ChildFund Cambodia Country Strategy 2011-2015

ChildFund Cambodia
Country Strategy 2011-2015
Table of contents 1. Acronyms 2. Introduction and executive summary 3. Analysis 3.1 Access to assets 3.2 Voice and agency 3.3 Power 3.4 Protection 3.5 Emerging trends 4. Lessons learned 4.1 Giving children a voice 4.2 Partnerships and quality programs 4.3 Sponsorship 4.4 Child protection 4.5 Selection of community volunteers 4.6 Relationships with emerging programs 4.7 Pilot commune management model 4.8 Impact monitoring p3 p4 p6 p7 p9 p10 p11 p13 p15 p15 p15 p15 p16 p16 p16 p16 p16 5. Our organisational commitments 5.1 Strategic direction 1: growth, strive for program quality and expansion 5.2 Strategic direction 2: share lessons learned and experiences 5.3 Strategic direction 3: networking and partnership 5.5 Strategic direction 4: organisational development 5.5 Strategic direction 5: mobilise resources p18 p18 p19 p20 p20 p21 6. Programs 6.1 Education Program 6.2 Community Well‐Being Program 6.3 Rights Realisation Program 6.4 In conclusion p22 p22 p23 p24 p25 7. Our systems and structures 7.1 Staffing 7.2 Where we will work 7.3 Financial growth 7.4 Policy, advocacy and research p26 p26 p27 p28 p29 References p30 Annex 1: Indicative organisational structure Annex 2: Map of Cambodia ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 p32 p33 Page | 2 1. ACRONYMS ADPC AIDS AusAID CCDM CCWC CDHS CFS CMDG CNCC CHC CHI COMMIT CSP D&D DEV DIW DOE DRM DRR ECE EFA EMIS ESP HIV MoEYS M&E NCCC NCDM NSDP NGO ORS PCDM PLHIV POE QAC RGC SME SNAP‐DRR STI SY UN UNCRC UNICEF VDC WCCC Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Australian Agency for International Development Commune Committees for Disaster Management Commune Committees for Women and Children Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey Child Friendly Schools Cambodia Millennium Development Goals Cambodian National Council for Children Child Helpline Cambodia Child Helpline International Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Human Trafficking Country Strategic Paper Decentralisation and De‐concentration Deprivation, exclusion and vulnerability District Integration Workshops District Office of Education Disaster Risk Management Disaster Risk Reduction Early Childhood Education Education for All Education Management Information Systems Education Strategic Plan Human Immune‐deficiency Virus Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport Monitoring and Evaluation National Climate Change Committee National Committee for Disaster Management National Strategic Development Plan Non‐Government Organisation Oral Rehydration Solution Provincial Committee for Disaster Management People Living with HIV and AIDS Provincial Office of Education Quality Assurance Committees Royal Government of Cambodia Small and Medium Enterprises Strategic National Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction Sexually Transmitted Infection School Year United Nations United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child United Nations Children’s Fund Village Development Committee Women and Children’s Consultative Committees ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 3 2. INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ChildFund Cambodia’s 2011‐2015 Country Strategy Paper (CSP) builds on ChildFund Australia’s country strategic planning process, as well as extensive in‐country consultations and consensus building in Cambodia over the past 12 months about growth planning, the selection of a new province, review of its first strategic plan (2008‐2011), lessons learned and future directions. Key to ChildFund Cambodia’s success has been our enabling relationships and these will continue to be important in the future. From the beginning, ChildFund Cambodia sought to establish and strengthen partnerships with local authorities, small businesses and civil society to identify core needs, provide quality materials and technical expertise, and promote local ownership. Community‐based activities respond to the needs of children and are drawn from commune investment plans (CIPs), district integration workshops (DIWs) and community consultations. “ChildFund Cambodia programs have caught the attention of provincial officials and senior officials in the Departments of Education, Social Affairs, Women’s Affairs, the District Governor and its council members, district offices, commune councils, school directors and teachers. It is regarded as an innovative, holistic and community‐based program and approach as well as a strategic partner in children and youth development, and community basic health promotion.”1 Infrastructural achievements have contributed to establishing trust and respect among ChildFund Cambodia stakeholders and will be expanded upon, thus enabling higher‐order achievements, notably seeking and creating viable spaces for children and youth to have a voice in their own development. Annual reflection workshops, inclusion in provincial, national and regional discussion forums and involvement in commune investment planning2 has the potential to provide pathways for the way young people are viewed and to challenge some of the community power structures. “I was at a workshop with the youth from five provinces and I was very impressed with the youth ‐ it gave me more ideas, they were sharing their ideas with civil servants.” (Local authority representative, Svay Rieng province)3 In terms of developing human capacity, ChildFund Cambodia has invested in its personnel and acted as a role model for others. Staff have participated in specific training to assist with their immediate roles and in 2011 these learning opportunities have been broadened to include post graduate training and support for international study scholarship applications. An intern program provides young people with up to 12 months’ work experience. ChildFund Cambodia is an organisation which learns and develops itself in order to grow and continue to support communities to meet their real core needs. This learning will continue to be reflected in its programs. Senior management are mandated to build the capacity of their teams through the development of in‐house and external learning opportunities, mentoring and coaching individuals to integrate new skills and knowledge into their daily work. Career planning is key to the retention of high‐level staff. For ChildFund, poverty is the deprivation of the capabilities and freedoms people need to live the life they value. Children in particular experience poverty through a shifting and dynamic mixture of deprivation, exclusion, and vulnerability. We also know that natural and human‐caused disasters, including civil conflict, result in dramatic increases in child poverty. Therefore, because these are the causes of child poverty, children’s futures can only be secured by building human, capital, natural and social assets around the child, by building the voice and power of poor people and poor children, and by working to prepare for and mitigate effects of natural and human‐caused disasters. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 4 Using lessons learned during the establishment phase and expanding the Deprivation, Exclusion and Vulnerability (DEV) analysis of how children and youth experience poverty, over the next four years ChildFund Cambodia will: o expand its geographic footprint o expand activities drawn from its first strategic plan o strengthen impact monitoring o take advantage of relevant emerging trends o establish new programs as required o mainstream community consultations o enhance organisational learning o disseminate findings o integrate field experiences in national, regional and global policy dialogue The goal of ChildFund Cambodia’s second Country Strategy Paper 2011‐2015 is: ChildFund Cambodia will work in partnership with stakeholders, building on lessons learned, facilitating transformation in communities, that realises the right of all children and young people to develop their full potential and live with dignity and harmony. ChildFund Cambodia has re‐organised activities into three key programs for the next four years as follows: o education program o community well‐being program o rights realisation program New programs and projects may evolve out of community consultations, government priority‐setting and child‐centred needs. ChildFund Cambodia will also work through five key strategic directions: o growth, strive for program quality and expansion o share lessons learned and experiences o networking and partnership o organisational development o mobilise resources Based on the four domains of ChildFund’s theory of change for children and youth, ChildFund Cambodia will promote and model improved access to assets, voice and agency, power and protection. In July 2011 ChildFund Cambodia will commence operations in Kratie province and by July 20144 will expand to a third province, provided expansion can be accommodated effectively and efficiently in ChildFund Cambodia’s organisational planning. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 5 3. ANALYSIS Cambodia is still recovering from three decades of civil war and isolation. Over the last two decades, the country has undergone rapid economic growth and with it tremendous social change, including a shift from agriculture to service sector jobs, migration from rural to urban areas and greater integration with the global economy. Cambodia's population is predominantly rural, with four in five Cambodians living in rural areas dependent upon rain‐fed agriculture. Two out of three people are below the age of 25, with 35% of the total population of 13.4 million between the ages of 10 and 24 years, giving Cambodia one of the largest youth populations in Southeast Asia5. While young people’s learning opportunities have been increased by government and donor investment, as yet there is limited impact on their economic well‐being. A key problem faced by young people is the need for economic migration from family and community. Today, 750,000 Cambodian children below 12 years are economically active. Cambodia’s policies, programs and services need to be pro‐poor, gender‐ and youth‐
