Industrial use of archaea

Industrial use of archaea for integrated
Pollution Control-Waste Water, Gases ,
Soil Bioremediation, and the Biodiversity
Euring. Bela TOZSER
Expert UN&EU Commission, Managing and Engineering Director ,
Envirosan DC
H-7100 Szekszárd, Rizling Str. 11. POB.:199.
E-mail: [email protected]
Table of contents
• Industrial use of archaea
• Integrated, innovative complex for growth of archae
• Opportunities of application and perspectives
• Archaea are the smallest independently
living single-celled organisms on earth
• Typical cells range in size from 0.5 to1.0 µm
in diameter
• DNA lies free in the cell cytoplasm
• A cell membrane comprised of phospholipids
surrounds the cell.
• The cell wall is usually made up of
protein and carbohydrate and lipids.
Archaebacteria are also known as "extremophiles,"
thanks to their ability to survive in extreme
• Most of the time they undergo asexual reproduction,
environments such as very hot and very cold climates.
mostly by dividing in half – some cells divide every 12–20 minutes, others take a lot
• All organisms require carbon, which provides building blocks for cell materials
Colored transmission electron micrograph of the archaea
Methanospirillum hungatii undergoing cell division
• Archaea were originally thought to exist only in harsh environments
• Were often described as ‚extremophiles’
• They are widely distributed and are found alongside bacteria in
many environments including soil and water.
• The best described groups of Archaea are the methanogens that
produce methane, and the extremophiles that grow under high salt
or extreme temperatures.
• Pyrodictum, for example, has an optimal growth temperature of
Prokaryotic Cells
• First cell type on earth
• Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea
• No membrane bound nucleus
• Nucleoid = region of DNA
• Organelles not bound by membranes
The archaebacteria have the following unique combination of
Prokaryotic traits:
• They are about 1 micrometer
(μm) in diameter, the size of
typical procaryotes.
• They lack membrane-bound
• They have nuclear bodies
(nucleoids) rather than true,
menbranee bound nuclei.
• Their ribosomes are 70 S, the
size of those found in typical
Eukaryotic traits:
• Their cell walls completely lack
• Their protein synthesis machinery is
sensitive to inhibitors that typically
affect only eukaryotes and is resistant to
many inhibitors that affect prokaryotes.
• Some of their proteins, pigments, and
biochemical processes closely resemble
those found in eukaryotic cells.
Archaebacteria include three groups:
1.The methanogens, strict anaerobes that produce
methane (CH4) from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
2.Extreme halophiles, which require high concentrations
of salt for survival.
3.Thermoacidophiles, which normally grow in hot, acidic
Enzymes and proteins from organisms
that grow near and above 100 °C
• Hyperthermophile group includes some methanogenic and sulfatereducing species
• Only a few species are saccharolytic.
• Most of the hyperthermophiles absolutely depend on the reduction of
elemental sulfur (S0) to H2S for significant growth,
• The fermentative pathways appear to depend upon enzymes that
contain tungsten
Extremophiles as a source of novel enzymes
for industrial application
• Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological
 high temperatures,
 extremes of pH,
 high salt concentrations
 high pressure.
A scanning electron micrograph of a
ten-million-year-old Archaea.
• These microorganisms produce unique biocatalysts which operateunder
extreme conditions
• Selected extracellular-polymer-degrading enzymes and other enzymes
could be used in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and in
environmental biotechnology.
(amylases, pullulanases, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases,
proteinases, esterases, glucose isomerases, alcohol dehydrogenases and DNA-modifying enzymes )
Biotechnological applications of archaeal biomasses
• Biological methanogenesis is applied to the anaerobic treatment of
o sewage sludge,
o agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes
• Methanogens are a group of microorganisms that obtain energy for
growth from the reaction leading to methane production.
• Many bioreactor configurations have been exploited
to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion,
such as
o the rotating biological contactor,
o the anaerobic baffle reactor
o the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor,
o several large-scale plants are in operation
Archaeal enzymes of biotechnological interest
• Natural and modified archaeal enzymes present huge possibilities for industrial
• Many archaeal enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism - special interest
to the industrial biotechnology sector.
• The starch processing industry can profit from the exploitation of thermostable
• Another promising application of hyperthermophilic archaeal enzymes is in
trehalose production.
• Several other polymer-degrading enzymes isolated from archaea could play
important roles in the chemical, pharmaceutical, paper, pulp or waste treatment
industries. (xylanases and cellulases)
• Some archaeal metabolites have potential industrial applications.
(proteins, osmotically active substances, exopolysaccharides and special lipids )
• Archaeal lipids have been proposed as monomers for bioelectronics
The solution from Envirosan DC.
-CliEnvHeP3BiCClimate-, environment-, and healthprotecting, bioenergetical,
biotechnological and biorefinery Complex
With the multifunctional climate-, environment-, healthprotecting,
bioenergetical, biotechnological and biorefinery system the following
functions can be realized:
• Utilization in the environment protection
• Bioenergetical utilization
• Biotechnological – health protectional utilization
• Environmental utilization
• Biorefinery utilization
1: Coupling to the industrial area of ​CO2, the CO2 wells, introduction of the raw materials (GHG gases, water, waste water, nutrients).
2: Coupling to the biogas, biofuel plant.
3: CO2 and special gases.
4: Photobioreactor – Production of human-animal-plant-food, biochemical, medication, etc..
5: Biotechnological cell proliferation in the fermenter, SCE unit with high pressure CO2.
6: Storing biohydrogen, biogas, syngas products.
