestricken
bnathlng difficulties.
difficult/a.
breathing
This was
was well
well liked by the
the: younger
younger boys
boys (the
(the under-Ss)
under-BsI and
and familiar
familiar to
to most.
most. It
It was
was
This
perceived by
by girls
girls as
as aa boys'
boys' cartoon.
canoon. The
older boys
boys (S(8- to
ro 9-year-olds)
9-year-oldsl clearly
clearly felt
felt itit was
was
perceived
The older
not
nOI for them.
them.
Likes
Likes
•. Characters
Characters (boys) -- reinforced
reinforced by
by merchandising
merchandising
•. Fast
Fast exciting
exciting action
action (boys)
.• Suspense
Suspense
.• Humour
Humour
Dislikes
Dislikes
Violence (younger gi rls)
.• Violence(youngergirls)
Characltrs (girls)
.• Characters(girls)
Some
younger girls
Some younger
girls (under-7s)
(under-7s) were
were unhappy
unhappy about
about some
some of
of the
the scenes
scenes in
in the
the dip.
clip. They
They
didn't
baddies were trying
trying to
didn't like the fact that
that the baddies
to kill the Street Sharks. They thought
thought it
was
too violent and wanted
was too
wanted to turn it off.
The
boys, particularly
particularly the
under-Ss, were
were excited
and involved
the cartoon.
The boys,
the under-Ss,
excited and
involved by
by the
cartoon. They
They
were mesmerised by it.
Mums
cartoon. But the characters
characters are not
Mums believed Street Sharks to be a violent
violent cartoon.
not real life
(they
are
sharks
or
half-sharks,
not
humans)
so
they
felt
this
would
have
less
(they are sharks or half-sharks, not humans) so they felt this would have less impact
impact on
on
children.
They
tOO
thought
it
was
a
boys'
cartoon
and
felt
it
had
no
storyline.
children.
too thought
cartoon and
had
storyline.
The mums found it difficult to
baddies in this dip,
to distinguish the goodies from the baddies
clip, and
the children who were unfamiliar
problem.
unfamiliar with Street Sharks had the same problem.
There was a backlash against the merchandising
merchandising of the cartoon
cartoon amongst
amongst mums:
'It'J
'It's 011
all tM
the marbting
marketing stuff
stuff that
that bugs /M.
me. Once
Once thq
they produce
produce stufflib
stuff like
everyone
everyone stom
starts watching
watching It.
it.'' Mum,
Mum, South.
South.
flgu~s,
figures,
CARTOON
CRAZ:Y?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
..
..
l
EARTHWORM
EARTHWORM IIM
JIM
The
The fish
fish and
and Earthworm
Earthworm Jim
}im Oft
are orguing
arguing ond
and tailing
calling Nch
each other
other names.
names. They
They Q~
are In
in lon!t
some sort
sort of
of
spocnhlp,
stnds them
spaceship, whkh
which gets
gets torln
eaten by
by 0
a metal
metal fish.
fish. They
They escoJN
escape via
via a
a manhole,
manhole, whkh
which sends
them back
back in
in
time
puhlstoric Earth.
Earth. Here
Hen they
Earthworm }im
Jim managts
time to
to prehistoric
they encounter
encounter a
a huge
huge dinosQur,
dinosaur, which
which Earthworm
manages to
to
QVlfComt
fish Mfotes
overcome and
and push
push back
back down
down the
the manholr.
manhole. The
The fish
berates him
him (or
for blocking
blocking tht;r
their only
only chanet
chance
to
bock to
He calls
to escape
escape back
to the/rown
their own time.
time. He
calls the
the worm
worm 0
a 'moron'.
'moron'.
This
popular with
both girls
boys. although
boys (5
This was
was popular
with both
girls and
and boys,
although some
some of
of the
the younger
younger boys
(5 to
to 7s)
7s)
thought
perhaps because
because they
thought it
it was
was stupid,
stupid, perhaps
they did
did not
not understand
understand the
the storyline,
storyline, and
and they
they
felt there was not
felt
not enough action.
action. Some of
of the older
older girls
girls thought
thought it
it was not
not for
for them
them
because it
because
it was
was aimed
aimed at
at younger
younger children
children and
and they
they toO
too thought
thought it
it was
was stupid.
stupid.
Likes
.
•
•El
•.
•.
Funny
Funny
The fish
fish and
and worm were
werewell
liked
The
well liked
Brighl
and
colourful
Brightand colourful
Some
likened it ro
Somelikenedit
to Loony Tunes
Tunes
Dislikes
Dislikes
.
Stupid
• Srupid
Confusing
•. Confusing
cartoon more because it had animal
animal characteN;
characters and seemed more
The mums liked this canoon
colourful.
None of
mums pickedup
picked up on
use of
It was
colourful.None
of the
the mums
on the
the use
of the
the word
word 'moron'
'moron' in
in the
the dip.
clip.It
was
perceived to
more
perceived
to be
be more
more humorous
humorous than
than the
the other
other 'action'
'action' cartoons.
cartoons. Some
Some felt
felt ilit to
to be
be more
like Loony
Loony Tunes.
EARTHWORM
EARTHWORM JlM
JIM
">;Idl hJPpy like
th,s one'
~ MUM, NOJITH
f"h
(JIl
ell her
1 t.llk worms {dn
ilCtUdlly
thl~ I~ ~o
t l.llk
thIck
" JOUTH
UTH
BATMAN El
El ROBIN
BATMAN
Batman
Batman has
has lHen
been temporarily
temporarily blinded
blinded in
in an
an attack
attack by
by aa ray
ray gun.
gun. He
He is
is using
using some
some sort
sort of
of batterybatterycharg«i
charged dtvlce,
device, which
which provides
provides him
him with
with infra-red
infra-red Images
images to
to see
see by.
by. He
He Is
is shot
shot down
down in
in his
his flying
flying
Batmobile
Batmobile ond,
and, while escaping
escaping the flames, he snaps
snaps the cable linking this device to Its
its energy
energy
source.
source. With
With his
his sight
sight rapidly
rapidly foding,
fading, he
he stoggers
staggers into
into aa factory,
factory, followed
followed by
by the
the Penguin
Penguin and
and his
his
The
guard
follows
Batman
up
on
to
0
conveyor
belt
where
he
attacks
hIm
with
a
sidekick.
sidekick. The guard follows Batman up on to a conveyor belt where he attacks him with a meto/
metal
chain,
chain. The
The Penguin
Penguin goads
goads him
him with
with the
the metal
metal tip
tip of
of his
his umbrella,
umbrella, but
but Batman
Batman manages
manages to
to rescue
rescue
the
situation
despite
being
bl/nd.
the situation despite being blind.
El
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
re'
~
l~t,
•
Batman &
Robin isis a fa\'ourite
lder boys and girls find
Batman
& Robin
favourite with young boys (5 to 7 years). O
Older
the cartoon
cartoon boring and uninvolving. They think
think it is for young boys.
There was some disappointment
disappointment because it's not like the film
film or television drama.
drama.
Likes
Likes
• Fond of characters
characters -- enduring
enduring super heroes
.
Dislikes
•. Storylines:
.
Dull:
• Dull:
too adult
fOO
boring
boring
complicated
complicated
lackscolour
lacks
colour
dark
uninvolving
uninvolving
Mums disliked the eerie music and found the cartoon:
cartoon:
Mums
. dark;
. sinister;
• dark;
• sinister;
too American;
American;
•. tOO
MEN IN BLACK
BLACK
o~
prottcting an
One oftht
of the Mm
Men In Blade
Black IJ
is disguistd
disguised as on
an alltn
alien bodyguard,
bodyguard, and
and givtn
given the lob
job of
of protecting
an
alitn
th~t~ by on
alien ambouodor
ambassador who
who Is
is about
about to sign
sign a ptOCt
peace tmlty.
treaty. His lift
life has
has b«n
been threatened
an 01l01lln
assassin
Bloc.
who
killed his former
~ bodyguard,
to strike
strlkt again.
Man In Black saves
SOvtf the
who killed
bodyguard, and
and hos
has thrtOttMd
threatened to
again. The Man
ambassador
ambassador from
from the oswuin:J
assassin's bulltt
bullet by
by throwing
throwing co~
coffee Ol'n'
over him.
him. The ombassodor
ambassador Is
is from
from (I
a
sptcles whkh
splashed with
knits bad
species
which dlJintrgrotn
disintegrates when
when splashed
with liquid,
liquid, but
but which
which knits
back t09ttMr
together O9oln
again after
after (I
a
ftwdoys.
few days.
The feature
featu re film has
has contributed
contributed to the
the popularity
popularity of this
this cartoon.
was liked generally
generally
The
cartoon. It was
by all the children,
children, even by some of the older girls.
Likes
Likts
.• Exciting,
Exciting, 'good
'good scary'
scary' aliens
aliens
children
• Humour
Humour noticed
noticed by older
older children
.
Dislikes
Dislikes
•. Uncomfortable
thought the aliens were
Uncomfortable with alien scenes (5·
(5- to 6·year-old
6-year-old girls thought
'horrible')
'horrible')
Complicated storyline
and understand)
understand)
.• Complicated
storyline (difficult to follow and
Men in Black looked.
looked. They thought
thought some of the aliens
The mums
mums did not
not like the way Men
The
the images dull/dark,
cartoon
younger children
were scary (for younger
children),), and they found the
dulVdark, and the cartoon
whole. unappealing.
unappealing.
as a whole,
MEN IN BLACK
BLACK
Mpn in
on Black
BI.l(k are
..... heroes;
hp",," there
th"ft,
Men
M.·
tunny aliens
alieni in
In
. -arefunny
that
that:
.