responsive. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has strong ownership of the national development agenda through the Rectangular Strategy Phase II and the updated National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP). Over the last decade Cambodia has been making steady progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals but lags behind in the areas of child mortality, maternal health and gender equality6. Cambodia is ranked 129th out of 177 countries in the Human Development Index. One‐third of the population is living below the poverty line with over 15% living in extreme poverty7. Inequality has increased, widening the gap between the rich and poor and between urban and rural areas, as well as within rural areas. While adult literacy rates have increased to 85.08% and 70.86% for males and females respectively in 2008, apart from Lao PDR Cambodia continues to have the lowest adult literacy rates in Southeast Asia. The RGC’s Decentralisation and De‐concentration (D&D) strategy aims to provide a local voice in governance and improved public service delivery to the rural population through the devolution of administrative and political powers to sub‐national levels. The RGC D&D reform is making steady progress, including institutionalisation of Commune Committees for Women and Children (CCWC), Women and Children’s Consultative Committees (WCCC), Commune Committees for Disaster Management (CCDM) and the restructuring of the Village Development Committees (VDC). While they are under‐resourced and downward accountability is still limited, these committees have the potential to increase local community participation in planning, budgeting and delivery of services. ChildFund’s theory of change, the Cambodia Millennium Development Goals (CMDG) and ChildFund outcome indicators respond to four key domains: access to assets, voice and agency, power and protection. Extensive ChildFund Cambodia stakeholder consultations have informed organisational reflections and future planning. As well, ChildFund Cambodia is cognisant of RGC sector plans (2009‐2013) which are aligned with the updated NSDP 2009‐2013 and national data. At this time, reliable national data corresponding to ChildFund’s 16 outcome indicators is not always available, but is identified where possible. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 6 3.1 Access to assets Health Health knowledge and key health indicators have shown strong improvement in Cambodia over the past ten years. However, they do not necessarily apply to marginalised groups or other disadvantaged youth8. Today, one in 20 Cambodian children still dies before reaching their fifth birthday; under‐five mortality is 54 deaths per 1,000 live births. Most mortality occurs during the first year of life: infant mortality is 45 deaths per 1,000 live births, while mortality between the first and fifth birthday is 9 deaths per 1,000 live births9. A further breakdown reveals that neonatal mortality is 27 deaths per 1,000 live births; while post‐neonatal mortality is 18 per 1,000 live births10. Infant and child under‐five mortality rates are three times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Poor nutrition and variance in health service quality; especially in rural and remote communities are significant factors in childhood mortality. Acute respiratory illness, fever and dehydration from severe diarrhoea are major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Of the 15% of children aged 0‐59 months with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, 58.9% were seen at the health centre; 34.1% of those were given oral rehydration solution11. Under‐nutrition also places children at increased risk and is related to impaired development. Nearly three in ten children or 28.5% of children aged 0‐59 months are underweight, 40% are short for their age or stunted and 11% are wasted12. The percentage of babies delivered by skilled and trained health professionals, and indication of safe delivery care, has increased to 71% in 2010. Additionally, 54% of births were in a health facility13. Yet maternal mortality rates have remained alarmingly high at 461 deaths per 10,000 live births for the past 10 years, one of the highest in the region14. Almost one in every three females aged 15‐19 years and one in every five females aged 20‐29 years are underweight which has negative repercussions for pregnancy and health of infants. Knowledge of at least one modern contraception method among women aged 15‐49 is almost universal (99%), however modern contraceptive use by young females (age 15‐19) is very low at only 19%15, signifying an unmet demand. While no nationally available baseline data exists about health behaviours and status of young Cambodians, smaller surveys suggest that sexual and reproductive health issues including sexually transmitted infections (STI), HIV and AIDS, unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion, are all areas of concern for adolescent/youth health16. In addition, cultural attitudes that limit discussions about sexuality with young women further expose young women to unplanned pregnancies and STI17. Water and sanitation Nearly 47% of households in Cambodia have access to improved water sources in 2008, a substantial increase from 21% in 1998. However, only 41% of the population in rural areas have access to safe drinking water compared to 76% in urban areas. The population having access to improved sanitation increased from 14.4% in 1998 to 33.7% in 2008, while 29% of total households with children aged 0‐59 months have year round access to affordable basic sanitation. Disparities between rural and urban areas are clearly evident. In 2008, only 23.2% of households in rural areas have access to improved sanitation compared to 81.5% in urban areas. Cambodia is making steady progress towards achieving the CMDGs, but it is still far from fully realising the right to improved water and sanitation for its population throughout the country. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 7 Up to 33.9% of primary schools do not have drinking water and 20.7% do not have toilet facilities while 35.8% of secondary schools do not have drinking water and 15.9% of secondary schools do not have toilet facilities. HIV and AIDS Cambodia is one of the few countries in the world that has achieved its Millennium Development Goal of halting and reversing HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence in the adult population has fallen from 2.4% in 1998 to 1.1% in 2006 and was estimated at 0.7% in 201018. HIV prevalence among antenatal care attendees has also decreased from 1.1% in 2006 to 0.45% in 201019. The estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Cambodia in 2010 was 56,200 of which 29,500 are women20. Approximately 6,000 children are living with HIV and over 4,000 receive treatment. Over 90% of eligible PLHIV receive antiretroviral treatment, however only 68.2% of children in need were receiving antiretroviral treatment in comparison to 95.8% among adults. Awareness of HIV and AIDS is increasing among adults. In 2005, more than 80% of 15‐49 year olds could identify two or more ways of preventing HIV infection while only 47.4% of young people aged 15‐24 could correctly identify ways of preventing sexual transmission of HIV21. In 2010, awareness of HIV and AIDS among adults and youth aged 15‐24 is almost universal (98.6% women, 98.9% men)22, but the risk perception of HIV remains low among youth in Cambodia, increasing their risk of infection23. Populations at higher risk of HIV infection are entertainment workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people and injecting drug users. The National Strategic Plan for a Comprehensive and Multi‐
Sectoral Response to HIV and AIDS (2011‐2015) in Cambodia (NSP III) was developed to address key issues of the concentrated epidemic and promote comprehensive responses. Education The RGC has prioritised strengthening the quality of education and recognises education as a critical element for human development and poverty reduction. The updated Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2009‐2013 focuses on three priority policies: o ensuring equitable access to education services o improving quality and efficiency of education services o institutional and capacity development for educational staff for decentralisation Cambodia is likely to meet the CMDG target for universal primary education; however, meeting the targets for secondary education seems unlikely. Total enrolment in the Early Childhood Education (ECE) program in school year (SY) 2009‐2010 was only 20% of children aged three to five years‐old. This low enrolment leads to high repetition rates in primary school levels up to 8.9% nationwide, and contributes to high dropout rates from school. Primary school enrolment rates nationwide have improved significantly to 94.8% in SY 2009‐2010, with equal participation of girls and boys and in urban and rural areas. The dropout rate for primary level was 8.3% and much higher for secondary level at 18.8%. The primary school completion rate is still low at 83.2% while the completion rate for secondary school was considerably lower at only 48.7% (47.3% for girls). ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 8 Enrolment in secondary school is very low at 34.6% overall, even lower at 31.5% in rural areas and a dismal 11.4% in remote communities. According to the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, 88% of 12‐16 year old boys and girls completed primary education24. The main reasons for low enrolment and transition rates in secondary education include low completion rates in primary school, shortage of trained teachers and adequate/accessible learning spaces, inadequate teachers’ salaries, informal payments and poverty which affects both boys and girls; and distance between home to school which will affect girls more. Two main factors are hampering further the progress of education in Cambodia. Firstly, there is still relatively low public expenditure on primary education. Secondly, child labour, school costs, and late entry to primary school is blocking further advancements to achieving the Education for All (EFA) goals. In addition, the RGC has expanded their priorities to extend free schooling to encourage completion of Grade 9 in secondary school. Child Clubs in Cambodia are mandated through the RGC Child Friendly School Policy, with the agenda and activities under the jurisdiction of a teacher. ChildFund Cambodia baseline surveys in 2008 identified a high level of support by parents for the establishment of Child Clubs in catchment areas where their children are living, who stressed the need for life skills and leadership training, seeing opportunities for children and young people to gain valuable work place negotiation skills. 