LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Topic Synopses: Human Rights Council Dear Delegates, Welcome delegates! My name is Lindsay Richey and I will be your chair for the Human Rights Committee at LVMUNII. I am a senior at Spring Valley High School and a second year Model United Nations member. To tell you a little bit about myself, I am President of Student Council, I run cross country, I love spending time with friends and family, and I hope to attend the University of Oklahoma next fall and study law. This year I am Treasurer of our MUN and as an officer strive to train new members on how to speak and present at conferences. I have attended three regional conferences (LVMUNI, UCI, UCLA) and one international conference (PAMUN). I have participated in Security Council, UNEP, 1st DISEC, and UNODA and now for the first time I will be in the HRC with all of you! I hope this conference provides you with an experience that allows you to grow as a delegate and attain new skills. I am so excited to have the opportunity to chair such an important and influential committee. I am anxious to see how each of you takes on these broad topics. I welcome you to our conference and can’t wait to see all you accomplish in our session! Hello delegates! My name is Aleta Dignard-Fung and I will be co-chairing alongside Lindsay, I’m a junior at Spring Valley High school, and this is my second year in Model UN. I’ve participated in a total of four Model UN conferences which include the first LVMUN, BYUMUN, UCIMUN and BRUINMUN. This will be my first time chairing at LVMUN and I am looking forward to hearing all the innovative solutions that can be brought to the table during this conference. I am also the representative for my school at the Clark County District Student Advisory Committee which is something I have become very passionate about this school year, mainly because it resembles LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 a lot of what we do as delegates in Model UN. Model UN has been by far the best learning vehicle and contributor to my well rounded high school experience, which is why I am looking forward to meeting all of you in the hopes that this conference will contribute to the growth of every single one of your Model UN careers! Sincerely, Lindsay Richey [email protected] Aleta Dignard-Fung [email protected] LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Topic #1: Human Trafficking Background: Human trafficking is one of the largest crimes against humanity committed in virtually every nation in the world. It is defined by the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons as the “recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power” or other means for the purpose of exploitation. This modern form of slavery continues to expand and is currently the third largest international crime industry, generating $32 billion annually in profit. Due to the large profit of this commercial exploitation and the capabilities of captors to force victims into paying their debt, the issue has become larger and much more challenging to prevent. According to the 2012 report of the United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), there are 2.4 million victims of human trafficking, exploited for sexual, domestic, and labor purposes worldwide. The expansion of this heinous crime continues in both developed and underdeveloped nations, calling for the attention of the international community. The issue of human trafficking has multiple aspects including but not limited to: transportation, immigration across international borders, abuse and long term suffering of victims, criminal offenses and punishment, protection and rehabilitation of former victims. Firstly, the transportation of victims across international borders leaves them in foreign countries where they cannot speak the language and are without any identification papers. Victims of 136 different nationalities were detected in 118 countries worldwide and 460 different trafficking flows were identified between 2007 and 2010. This causes issues in countries with strict LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 immigration laws and also creates a large problem for victims who are often told by their traffickers that that if they attempt to escape, their families back home will be harmed, or their families will assume the debt. Secondly, victims of trafficking may suffer physical, emotional, and mental abuse while in possession. Also, this calls for improved means of identifying and locating victims. The psychological trauma is generally long lasting and challenging to overcome. Those who have experienced this trauma are more vulnerable to future exploitation, increasing the need for a means of rehabilitation and protection of these victims. Thirdly, although 134 countries and territories worldwide have criminalized trafficking in accordance to the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, the number of convictions for human trafficking is generally low. The lack of conviction suggests the need for improvement in enforcing the current trafficking laws internationally. Lastly, the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons calls for nations to provide measures for the physical, emotional, and social recovery of victims. However, not all countries are capable of providing these means and thus the international community must address how to make rehabilitation possible worldwide. United Nations Involvement: The United Nations (UN) has several bodies working toward the prevention