Th." faces
la{t" are
,u. weird.
w. "d My
My kids
kId,
<Their
- wolJldn'tlikethem.
would"
t Ilk., tlwm
", nORTH
ORTH
BOY
BOY 9,
9, SOUTH
SOlJn1
CARTOON
CAlITOON CRAZY?
CltAlY?
..El
,-r-.
•
8
EXTREMEGHOSTBUSTERS
EXTREME
T~ ghostbusten
The
ghostbusters arr
are hunt/fig
hunting down
down cm
an energy
energy source.
source. The
The scene
scene opem
opens with
with aa runaway
runaway lorry
lorry
which
knocb down one
(tM one
Most of the rt'st
althl!
whichknocks
one of the
the characters
characters(the
one In
in the
the whulchoir).
wheelchair).Most
restof
the
action
action takes
takes place
place on
on aa building
building site,
site, high
high up
up on
on Cla scaffolding
scaffolding tower.
tower. TM
The ghost
ghost thl!)'
they orf!
are pursuing
pursuing
couses
causes 0a tool
tool gun
gun to
to start
start firing
firing nails
nails at
at them,
them, 0a crone
crane crashes
crashes Into
into them
them ond
and their
their 11ft
lift cable
cable snaps.
snaps.
Evtntually, they fnlitvt
zOPPfil the ghost,
Eventually,
believe they hovr
have zapped
ghost, but
but it
it rwppn1N
reappears at fM
the end
end of
of the clip to Id
let us
know
know it's
it's still
still around.
around. The
The clip
clip Is
is mostly
mostly shot
shot In
in gny
grey tonts.
tones.
This cartoon
cartoon was disliked by most of the girls who thought
thought it was a boys' cartoon.
cartoon. The
The
5- to
to 8-year-old boys liked it though.
though.
Likes
•11 Ghosts (some funny,
funny, some scary)
•IiI Weapons (boys)
•. Atmospheric
music
Atmosphericmusic
Dislikes
Dislikes
.
• The grey colours (it was seen to be black and white, something
something which the children
associated
with
old
films
for
grown
ups,
which
made
it boring).
associated
films
boring). This was the fault of
the actual
clip,
rather
than
the
cartoon
as
such.
actual
rather than
cartoon
MIGHTY DUCKS
The
t~m ore
play 0a special
The Ice
ice hockey
hockey duck
duck team
are kidnapfNd
kidnapped and
and forced
forced to
to play
special game
game of
of ice
ice hockey,
hockey, using
using
inst~d of
weapons
weapons instead
of hockey
hockey sticks.
sticks. It
It is
is 0a bit
bit like
like 0a gladiator
gladiator contest,
contest, with
with on
an ollen
alien emperor
emperor
presiding over
presiding
over the
the event.
event. One
One of
of the
the Mighty
Mighty Ducks
Ducks has
has the
the chance
chance to
to kill
kill 0a guard
guard but
but he
he shows
shows
him
him mercy.
mercy.
Mighty
by younger
younger boys
boys (5
Mighty Ducks
Ducks was
was well
well liked
liked by
(5 to
to 7s),
7s), but
but the
the cartoon
cartoon was
was dismissed
dismissed
by other
other groups.
Likes
•. Fast-paced action
Mighty Duck
Duck toys
•11 Like duck characters
characters - some had Mighty
Dislikes
•11 Girls de!>Cribed
described it as a boys' cartoon
cartoon
•11 Boring (older girls)
GARGOYLES
GARGOYlES
The
The clip
clip shows
shows aa fight
fight scene
scene in
in aa graveyard
graveyard ~twun
between the
the old
old Gargoyle
Gargoyle and
and CHmona.
Demona. Demono
Demona has
has
a
a machine
machine gun,
gun, while
while the
the old
old soldier
soldier draws
draws his
his sword.
sword. They
They attack
attack each
each other
other Incessantly
incessantly and
and
CHmona
Demona threatens
threatens aa number
number of
of times
times to
to kill
kill her
her opponent.
opponent. Just
just os
as she
she is
is about
about to
to claim
claim victory,
victory, the
the
dawn
dawn breaks
breaks and
and they
they turn
turn back
back Into
into stone.
stone.
Gargoyles was well
well known by
by the children
children and
and by some of
of the mums. Although
Although itit was
not
by the
boys and
by some
not aa favourit
favouritee cartoon,
cartoon, itit was
was generally
generally liked
liked by
the boys
and also
also by
some of
of the
the girls.
girls.
Many
figures - aa popular
popular Christmas
present.
Many had
had Gargoyle
Gargoylefigures
Christmaspresent.
..
-
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTO
ON CRAZY!
rt
0,
Likes
• Gargoyle
characters
Gargoylecharacters
•. Fast-paced
action
Fast-pacedaction
•. 'Girl' and 'boy' characters
characters
• Humour
(although not in
in dip
shown, known from
HumoW'(althoughnot
clipshown,known
from other episodes)
episodes)
.
r•.rf
.
Dislikes
Dislikes
• Uneasy
atmosphere for younger
girls (under 7s)
of the boys
Uneasyatmospherefor
youngergirls(under
7s) and
and some
someof
boys
.
•.
•.
•.
•.
Cemetery
Cemetery
Weapons
Weapons
Thunderflightning
Thunderllightning
Many had seen
seen the episode
episode from which the dip
clip was taken and found it boring aa
around
second time around
• Girl character
character (boys disliked her aDd
and also some of the girls because she was nasry)
nasty)
.
Again,
Again, the
the mums
mums reacted
reacted negatively
negatively to
to the
the violence
violence depicted
depicted in
in the
the dip.
clip. They
They disliked
disliked the
the
'dark'
'dark' nature
nature of the violence and commented
commented on the anger and aggression shown
shown on the
faces of the characters.
characters.
GARGOYLES
GARGOYlES
II d,dn
Ihey wefe
didn't t Ilk<·
like Ihat
that Oot'
one, they
were tryHll)
trying 10
to k,lI
kill (·,)(h
each
"llw,
,mtl 111t"Y
.. n whIch"
otherand
they look.
lookedd qUlI.·
quite hum
human
which is Wf"H'
worse.
MUM, SOUTH
oel ,I h')",e 10 be 10 v,olt'nl' They duin I
U~l
d 10 Iw
'MUM,SOUTlt
iom and
bUI Iht'y
Tom
and Irrrf
ferry ,,\/,ult'111
is violent but
they h,1\I('n
haven't I gol
got: gum
guns or
or
~wo"h
swords
..and
"d they
Ih.·y don
xf'"·,,,on, on
!"n'\
don't I h"",.·
have u<Jly.
ugly expressions
on Ihl'"
theirfaces.
.
UTH
MUM,SOUTH
Some felt that
that younger children (under 6 years
years)) could find it frightening.
frightening.
'''the
'If the younger
younger one (oged
(aged 4) WOl
was watching
watching It on hil
his own,
own, he
he wouldn't
wouldn't like it,
It,
but
but with
with big
big brother
brother he
he would
would ~
be 011
all right.
right. '' Mum,
Mum, South.
South.
REBOOT
RE
SOOT
Reboot
Reboot hOl
has computer-generated
computer-generated graphiCS
graphics and
and looks
looks completely
completely different
different from
from other
other cartoon}.
cartoons. The
The
choractell
ga~. During
part of
characters ore
are taking
taking part
part in
In a
a game.
During this
this part
of the
the cartoon
cartoon they
they have
have strange,
strange, white
white
eyes.
Reboot
Man
Is
after
them
with
a
chalmaw.
The
clip
contaIns
0
scene
about
eyes. Reboot Man Is after them with a chalnsaw. The clip contains a scene about which
which the
the ITe
ITC
upheld
upheld complaints.
complaints. Megobyte's
Megabyte's dog
dog Is
is shot
shot by
by Reboot
Reboot Mon.
Man. Megabyte
Megabyte and
and his
his sister
sister run
run Into
Into aa
wooden
wooden hut
hut and
and try
try to
to hide
hide from
from Reboot
Reboot Man
Man behind
behind a
a plana.
piano. Reboot
Reboot Mon
Man ltarn
starts cutting
cutting
everything
~ttlng rid
everything up
up with
with his
his choinsow,
chainsaw, Including
including the
the piano.
piano. They
They succud
succeed in
in getting
rid of
of him
him and
and the
the
is
is over.
over. The
The clip
clip iJ
Is extended
extended beyond
beyond the
the Jcene
scene with
with the
the chainsaw,
chalnsaw, to
to lhow
show that
that once
once the
the
ga~
game
game
game Is
Is finlJhed
finished the
the characters
characters return
return to
to normal,
normal, the
the colours
colours 11ft
lift ond
and It
It all
ali gets
gets brighter.
brighter.
This was well liked by most of the children.
had never seen it before were
children. Those
Those who had
immediately impressed by the graphics.
immediately
graphics.
CARTOON N CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOO
..
..
REBOOT
REBOOT
~
~
~
~
Tht·
b,t W,Htl t \,1<1
bE'(,IU\(' you
you k,lf'w
The dog
dog bitwasn't
sad because
knew what
what
w,]>
')OIog
to
h.JppE'o
You
ko{'w
ht·
d
was going
happen. You knew he'd gE't
get bE'ttE'f
better.
(;tRl9,
NORTH
GIRL 9, NORTH
Most understood
understood that Reboot.was
Reboot.was aa game and hence knew that
that it was not 'real'.