3.2 Voice and agency Birth registration Without birth registration a child cannot be granted public health or education opportunities. By 2007, within a three to four year period from 2004‐2007, over 10 million Cambodians or 90% of the population was registered and issued birth certificates. Before The Civil Registration Campaign, less than 5% of the Cambodian population was registered. However disparities among different income groups and geographic location still exist as estimates show that in 2009 the birth registration was 64.4%, with 59% of the poorest 20% of the population registered while 77% of the wealthiest 20% of the population registered25. Having a voice The updated NSDP 2009‐2013 recognises youth as a group critical for Cambodia’s future development. The Rectangular Strategy and Organic Law promotes good governance for equitable development and poverty reduction. The National Youth Policy, when finalised and disseminated, will guide youth programs. However government inclusion of meaningful dialogue between authorities and children and youth is in its infancy due to strong cultural, gender and socio‐political norms. Typically, relationships in Cambodian society are organised according to a hierarchy involving age, gender, ethnicity, wealth, political position and religious piety; thus child and youth participation in decision‐making processes is particularly challenging in this context. Opportunities for children, youth and marginalised groups to have a voice in the national D&D framework are documented in the development plan for five‐year district plans which create CIPs as a bottom‐up approach26. However development priorities at the local level typically are concerned with infrastructure: schools, roads, canals and irrigation. Little attention is focused upon social aspects of youth development and as a result youth concerns are not adequately reflected in local planning priorities. ChildFund ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 9 Cambodia’s experience is that meaningful participation of children and youth in development planning requires continued mentoring and support. There are indications that local youth volunteerism can work when there is appropriate support from organisations such as Youth Star and community institutions (pagodas and schools)27 although its value may not be widely accepted by youth. 3.3 Power Legislative frameworks Legislative frameworks lend guidance to the formulation of national policy and reinforce the need for youth participation in all social, economic and political activities. Cambodia ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1992 and established the Cambodian National Council for Children (CNCC) to coordinate the implementation of the UNCRC. The 1993 Constitution of Cambodia has incorporated the six international human rights treaties which Cambodia is a party to. Cambodia has since ratified a number of international conventions and option protocols relevant to protecting children and youth and is a signatory to many other key international human rights treaties, declarations and conventions. Numerous laws and policies have been drafted and adopted to protect the rights of children in Cambodia. Systematic and structural causes however, continue to hamper the effective implementation to fully realise children’s rights. Weak enforcement of laws and policies severely constrain progress. Inconsistent application of national policies and international instruments results in underserved populations and growing inequality in the country. Weak infrastructure, inadequate human resources and low capacity of its institutions hinders advancements. The CNCC lacks an effective monitoring system and remains under‐
funded and under‐resourced. Furthermore, ministerial orders are needed to tighten provisions and broaden child and youth legal protection. Political voice Since 2007, potential new youth voters have increased by an average of 250,000‐300,000 per year. The Voter Registration Audit II notes that 93% of eligible youth registered as voters in the voter lists (2007 National Assembly Elections), but only 54% of registered youth had identification cards. Unofficial estimates reported youth voter turnout was 60% compared to the overall average voter turnout of 75%28. Children and youth participation in political life is still very low and limited to registering to vote and voting. This is largely due to a lack of encouragement from adults for youth, especially girls, to become engaged in politics. Additionally, the government does not allow political discussions or meetings in schools as they are considered neutral areas that should be separate from the influence of politicians29 and political messages. ChildFund Cambodia has taken the upcoming commune council elections in 2012 and the national assembly elections in 2013 into consideration during organisational planning and is cognisant that the political agenda during these periods often takes priority over regular government functions. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 10 3.4 Protection Children and poverty Children are often in extremely vulnerable situations in Cambodia and in need of specialised protection30 including orphans, abandoned children, children affected by HIV, abused children (sexually, physically, emotionally), street children, children in conflict with the law, child victims of exploitation (whether sexual or any form of harmful labour), children with disabilities, children addicted to drugs, and children whose basic physical needs are not being met. Young people living in poor households constitute 26% of the country’s population, of which about 35% live below the poverty line, face food insecurity, homelessness, violence and abuse31, dwindling land resources, routine household debt and poor employment prospects. There are increasing numbers of street children, estimated at between 10,000‐20,000, who are among the most vulnerable due to exposure to a wide range of physical and mental health problems, lack of access to basic needs, and a multitude of dangers including sexual exploitation, violence and substance use32. Children of chronically ill parents, including parents with HIV or AIDS, are especially vulnerable to becoming orphans, which then has negative impacts on household income and education33. Nine percent of children under 18 (55,000 young people) years have lost one or two parents34. A recent study of the socio‐economic impact of HIV on households in Cambodia estimated 85,921 children were vulnerable due to HIV, nearly 2% of all children under 18 years of age; however, less than half were reached with support to ensure their access to essential basic services35. Youth and risk factors Rural‐to‐urban migration is having a profound impact on the social fabric of Cambodian society and its youth. Migration exposes youth to sexual reproductive health risks, including increased risk‐taking behaviour associated with HIV infection, health development, drug abuse and gender‐based violence. Household financial shocks are a frequent reason for youth migrating and seeking employment. In ChildFund Cambodia’s 2010 Safe Migration research, 89% of respondents said they would prefer not to migrate if they had income generating opportunities in or nearby their villages. A lack of adequate attention devoted to gender, sexuality and reproductive health is leaving young women and men vulnerable to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Emerging behaviours of concern among young people 15‐24 years old include tobacco use (13.6% males and 0.8% of females) and alcohol consumption (20.9% of males and 7.4% of females). Drug abuse is dispersing through all sectors of the population from street children to children of affluent families and in both rural and urban areas. More than 80% of known drug users are below 26 years and are drawn from the unemployed, sex workers and workers in labour‐intensive work as well as street children36. Young people may be experiencing more violence and abuse than any other group in Cambodia. Poverty, mental illness, alcoholism and gambling are all associated with domestic violence37. Social attitudes and cultural beliefs lead to children experiencing violence and abuse at home, at school and in institutions. Gender‐based violence remains is a significant concern, with 65% of offences reported to the specialised police department related to sexual abuse. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 11 Juvenile justice There are only a few special laws applying to children in conflict with the law in the areas of criminal procedure and sentencing. The government has drafted a Law of Juvenile Justice yet the rights of children continue to be violated at all stages of the criminal justice process. Cambodia has not adequately provided measures to deal with juvenile cases due to lack of facilities, juvenile courts or specialists in juvenile law. Children and youth who have violated laws or committed serious crimes are often detained in adult prisons and are not separated from the adult prisoners, despite legal provisions otherwise. The Youth Rehabilitation Centre is the only alternative for incarcerating juveniles. Currently, 800 children live in prisons or youth rehabilitation centres. Whilst the broad features of the problem are known, there is not a large body of empirical research into children in conflict with the law and there are few published official indicators. To date there has been no systematic attempt to assess the availability of key juvenile justice indicators38. The local NGO, Legal Aid Cambodia, has identified two legal problems that worsen the position of children in conflict with the law, firstly excessive pre‐trial detention39 and Law on Aggravating Circumstances40. Youth employment The single most important issue confronting youth in Cambodia today is employment and access to income41. Cambodia’s 15‐24 year‐olds comprise about 32.4% of the country’s labour force and is increasing by as many as 300,000‐400,000 persons per year. With the lowest levels of education in the region, this reduces their opportunities to make informed and positive decisions about their future. Unemployment is highest among Cambodia’s youth aged 15‐24 in the capital city of Phnom Penh, at 20.1%. In 2004, over 2.4 million children and youth 15‐24 years of age were estimated as economically active, with 69.8% of youth engaged in agriculture compared with 83.5% in 1999. The garment, tourism, and construction industries are not growing sufficiently quickly to absorb so many new labour market entrants. The RGC Rectangular Strategy, as outlined in the updated NSDP 2009–2013, details steps to develop the agricultural sector as a “third engine” of growth. On‐farm employment, however, is constrained by insecure land tenure, lack of affordable credit, fragmented inputs and services, lack of infrastructure and poorly functioning markets. Off‐farm employment seems to have greater potential for youth but more effort is needed to stimulate Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) development and agri‐business investments42. Cambodia must enhance efforts to absorb the growing labour force, as well as prepare youth for the next generation of jobs including skilled mechanics for maintenance and repair of agricultural machines. Disaster risk reduction Cambodia experiences both seasonal and ad hoc natural disasters, most commonly flood