Year of the Maritime Continent (YMC)

Understanding the Role of the Maritime Continent
in the Global Weather‐Climate Continuum: Year of the Maritime Continent (YMC)
K. Yoneyama (JAMSTEC), C. Zhang (U. Miami), C. Long (PNNL),
J.‐P. Duvel (LMD), and Nurhayati (BMKG)
< Outline >
1) Motivation
2) Characteristics of Maritime Continent
3) Current Status
4) Upcoming Schedule
Motivation (1) ‐ Systematic Errors of Precipitation in Climate Models
Overestimate/Underestimate for Land/Ocean region
TRMM
(2008/09)
UKMet UM
40km
UKMet UM
12km
From Love et al. (2011)
Motivation (2) – CINDY/DYNAMO
Period : Oct. 2011‐ January 2012 (Intensive Observing Period)
‐ March 2012 (Extended Observing Period)
OCT
MJO‐1
NOV
MJO‐2
DEC
MJO‐3
JAN
TBB & Rainfall
Source of Westward cloud system over Indian Ocean? (1) TC over South China Sea on Dec 11 (2)
MJO‐2
Time‐Height Diagram of RH
(1) Moist air associated with TC over SCS
arrived at Sumatra on Dec 11
(2) Convection with diurnal cycle became active over Sumatra from Dec 11
MJO‐3
(3) Cloud cluster developed over Sumatra moved westward with 2‐day cycle.
(4) After several cloud clusters arrived over the central Indian Ocean, MJO convection developed in late December.
From Kubota et al. (2014)
(3)
Relationship with MC Countries through CINDY/DYNAMO
No. of hi‐res data; 13,000 in total, including 4600 from Indonesia BMKG sites
Dew Point
Based on the survey at observatory, we identified the reason of erroneous surface data, and corrected data are now available from DYNAMO data archive center.
https://www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/dynamo
Temp.
Purpose of YMC
The goal of the “Year of the Maritime Continent (YMC)” is to understand the
role of the Maritime Continent in the global weather‐climate continuum by
providing a framework for the international collaboration on field
observations and modeling based on the establishment of support from
agencies of participating countries.
For this purpose,
1) We set (identify) key processes, which should be studied, and then
coordinate “several” intensive observations.
2) We must establish the tight relationship among “YMC Family”, so that
continuous data provision to scientific community can be made even
after the 1.5‐years campaign.
… This will be another purpose of this campaign …
Diurnal Cycle
[ Evening Rain ] – [ Morning Rain ]
Rainfall Intensity
B
Land
A
Coastal Sea
12LT
Off Shore
12LT
A
B
0
24LT
From Mori et al. (2004)
Diurnal Cycle over off Sumatra vs. MJO
16 LT
Surface wind
associated with MJO
+
22 LT
Land breeze
Gust flow
Fujita et al. (2011)
04 LT
Diurnal Cycle over off Sumatra vs. IOD
TBB during Positive IOD
(184d in 1997 and 2006)
TBB during Negative IOD
(154d in 1996, 1998, 2005, and 2010)
Fujita et al. (2013)
Topographic Effect (1)
Locality Index (LI) = ((Normalized Coastal Rain) –
(Normalized Inland Rain) ) / STD
Coastal
Inland
LI
Zonal Wind
Hamada et al. (2008)
Topographic Effect (2)
Time‐longitude Diagram of MSLPA
Without
Orography
Simulated 950‐hPa Wind
Without Orography
With
Orography
With Orography
With
Big Flat MC
Innes & Slingo (2006)
Key Processes : What characterize the MC weather & Climate?
1) Diurnal Cycle:
Source of local circulation
2) Large‐scale Disturbances: MJO, Monsoon, etc. vs. Local Circulation
3) SST:
ENSO, IOD, ITF, SCSTF
4) Upwelling: Relation to Eddies & Biogeochemical response
5) Aerosols:
(Biomass burning) Aerosol‐cloud interaction
6) TTL:
Interactions btwn the Troposphere & Stratosphere
Routine Radiosonde Sounding Network by BMKG
13 (2013),5 (2014),2 (2015)Stations
Banda Ache
BMKG
Ranai
Tarakan
Medan
Manado
Sorong
Pontianak
Pangkal Pinang
Biak
Pangkalan
Bun
Palu
Padang
Cengkareng
Makassar
Ambon
Bengkulu
Cilacap
Surabaya
Merauke
Kupang
Current Sounding Observations & Buoy Arrays
Radar
Radiosonde
RAMA, TAO/TRITON
cf.