'real'. They
They
was
seen
as
having
made
comparisons
with
other
computer
games.
The
canoon
made comparisons with other computer games. The cartoon was seen as having rwo
two
pans - the white-eyed horrid part,
pan, which was the game, and the rest, where the
pans
characters were normal.
normal.
characters
-
It
particularly liked
It was
was particularly
liked by
by older
older boys
boys and
and girls
girls (8(8- to
to 9-year-olds)
9-year-olds) who
who understood
understood the
the
humour.
humour.
'Ht's
Michotl lo(hon.'
'He's trying
trying to
to M
be likt
like Michael
jackson.' Boy 8, North.
North.
Although the younger
youngtr boys (5understand tht
humour, they were
Although
(5- to
to 6-ytar-olds)
6-year-olds) did not
not understand
the humour,
transfixed
transfixed by the graphics.
graphics.
Likes
Likes
•. Computer
graphics
Computergraphics
•. Unique
'wow' effect
Unique'wow'
effect
Brightness
•. Brightness
• Exciting
Fast action
action
•. Fast
Humour (older
(olderkids)
•. Humour
kids)
. Exciting
Dislikes
Dislikes
• Unnecessary violence, ie:
ie:
chain saw (mums)
dog being shot
•. Mums
Mums disliked female character's
character's skimpy outfit
outfit
•. Aggressive music (mums)
•. Skeleton bit
chainsaw
•. Man with chainsaw
.
'Rtboot
/s scary.
scory. You
'Reboot Mon
Man is
You con't
can't Stt
see his pupils.'
pupils.' 80y
Boy 9,
9, South
South
The first scene featuring the man with [he
the chainsaw
chainsaw was thought
thought tOO
too violent by mums,
but the children did not find this scary.
scary.
but this was
Mums were unsure
Mums
unsure of the relevance of the female character's
character's low cut dress, but
nOt something
noticed.
not
something the children noticed.
'If's
'It's kids thof
that would
would be
be wotching
watching this ...
...not
not tf'f'nogf'
teenage boys.'
boys.' Mum,
Mum, North.
North.
..
'My younger
youngtt' kids would
find thot
would dtfinittly
definitely find
that S(ory.
scary.'' Mum,
Mum, South.
South.
CARTOONCRAZY?
CARTOON
(ItAly?
r-
t
Some
Some of
of the younger girls
girls (5
(5 to
to 6)
6) saw
saw R~boot
Reboot as twO
two different
different programmes.
programmes. The}'
They did
did
not understand
it
was
a
game
and
they
liked
the
second
part,
but
thought
the
first
part
understand it
game
part,
thought
part
horrid.
was horrid.
7'The
M focrl
horrlbl~, but
gfffn people
ptOpk
faces ln
in tM
the fin
firstt OM
one ~
were horrible,
but In
in this ont
one tht
the locrl
faces art
are (l/(t
nice-I- I lllet
like IM
the green
better.'
GirlS,
North
~ntr.' Girl
S, No
rth
The dip
believed it £0
clip shown caused concern amongst almost all of the mums. Most mums believed
to
be a cable or satellite programme and that itit was for older children, possibly teenagm,
teenagers, or
even adul
ts. One mother
R~boot felt
adults.
mother who had seen
seen a number of episodes of Reboot
felt that
that the scene
with the chainsaw
red in the
rhe series.
~ries.
chainsaw was by far rhe
the worst thar
that had appea
appeared
SPIDERMAN
Ptttr Parker
Parktr (alias Spiderman)
Spid~rman) is
Is anocletd
gun, who
Is rtally
Peter
attacked by a man
man with
with 0
a gun,
who klltvf!s
believes ht
he is
really Tht
The
Gut
n Goblin.
Ht has
Porktr up aga/nsl
but Parker
Parletr rlcapts
Green
Goblin. He
has Parker
against a wall, but
escapes aonn Tht
The Gfffn
Green Goblin's flying
machlnt.
him, and
fJ(Jrro wly misses
mlssts tht
hdlcapttr. When
~n
machine. Thtrt
There art
are miulltJ
missiles firtd
fired at him,
and ht
he narrowly
the bladrl
blades ala
of a helicopter.
M lands,
ftClaim s hiI
d~t and
Parktr turns
Into Spldtrman.
he
lands, TM
The Gfffn
Green Goblin reclaims
his flying device
and Parker
turns into
Spiderman.
Of slightly wider appeal
up of 5·
appeal tha
thann the core gro
group
5- to 7·year-old
7-year-old boys, it was liked by
younger
rej~ed by older girls.
younger girls and older boys, bur
but rejected
Likes
Likes
Fond of character
character
Well
established
• Well established
merchandise, etc
•. Backed up by comic, merchandise,
•. Playground
Playground hero for some younge
youngerr boys
• What
What he does -- for example,
throws his web
example, when he throws
•.
.
.
Dislikes
Dislikes
.• None
None in particular
particular
THE
THE INCREDIBLE
INCREDIBLE HULK
HULK
Tht clip
clip features
/uJturtJ a0 blazing
blazing skull
skull on
on a0 motorbike,
motorbikt, who
wha co/Is
hlmst" The Truth.
Truth. He
Ht initially
Initially believes
believtl
The
calls himself
Tht Hulk
Hulk is
Is bad,
bad, and
Is out
out to
to hunt
hunt him
him down.
down. In
In the
the process,
PIOUU, he
ht discovers
dlscoW!rs a0 captain
captain who
who has
has been
ban
The
and is
attacking Tht
Hulk over
avtr 0a long
period oltlmt.
This captain
captain manages
managt s to
to shoot
shoot Tht
Hulk with
attacking
The Hulk
long period
of time. This
The Hulk
with aa
strong tranquilliser
tranqull/lstr dart
dart when
ht is
II In
In his
his human
human state.
sta tt . This
This will
will kill
kill him
hIm unless
unltu he
ht can
can turn
turn back
back
strong
when he
into
The Hulk.
make him
mad so that
turns in
The Hulk
Into Tht
Hulk. His friends
fritnds malet
him mad
that he
M turns
In to
to Tht
Hulk and
and is
Is saved.
saved.
younger boys (5 to
10 75)
bUl it is not
not a favourite.
favourite . It was rejected by all
This was liked by younger
7s) but
the girls and
older boys.
the
and older
don'lllkt
him because
M OuSt ht's
grttn. ' GirlS,
Girl S, North.
No rth.
'I" don't
like him
he's green.'
Likes
Likes
Transformation to
Tr.nsformarion
£0 Hulk
Hulk
.• Action
Action
• Powerful
• Strong
.•
. Powerful
. Strong
Dislikes
Dlsllk~s
.• Boring'seen
Boring 'seen it before'
.• Unexciting
Unexciting
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CMZY'
-
..
-
,rr
..
11
CONCLUSIONSc~
U'J§Wi'iit,'§$'
Children
Children are engaged in a wide range of different activities. Although
Although television fills
fills
most of theiT
their leisure time, computers
computers and video games also are important,
imponant, as is
is spon:
sport and
children's
children's own imaginary
imaginary games. Tc:levision
Television has to compete
compete with children's
children's other
other
into their lives:
lives:
activities and interests -- it has to fit into
"'I watch
he Menace,
play Lego.'
Lego.' Boy
Boy 6,
watch Dennls
Dennis tthe
Menace, ,I play
6, South.
South.
After school,
school, television is seen
seen as something which helps children
children to relax and
and unwind.
unwind.
It keeps them entertained
entenained without
without their having to
to make much of an effort. It is
entertainment
entenainment for children on weekend mornings,
mornings, keeping them company
company while mum
still in bed.
and dad are still
Cartoons
particular role
Canoons have
have aa panicular
role within
within children's
children's television
television viewing.
viewing. They
They are
are short,
shon, easy
easy
to
dip
in
and
out
of,
fun,
funny
(they
make
children
laugh),
and
exciting
(the
thrill
to dip in and out of, fun, funny (they make children laugh), and exciting (the thrill of
of
'scary
merchandising (they
'scary good').
good'). For
For some,
some, there
there is
is the
the link
link with
with merchandising
(they enjoy
enjoy collecting
collecting the
the
and
playing
with
them).
Children
find
cartoons
both
stimulating
characters
characters and playing with them). Children find canoons both stimulating (acrion,
(action,
colour
music), and
colour and
and music),
and relaxing
relaxing (they
(they require
require little
little effort
effort to
to watch).
watch). They
They have
have aa simple
simple
content
content which
which is easy to follow.
There is the feeling that
that there are more cartoons
canoons on cable/satellite
cable/satellite channels,
channels, due to a
literal
literal semantic
semantic link
link with
with The
The Cartoon
Canoon Network,
Network, for
for example,
example, but
but children
children still
still think
think
there
there are
are plenty
plenty on
on terrestrial
terrestrial television.
television.
Children,
istinguish berw~n
Children, as well as adults,
adults, are able to ddistinguish
between 'toons'
'toons' and
and 'action'
'action' cartoons.
cartoons.
Toons
ferry, Bugs Bunny,
Bunny, Scooby
F/intstones, Rugrats,
RUgTats, Hey
Toons include
include Tom
Tom && Jerry,
Scooby Doo,
Doo, Flintstones,
Arnold!, and The Simpsons.
Arnold!,
Simpsons. These are children's
children's favourites,
favourites, primarily
primarily because they
make them laugh, but also because they are bright and colourful.
colourful.