and drought. Seasonal fluctuations of rain and water levels as well as cycles of floods and drought damage agricultural production and rural livelihoods, constrain development and poverty alleviation. Floods kill over 100 people every year, cause USD 100‐170 million in agricultural losses annually43, provoke delays of study programs, damage school infrastructure and often lead to higher student dropout. More frequent and intense floods and droughts, as a result of the impact of climate change, will intensify existing pressures and exacerbate the limited available resources, making it even more difficult for people, ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 12 especially the poorest and most marginalised, to recover. Flood and drought risk management is a key priority for poverty alleviation and the future development of provinces44. The Strategic National Action Plan 2008‐2013 for Disaster Risk Reduction (SNAP‐DRR)45 priorities are to mainstream Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) into government’s development planning, formulate national Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Policy and legislate and strengthen national DRR coordination mechanisms. The National Committee for Disaster Management (NCDM) and National Climate Change Committee are the key government institutions, yet they have remained separate in both policy and programming and do not have a focus on children or youth. The NCDM’s capacity is limited due to resource constraints and coordination of disaster risk management efforts from the national to community level remains weak. The RGC recognises climate change as a threat to Cambodia, yet the primary policy framework, the National Adaptation Plan of Action, does not establish the institutional or financing arrangements necessary to translate into real action46. The Provincial Committee for Disaster Management (PCDM) has identified the risks and some priority structural mitigation measures based on community needs and preferences. In Svay Rieng province, the PCDM received support from Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre47 to develop a provincial three‐year Investment and Development Program (2009‐2011). Mainstreaming DRM into the education system is needed to address the significant impacts of disasters and climate change in the education sector, in terms of social and physical infrastructure, which can lead to increased dropout rates as well as poor performance of students who live in disaster prone areas. 3.5 Emerging trends Urbanisation and climate change have been identified as two emerging trends that will be tracked in annual planning reviews. Political stability is an important consideration. Urbanisation Approximately 20% of Cambodia’s population of 14 million people now lives in urban areas. From 1998 to 2008, the population in urban areas grew at an annual rate of 2.21% compared to 1.38% for rural areas48. While the increase in the level of urbanisation in Cambodia has been rather small during this period, the rate of urbanisation needs to be carefully considered in ChildFund Cambodia’s future planning. Climate change As a least developed agrarian country, Cambodia is vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The main factor in Cambodia’s vulnerability to climate change is the limited adaptive capacity at all levels as well as deep‐rooted, longstanding challenges, including poverty, inequality, insecure access to land and productive resources and institutional and governance constraints49. Cambodia is one of the nine pilot countries50 globally supported by the Climate Investment Fund51. Mainstreaming climate resilience into development planning of key vulnerable sectors has resulted in seven investment projects to support up to USD 105 million of strategic programs52 through policy reform, institutional capacity building and on the ground investments across selected sectors. The Cambodian Human Development Report 2011: Building Resilience: The Future for Rural Livelihoods in the Face of Climate Change provides extensive analysis and recommendations on climate change and human development in Cambodia and will be a key reference document for ChildFund Cambodia’s future planning. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 13 Political stability Since 2008, in defence of the International Court for Justice’s 1962 verdict on Preah Vihear and surrounding area, Cambodia has been locked in a territorial border dispute with Thailand. In February 2011, large scale military mobilisation and fighting broke out along this border and expanded to Oddar Meanchey province in May 2011. Although the situation is unlikely to escalate into large‐scale war, the RGC focus on maintaining the status quo reduces fund disbursement to Cambodia’s social sectors. The results of the July 2011 political elections in Thailand have been welcomed by Cambodia’s government and there are signs that improved relations between Thailand and Cambodia may signal an end to the border tensions of the past few years. Cambodia’s other political priorities include candidacy for a temporary seat on the Security Council in 2013‐
14 and Cambodia hosting the Association of Southeast Asia Nations summit. Both of these are likely to promote RGC focus on maintaining stability internally and externally. Good governance and civil society Cambodia was ranked 154 out of 178 countries in Transparency International’s most recent Corruption Perception Index and 70% of Cambodians reported that corruption had either increased or remained unchanged in the past three years53. Good governance is the core of the Rectangular Strategy and includes fighting corruption. The Anti‐Corruption Law was adopted in 2010 to prevent and combat corruption, however a combination of weak law enforcement, lack of institutional capacity and resources, limited access to information and low public participation constrain further progress. In addition, the RGC is intent on passing the draft Law on Associations and NGOs by 2014 however civil society organisations, including associations and NGOs, remain concerned that the proposed law infringes on the fundamental rights of people, including their right to freedom of association and freedom of expression54. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 14 4. LESSONS LEARNED ChildFund Cambodia’s first Country Strategic Plan 2008‐2011 centred on three core community‐based programs: Sam Leng Kumar (Voices of Our Children), Yuh Vak Chun Derm Bei Akphiwat (Youth for Development) and Sokhapheap Phoum Yeurng (Health of Our Villages) in Svay Rieng province. In 2009 these programs were complemented by ChildFund’s hosting of the Child Helpline Cambodia on behalf of ten United Nations agencies and NGOs. In 2010, two new programs were introduced in Svay Rieng province: Kar Chamnak Srok Doay Sowathipheap (Safe Migration) and Samleng Sahakum (Rights Realisation). ChildFund Cambodia’s first Country Strategic Plan was ambitious. Rooted in the precept was that community engagement needed to be prioritised, partnerships with RGC departments and personnel central to program implementation established and promoted, continuous improvement promoted and relevant impact monitoring implemented. By 2011 ChildFund Cambodia has met or exceeded most of the 2008‐2011 strategic commitments in sponsorship as well as the education, water and sanitation, migration, rights and youth sectors. Key lessons learned include: 4.1 Giving children a voice Critical to all ChildFund’s work is the need to ensure field‐based experiences and lessons learned inform advocacy at the national, regional and global level to improve the lives of children and youth. Included in this work in Cambodia is our involvement in national dialogue and working groups through membership as NGO representative in the Child Affairs High‐level working group of the Prevention of Trafficking of Women and Children in Cambodia, attendance at regional Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Human Trafficking (COMMIT) meetings and participation in national child policy workshops and discussions. Promoting the involvement of ChildFund Cambodia youth group members in provincial, national and regional forums has been a positive motivation for young people and offered opportunities for them to speak up and be heard. 4.2 Partnerships and quality programs Critical to ChildFund Cambodia’s success over the three years in achieving its program goals has been the harnessing of partnership with RGC departments and personnel to be involved in community activities. The establishment and training of Quality Assurance Committee (QAC) personnel at the local level promoted strong ownership of resources provided through ChildFund Cambodia, notably primary schools. Relationships established and nurtured with QAC members will be transferred to members of the revised VDC in line with new RGC requirements. 4.3 Sponsorship Taking a strong team‐approach to enrolment activities in the community, ChildFund Cambodia has streamlined enrolment procedures to enable the documentation of information, photographs while household verification checks to increase from 50 to 100 children per day over the past three years and maintaining high standards. Enrolment costs per child have therefore been reduced from USD 10 to USD 5 per child in Svay Rieng province. Unrealistic burdens on sponsored children to provide lengthy and frequent correspondence to sponsors has been reduced by ChildFund Cambodia’s development of templates for all child‐initiated letters. The correspondence cycle will continue to be reviewed and alternative strategies to link developing communities in Cambodia with the Australian public explored. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 15 4.4 Child protection To ensure strong organisational protocols, ChildFund Cambodia will continually review its public sponsorship information. As of July 2011, ChildFund Cambodia will identify children by district not commune, thus reducing a sponsor’s ability to seek and find children informally. All staff, community volunteers and parents will receive further training to heighten knowledge, awareness and practices of child protection. Child protection training will be embedded within and throughout all ChildFund Cambodia work, utilising existing formal community‐based child protection networks and structures and ChildFund Cambodia child protection procedures and guidelines. 4.5 Selection of community volunteers Community‐based volunteers are an important linking mechanism between ChildFund Cambodia and the community. We will nominate effective community volunteers to be members of revised VDC structures within the D&D Framework. ChildFund will identify opportunities for youth to be integrated as community animators, dependent upon individual skill level, time and commitment. 4.6 Relationships with emerging programs Hosting the Child Helpline Cambodia is indicative of the respect ChildFund Cambodia has gained within a short time in Cambodia and the articulation of a commitment by ChildFund Cambodia to maximise opportunities as they arise. Challenges for ChildFund Cambodia in hosting this program include promoting autonomy in preparation for future localisation within ChildFund’s need for compliance in all governance procedures; recruiting high calibre trained counsellors, rolling out access to seven days a week and ensuring adequate protection protocols for clients and staff. ChildFund Cambodia and the Steering Committee will support fundraising efforts for long‐term multi‐year funding and sustainability planning to prepare Child Helpline Cambodia to become an independent, locally‐