7: Biofuel production (biogas raw materials as well) in the photobioreactor.
8: Biooil storage.
9: Bio hydrogen production in the photobioreactor, (Algae/archaea excess to Biogas).
10: Biohydrogen tank,fuel cell.
11: For biohydrogen production coupled biomethane production.
12: For biogas production coupled biomethane-, biohydrogen.
13: Trigen energy unit (electrical, heating and cooling energy production).
14: Biohydrogen-, biogas-,biomethane-container.
15: Storage of biofuels and other products.
16: Laboratory, office, monitoring system, test operation.
17: Biohydrogen filling station.
Utilization in the environment
protection at the following
• CO2- and other GHG bioconversion,
real zero carbon emission and O2
output – carbon quotas can be sold,
valuable bioproduct production
• Cement industry
• Energy industry
• Chemical industry
• Vehicles
• Food industry
• Biofuels
• Lime-burners
• Biogas plants
• Pyrolysis plants
• Zero carbon emission of waste-fields
Bioenergetical utilization:
• With the help of the climate-protecting
processes, the system produces energy- and
energy sources
• The increase of the energetical effectiveness of
the biogas plant
• Production of biofuels
• Hidrothermal gasification
• Combined processes: trigen energy
• Bioenergetical and biotechnologigal utilization
of thermal waters and the dissolved gases of
thermal waters
• Biofuel production
• Landfill gas use without any kind of emission
• Energetical use of soiled gas wells
• Bio - batteries
Biotechnological – health protectional utilization
• Functional food producing
• Production of C5, C6 sugar with versatile utilization
• Animal feed, protected protein- and fat production for ruminant animals, fish- and
crabfeed, hatcheries, increase of spawn- and caviar production
• Products with iodin content in case of nuclear radiation
• Propagation of tribe-yeasts
• Pharmaceutical groundmaterials, fine-biochemicals, vegetal stem-cells from archeas,
medicinal fungus, herbs cells produced in closed/sterile system
• Balneotherapy, wellness products
• Beauty-care, skin-care, biocosmetics
• Biotechnological care of the crop, pest control
• Complex utilization of carbon-dioxide stations for high-end biotechnological development
• Microalgaes, archaea for space-traveling and submarines
• Synthesis-gas-production, biomaterials,
biopolymers, bio building blocks, bioresins
Environmental utilization
Reduce of the salt content of thermal-, and seawater with use of halofil micro-organisms
Intesification of waste water cleaning
Nitrogen reduce of the fermentations fluid of the biogas plants, odour reducing/prevention
Disposal of harmful wastes
Elimination of radioactive pollution
Regeneration of polluted soils (heavy metals, biological degradatible pollutions)
Propagation of micro-organisms for soil- and pest control for seed-corn treatment
Enrichment of soils: biofertilizer
Water-, and soil regeneration polluted with red-sludge
Water protection, restoration of biodiversity
Utilization of non-fermentable organic waste (pyrolysis)
Environment rehabilitation
Decrease of air pollution
Waste management, utilization of organic wastes
Air conditioning of closed areas, like spaceships, submarines
Biorefinery utilization
biofuel diversification
The projects are adoptable for any geographycal locations.
The size and complexity of the system is variable,
The product-range is broadable.
The size, the product-mix and the product volumes are changeable in
connection with the market needs.
From the container-form system to the bigggest giga-complexes is every
form possible.
It is posible to connect the system to polluting plants like heating plants,
biogas plants, sewage farms, waste-fields etc.
Fully Automatised Dynamical Photocatalitical Bioreactor
• Intensification of biomethanisation process of anaerobical digestionarchae contribution up to 30% incresing of process yield
• High integration of biotechnological, environment and climate protection
• very high efficiency in pollution control of waste-water : archae and
for increasing of biological treatment efficiency
• CO2 GHG – atmospheric pollutants and extreme climate phenomena
producing gases bioconvarsation to valuable energetical and
biotechnological products
• waste to energy factory of complex with anaerobical intensified digesters ,
• pirolysis reactors for non biodegradable organical wastes, biorefinery
capacities for diversification of biofuels
• contribution to soil bioremediation , biodiversity conservation by high
quality biofertilizers
Dynamical photocatalytical bioreactors
• Capacities are harmonized to pollutant
emissions, waste cantities, the complex
is caracterized by really zero carbon
• Use to complex valorification of natural
resources : CO2- gas fields, thermal,
mineral, brine, treated waste watwers,
sea water
• Design of whole complex with multiple
use and different size is fully finalized
simulated, redy for developing of
execution projects
• Fully authomatized and on-line
monitorized processes, complex
instrumentation, data processing and IT
Opportunities of application and perspectives
• Adaptability to specifique needs of China Asia, Europe and Worldwide
• The implementations represent high social impacts for improving the quality
of environment, protection of health, reducing the extreme climate
phenomena, production of high amount of renewable energies.
• The economical efficiency is very high comparable to traditional processes by
decresing of reactor capacities, investment and operational costs, valuable
bioenergetical and biotechnological products,high amount of tradable CO2
• The concrete technico-economical parameters will be determined by
feasibility studies• Boundless perspectives by introducing in industrial use of new archae,
combinations of process with other microorganisms, development of technical
• The use of this complex ensure the biotechnology and bioenergy based
sustainable development
The use of archaea in framework of integrated
industrial complexes for pollution control, waste
water, gases,soil bioremediation, biofertilization
and biodiversityconservation open new
perspectives for increase the technical and
economical efficiency of climate- environmenthealth protection, bioenergy production from
waste, therefore for sustainable development.
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