Action cartoons
X-Men, Street Sharks, Batman
Batman &canoons include Gargoyles, X-Men,
& Robin,
Robin, etc. They
are
are less
less popular
popular because
because children
children get
get less
less out
out of
of them.
them. They
They do
do not
not make
make them
them laugh,
laugh,
Since
they
tend
not
to
be
'appoimmem-tOand some of the storylines are hard to follow.
follow. Since
'appointment-toview' cartoons
re less
cartoons for most, children aare
less likely to watch
watch them in the first instance,
instance, or
continue
to
watch
if
they
happen
upon
them
by
chance,
while
channel
nicking,
continue to watch
happen upon
channel flicking, although
although
is
nothing
else
on.
they
will
watch
them
if
there
they will watch them if there is nothing else on.
boys. These
The
The core
core viewers
viewers of
of action
action cartoons
cartoons are
are 55- to
to 7-year-old
7-year-old boys.
These are
are the
the viewers
viewers who
who
enjoy goodies (in whatever
baddies. They would
whatever form) beating the baddies.
would watch
watch action
cartoons
permitted.
cartoons all day long if permitted.
Mums have problems
Mums
problems with some of these cartoons.
cartoons. They see them as being too
too violem,
violent,
aggressive/angry,
OO adult.
mums in
by the
aggressive/angry, and
and ttoo
adult. The
The mums
in the
the study
study were
were shocked
shocked by
the materia!
material in
in
some
X-Men (because
blazing eyes
some of
of the
the clips,
clips, especially
especially X-Men
(because of
of the
the blazing
eyes and
and sinister
sinister stOryline)
storyline)
Reboot (the scene with the chainsaw, the scene when the dog was shot, and the
and Reboot
female
female character's
character's scanty
scanty outfit).
outfit). There
There was
was disappointment
disappointment about
about the
the high
high level
level and
and
type of violence depicted in some of the clips, for example,
example, Gargoyles.
Some mums, especially those with younger children,
children, objected to what
what they perceived to
to
be over-use of violent weapons
(laser
guns
and
swords).
There
was
concern
weapons
swords).
concern also that
that
their children
children (particularly
(particularly younger girls) would
would be frightened by some of the scenes
scenes..
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
..
-
r~
i
A fe
w of the mums felt that
few
that some of the cartoon
cartoon dips
clips were too dose
close to reality and their
their
X-Men).
children
would not be able to tell the difference
children would
difference (Reboot
(Reboot and X-Men).
When asked in general if they ever found cartoons
cartoons frightening
frightening or scary,
scary, almost
almost all the
by
cartoons
because
they
knew
they
children
said
they
were
never
scared
children said they were never scared by cartoons because they knew they were
were not
not real.
real.
Children
Children are able to make the distinction
distinction between
berween a cartoon
cartoon and real life.
life. They believe
that
that baddies neve
neverr kill
kill or hurt the goodies, and that
that things always
always turn OUt
out okay
okay in the
of
the
children
was
concerned
about
the
dog
being
shot
in
Reboot
end.
None
end. None of the children was concerned about the dog being shot in Reboot because
because
they
they knew
knew itit would
would be
be alright
alright again.
again.
But itit is
But
is not
not quite
quite as
as straightforward
straightforward as
as this.
this. When
When shown
shown the
the video
video stills,
stills, and
and after
after
ps, it
became dear
watching
watching specific
specific examples
examples of
of action
action cartoons
cartoons in
in the
the di
clips,
it became
clear that
that children
children
do find some cartoon
rbing. They made
made a distinction
cartoon imagery
imagery distu
disturbing.
distinction between
berween scary good
uncomfortable, want
want to
(thrilling,
bad (frightening,
(thrilling, exciting),
exciting), and
and scary
scary bad
(frightening, makes
makes them
them feel
feel uncomfortable,
to
switch offJover).
off/over).
particularly like action cartoons.
Girls in general, and older boys, do not particularly
cartoons. Younger girls
(5 to 6 years) find some of the imagery scary ('ugly' characters/monsters),
characters/monsters), and
and think they
are noisy (loud music, too
too much fighting). Older
Older boys (8 to 9 years) and older girls
(8
(8 to
to 99 years)
years) sometimes
sometimes feel
feel uncomfortable
uncomfortable or
or uneasy
uneasy if
if the
the characters
characters are
are tOO
too human,
human,
or if the storylines
story lines are to
to do with children
children being in danger.
Mothers
predominantly featu
re animals.
Mothers spot that
that toons predominantly
feature
animals. Action cartoons
cartoons sometimes
sometimes
involve people as
main
characters.
Mums
(and
children)
realise
that
as
characters.
(and
that violent and/or
and/or
programmes intended
alarming
alarming scenes in
in programmes
intended for older viewers,
viewers, such as
as The Bill and
Casualty, are
are more disturbing
disturbing to children than cartoons.
cartoons. The closer cartoons
cartoons come to
potentially
disturbing
they
can
become
(see
reality, however, the mo
re
more potentially disturbing
(see diagram
diagram below).
Reallife
ReOlllife
.•
+
+
actioncartoons
action
clIrtoons
•.
Generally an
imals
animals
oider,
older, nostalgic,
nostalgic, eg,
eg,
I
new drawings of
real
real people
people
real weapons
weapons
CQsualty
Casualty
.•
Cudd
ly cartoons
Cuddly
cartoons
+
+
I
Programmes like
like
TheB/II
The
Bill
Eastenders
EO$fencktl
Concern
Blurring
Blurring
Tom
Tom && Jerry
Jerry
Cute cartoons,
cartoons,
eg,
eg, RlIgfats
Rugrats
•.
Safe
Safe
With the exception of Jumanji,
Juman;i, the cartoons
cartoons featured in the research were not
appointment-to-view
cartoons
for
the
appointment-to-view cartoons for the majority
majority of
of kids.
kids. Mothers
Mothers recognised
recognised this.
this.
(5to
7-year-old
boys)
However,
the
core
viewers
of
action
cartoons
However, the core viewers of action cartoons (5- to 7-year-old boys) counted
counted aa few
few of
of
them as their favourites, for example, Men In Black, Batman &
& Robin, Spiderman
Spiderman and
Sharks..
Street Sharks
..
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY1
r
Those children
pre-placed tape with full length versions of Batman
Batman &
children who received the pre-placed
&
Robin, Jumanii
Jumanji and Men In Black, could remember
remember linle
Robin,
little of what
what they had seen, either
good or bad. This seemed to be because they had not been engaged by the cartoons.
cartoons.
Batman &
Robin and
Some of the
the younger
younger children
children found the
the storylines
storylines in Batman
& Robin
and Men In
boring. Jumanji
Juman;i
Black complicated
complicated and hard to follow, while the girls found them simply boring.
was liked much better.
bener. They could recount more of what
what had happened
happened in rhis
this cartoon,
cartoon,
perhaps because it has an on-going storyline.
perhaps
story line. Showing clips of the cartoons,
cartoons, rather
rather than
full-length versions,
judgements. Most
versions, did not appear
appear to affect children's
children's judgements.
Most of the children
were familiar
familiar with all the cartoons
Reboot
cartoons shown in the
the study, with the exception
exception of Reboot
which was the longest
longest clip shown.
which
Younger children
children (those aged 7 to 8 years) take in the 'here and now'
now' when watching
watching
to
the textfstoryline.
cartoons.
They
pay
more
attention
to
images
and
music
than
cartoons.
attention
textlstoryline. If
there is a huge amount
amount of dialogue in.a cartoon
cartoon most of it goes over the heads of younger
younger
VIewers.
viewers.
Older
Older children have a greater
greater ability to relate the Story
story to real life and therefore
therefore can feel
feel
uncomfortable
particularly the case if
uncomfortable with some of the more life-like cartoons.
cartoons. This is particularly
they are able to relate what
what is going on to themselves, as might happen
happen with children
children
unhappy with what they are watching
being kidnapped.
kidnapped. If
If they are unhappy
watching they will turn over or
their world,
switch off. This is
is a function of children growing
growing up and
and understanding
understanding their
world,
rather than a direct effect of action cartoons.
cartoons.
rather
Previous children's
children's television research has shown
shown differences in socio-economic
socio-economic class.
For instance,
instance, lower
lower socio-economic
socio-economic groups
groups are less
less strict about
about what
what their children can
Bil/,
and cannot
watch, and about
programmes such as soaps,
cannot watch,
about them watching
watching programmes
soaps, The Bill,
Casualty, etc. In
bearing on
In this study, however, socio-economic
socio-economic status
status did not
not have a bearing
reactions
reactions to action
action cartoons,
cartoons, either between children,
children, or between mums. This is because
unaware of the
mums do not
mums
not watch
watch cartoons
cartoons with their children.
children. They are largely unaware
of
cartoons
available,
and
so
tend
not
to
set
rules
about
different
kinds
different
cartoons
not
about which ones their
children can and cannot
cannot watch.
children
There
were no
no strong
cable/satellite homes
There were
strong differences
differences found
found between
betw<:encable/satellite
homes and
and terrestrialterrestrialonly homes. Although the children
with
cable/satellite
channels
probably
children
cable/satellite channels probably watch more
jusl
canoons,
cartoons, and talk about
about a wider range, their tastes are no different
different from those with just
terrestrial
terrestrial television. Their lists of favourites are virtually
virtually identical.
identical. This is
is not
not
surprising,
surprising, given that
that cartoons
cartoons that
that used only to be
be shown
shown on the cable/satellite
cable/satellite channels
Rugrats and The Simpsons
are now broadcast
broadcast on terrestrial
terrestrial channels, for example,
example, Rugrats
Simpsons..
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY1
..