registered NGO by January 2013. 4.7 Pilot commune management model ChildFund Cambodia will pilot a commune management model in Kratie province. It is planned that each commune will be assigned to one staff person to work directly with key personnel and groups, ie local authorities, village chief, VDC, and youth and child group leaders. ChildFund Cambodia will work closely to strengthen planning and implementation of all program activities. If successful, ChildFund Cambodia will explore the potential to include sponsorship activities as communities demonstrate stronger ownership of commune activities and rollout this pilot to other provinces where ChildFund Cambodia is working. 4.8 Impact monitoring Identified in 2008 as a critical success factor, ChildFund Cambodia commenced impact monitoring including most significant change, video monitoring and case study development. With the introduction of the new ChildFund Australia Development Effectiveness Framework (DEF), it is important to integrate outcomes of the 2011 baseline survey and community consultations into annual revisions of program activities. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 16 Identifying mechanisms for field‐based staff to integrate impact monitoring protocols into their annual work planning will be pursued. Finally, the challenge faced by new teams working together has been made easier by having a clear focus and set of priorities. Our mandate is to make long‐term positive changes in the lives of children and youth. The RGC has paved the way for children’s rights to be realised through its legislation and policies but an environment whereby rights holders have minimal understanding of their rights and duty bearers are not held to account, requires the ChildFund Cambodia team to use its networks, partnership approach and field‐
based experiences, to raise awareness and facilitate change. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 17 5. OUR ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENTS The team at ChildFund Cambodia is excited about the future and has been developing innovative and dynamic strategies for the next four years. In order to meet our commitments we will work in a programmatic approach through five key strategic directions. All future program activities for the next four years will reflect these commitments and their specific objectives. STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS Growth, strive for program quality and expansion Share lessons learned and experiences Networking and partnerships Organisational development Mobilising resources The ChildFund Cambodia CSP 2011‐2015 strategic directions are fully aligned with the ChildFund Australia Strategic Paper 2011‐2015. The relationship between ChildFund Cambodia’s Strategic Directions and ChildFund Australia’s Goals is illustrated below: ChildFund Cambodia Strategic ChildFund Australia’s Strategic Goals Directions SD1: Growth, strive for quality 
program and expansion 
Goal 1: Achieve tangible improvements for children Goal 2: Strengthen protection for children SD2: Share lessons learned and experiences 
Goal 3: Amplify children’s voice and empower children Goal 4: Build mutual understanding and respect for children SD3: Networking & partnerships 
Goal 6: Collaborate to achieve change SD4: Organisational development 
Goal 7: Building organisational effectiveness SD5: Mobilising resources 
Goal 5: Grow ChildFund Australia’s work 5.1 Strategic direction 1: growth, strive for program quality and expansion In the next four years, ChildFund Cambodia will expand its current programs into two new provincial areas to reach a total of 46,000 direct beneficiaries. The foundations of this expansion will come from drawing upon our existing experience, conducting extensive situation analyses, taking into account relevant baseline data currently available in literature and ChildFund Cambodia data collection; and understanding and responding to the challenges expansion may bring. Children, young people, their families and the broader community will be consulted and participate in the design of program activities. We will have achieved this when at least 18,939 children are enrolled in our sponsorship program and program activities include all deprived, excluded and vulnerable children living in ChildFund Cambodia’s programmatic areas. As well, our programs must continue to yield locally relevant and sustainable successes, we must have the human and financial capital to meet commitments and we must demonstrate strong and collaborative partnerships that we work with. All organisational growth must be carefully prepared for, strategies and ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 18 plans reviewed and goals re‐defined if challenges cannot be overcome. The Country Director and Cambodia Senior Management Team (SMT) will be responsible for all planning. In addition we will improve the quality of all of our programs by utilising standardised ChildFund processes including the DEF. We will monitor the impacts of our activities and feedback and reflect findings in future program designs and project revisions. We will have achieved this when we have a Project Operational Manual and a Sponsorship Operational Manual that reflect the local Cambodian situation and use the ChildFund Australia format. Furthermore, we will have tracking tools and systems, for all programs, to influence future program design and long term planning. In striving for improved quality and program expansion, we will continue to develop and pilot innovative approaches to program implementation that promote sustainability. We will study, develop and test out sustainability models, including perhaps co‐funding of ChildFund Cambodia’s project activities through commune council budgets, endorsed by local authorities or commune and district councils. We will build our capacity by engaging with local partners and sharing knowledge and expertise. We will have achieved this when we can demonstrate the positive impact that has taken place at the community level, identifying attribution; and we see a commitment to improving the community’s physical infrastructure (assets) and the voices of young people in sub‐national development plans. In order for community development to be sustained we will work with communities and encourage ownership and accountability for the development achievements. We will design clear phases of roles and responsibilities of community partners using the ChildFund Australia DEF and community engagement cycles, involving baseline, reflection and planning with communities and partners every three years. We will work collaboratively and closely and provide assistance with the administrative departments to develop their action plans and assist the commune councils to identify and mobilise resources including financial sources other than from ChildFund, as and when possible. We will have achieved success when all community assets are maintained by the community and when costs for maintenance are factored into commune council annual operating plans and budgets. 5.2 Strategic direction 2: share lessons learned and experiences In the next four years, ChildFund Cambodia will share its experience by increasing public relations and awareness in the target communities and by utilising lessons learned, good practices and challenges to influence duty bearers and policy makers. We will continue to build good relationships with our community partners and engage them in planning, implementation and monitoring of ChildFund Cambodia project activities and children, young people, families, local authorities and business associates will be expected to play an active role. We will utilise the mass media, promote community to community exchange tours and continue to promote our products through branding. We will develop a communications department which will manage the correspondence between children and sponsors and organise additional promotional materials. We will have achieved this when communities and sponsors fully understand that sponsorship is a valued mechanism to raise funds that enables ChildFund Cambodia to provide positive changes to the lives of all deprived, excluded and vulnerable children, not only sponsored children through community based activities. Sponsors will be kept up to date with organisational activities and achievements, and sponsors and children are able to share information and increase awareness about each other’s lives. Additionally community ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 19 action plans will be developed within our programmatic areas and local partners (duty bearers) will be advocating for policy change for all young people (rights holders). We will share the lessons learned, good practices and challenges in order to influence national‐level duty bearers and policy makers. We will hold annual reflection workshops at the sub‐national level, conduct research in the community, evaluate our activities and disseminate findings to national and international working groups, NGO meetings and forums. We will have achieved this when ChildFund’s key messages are reflected in national and international media, and national policies. 