d K le in - Azim Premji Foundation

Knowinspirediscoverle arn
Volume 3 Issue 2
March 2013
The Foundaon Newsleer
March 2013
<< Index >>
e are delighted to bring you the second issue of
Kindle this year. As the Foundation newsletter, Kindle
carries wide-ranging articles on issues in education and
Feature Article
P. 03 - 04
The feature article addresses the ritualization
that is endemic in our systems, and how in our work and
A Whiff of Systemic Change
approach over the years, we at the Foundation have sought
to challenge it, as it is a crucial part of our goals of effecting
S Giridhar
From the Field
positive change in education.
Next is a piece on ‘Sur Sangat’ – a musical evening
Sur Sangat: A Mystical Evening at Kabir
held in Dehradun as part of the Kabir Lok event. 14th
February was celebrated as ‘Kabir Day’, consisting of two
events: ‘Vimarsh’ – focused on how to bring Kabir from
Randeep Kaur Verma
From the Field
textbooks to real life, and ‘Sur Sangat’. We then provide
P.06 - 07
Sports day at Azim Premji School, Dhamtari
The next article explores the isolation faced by
country, despite the complex system of interconnected
Schools and Sand dunes
accountabilities, exemplified by the barren landscape of
Barmer. It stresses the need for connectedness for teachers
to feel supported in the performance of their demanding
Anurag Behar
From the Field
Premji School in Dhamtari.
countless teachers and education functionaries across the
Purusottam Singh Thakur
you a glimpse of the School Olymipcs organised at the Azim
P.09 - 10
An interesting workshop on understanding History
was organised for students in Newai block of Tonk district,
समुदाय में इतिहास की खोज
in an attempt to create interest in the subject. Our next piece
अनिल गुप्ता व राकेश कारपेन्टर
a training workshop for teachers in Madarsas was recently
From the Field
Madarsa Training in Tonk
Vinod Jain
takes us through the various stages of this. Also in Tonk,
concluded – the second of two. The socio-cultural landscape
of Tonk makes Madarsas numerous and the education
processes in them critical to our project of improving the
quality of teaching-learning in the district.
We hope you enjoy this issue of Kindle; do write
to us with your feedback and suggestions at [email protected]
Medha Sundar
Medha Sundar
Archana Unny
Front and Back Cover Photo
B S Adappa
Viewpoint Communication
March 2013
Page 02
<< Feature Article >>
A Whiff of Systemic Change
S Giridhar
August 2005. Those were early days in our Foundation’s
momentum to work in the one and half days that remained. This
work in one of the north Indian states. People familiar with our
is not a one-off story. Every such event, full of good intention
work will know that all our work in contributing to improving the
and serious purpose, gets sacrificed at the altar of meaningless
quality of education in government schools was by working
ritualisation, in every corner of our country. It percolates into every
jointly with the education functionaries and education system
facet, be it teacher training, school functions, children’s events
of the state. A two-day workshop on conceptualising reforms in
or in any form of administering. We have experienced it in every
student assessment had been conceived by the team comprising
state we have worked in since 2001.
members of the Foundation and a group of committed academic
functionaries of the state. The dates were decided and before
we knew it, the whole thing got out of hand. The commissioner,
principal secretary and chief secretary were all coming for the
inaugural session. Before you could say ‘Chambal ki kasam’,
a workshop to build capacity had got blown up into an ‘event’.
When people ask my colleagues Anant, Gautam and
Periodi who have been leading our efforts in these states for
so many years now, what has been the impact of our work on
the system, they will unfailingly tell you how the battle against
ritualisation is being slowly won.
What was originally meant to be a crisp welcome to the workshop
got converted into a two-hour ‘inaugural session’. Suddenly all
the functionaries in the districts to give up on such rituals of
the concentration of the academic functionaries was diverted to
‘respect’ is possible when we work shoulder-to-shoulder in the
ensuring that everything was right and ready for the inaugural.
field over a period of time. This is what enables negotiation for
It has not been easy. To cajole, persuade and convince
change, with sensitivity towards existing mores, based on mutual
o cajole, persuade and
convince the functionaries
in the districts to give up on such
rituals of ‘respect’ is possible when
we work shoulder-to-shoulder in the
field over a period of time. This is
what enables negotiation for change,
with sensitivity towards existing
mores, based on mutual trust
and respect.
trust and respect. It is a leap of faith, to overcome habit and also
the fear of backlash for breaking protocol.