..
r
12
12
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A -- DETAILS
DETAILSOF
FIELDWORK
OF FIELDWORK
Th~
The
fieldwork
fieldwork was conducted
conducted during January
January 1998. The inrerviews
interviews were:
were carried
carried out by
Sue
Sue Cham~rs,
Chambers, Nicki Karer
Karet and Neil Samson from Broadcast
Broadcast Research Ltd.
Chart One
Ch"rt
THE
SAMPLE
THE SAMPLE
-
8
/2 hour
8K
X 11
11/2
hour groups
groups with
with children
children aged
aged 5
5 - 99 yean
years (by
(by school
school year)
year)
1/4 hour
88 X
hour paired
.. rs (by
X111/4
paired depths
depths with
with children
children aged
aged S
5 -- 99 ye
years
(by school
school ye.tr)
year)
44 X
X11/2
11/2 hour
hour groups
groups with
with mum!
mums of
of children
children aged
aged S
5 -- 11
11 years
years
A
family group session
ilmilies each
Afamily
session consisting of two ffamilies
each with
with two
two children
children
between
between 5 - 9 years
Allthe
viewers of cartoons
cartoons
All
the children were vie_rs
The
The mum!
mums groups
groups were recruited to have either saVeable
sat/cable or terrestrial
TV
1V only
only
Two
Chart Two
INTERVIEWS
KIDS INTERVIEWS
Kids Groups
Kids Depth
11 Soys
- Age 5/6;
Boys-Age
5/6; ABel
ABC1;; Orpington
Orpington
1
- Age 5/6;
1 Boys
Boys-Age
5/6; C1C20;
C1C2D; Leech
Leeds
2 Girls - Age 6/
7; (1(2D;
6/7;
Cl C2D; Edgw/lre
Edgware
J3 Boys -- Age 617;
ABC1 ; Orplngton
6/7; ABC1;
Orpington
..
Age6/7;
ABC1 ; Leeds
4 Glrls
Girls -- Age
6/7; ABC1;
Leeds
4 Boys
ABC1; Edgware
Boys - Age 8/9;
8/9; ABC1;
Edgware
5 Girls -- Age 5/
6; C1C20;
Altrlncham
5/6;
Cl C2D; Altrincham
33 Girls
8; (1(20;
Girls- Age 7/
7/8;
Cl C2D; Orpington
Orpington
6
- Age 617; ABC1; Oldham
6 Boys
Boys-Age6/7;ABC1;Oldham
-
1:
Ag e 5/6;
2 Girls - Age
5/6; C1C20;
Cl C2D; Orplngton
Orpington
ABC1 ; Edgware
5 Girls
- Age 718;
Girls-Age
7/8;ABC1;
Edgware
6
- Age 7/8;
C20; Edgware
6 Boys
Boys-Age
7/8; Cl
C1C2D;
Edgware
-
7 BoysB; ABC1;
ABC1; Altrincham
Altrlncham
Boys Age 7/
7/8;
/9; ABC1;
ABC1; Orplngton
7
7 Girls
Girls - Age 88/9;
Orpington
8 Girls - Age 8/
9; C1C20;
8/9;
Cl C2D; Oldham
Old ham
8 Boys - Age
Age 8
/ 9; ABC1;
ABC1 ; Edgware
8/9;
Edgware
-
Groups
Groups 1, 3, 6 and 8 were all pre-placed with a video containing
containing full-length versions of
three of the cartoons
cartoons used in the study. These were:
•.
•.
•.
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAm
Batman
& Robin
Batman &
Robin
Jumanji
Jumanji
Men
In Black
Men In
Black
..
-
r
Chart Three
Three
Chart
MUMS GROUPS
-
rr
11
Eldest child
child 55 - 77
Elden
ABC1
ABCl
Terrestrial
Terrestrial
Orpington
Orpington
22
Eldest child
child 77 --99
Eldest
C1C2D
C1C2D
Cable/Sat
Cable/Sat
,
Edgware
Edgware
3
Eldest child
child 99 --11
Eldest
11
ABC1
ABCl
Cable/S
Cable/Satat
Old ham
Oldham
•
Children 7 --99
Children
C1C2D
but
but with
with older
older Siblings
siblings C1C2D
Terrestrial
Terrestrial
Altrincham
Altrlncham
4
Fieldwork
ry 1998
Fieldwork was
was carried
carried out
out In
in Janua
January
1998
..
CARTOONCRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
n»
-i
""
0
0
z
n
»
N
""
~
55atltrday
0l\ldov
rick
yO" did
flc.k w~ol
what YOltdid
Were YOltat
Werevo"ol
Wolc.t>ingfv.,
.... ....
...... 0
Watching'f'\I...........................................O
.......
Before
Before.
Breakfast
Breokf~t
PIoyr,g
..
Playing own
own "..."c\e.-IQ
"'ade-IAP Qo/'rI~
Qa"'e......................O
. 0
PIoVing
...... 0
Playing on c.OII'>pI.oterf~
co"'plAterlga"'es c.oNob
consot>.........O
Playing sport...
sport.......
........... ...
...........
... ....
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. .........
... .............0
..... ... . 0
Wolehingvid!!:o
.... .............. ....... ..... 0
watchingvideo......................................O
.... 0
Playing 0a InIl5k:.ol
"'1ASic.alinstrlAlnent..
............ ........0
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iM "IIne,,' ............
Painting I Drawing
Drawing I f"Io~inQ
MaklnQ sornel
so"'ethina.......
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Reading.................................................0
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watching 'f'Vwhile
l>o
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......................
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breakfast ............................
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Listening 10
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....
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. ...... 0
OlAtside..............O
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. . .0
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Playing 01'1
on c..~te.rl
co"'plAterl
~
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.-
C.oruoL
consol were
were VOu
VOlA......
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yoo.nelf 0
rrlendD
ByyolArself
0 Wllh
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0
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brott.er Of
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or .seter
sister
0
With
rn~ Of
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or dad
dad
0
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watching'f'Vorvideos.............
8'1
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holASe....O
rrie"d~
. .0
Ployl!\g
Playing on c.o"'P'Io1erl
co"'plAterl
gOInv
.....
ga"'es c..ONoI
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were '1'0
VOlA......
O
...hlde ... .... ... 0
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re.IoI;"e.~ ..... 0
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0
Wit.,
m~ or dad
With"'lA'"
dad
0
8y
yOlOelf 0
ByyolArseif
0
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With
brol~ or
Withbrother
or stller
sister
.. ... -
0
Wotc.fWlgfv .... ........
. ... . .. ...... .0
Watching'f'\I...........................................O
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own rnode.·"'P
"'ade-IAP Qorne.
Qa"'e.. .....
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... ..............0 0
Ployil'lg
Playing on c.otnpl<le.r/gorr.e
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consot>..... ....00
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~port . ...
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0
WolcfWlgvide.o ..
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... 0
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"'1ASic.alinstrlAlnent....
.................0
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irulr~e.nt .' ....
'
0
PcM1li1'1g
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f"4o~inQ so"'ethinQ......
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0
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,
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........00
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. ........ . ..... 0
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Ol<bide. in 9orde.n
..... . ......
0
.
H
_ ..............0
......... . 0
Ho"'e
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rrlend~
ho0.6e. ... 0
vI»
...
c
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"ide.~ ..
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yolArself 0 Wit.,
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00
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dad
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00
H
_ .. ...... .. 0
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rrie.nd~
holl.5e. . 0
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........... 0
At
re.loliv!!3 .. .. 0
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Playing OT\
on c.otnpl<te.r/
co"'plAterl
~ c.o!UoI
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were YOU
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0
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dad
00
.. .. -
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or videos.............
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0
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1
-1
5Sat\lrday
ah.rda,
lllnc.h
l\ll'lc.t-.
f/c.k
lIck what YO"
YO\ldid
did
Were
at
Were ,/01.1
YO\lat
H..,.
Home ........... 0
rFriend'sho!ASe
rlend'l hou.5e. . 0
O
0 OOutside
~odihg
Reading...................
.0
..blde
0O
Wotc.hlllgfl/
WatchingfV while
while
AI
re.lolive.s
Atrelatives
0O
0
................. .0
having
I,,"ch .
havingl\.lf\ch...........
lish!:ning
lo!he.
0
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the radio
radio.._
........
.
........................................ 0
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O
... 0
D
Wotc.hirogTv.
Pld'l'ing
rno(ie-t4) Qome ..............
Playingown
ownmade-upQame
O
Pldyin9
... ler/9O"'Ies C.OMots
... .0
Playing 0"
on c.olnp
computer/games
consols.........
Afternoon
Afternoon
PLoving
sport..
Playingsport
Pld'l'ing
... te.r!
Playing on camp
computer/
got'ne.~
games c.o~ol
consol
By
'Ioonelf
Byyourself
00
were.
0 .... . were ...'IOu......
With
With frlendD
friendO
With
brother or
Withbrother
or sMe.r
sister
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rnvn 01'
Withmum
or dad
dad
0
0
Wolc..hingfvorvide.os
.. _.. .. _
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00 With
With fr~ndD
friendO
Wllh
brolhe.r or soler
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sister
00
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rnuon or
Withmum
or dad
dad
0
Ho,,",
Home
0 Playing
on c.O:~""erl
computer/
P~..g 01>
.. ~
O/'hes COM
games
consol Lwere \IOu
Dv
YOll$e.lf 0
With
friendD
WithfriendO
Byyourself
O
... bi!ie. ........ .0
Outside
O With brother0or seter
.
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or
sister
0
At reldtillv
relot IVes.........
.