5.3 Strategic direction 3: networking and partnership In the next four years, ChildFund Cambodia will expand its joint ventures, utilise their expertise and resources and increase the level of communication among partners and stakeholders, inside and outside of Cambodia. Joint ventures with local NGOs, international NGOs, United Nations, community‐based organisations and RGC partners will increase, to strengthen our work, building on existing knowledge and expertise. We will review and strengthen partnership policies that clearly set out roles and responsibilities. We will identify key strategic partnerships and have contracts and Memorandum of Understandings with those partners. In addition we will arrange for all partners to come together, sharing expertise and learning from one another. We will have achieved this when all partners are working towards common goals, we complement one another and resources are maximised. We will publish annual reports, newsletters and expand website information about ChildFund Cambodia, use ChildFund Alliance Annual Meeting opportunities and identify other forums to promote our achievements globally amongst ChildFund members and other interested institutions and organisations. We will provide assistance and guidance for sponsors and other key visitors. We will have achieved this when we have well‐informed partners and sponsors who are engaging in dialogue with children and young people in Cambodia, and young people in Cambodia have a real knowledge of the lives of young people and have a realistic understanding about the differences and similarities between themselves and other global communities. 5.4 Strategic direction 4: organisational development In the next four years, ChildFund Cambodia will refine the organisational structure, leadership and management culture to respond to the needs of this country strategy and any future planning. We will build the capacity of our staff to deliver what we are committing to, starting with the integration of programs and sponsorship activities, review and update of policies, standards, procedures and putting these into practice. We will look at improving staff retention and we will seek in‐house information technology (IT) support. We will have achieved this when programs and sponsorship teams are working closely together, we have a dedicated human resources unit with clear annual staff development plans, IT functions and there is a staff care and coordination committee. We will provide ongoing staff performance management and identify the training needs specific to staff roles. We will develop a staff training policy and identify and provide appropriate trainers, mentors and coaches to build the capacity of the staff. We will have achieved this when staffs are demonstrating competence and expertise in their respective roles. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 20 ChildFund Cambodia is committed to continuing action research promoting child participation that will contribute to improving our programs. Topics will be identified in‐country in collaboration with communities and government partners to examine child‐related development issues. ChildFund Cambodia will collaborate with relevant networks and organisations at the national level on research to support evidence‐informed policy reform and development. ChildFund Cambodia also expects to participate in research initiated by ChildFund Australia during the course of this country strategy. 5.5 Strategic direction 5: mobilise resources In the next four years, ChildFund Cambodia will mobilise financial resources to meet its commitments. We will have achieved this when the annual operating budget reaches USD 3.5 million and ChildFund Cambodia is recognised by donors, national and sub‐national authorities, as an effective and enabling organisation that uses resources judiciously, works collaboratively, adds value and facilitates long‐term positive benefits for all young people. Financial projections are conservative to offset the possibility of financial shocks within this planning period; therefore projections may be exceeded. Projected funding for 2014‐2015 is: o AusAID grants (traditional, partnership and non‐ANCP) 16% o Project Humanity Fund 6% o Child sponsorship 75% o DWAD 3% (see section 6) Planned funding increases from 2011‐2015 financial years are 20%, 19% and 18% respectively. ChildFund Cambodia will seek to leverage funding from alternative sources as opportunities arise with individual, Alliance members, bi‐lateral and multi‐lateral donors. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 21 6. PROGRAMS The goal of ChildFund Cambodia’s Country Strategy Paper 2011‐2015 is: ChildFund Cambodia will work in partnership with stakeholders, building on lessons learned, facilitating transformation in communities, that realises the right of all children and young people to develop their full potential and live with dignity and harmony. Building on our knowledge, experiences and systems, ChildFund Cambodia has re‐organised activities into three key programs: Education, Community Well‐being and Rights Realisation. These programs will consist of smaller projects consistent with activities that commenced in the years 2008‐2011. New activities can be included in ChildFund Cambodia’s suite of programs and projects including disaster risk reduction or domestic violence, as they evolve out of community consultations, government priority setting and child‐
centred needs. 6.1 Education Program The Education Program aims to bring about lasting and positive changes for children, their families and their communities through increasing access to education and promoting child rights, especially the right to education. The goal of the Education Program is: Children as rights holders have equitable access to quality formal and informal learning opportunities through the engagement and partnering with communities and government that builds local capacity and increases child well‐being. ChildFund Cambodia’s Education Program will support the MoEYS in ensuring equitable access to education services; improving the quality and efficiency of education services; and supporting institutional and capacity development for decentralisation as outlined in the ESP 2009‐2013. The Education Program aims to bring a greater degree of access to education for children (both boys and girls). ChildFund Cambodia will carefully consider government requests to construct or renovate existing school buildings to provide a safe environment for children’s education. ChildFund Cambodia has always considered the balance between new construction and renovations. Overall, less emphasis will be placed on school building construction and renovations recognising the government’s responsibility and progress in this area. Decisions will be determined locally‐based on community requests and need, quality of existing infrastructure and location, with a specific gender‐lens to ensure girl’s participation in education is enhanced beyond primary school level. ChildFund Cambodia will continue to seek opportunities to diversify organisational support to the education sector that will benefit the quality of education for all children. This includes providing instructional and educational support materials, libraries and continuing support on curriculum development and school environment. In addition, the program will support the establishment of Child Clubs including a long‐term program to provide children with life‐skills and the opportunity to have a voice in their own development. Expanding our efforts to include student councils will require planning and discussion at the local level to identify the most ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 22 effective mechanism. Promoting the use of established primary schools as centres for non‐formal learning opportunities for out‐of‐school youth and young adults will be explored. ChildFund Cambodia will continue to provide overarching support to newly trained kindergarten and primary school teachers while advocating with the POE and DOE for these persons to receive support through existing provincial and district education officers of DTMT. Promoting client demand and professional responsibility will be enhanced by holding teachers to account for the quality of education that children receive, reinforcing to parents and caregivers the need to support children to attend school regularly and facilitating opportunities for children to have a voice. The program relates to the ChildFund Australia outcome indicators 3 and 4 (access to assets), 12, 13 and 14 (voice and agency) and 15 (power), as well as with 16 (protection) indirectly through schools in the Community Well‐being Program. 6.2 Community Well‐Being Program In line with current national development plans, ChildFund Cambodia aims to demonstrate that investing in youth and positioning them at the centre of the community well‐being program reinforces the important role of youth, Cambodia’s future leaders, in community development planning processes. In support of the draft National Youth Policy, ChildFund Cambodia recognises young people’s critical roles in contributing to improving the standard of living of their communities and to the overall advancement of society. The goal of the Community Well‐Being Program is: Communities, including youth, will have increased access to social, physical and economic assets, improved life opportunities and strengthened participation in their own development. Good health is essential to an educated and economically productive work force55. Actions that promote the integration of youth as the engine of growth for economic development are at the forefront of current national development planning processes. ChildFund Cambodia incorporates children, youth and adults in their holistic view of a community and strives to improve the standard of living and provide economic opportunities for all community members. The Community Well‐Being Program will increase the number of households and communities who have access to clean water and sanitation, improve knowledge, attitudes and practices about health and hygiene and improve community health indicators. In support of the National Youth Policy, ChildFund Cambodia will engage youth in simple community functions and larger development‐oriented events such as promoting personal hygiene and sanitation and community latrines56. In addition, the program will continue to support the establishment of youth groups including long‐term programs to provide youth with life skills, leadership and opportunities to raise up their voice in their community’s development. Youth will be enabled to participate in income generation training, attend business planning and life skills training and receive small‐scale support to establish micro‐enterprises based on their marketing and business plan. Children and youth will lead community well‐being programs to apply life skills learning and demonstrate the capacity of children and youth to participate in their own development. Substantial inclusion of the RGC and communities at every stage of the process and in‐kind community contributions of labour and land is key; ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 23 hence contributions to maintenance will ensure community ownership and responsibility for infrastructure. Peer‐to‐peer education methods will be encouraged so that youth own the process and to ensure long term sustainability. ChildFund Cambodia aims to closely partner with the RGC and community in order to support government service delivery of basic