of human trafficking including UNODA, United Nations High Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR), and the United Nations Children Economic Fund (UNICEF). Human trafficking has been addressed in multiple General Assembly sessions, global summits, and has been integrated into the goals of the UN. On September 8, 2000 the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted in order to resolve transnational crime, including human trafficking. On November 15, 2000 the General Assembly passed resolution 55/25 which formed the United Nations Convention against LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (the Trafficking Protocol) and established the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime. The Trafficking Protocol was implemented in December 2003 and served to protect and assist victims of human trafficking with respect to their human rights. The On September 16, 2005, the World Summit Outcome (A/RES/60/1) adopted by the General Assembly called upon member states to enforce and strengthen effective measure to combat and eliminate human trafficking. In March 2007, the UNODC launched the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking to provide a global forum to highlight states’ experiences and emphasize the need to collectively address trafficking in persons. In March 2007, the United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking was established for the purpose of promoting the global fight against human trafficking in accordance with guidelines set by the UN. On September 1, 2010 the United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons was launched to encourage government worldwide to take action against human trafficking. The UNODC, UNHCR, UNICEF, International Labour Organisation (ILO), International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) coordinate to support and implement the numerous initiatives and resolutions passed by the UN to address human trafficking. Possible Solutions: Human trafficking, as a modern form of slavery, has continued internationally for centuries. With such a large and expansive issue, solutions should include long term measures primarily because there is no easy fix to such a crime. Solutions should focus on tackling multiple aspects LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 of human trafficking such as immigration, crime and punishment, rehabilitation and treatment, and protection. When addressing these aspects, keep in mind that trafficking occurs in both lesser developed and developed nations, so it is necessary to address how the implementation of solutions can be made possible in all parts of the world. Through addressing these aspects, the global goal of preventing human trafficking can be made more accessible in the future. Questions to Consider ● How has human trafficking impacted your nation? What recent violations have occurred in your country? ● What laws has your nation implemented to combat human trafficking? Are they effective? ● What laws has your nation implemented to protect victims of human trafficking? ● What UN initiatives or resolutions concerning human trafficking has your country supported? ● Is your country willing to partner with other nations in order to address the transportation of victims across international borders? ● What has your nation implemented or established to treat or rehabilitate victims? ● What aid does your country need to implement current human trafficking preventative measures? ● What possible solutions would your country provide for preventing human trafficking on an international scale? LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Works Cited "11 Facts About Human Trafficking." DoSomething.org. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-human-trafficking>. "A/RES/60/1." United Nations. United Nations. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ods/A-RES-60-1-E.pdf>. "Global Report on Trafficking Persons 2012." UNODC. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/glotip/Trafficking_in_Persons_2012_web.pdf>. "Human Trafficking." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. United Nations. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-humantrafficking.html>. "Human Trafficking and Smuggling." ICE. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ice.gov/factsheets/human-trafficking>. "Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking." United Nations Office of High Commission on Human Rights. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ohchr.org/documents/publications/traffickingen.pdf>. "The Victims." National Human Trafficking Resource Center. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.traffickingresourcecenter.org/what-human-trafficking/humantrafficking/victims>. LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 "U.N.: 2.4 Million Human Trafficking Victims." USATODAY.COM. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-04-03/human-trafficking-sexUN/53982026/1>. "UN.GIFT." About. UN GIFT. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ungift.org/knowledgehub/en/about/index.html>. "United Nations Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unodc.org/documents/humantrafficking/United_Nations_Global_Plan_of_Action_to_Combat_Trafficking_in_Persons.p df>. "United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime." Convention on Transnational Organized Crime. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/treaties/CTOC/>. "United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime." United Nations Launches Global Plan of Action against Human Trafficking. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Web. 24 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2010/September/un-launches-globalplan-of-action-against-human-trafficking.html>. LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Topic #2: Syrian and Iraqi Refugee Crisis Background: Since 2011, the situation in Syria has grasped the attention of the international community. As a result of the ongoing war, hundreds of thousands of innocent people within Syria have lost their lives, and approximately 2.5 million have been forced to leave their homes due to unstable living conditions therefore leaving them to search for shelter and healthier living conditions in different regions or even other bordering nations. The tumultuous clash between the Syrian government led by Bashar al-Assad and the opposition forces can be identified as the reasoning behind Syria’s overall instability. As the opposition forces have currently protested and rioted against the Syrian regime in hopes of overthrowing Bashar al-Assad from his position, the bloodshed resulting from this civil war has led to a wide range of humanitarian right violations that can no longer be tolerated. The fundamental rights of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights must be preserved while taking into consideration this crisis. Amelioration must be taken by properly assisting the Syrian people who have fled their country in search of a new home. Pertaining to the issue of the violation of humanitarian rights and the need to assist refugees, Iraq has currently almost registered 70,000 refugees with the UNHRC, thus coming as a result of the instable impact the Syrian conflict has had towards Iraq. As internal sectarian divisions and tensions are still affecting Iraq, the growing number of Syrian refugees and the return of many Iraqi refugees from Syria has created a secondary displacement for the returnees who are unable to return to their country of origin. Access to basic services amongst the Iraqi population itself has remained problematic, therefore with the overwhelming flow of refugees, additional strains are then placed on Iraq’s infrastructure and resources. Another LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 aspect affecting the returnees is the stagnant socio-economic development that hampers the ability for internally displaced peoples to return to their homes, therefore limiting the people’s opportunities. United Nations Involvement: The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) currently leads humanitarian operations in Syria, amongst 27 national and international NGOs and partners, as well as seven UN agencies. The UNHRC’s purpose is to ameliorate the life conditions of the refugees by hosting governments to meet their humanitarian needs which include providing shelter and proper sanitation for healthy living, etc. As of 2014 the UNHRC has implemented the Regional Response Programme (RRP6) which provides outlining for the region and each refugee-hosting country through a 12 month strategic implementation plan. The RRP6 outlines priority response objectives, and an overall evaluation of vulnerability, along with resource requirements and a strategic response plan. Therefore through the implementation of such a programme, a regional harmonized and coherent framework proves to be the UN’s main focal point for assessing the refugee crisis in both Syria and Iraq. Emphasis on advocacy, protection and legal interventions, and the basic assistance and support to internally displaced peoples has been put forth by the UNHRC, as well as enhancing the assurance of sustainable local integration as a long lasting solution for refugees. LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Points to Consider: ● Are the humanitarian actions in Syria and Iraq sufficient to help the refugees? ● Is the Iraqi government taking the proper precautions in dealing with the Syrian refugees? ● Is it the Iraqi government's responsibility to take care of the Syrian refugees? ● Would the intervention of NGOs be more effective than government intervention? ● What is your country’s policy in regards to refugees and internally displaced peoples and how could that build a framework to help the Syrian and Iraqi crisis? ● To what extent does the situations infringe upon humanitarian rights and how can these rights be more effectively preserved? LVMUN II 2nd Annual Las Vegas Model UN Conference February 21, 2015 Works Cited "Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees." UNHCR- The UN Refugee Agency. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49c3646c2.html>. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights." The United Nations, 10 Dec. 1948. Web. 18 Nov. 2014. <http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/resources.shtml>. "With Millions of Syrians in Need, Security Council Adopts Resolution 2165 (2014) Directing Relief Delivery through More Border Crossings, across Conflict Lines." United Nations: Media Coverage and Press Releases. 14 July 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2014. <http://www.un.org/press/en/2014/sc11473.doc.htm>. "2015 UNHRC Country Operations Profile- Iraq." UNHCR- The UN Refugee Agency. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e486426.html>. "2015 UNHRC Country Operations Profile- Syrian Arab Republic." UNHCR- The UN Refugee Agency. Web. 21 Nov. 2014. <http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e486a76.html>.
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