00 With
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dad
'""'" or dad
0
................ 0O
8'1
vo~e.lf
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.... .... WatchingfV or vide.03
videos..........frie.ndO
0 With
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..................... ............ .0
O
PId.,.ing
irQ tn,I'hent ....... ....... 0
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m!ASicalinstrument
Wolc.hirlg
video
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Dv
yOll$elf 0
Byyourself
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brother or
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or soter
sister
Wit
h "'Ih! or dad
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Pointing
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somethinq
··00
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Listening to ",...sic.
m!ASlc....................... 0
0
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IIff yo~were
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III
~
I:
a.
~
c
jij'
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n0
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...
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I:
/1)
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0
0
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...................... ................. .0
0 Ho,,",
Playing on c.omp""er{
computer!
gorr.e~
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were "'0
'IOu......
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..... 0O Frlend'l
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O
...b~ 11'190rde.n
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O
O
... b~ ........ 0
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relotives . ... 0
D
At
n
»'"
-<
0
0
z
n
~
N
-<
."
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yoo.oe.1f D
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0 With
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friend 0
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sister
00
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with IT>~
mum or dad
dad
00
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vide.~ ......... _
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yoo.oe.1I" D
frie-ndD
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0 With
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0
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b ro'her or ~ble.r
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sister
0
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IT>tm or clod
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dad
0
..,.."'1
•.
,
n
:»
'"
--!
0
0
z
n'"
:»
N
~
Sat",day
5atllrday
f/c.k what
what YOlldid
YO" did
fic.k
............... ........ 0
Reo~g .................................................0
.... ..........
Reoding
Evening
Evening
meol
meal
Wotc.t.r.gfV
.... tv.e
watching
fV whRe
hov/ng dinnerfteo........."""""""""O
dinnertteo ......... ... .........
having
.0
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to the
t"e rodio............
rodio ............................
Listening
............ .......00
Were YOllat
yo\.l ot
Were
If
If YOllwere
';'0\.1 were
....
Playing
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on cornpl.lterf
c,QtnP!,oterf
gornes
were YOll......
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c.ONoLwe.re
"'0100... _
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00
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or sister
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or dad
WII "
dad
00
H _ ..............0
Home
,
....... 0
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niend'$ ho\<Se....D
hOlOle ... 0
Olltside..............O
o . .t$/de ............. 0
Atrelotives........D
At re.lot;ve,$ . ... 0
In"""
V\
AI
...
C
..
c..
~
I:'
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n
0
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...
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c
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c..
WotchingfV or videos.............
wotc.Mgf"orvideoL
... .. _
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B., yollrself
vOIISe\( 0 With
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frie;ndD
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or sister
wll"
ilt"ott>er
or
~'e.r
0
....L
Evening
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.. .... ........ ..... ............ ... 0
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.... ... ..... ... .0
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"P QOme
Playing
own l'T>odemode-lip
qome.....................D
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.. .... 0
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complIterfgornes
consols.........O
Plo~g $port ..
.
.... 0
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WOk
.. M9voOeo ........ .......... ............. .... 0
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............
..... 0
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m\<Sicolinstrll/nent.....
................0
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--. -...... 0
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Reading
.... ........... ..... .... .... ......... ... 0
.Reoding................................................O
......................
"''''ic. ..
..................
Horne
Ho
... ..............0
..... . . 0
Friend'sho\<Se....D
rrie"d~ house . 0
on c.olnp!.oterl
compl.lterf
Playing 0"
games C.OMol
consol were.
were vo
YOI.I......
gotnel
... .
Olltside.............O
O
... b/Oe .... .....
Byyol.lrself
With friendD
friendO
By
VO\#'$e.lf 0 with
Withbrother
sister
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brolt.er or ~Ie.r
00
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or dad
dad
With
"'....., 01'
00
0
Atrelotives.........O
At
relollve$ .. .... 0
.-
Wotchingfv or videc»
videos.............
wolc.""'gfv
......... _
Byyollrself
WithfriendO
ay
yo~elf 0 wit"
frie.ndD
Withbrother
sister
Wit"
brother or ~oter
00
Withml.lmor
dad
Wlt",..~
or dad
00
....,
""'-1
. ,
WEEKDAY
WEEItl)A.Y
WRI'f'
w
Wote./"UngfV
._
.
Before
Before
Breakfast
Breokf~t
0
..................... _._ 0
watch",g1'V............................................
Ployit>9
. own mode 'l4=) Qom~ .................. 00
Play",gown
made-I<pQame.....................
PIoyih9
on e.omp"ler/gomes
e.oNob ....... 0
.
0
Playingon
compl<ter/games
consols.........
PIoyih9
~porI
..... .........................
. ....... 0
Playingsport...........................................O
wote.,.,.,gvldeo
.................................... 0
watchingvideo......................................O
Ployihgorn~ic.olinllr ....... e:!nl ................... 0
Playinga
ml<Sical
instrl<tnent.....................0
POOlin9 / Drawing / l'1okinQ ~ OIne:!th"'Q ...... 0
Painting / Drawing / Makina somethina.......
0
loleningto m""ic. ......... ...........
. .... 0
Listeningtoml<Sic...................................O
Re:!odirlg..
. ............................ 0
.Reading................................................
0
'f'ickeveryone
yo~ were
were
fick
every~~~ '(O~
w.
"'
Home
........ _.... 0
Home _..............0
Frie.nd'5
ho~e
Friend's
hol<Se.... ... 0
Ollt~ide. ............
0
Ol<tside..............O
At relotivel ....... 0
Atrelatives.........O
Home
Home
........... 0
..............0
0
Friend'shol<Se....
Frie.nd'5
hO""e:! ... 0
Breakfast
Breokf05t
n>
'"
-t
0
0
z
n
~
~
After
Breakfast
Reoding ...... ..................... ...... ......... ....0
O"hide ........... 0
Reading.................................................O
Watching1'Vwhile
... 0
havingbreakfast............................O
lotenirlgto
the. radio ...........
...................0
Li:iteningtothe
...............................0
.............. 0
Ol<tside
At relotive~ ...... 0
Atrelatives........D
Wolc."""gfv
t . l' .............. _...................... 00
Ploylng
ownV...........................................
mode·I4=)Qome:! ................... 0
Wa h",g
Home .....
....... .. 0
..............0
"riend.,
Friend-S ho~e
hol<Se .0
0
Play",gown
made-I<PQame.....................O
Ployihg
on c.ompt..terl
gCllT>l!l c.o!\$ob ........ 0
Ot..t~ide. ...... __....
.. 0
Playingoncompl<ter/gamesconsols.........O
0
Ploylng~port..
._ ... 0
Playingsport...........................................
Wotc.hirlg
v!deo ............................ -....... 0
Watchingvideo......................................O
Ploying° m""ic.olinltr ....... e:!nt .................... 0
Playinga/ ml<Sicalinstrl<ment.....................O
Pootirlg
~_thinQ .. _
0
Painting/ Drowing
Drawing/l l'1okinQ
MakinQsomethinq......
loteningtom\Oic.
.... ..............0
-_._- ........ 0
Listeningto ml<Sic.....................
Reoding
..
. ................................. 0
.Reading................................................
Ol<tside..............O
Atre:!lotiv~ ...... 0
Atrelatives........O
0
.. ith
Ployihg
on e.omPl.lte:!r /
PlayingoncompI<ter/
9O'T>el
were
games C.ONol
consolwere
8y
yo~elf
ByyoI<rs
elf 0
...-0"
..."""_
VOl<
Wllh
. dO
WItnfriendO
frlen
Wlthbrott.eror~te:!r
Withbrother or sister
With
m ....... or dod
Wlthml<mordad
~
ID
~
Co
~
0
;'
.:;!
0
00
Wate.""'gfv
or videos.............
vlde~ ........ _
Watching1'Vor
8YYO~e:!1'0
Byyol<rself
0 Wlth'rie.ndO
With friendO
With brotl">er
0
brother or
or ~i5te:!r
sister
Wlthm
....... ordod
0
Wlthml<m
or dad
Ploying
on e.OInp"ter/
Playingoncompl<ter/
9O'T>e~
games C.OMol
consol were VOl<......
.,.0" ... _
8y yo~e'f 0 with frie.ndO
with
brother
0
With
rotherorsiSter
ByyoblArself
0or ~i5ter
WlthfriendB
wllh
m ....... 01" dod
00
Wlthml<tnordad
wotc.ht1gf'l
or vldeo~ .....•.. _
Watching1'Vorvideos.............
8y
yo~elf 0 With frie.ndO
By yol<rself
friendO
With brothe.r
~Mer
00
brother or
or siSter
with
....... or
00
With m
ml<tn
or dod
dad
Ployirlg
on c.ompt..ter l
Playingoncompl<ter/
gome:l
were:! VOl<......
games C.ONol
consolwere
8y
yO~e:!'f 0 With
frie.nd O
Byyol<rself0
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or ~ote:!r
00
Wlthb
. t er
I brother
rotherorslS
W/thm
....... or dod
00
Wlthml<mordad
"'0" ... _
wote.Nng
f Vor vldeo~
......•. _
Watching1'Vor
videos.............
8y
yo~etf 0 With
friendO
ByyolArselfD
Withfriend0
With
brott.er or siSter
~oter
0
Withbrother
With ml<tn
or dad
Wlthm
....... ordod
0
"'-'1
.
("'j
»
'"
(1
0
z
("'j
~
~
AfSCH 0\.
'l ~_,_
Af>CHC
,~
",
Wote.hingfV
or
...... ,,"
Watc.hingfV
or vide.o~
video:;.............