sanitation services. Of importance is utilising the RGC national Identification of the Poor information, Cambodia Demographic Household Survey data and follow‐up discussions with community leaders to identify and verify those households in greatest need for full support. ChildFund Cambodia is considering rolling this program out to those less poor households within target communities, who may wish to have a latrine and can contribute on a sliding scale of payment. Good governance and full consultation will be critical to ensuring community endorsement of ChildFund nominated recipients. In line with ChildFund Australia’s mandate, ChildFund Cambodia will collaborate with the PCDM, District Committee for Disaster Management and Commune Committee for Disaster Management (CCDM) on DRR to protect and fulfil the right to survival and development of children and youth affected by disasters. We will support the government CCDM to create mechanisms and procedures that will enable children and youth to meaningfully engage in discussions and participate in implementation. Involving youth in ChildFund Cambodia’s programs at all levels, including enabling them to have an entry point in managing the sponsorship program as community animators, will provide youth with a forum to demonstrate their skills and expertise and gain the respect of older community members. If they were facilitated to lead and promote positive child protection strategies and responses, multiple facets of ChildFund Cambodia’s work would be linked with RGC priorities. This program is linked to the ChildFund Australia outcome indicators 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 (access to assets), 11, 12, 13 and 14 (voice and agency), 15 (power) and 16 (protection). 6.3 Rights Realisation Program This program is at the heart of what ChildFund Cambodia aims to do – to make changes in the community power structures, give children and youth a voice, promote citizens to take up their rights and support duty bearers to provide children and youth with opportunities to claim their rights. The goal of the Rights Realisation Program is: Children and youth, as rights holders, are afforded opportunities to participate and be heard, make decisions and protect themselves, to effect positive change in their own development. The Rights Realisation Program will increase the number of children and youth priorities in commune investment plans, national policies and global priorities. Child rights training will be provided to children, youth, caregivers, communities and authorities to increase awareness of rights holders and reinforce the responsibility of duty bearers to enable children and youth to access their rights to survival, development, protection and participation. ChildFund Cambodia will lobby local authorities to improve child protection at the local level, advance implementation of child and youth policies and legislation, and enhance dialogue opportunities at multiple levels. Development planning at the commune level is mandated by the RGC but implementation must include support for young people and facilitate children and youth to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 24 the value they bring to development planning for their communities. Peer‐to‐peer education methods will be employed so that youth own the process and to ensure sustainability. ChildFund Cambodia will be sensitive to concerns which may be expressed by rights holders, but will work progressively to give more children and youth a voice in their development through the D&D process and other community consultations. ChildFund Cambodia will continue to be involved in national child‐focused policy and dialogue opportunities to influence child and youth legislation. RGC personnel including the CNCC will be closely involved in all of our work, to embed organisational activities in RGC planning. Critical to ensuring increased awareness of ChildFund Cambodia activities and pilot models will be dissemination of media materials – photographs, video, documents and internet. Building on existing achievements and expanding opportunities, ChildFund Cambodia will work alongside RGC partners to systematically include the voices of children and youth in development planning. This program is linked to the ChildFund Australia outcome indicators 12, 13 and 14 (voice and agency), 15 (power) and 16 (protection). 6.4 In conclusion None of these programs can be designed, implemented or monitored without adherence to ChildFund Cambodia’s mandate to work with established RGC structures including VDC, CCWC, and government ministry departments – responding to the needs of communities and child and youth priorities, maximising ownership and aiming for on‐going cost contributions to be included in commune budgets. RGC partnership in our programs is important for sustainability and ChildFund Cambodia’s approach will be to provide training to RGC officials, progressing to co‐facilitating activities and then devolving responsibility to them for the future. ChildFund Cambodia will continue to collaborate and expand work with established civil society specialist organisations to further enrich programs with activities such as savings groups, vocational training and life skills training. Innovations, pilots, dissemination of outcomes and lessons learned will underpin all our work. ChildFund Cambodia’s implementation of holistic models means that one program impacts upon another. It will be important for staff to work collaboratively and to inform themselves about all other program and sponsorship activities. Organisational reflection and review is critical to achieving coherence with ChildFund Cambodia’s strategic directions and program goals. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 25 7. OUR SYSTEMS AND STRUCTURES Having a relatively secure funding base has enabled ChildFund Cambodia to promote its work and recruit long‐term staff. In order to deliver on future commitments ChildFund Cambodia has examined its systems and structures to ensure that they reflect the needs of this strategy, program objectives and growth projections. 7.1 Staffing Growth will be achieved by increases in staffing, technical assistance and core functions that support additional program activities and geographical areas of work. Regular reviews of staffing structures will be undertaken by the Cambodia SMT to ensure staffing complements existing organisational needs. By 2015, ChildFund Cambodia will have: o Stablished a core of technical specialists based in Phnom Penh under the Program Manager position to support program activities at the field, in areas such as research, child participation, child protection, community engagement, grant acquisition and support, and training competencies o Fully‐functioning key support units under the Business Support Services Manager, adding to the current finance and administration units, including human resources, IT and communications o Set up to two new provincial field structures that will vary in size depending on resource availability and organisational capacity and will include a Provincial Manager or Coordinator and units focusing on Finance and Administration, Sponsor Relations and Program functions. In 2013 a review will take place to determine if the 2010 established position of Provincial Manager in Svay Rieng will continue as Manager or as a Coordinator, and to confirm the intention that these positions report to the Country Director o Revised the Phnom Penh‐based Sponsor Relations Unit roles and responsibilities to position itself to best respond to increases in enrolled and sponsored children, Alliance partnerships, decentralisation of sponsorship functions and expected outputs and outcomes o Strengthened ChildFund Cambodia’s responsiveness to quality assurance from implementation of the DEV framework through the Development Effectiveness Manager, to an organisational‐wide quality assurance focus (See Annex 1: ChildFund Cambodia: Indicative Organisation Chart 2011‐15) As a relatively new organisation in Cambodia, ChildFund has developed competence in a number of key areas. To enable expansion to take place effectively, ChildFund Cambodia will continue to review its work in line with good governance and aid effectiveness principles. Whilst complying with the imperatives of aid effectiveness, all staff must be supported with effective management, learning and development and career planning opportunities. We are competent at and we will develop further competence in: Awareness of RGC laws, priorities and supplementary documentation ChildFund Cambodia works closely with the RGC at this time and will, over the period of this strategic plan, strengthen working relationships. It continues to be important for staff to be fully cognisant of, and continue to update their knowledge of existing laws, government priorities and existing dialogues. ChildFund Cambodia will continue to work at the national and sub‐national levels in key working groups, forums and policy discussions. It is highly desirable that provincial networking activities continue to be a focus, national forums be hosted by ChildFund Cambodia and representation continue at sector meetings and national workshops with RGC, development partners and civil society. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 26 Community management models ChildFund Cambodia will pilot a community management model in new provinces in line with changing RGC community‐based structures. Lessons learned will enable ChildFund Cambodia to make changes, as required, and align its community management to the most effective and efficient model. Community involvement Over the past five years, Cambodian communities have changed. Access to markets, media and transport has propelled them into a more global view. Organisational models and support given by one institution or organisation to community‐based partners will be compared. Ensuring community support for ChildFund Cambodia’s work without establishing a support mechanism or funding structure that cannot be maintained long‐term by sub‐national authorities requires sensitive and on‐going negotiations with all stakeholders. ChildFund Cambodia adheres to established Ministry of Interior guidelines. It is also critical for organisations to be realistic about the skills of community members as well as their availability during different times of the year, even those who are committed to assisting development in their community – they may have multiple demands placed on them at the one time, by different external institutions. Change management Since the establishment of ChildFund Cambodia, change and growth have been managed accordingly. We recognise that increased expansion and growth will require the SMT to closely monitor staff and their responses and recognise potential conflict or concerns. The Country Director will facilitate change management strategies. Decision‐making ChildFund Cambodia’s management is led by Cambodia’s SMT, under the direction of the Country Director, a member of ChildFund Australia’s senior program management team. SMT meetings are conducted monthly and take into account key priorities raised in staff meetings scheduled prior to the SMT meetings. In Svay Rieng and Kratie provinces, management will be led by a Senior Steering Committee based in the province, to identify areas requiring technical inputs, integrate planning across the units and focus on quality assurance and adding value. Unit meetings across ChildFund Cambodia are conducted regularly and according to schedule. Learning and development It will be important to organisational growth over the next 12 months and beyond for a comprehensive learning and development program to be developed, established and systematised. This will include developing and supporting the growth of core competencies, building on existing training need assessments and implementing career planning into performance reviews. 