Wind Profiler
Scanning Radar
Equatorial Atmospheric Radar by Kyoto Univ. measures turbulence (~ 20km) & ionospheric
irregularity (> 90km).
Operated during HARIMAU (& follow‐on) Project (2006‐2013)
Monthly Mean Rainfall : Climatology (1998‐2012)
NOV
DEC
JAN
An Example of Proposed Intensive Observation (under discussion)
[ Objective ]
To study precipitation mechanism over the
EIO & MC with focus on the relationship to
1) Diurnal cycle (Land/Sea breeze)
2) MJO
3) IOD (SST over Upwelling region)
[ Observations ]
1) Ships
R/V Mirai (EIO off Sumatra), R/V Investigator (in Java Sea or south of Java)
2) Land sites South‐west coast of Sumatra, Kalimantan, etc.
3) Enhanced Radiosonde sounding network, etc.
[ Period ]
1) Ship
2) Land
Nov 2017 – Jan 2018
Oct 2017 – Mar 2018
AMF2
Potential Participants (as of July 2014)
Australia :
Canada :
China :
France :
Germany :
India :
Indonesia :
Italy :
Japan :
Malaysia :
Philippines :
Singapore :
Switzerland :
Taiwan :
UK :
USA :
Vietnam :
Others:
CAWCR, Monash U., U. Melbourne, UNSW
McGill U.
FIO, SCSIO
LMD, LEGOS, CNES
KIT, AWI, Max‐Planck Geselleschaft
NIO
BMKG, BPPT, LAPAN
ISAC/CNR
JAMSTEC, Kyoto U., Hokkaido U., U. Tokyo, U. Toyama, etc.
National U. of Malaysia
PAGASA
NEA
ETH Zurich
NTU, NCU, Academia Sinica
UK Met Office, U. East Anglia, U. Reading
U‐Miami, PNNL, ANL, LLNL, NRL, NASA, NOAA/GFDL, SIO,
UH/IPRC, UW, CSU, TAMU, SUNY, CU, U. Notre Dame, etc.
NHMS
ECMWF
* Above indicates those who have expressed their interest for participation,
sorry for that we may miss to include your name in spite of your will.
For the Success of the Campaign Governance
* Scientific Steering Committee
consists of PIs of “Key processes” & Intensive observation
* Operation Steering Committee
consists of PIs of participating MC countries & SSC members
* Advisory Board
consists of experts of “Key processes”
Collaboration with Relevant Projects
1) IIOE‐2 (2015 ‐ 2020)
(International Indian Ocean Expedition ‐ 50th Anniversary Initiative)
ex. Eastern India Ocean Upwelling Research Initiative
2) Numerical Model Projects
ex. S2S (Subseasonal‐to‐seasonal Prediction Project)
MJO Task Force
3) Others
ex. SOWER (Tropical Tropopause Layer project)
Stratéole‐2 (Balloon in the UT/lower Stratosphere)
7SEAS (NASA & NRL, Main target: Aerosol)
Upcoming Schedule
2014
Sept. 2
Sept. 5
Dec. 15 ‐ 19
2015
Jan. 27‐30
ASEAN Sub‐committee for Met & Geophysics
First Formal Announcement to All ASEAN countries
Kick‐off Meeting in Jakarta, Indonesia
Inter‐agencies consortium in Indonesia
and International relationship
AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, USA
MC session
First International Science & Planning Workshop
in Singapore
Drafting Science Plan (ver.1)
Science Organizing Committee
(C. Zhang, Nurhayati, J. McBride, C. Jacob, K. Yoneyama)
Year of the Maritime Continent (YMC)
< Purpose >
The goal of the “Year of the Maritime Continent (YMC)” is to understand the role of the Maritime Continent (MC) in
the global weather‐climate continuum by providing a framework for the international collaboration on field observations
and modeling based on the establishment of support from agencies of participating countries. During the YMC, several
coordinated intensive observations will be carried out to study key processes over and around the MC.
