About Stephen
Stephen William Hawking is one of the most important theoretical physicist .
Stephen graduated from University College, Oxford in 1962.After the graduation,
Stephen Hawking ‘s contribution to science increase day by day.
Unfortunately, Stephen was diagnosed with ALS, a form of Motor Neurone
Disease, shortly after his 21st birthday.
In spite of being wheelchair bound and dependent on a computerised voice
system for communication Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he
has three children and three grandchildren), and his research into theoretical
physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures. He
still hopes to make it into space one day.
Because of ALS,Stephen Hawking can not speak.
However, he published a number of books,give interviews and lectures.
How can he do it?
About The Computer
Since 1997, his computer-based communication system has been sponsored
and provided by Intel® Corporation. A tablet computer mounted on the arm
of my wheelchair is powered by my wheelchair batteries, although the
tablets internal battery will keep the computer running if necessary.
Current configuration
Lenovo ThinkPad X220 Tablet (2 copies)
Intel® Core™ i7-2620M CPU @ 2.7GHz
Intel® 150Gb Solid-State Drive 520 Series
Windows 7
Speech Synthesizers (3 copies):
Manufacturer - Speech Plus (Incorporated 1988, Mountain View, CA)
Model - CallText 5010
His main interface to the computer is through a program called EZ Keys,
written by Words Plus Inc. This provides a software keyboard on the
screen. A cursor automatically scans across this keyboard by row or by
column. He can select a character by moving his cheek to stop the cursor.
His cheek movement is detected by an infrared switch that is mounted on
his spectacles. This switch is his only interface with the computer
. EZ Keys includes a word prediction algorithm, so he usually only has to type
the first couple of characters before he can select the whole word. When he
has built up a sentence, he can send it to his speech synthesizer. He use a
separate hardware synthesizer, made by Speech+. It gives an accent that has
been described variously as Scandinavian, American or Scottish.
Through EZ Keys he can also control the mouse in Windows. This allows him to
operate his whole computer. He can check his email using the Eudora email
client, surf the internet using Firefox, or write lectures using Notepad. His latest
computer from Intel, based on an Intel® Core™ i7 Processor and Intel® SolidState Drive 520 Series, also contains a webcam which He use with Skype to keep
in touch with his friends
He can also give lectures. He writes the lecture beforehand and save it on disk.
He can then send it to the speech synthesiser a sentence at a time using the
Equalizer software written by Words Plus. It works quite well and He can try out
the lecture and polish it before he gives it.
What if he lose the ability to control his
Technology has helped Stephen Hawking in many ways, and now it might
allow him to communicate using thought alone.
The iBrain is the new system.It records brain activity from a single point on
the scalp. An algorithm then extracts useful information from this activity.
Called the iBrain, this simple-looking contraption is part of an experiment
that aims to allow Dr. Hawking — long paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral
sclerosis or Lou Gehrig’s disease — to communicate by merely thinking.
“At the moment, I think my cheek switch is faster
but should the position change i will try Low’s