7.2 Where we will work In addition to Svay Rieng province, ChildFund Cambodia’s will expand sponsorship operational into Kratie province in mid‐2011 and one other province by July 2014. All provincial selections adhere to ChildFund’s existing criteria for provincial selection ‐ initial consultations including a field assessment involving provincial and district authorities to identify a suitable province with medium‐high population density, strong child needs and underserved communities. Prey Veng, the fifth most densely populated provinces is under consideration and selection of this province would strengthen ChildFund Cambodia’s eastern focus. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 27 It is possible that ChildFund Cambodia may expand its work to new communes within Svay Chrum and Romeas Haek districts in Svay Rieng province in 2012‐2013. ChildFund Cambodia’s current Svay Rieng‐based program is well established, child and youth needs in other communes have been clearly identified and Provincial and District Government officials have strongly advocated for expansion of our work in Svay Rieng province. (See Annex 2: Map of Cambodia). Other opportunities for expansion of ChildFund Cambodia’s geographic footprint would include initiatives that may arise through the forthcoming Mekong Regional Partnerships program, or similar. All program activities whether sponsorship‐ or grant‐funded will be developed in line with outcomes from DEF community consultations and planning will be child focused. 7.3 Financial growth Essential to all successful undertakings, is long‐range planning. ChildFund Cambodia has developed a draft outline of the cost implications of growing the organisation from 2011‐2015. This plan will be revised annually, ensuring compliance with exchange rate fluctuations, sponsorship growth projections, grant funding requirements, required human resources, and compliance with aid effectiveness good practice models. The following tables outline ChildFund Cambodia’s areas of growth over the life of this strategic plan. Included are estimated expenditures, commitments to revenue generation from various sources as well as projected enrolment. Revenue Source A$ FY11‐12
FY13‐14 FY14‐15
Australian Sponsorship Alliance Sponsorship ANCP (traditional and partnership) AusAID (non ANCP)1 Project Humanity DWAD Appeals Australia Project Support (foundations, major donors) Alliance Project Support (foundations, major donors) Total Revenue 582,000
858,000 1,407,000 450,000 990,000
150,000 100,000 201,000
$2,965,000 3,500,000
ChildFund Cambodia has not included projections for AusAID (non ANCP), Appeals, Australia Project Support or Alliance Project Support but may receive in the future ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 28 Numbers (Enrolled) FY11‐12 FY12‐13 FY13‐14 FY14‐15 Australian Sponsorship Alliance Sponsorship Total Enrolled 2,520 8.919 11,439 3,520 10,919 14,439 4,120 13,819 17,939 4,720 14,219 18,939 Numbers (Sponsored) FY11‐12 FY12‐13 FY13‐14 FY14‐15 Australian Sponsorship Alliance Sponsorship Total Sponsored 1,800 5,150 7,310 2,200 6,210 8,410 2,600 6,910 9,510 3,000 7510 10,510 7.4 Policy, advocacy and research ChildFund Cambodia will strengthen its child‐focused advocacy at the national level, utilising lessons from the field, documenting and disseminating successful pilots, participating in regional and global research and documenting outcome indicators. We will continue our involvement in national dialogue and working groups through membership as NGO representative in the Child Affairs High‐level working group of the Prevention of Trafficking of Women and Children in Cambodia, involvement in CNCC and attendance, and/or support, at regional COMMIT meetings. Using field‐based experiences, ChildFund Cambodia will continue to be involved in national child focused policy and dialogue opportunities to influence child and youth legislation and implementation. RGC personnel will be involved in ChildFund project cycles to embed organisational activities in RGC planning. ChildFund Cambodia will lobby local authorities to improve child protection at the local level, advance effective implementation of child and youth policies and legislation across all communities; and enhance dialogue opportunities at multiple levels. Additionally community action plans will be developed within our programmatic areas to protect children and youth; ChildFund will advocate for the best interests of the child to be upheld at all times. ChildFund Cambodia is committed to collaborating with communities and government partners on research topics on child participation and child‐related development issues. We will also join with relevant networks and organisations at the national level on research to support evidence‐informed policy reform and/or development. ChildFund Cambodia also expects to undertake and/or participate in research initiated by ChildFund Australia during the course of this strategic plan to contribute to the global knowledge on child‐
focused policies and programs for children and youth. ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 29 REFERENCES 1
Lay Samkol and Nheb Sinthay, ChildFund Cambodia Mid‐Term Evaluation, October 2010, pg 13 which resulted in inclusion of ten children’s and twenty youth priorities being included 3
Pam Gantley, Report on Stakeholder Consultations for ChildFund Australia/Cambodia Strategic Planning, November 25,2010 4
Since documentation of Cambodia strategic plan 2008‐2011, the third province has been planned for July 2013 commencement. The 2014 date can be revised as the Kratie province activities commences and other sponsorship organisations rollout sponsorship programs in new provinces. 5
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 6
GDI Ranking is 97 out of 136 countries. 7
Cambodia Socio‐Economic Survey 2007. 8
Situational Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 9
CDHS 2010 Preliminary Report March 2011, page 18. 10
IBID, page 18. 11
IBID pages 20‐21. 12
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CDHS 2010 Preliminary Report March 2011. 16
Situational Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 17
Situational Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 18
NCHADS, Estimation of the HIV prevalence among General Population in Cambodia, 2010. 19
NCHADS, 2010 HIV Sentinel Surveillance Survey, preliminary findings. 20
NCHADS, Estimation of HIV prevalence among General Population in Cambodia, 2010. 21
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CDHS 2010 Preliminary Report March 2011. 23
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 24
MoEYS EMIS 2010. 25
RGC‐UNICEF Country Action Programme Action Plan, 2011‐2015. 26
ChildFund was invited by the Svay Chrum District Governor to facilitate this planning; and as a result, children and youth were consulted, and 10 child and 20 youth priorities were incorporated into the CIP. 27
Situational Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 28
Youth Political Participation in 2008 National Assembly Elections, COMFREL, December 2008. 29
Ibid 30
Government’s policy statement on Alternative Care for Children, MoSVY 2006. 31
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 32
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 33
National AIDS Authority, 2009 Situation Analysis. 35
The Socio‐economic impact of HIV on Households in Cambodia, NAA 2010. 36
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 37
RGC Draft Youth Policy, March 2010. 2
ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 30 38
The way in which children in conflict with the law in Cambodia are treated, UNICEF, March 2006. The justice system does not have a fool proof mechanism to prevent children being held beyond the legal limit of 1 or 2 months before trial. Some juveniles are detained for much longer periods (six months is not uncommon) before they are brought before the judge. 40
Judges fully apply to children in about 75% of all child justice cases. This often leads to very severe punishments, e.g. five years for the stealing of a pot and a plate or a pair of shoes. 41
Interviews with youth groups in Svay Rieng, December 2010 and February 2011. 42
Situation Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, United Nations Country Team, May 2009. 43
Asian Development Bank/World Bank Briefing Paper for Climate Change workshop conducted in Phnom Penh, May 2011. 44
Cambodia: Mainstreaming Flood and Drought Risk Mitigation in East Mekong Delta Prepared by: Eng Rinb, The Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Strategies towards Flood Resilient Cities in Asia‐Pacific, 21‐23 July 2009, Bangkok. 45
Prepared by the NCDM and the Ministry of Planning, this strategy identifies six key DRR components with four level of priorities (critical, first, second, and third). 46
United Nations Development Assistance Framework, 2011‐2015, page 7. 47
Under the ADT‐TA (World Bank funded project). 48
General Population Census of Cambodia 2008, NIS, MoP, August 2009. 49
Cambodia Human Development Report 2011, Ministry of Environment and UNDP. 50
Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cambodia, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Tajikistan, Yemen and Zambia. 51
Jointly implemented by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank Group. 52
50% grants and 50% investment. 53 54
NGOs and Associations Joint Statement on the Third Draft of the Law on Associations and Non‐
Governmental Organisations, August 2011. 55
World Bank, 2006 Halving Poverty by 2015: Poverty Assessment 2006. 56
Situational Analysis of Youth in Cambodia, UN Country Team, May 2009, pg 95. 39
ChildFund Cambodia Strategic Plan 2011‐2015 Page | 31