By yo"r:;elf
YOlr.ie.lf 0
0 With
Wit" friendO
friend 0
With
Withbrother
brother or :!>hle.r
:;ister
0
With"'
...... or dad
With m"m
dad
0
0O
0
H
....
Home
0
·0
0D
o..."~I
t d e..............
O
bide.
------- --. 0
AI
re.lotivv
Atrelative:;
0O
Frie.nd':5
hOI>:le.
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0
Re.ading.
Reading...
Evening
Evening
Meal
Mea!
Wolc..hingfV
while.
Watc.hingfvwhile
having
having dinnerfte.o
dinner(teo .
l.i:.te.niJIg
U:;teningtoto the
the radio
radio
Wokhit1gfV
Watc.hingfV ..
.0
O
.......... ....... 0O
.. .
..... 0O
0D
0
... 0O
.. ... ... ..... .. ... .
PIo.,.ing
Playing own
own mode·uP
made-"p QOIne
qame ... ..... .... ....
Ploying
...terl9<\mv e.on5ol)
Playing on e.omp
c:.omp"ter(game:;
c.on:;015..
Ploying5port
Playing:;port .
Evening
Evening
Wote.hlngv/deo
............. 0O
Watc.hingvideo .. .
Ployit1gam"'5ie.olin5trl/T1ent.
Playing a m\.05ic.alinstr"ment .. .... .... .. .. 0
O
Painting
Drowing I(Makinq
MokinQ 50melNnq
Painting I(Drawing
:;ometl>inq .... 0O
li:!ilening
li:;teningtoto mll5ic..
m\.05ic..
fleoding
Reading ..
...... .. ...
..... . .... ....... .....
0D
... 0O
<'
I
gornv
... _
game:; c.omo!
c.on:;ol were
were VOII
vo"......
Bv
yo..nelf 0 with
friendO
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0O Wilh
brott>er or :;ister
~i5te.r
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0
·· .. 0O Wllhm
....... ordc!d
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or dad
0
0
li~te.ning to "'..sic.
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·w'
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O
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ho1.6e. ... 0
...... . .... ..0
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d I'nI.Oic..ol
imlr ...... ent .
.0
Playinga
m\.05ic.alin:;tr"ment
Painting(Drawing
Pointing
I Drowing I(Makinq:;omethino...
Mokina 501ne.H.ino . .. 0
Re.ading
Reading .
fl
-l!
Ploying
.. ... .0
Playing on
on c.ompvter/Qotr>v
c.omp"ter(game:; COMOts
c.on:;ols...
0 Ollhide
O"t:;ide..
After Se-hOd
.. .0
After
school Ploylnglport
Playing:;port.
O Atrelative:;
At recldtivel .
Wolching
v~o
...... 0O
Watc.hingvideo
,
s:[
~
flc.k everyone
yo" were
f/c:.k
e"erv~~~ yot.!
were
wit
H
.... ..... .. ... .. .0
Home
0 PIaY"g
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on cOInpl<ter/
c.omp"ter(
'"
~
......... ... . ... ........... . .... . ... 0O
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Qame ......... .. .. ... ... 0
O
wotc.hitlgf'll'_
Watc.hingfV
•
li!Ciij"
~
01"\
00
::s
g....
c:j"
•<~~Cl.
Playing
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on eOlnpll1e.rl
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g~$
game:; c.oma!
c.on:;ol we.re
were VOII.
vo".. ....
Byyol<ne.;lf
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friend 0
With brothe.r
brother or ~Me.r
:;ister
0
With
...... or dad
With "'
m"m
0
-
Wolc:.h/ngfv
or
vide.~ . ... ....
Watc.hingfV
or video:;.............
B.,.
By .,.o\llelf
yo"r:;elf D
0 With frie.ndD
friend 0
with
With brotl\er
brother or 5bter
:;ister
0
With
m~ or ddd
With m"m
dad
0D
...terl
Playing on
on e.omp
c.omp"terl
0 PIo.,.it1g
gomv
...... _
game:; e.on501
c.on:;ol were
were vo
vo"......
00
B.,.
.,.o\llelf
D
With
frie.ndD
Byyo"r:;elf D WithfriendD
OllhiQe
O"t:;ide ... ....... 0
O With
brother or ~ter
Withbrotheror:;ister
0D
At relotive5
relative:; ... ... 0
With
Withmlll"n
m"m or
or clod
dad
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APPENDIX
-INTERVIEW SCHEDULES
SCHEDULES
APPENDIX C -INTERVIEW
.l
["
~
;
,;
Children's Interview
Schedule, pl
Children's
Interview Schedule,
pl
Ire
Irc-- Discussion
DiscussionGuide
Kids Groups/depths
Warm up
up first:Warm
-
who they are
- who
-- brothers/sisters
brothers/sisters
-- what
what they
they have
have been
been doing
doing today
today etc.
etc.
Main discussion
Mcln
Hobbies
Hobbies & other
other activities
activities
-- what
what do
do you like doing
doing after
after school?
school?
favourite games,
games. toys,
toys. activities?
-- favourite
activities?
do you prefer
prefer playing
playing Inside
outside?
-- do
inside or outside?
do you play?
play?
-- which
which games
games do
do you play with most?
-- who
who do
-- what
what do
do you do
do on your own/with
own/with
friends/
siblings?
friends/siblings?
do you hove
- do
have a computer
computer at
at home?
home?
-- what
what kind is
is It?
it?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOO N CRAZY?
..
... -
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.".,-
,..,.
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i\
Children's
Children's Intt"rview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p2
p2
-- who do
do you ploy
play with?
- are
are you allowed
allowed to use itit on your own?
own?
-
- what
use the
what do
do you'
you-use
the computer
computer for?
for?
-
- favourite
favourite computer
computer games.
games, and
and why?
why?
-PC
-Consoles
-Consoles
-Internet etc.
etc.
-Internet
-- when
when do
do you
you ploy
play on
on the
the computer?
computer?
-
- which
which comics/magazines
comics/magazines do
do you
you read?
read?
-- when do you read
read magazines?
magazines?
-- when
when do
do you get
get them?
them?
- best
at the
best titles
titlesat
the moment
moment and
and why?
why?
-- do
do you hove
have any
any other
other hobbies
hobbies
- .b
rownies. guides.
,brownies,
guides, cubs
cubs etc.
etc.
- sport clubs
-~ music etc.
etc.
-
- when
when do
do you do
do these
these activities?
activities?
- in
in school
- sports
sports centre etc.
--
CARTOON CAAZV?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
r
r,....
..
. Chlklren
Children's's Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p3
- who with?
-who
-- which
favourites and
which are
are your
yourfavourites
and why?
why?
-- favourite
favourite games
games
- what
what do
do you play'ln
play' in the
the playground
playground at
at school
school
who do
-- who
do you like
like playing
playing with and
and why?
-- do
do you ever
ever pretend
pretend to
to be
be someone
someone from TV
TV
w~h
when
when playing?
playing?
-- a cartoon
ca rtoon character?
character?
you
/your
when
-- do
do you /your friends
friends ever
ever get
get hurt
hurt when
playing
playing these games?
games?
- ifif so how and
why?
and
- does
does it
It matter?
matter?
who and
do you play?
play?
-- IfIf so who
and how do
8.ackground
TV watching
Background on
on TVwatching
programmes. cartoons
and other
-- favourite programmes,
cartoons and
at the moment?
programmes
programmesat
moment?
.
channels at
at the
the moment
moment and
and why?
-- favourite channels
CARTOON CRAZY?
(RAI'17
CARTOON
..El
,....
~
itt
•
Children's Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p4
-
- when
when do
do you watch
watch TV
TV
-- go
go through
through the
the day
day
-- morning
morning
after school
school
- after
before bed
- before
-- weekend
etc,
weekend viewing
viewingetc.
watch more/less
at weekends?
- do you
youwatch
more/lessat
weekends?
In your bedroom?
-- do
do you have
have aa TV,
TV.in
bedroom?
- ifif so how often
often do
do you watch
watch It?
it?
-
you watch
your
- what
what kind
kind of
of programmes
programmes do
do you
watch in
in your
room?
room?
you prefer
TV and why?
why?
-- where
where do
do you
prefer watching
watching TVand
who decides
how much
much you
you watch?
watch?
-- who
decides how
-- who
who controls
controls the
the TVremote?
TV remote?
-- ,does
poes this
this vary?
vary?
- ifif so
so how?
how?
do you watch?
watch?
- when do
do you watch
watch with?
- who do
are not allowed or do
do not
- any programmes you are
like
watching?
Why?
likewatching? Why?
-..
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
r.;
i
Children's Interview
Schedule, pS
Children's
Interview Schedule,
pS
or does
not ollow
you to
to watch
wotch
-- who
who stops
stops you
you or
does not
allow you
these programmes?
these
programmes?
-
- have
watched these
have you
you ever
ever watched
these programmes
programmes
anyway?
anyway?
If so where
where were
were you?
-- Ifso
you?
-
- ore
are there
there any
any programmes
programmes that
that score
scare you
you,,
upset
upset you
you
-why?
-why?
watch the
-- do
do you ever
ever watch
the news?
news?
ever make
-- does
does ititever
make you
you unhappy?
unhappy?
-why?
- why?
Cartoons
-- when do
do you watch
watch them, how often?
ore your
your favourite
why?
-- what
what are
favourite cartoons
cartoons &
& why?
-- what
what isis itit about
about cartoons
cartoons that
that you
you like?
like?
any cartoons
you don't
like &
why?