< Proposed Period >
April 2017 – October 2018
< Key Processes >
1) Ocean‐Atmosphere‐Land interactions
over the coastal upwelling & inland regions
2) Modulation of MJO propagation
3) Effect of ITF and mixing onto SST distribution
4) Diurnal cycle of convective activity
5) Aerosol and their interaction with clouds
6) Monsoons
7) Troposphere‐stratosphere interaction and dehydration process in the TTL
< Potential Participants >
Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Switzerland, Taiwan, UK, USA, Vietnam, and more.
< Governance >
Science Planning and Operation Committee and Advisory Board (to be formed). Currently, JAMSTEC (Japan), Univ. of Miami (USA), and BMKG (Indonesia) are leading the discussion as advocators. < Upcoming Schedule >
2014 Sept. 5
Dec. 15‐19
2015 Jan. 27‐30
Kick‐off Meeting in Jakarta (organized by a consortium in Indonesia)
AGU Fall Meeting (MC session)
First International Science and Planning Workshop of YMC in Singapore
Extra Slides
Proposed R/V Mirai Observations
< Current Status >
We proposed R/V Mirai cruise (Nov 2017 – Feb 2018), which consists of 2 missions
(Coastal upwelling study & YMC stationary observation), to the Ship Operation
Steering Committee.
Science plan itself has been approved. But, shiptime has not been secured yet. Its
final decision depends on how much JAMSTEC can get fund for JFY2017.
Leg‐1
2017 Oct
Nov
Leg‐2
2017
Leg‐3
2018
2018
Japan ‐> Eastern Indian Ocean
Buoy maintenance
CTD obs along several lines
call at Bali
Dec
Stationary obs at (100E, 5S)
Jan
Feb
Stationaru obs at (100E, 5S)
Return to Japan
Proposed R/V Mirai Observations
< Atmospheric Measurements >
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
Polarized Doppler Radar
Radiosonde
Videosonde
Surface Met
Skin SST (Radiometer, Seasnake)
GPS water vapor
Raman Lidar
Ceilometer
Polarized C-band Doppler radar
Antenna Diameter = 4m
Radome Diameter = 7m
ZDR < 0 ~ 0 > 0 dB
< Oceanographic Measurements >
1) CTD
+ water sampling (Nutrients, DO, Chl-a)
+ LADCP
2) Underway CTD
3) Ocean surface turbulence
4) Shioboard ADCP
5) Sea Surface Monitoring (T, S, DO, Chl-a, etc.)
First shot of ZDR
At (2014.06.06, 139-30E, 32-30N)
Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon Study
Hisayuki Kubota (JAMSTEC)
• To understand the seasonal march of Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon and its predictability
• Mechanisms: the role of westerly wind flow, cross equatorial flow and those air‐sea interaction through observational study
• Influences: teleconnection to East Asia, Southeast Asia, and US
Nitta (1987)
Kubota et al. (2011)
Mass Divergence
SST Variability
Contribution of intraseasonal variability to total SST variances
OLR
SST
Apr
Oct
Courtesy: Arnold Gordon
Diurnal Cycle over off Sumatra vs. IOD
Simulated Rain during Positive IOD
(184d in 1997 and 2006)
Simulated Rain during Negative IOD
(154d in 1996, 1998, 2005, and 2010)
Fujita et al. (2013)
BMKG Radar Network
Malinau
Palu
Sintang
Manokwari
Luwuk
Mukomuko
Pkl.Bun
Majene
Kaimana
Timika
Bandung
Maumere
Cilacap
Saumlaki
Waingapu
Obs.Radius150km
(C‐bandDopplerradars)
Planned(2014)
Planned(2016)
Existing(2007‐2013)
Planned(2015)
Planned(2017‐2019)
BMKG AWS Network (176 locations)
NAD (2)
Sumut (2)
Sulbar (2)
Sulteng (2)
Grtlo (1)
Sulut (5)
Malut (4)
Papua Barat (2)
Kepri (1)
Kaltim (3)
Kalbar (10)
Babel (1)
Riau (2)
Sumbar (1)
Jambi (4)
Kalteng (7)
Kalsel (3)
Sumsel (2)
Sulsel (7)
Sultra (3)
Maluku (3)
Bali (3)
NTB (3)
NTT (7)
Lampung (12)
Banten (8)
DKI (6)
Jabar (18)
Jateng (21)
DIY (3)
Jatim (18)
Papua (10)
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