-- any
cartoons you
don't like
& why?
- which
which cartoons
cartoons do
do you watch?
watch?
girls?
-- are
are there
there certain
certain cartoons
cartoons for
for boys/
boys/girls?
CARTOONCAAZY1
CRAZY?
CARTOON
..
..
r
.,...-
I
I
Children's
Children's Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p6
-
which are the best channels
channels for
for cartoons
cartoons and
and
- which
why?
why?
-
- old
old cartoons
cartoons vs.
vs. new
new cartoons
cartoons -- (do
(do they
they know
the
difference
if
so
which
are
better
the difference ifso which are better and
and why?)
why?),.
' re not
-- are
are there
there any
any cartoons
cartoons you
you're
not allowed
allowed to
to
watch?
watch? IfIfso
so which
which ones?
-- are
are there any cartoons
cartoons that
that you ever find
find
'scary', frightening ar that you don't like
- why
why are
are you
you not
not allowed
allowed to
to watch
watch these?
these?
'scary', frighteningor that you don't like
watching?
-- what Isisthe
the best way to get
of a baddle?
get rid
ridof
baddie?
who are
- who
who are
are goodies,
goodies, who
are baddles?
baddies?
-- isis it okay
okay to hurt/kill
hurt/killaa baddie?
baddie?
- Ifif so why
why is
is It?
it?
(find
it isis at
(find out
out what
what scary
scary means
means to them
them and
and ififit
at
all
linke.
d
with
cartoons).
alllinke,d with cartoons).
Mapping
Mapping exercise
exercise using
using the
the victeo
video grabs
grabs
-- sorting
spontaneously into
sortingspontaneously
into any
any criteria
criteria
they like/
dislike, ones that
like/dislike,
that are alike
alike and
why.
the children
why, Let
Letthe
children lead
lead this
this
..
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
rr
"-
Children's
Children's Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p7
p7
Then we
video tapes
we will
will look at the 3 video
tapes
-- what
what they
they think
think of n?
it?
- ififthey
they like
It , why/why not?
likeit,
not?
-
- ore
are there any ports
parts that
that ore
are really
really
good/bad
good/bad and
and why?
why?
(Looking
for negative
(Lookingfor
negative and
and posnlve
positive words,
words, actions,
actions,
let the
the children take
take the leod
lead and
and talk freely
freely when
watching
and
afterwards
to
get
0
feel
of how
watching and afterwards
get a
they
they relate
relate to the
the cartoon
cartoon and
and any
any effects
effects
watching
important here
watching may
may hove,
have. ItIt isisimportant
here that
that the
moderator does
does not lead
lead the
the discussion too
too much
much
moderator
may '.put
put words Into
otherwise
otherwise he/she
he/she may
into their
you wont
mouths',
mouths". IfIfyou
want me to explain this
this further
me
0
call),
please
give
please
me a
Sum up thank and
and close
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAm
-
..
~
r
..
Mothers'
Mothers' interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p1
pl
lye
Guide
Irc -- Discussion
Discussion
Guide
Mumsg[oup
Mums group
Worm
Warm up first:first:-
-
- who they ore
are
-
- brothers/sisters
brothers/sisters
-
- what
what they
they have
have been
been doing
doing today
today etc.
etc,
Main discussion
discussion
Main
Hobbies
other actfyHies
Hobbies &
&other
activities
-- favourite
favourite games,
games, toys,
toys, activities?
activities?
- what
doing after
what do
do your
your children
children like
likedoing
after school?
school?
-- which
which games
games do
do they
they play?
play?
- do
side or outside?
do they
they prefer playing In
Inside
outside?
-- what
what do
do they
they play
play on
on their
their own
own with
with
friends/siblings?
- who
playing with
who do
do .they
.they like
likeplaying
with the
the most?
most?
friends/siblings?
what kind Isis It?
it?
-- what
- do
do you have
have a computer
computer at
at home?
home?
..
El
CARTOON CRAZY]
CRAZY?
CARTOON
rr
I~
Mothers'
Mothers' Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p2
- own?
- are
are your children allowed
allowed to use ~it on their
own?
-- what
what do
do they
they use the
the computer
computer for?
- who do
do they play on the
the computer
computer with?
-
- do
do you know their favourite computer
computer games,
games,
-PC
-PC
-Consoles
-Internet etc.
etc.
-Intemet
- when do they play
play on the computer?
which comics/magazines
do your children
-- read?
comics/magazines do
read?
they read
-- when
when do
do they
read magazines?
magazines?
when do
do they
they get
get them
them and
and who gets/pays
gets/pays for
-- when
it?
It?
have any
other hobbies
hobbles
-- do
do your children have
any other
guides, cubs
etc.
- brownies, guides,
cubs etc.
-· sport clubs
-- music etc.
etc ,
when do
do they
they do
do these
these activities?
actlvl~es?
-- when
-· in school
school
centre etc.
etc.
-· sports centre
- who with?
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAm
-
-
ri
.
Mothers'
Mothers' Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p3
p3
-
- do
why?
do they
they have
have favourites
favourites and
and why?
Background
watching
Background on
on TV
TVwatching
-programmes, cartoons?
- do
do you know which are
are your children's
children's favourite
programmes, cartoons?
-
- do
do you know what
what their favourite channel
channel is?
is?
-- who decides
decides how much
much they
they watch?
watch?
-- who controls the
remote?
the TV
TVremote?
-- when do
do they watch?
watch?
-- who do
do they
they watch
watch with?
-- do
do you ever
ever watch
watch with
with them?
them?
- how much
do they
much TV
TVdo
they watch?
watch?
IfIfso
so when and
and what
what do
do you watch?
watch?
-
- differences
differences during the
the week/weekend
week/weekend
especially Sat/Sun mornings
mornings
~
not
watching
TV
what are
Ifnot watching TVwhat
are you
you
to
doing a
t
these
tlmes(going
at these
Church?l!)
Church?!!)
-- any
any programmes
programmes they
they are
are not
not allowed
allowed or
or do
do not
not
- do
do they
they watch
watch more/less at
at weekends?
weekends?
like
them watching?
likethem
watching?
-..
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
r-
Mothers'
Mothers' Interview Schedule,
Schedule, p4
Cartoons
Cartoons
-- when
when do
do they watch
watch them,
them, how often?
often?
-- do
why?
do you
you know
know their
their favourite
favourite cartoons
cartoons &
&why?
-- do
do you ever
ever watch
watch cartoons
cartoons with
with them?
them?
- which
watching?
which cartoons
cartoons do
do they
they like
likewatching?
-- Ifso
ones
~ so which
which ones
your child
-- what
what role
role do
do cartoon
cartoon ploy
play In
in your
child's's life?
life?
are
there any
any cartoons
you prefer
prefer your
your
-- child/
are there
cartoons you
children not to watch?
child/children
watch?
--IfIfsoso why?
(probing for
for bad
bad language,
language, violence,
violence, copycat
copycat
(probing
effect etc).
etc),
effect
your children
ever get
get upset
when watching
watching
-- do
do your
childrenever
upset when
cartoons
general?
cartoons or
or TV
TVIn
ingeneral?
they ever
ever watch
the news?
-- do
do they'
watch the
news?
- Ifso
~ so do
they react/get
react/get upset?
do they
upset?
-- when?
when?
do your kids
ever act
act out
cartoons?
-- do
kidsever
out cartoons?
-- which ones?
ones?
--how?
how?
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
CAAZY1
-
-
rr--,
..
Mothers'
Mothers' Interview
Interview Schedule,
Schedule, pS
-- how
how do
do they
they react
react to
to the
the way
way problems
problems are
are
resolved In cartoons?
- do
do your kids
kids ever
ever discuss goodles/baddies?
goodles/baddies?
resolved in cqrtoons?
- violence etc.
violence OK
against 'baddles'
- Is
isviolence
OKagainst
'baddies' In
in cartoons?
cartoons?
Then
we will
look at the
Thenwe
willlook
the 33 video
video topes
tapes
-
- ififthey
they like
It. why/why
likeit,
why/why not?
not?
-
- what
what they think of It?
it?
-
- are
are there
there any
any parts
parts that
that are
are really
really
good/bad
and
why?
good/bad and why?
-- would they
they allow their child to watch
watch
these?
these?
- what
what they
they think their kids
kids would think
think
-
- Ififnot
not why not?
not?
let the
Also here
Also
here as with the
the children
children we
we will
willlet
the
mums
take
the
lead
to
discuss
anything
mums take the lead to discuss anything
about
dislike , or
about the
the cartoon
cartoon that
that they
they like/
like/dislike,
that concerns
concerns them.
them.
that
Sum up thank
thank and
and close
..
CARTOON CRAZY?
CRAZY?
CARTOON
APPENDIX
FROM THE
THE TWELVE
TWELVEACTION
CARTOONS
APPENDIX D --IMAGES
IMAGES FROM
ACTION CARTOONS
rr
1-
CARTOON
CARTOON CRAZY?
C!lAZY?
Jumanji
jumanji
X-Men
X-Men
Street
Sharks
Street Sharlt.s
Earthworm J
im
Earthworm
jim
The
The Adventures
Adventures of Batman
Batman &
&: Robin
Men
Men in Black
..
..
•..
r
i
-..
Extreme Ghostbuster.;
Ghostbusters
Extreme
Mighty
Mighty Ducks
Ducks
Gargoyles
Gargoyles
Reboot
Reboot
Spiderman
Spiderman
Incredible Hulk
Hulk
The Incredible
CARTOON
CRAZY?
CARTOON
CRAZY?
`