November 2009: In the wintry setting of Uttarkashi, a
district academic meeting to implement the ‘school progress
plan’ is in progress. The meeting is not kicked off ceremoniously
by the most senior district education officer. He is seated
inconspicuously in the midst of other functionaries. The man who
is in charge of training takes center-stage. The lighting of the lamp
and prayer are of course done, but they take less than 10 minutes.
Many miles south, in Surpur Block of North East Karnataka, over
the past few years, the block functionaries have run nearly 100
melas as an initiative to bring school and community together.
An invitation had to be printed; who all should be on the
This mela is all about children, to show and share their learning.
invitation? Whose name should be first? How many chairs on the
When the first mela was held, to our utter exasperation, half the
dais? Who should sit on the first row of the dais and who should
day was taken up by every functionary and village leader talking
sit behind? At the inaugural, as always, were speeches with
incessantly over the public address system. Now, some years
platitudes, flowery couplets in Urdu and Hindi. When the inaugural
later, these melas truly belong to the children. Invited dignitaries
was done, it felt a wedding had been successfully conducted.
are given the last half hour of the day to address the participants.
Somehow the functionaries gathered themselves and found the
Invariably it is a quick and sincere vote of thanks. It is a huge shift
March 2013
Page 03
<< Feature Article >>
according to us. It has taken three years for such de-ritualisation
satellite link and the rest of the technology right. Meanwhile the
to take root. Will it be sustained? That is the next phase of the
secretary arrived from Bangalore. There was no one to receive
him. No one was needed. He enquired around and walked in
It has not been easy as this need to please, to ensure
that hierarchical obeisance is paid, runs right through the
system. We have seen nervous commissioners wanting to
ensure that the red velvet cushioned chair (with the turkey
to the conference hall. I saw him chat with a number of other
functionaries and when everything was ready he got up quietly
to the podium with three of us, to talk to his functionaries on the
satellite. To me this was a crossing of the Rubicon.
towel on the back rest) which is normally reserved for him/her
in that large conference room, goes to the supervisor in such
meetings. No one thinks it odd when the various functionaries
We believe this shift is core to
in all such meetings, seat themselves in an obnoxious system
the kind of change we want to
see in our system.
of the seniors in the inner ring of chairs and the lesser mortals
in the outer ring. To break this ritual is something my colleague
and CEO, Dileep, pursues with relish. Every time we enter such
rooms with that special high-backed chair — reserved for the
commissioner/secretary, whether present or absent — Dileep will
needle them and question why such customs are preserved. On
every such occasion — at small and large events that we conduct
with various government functionaries at block, district and state
changes in some places where we are working. It has taken
level — we push by example. We keep hammering away at this,
time. I do not think it could have been done faster. Why is it so
sometimes theatrically, sometimes subtly, but we have been at it.
important? In its own way, this is a crucial and visible step in the
We believe this shift is core to the kind of change we want to see
journey towards a just, equitable and humane society.
It has not been easy. However, there are perceptible
in our system.
Yet there are success stories. None gives me greater
happiness than this incident a few years ago in Karnataka when
the secretary organized a satellite conference with the 3,000
education functionaries of the state. The satellite communication
The author is the Registrar and Chief Operating Officer,
Azim Premji University.
Article as it appeared in Indian Express
was to be held in Mysore. Departmental heads and the head of
the institute at Mysore were busy, even frantic, trying to get the
March 2013
Page 04
<< From the Field >>
Sur Sangat:A Mystical Evening at Kabir Lok
Randeep Kaur Verma
On 14th Feburary 2013, Azim Premji Foundation,
ka pyaara… Ajee Santon aisa des hamara…” As the evening
Dehradun, organized a musical evening to rejuvenate Kabirana
proceeded, Mukhtiyar Ali sang one soul-stirring sufiana number
thoughts – thoughts of Kabir, Raheem, Bulleh Shah, Ruskhan.
after another. He also shared some similar but differently
Sur Sungat was evolved with the idea of identifying and
articulated thoughts of Kabir and Bulleh Shah:
engaging with people who are living their lives close to our
Foundation’s vision of facilitating a ‘Just, Equitable, Humane &
Sustainable Society’. Kabir’s thoughts and progressive ideas
are closely aligned to this vision and music was seen as the
means of both communicating the thoughts of, and creating
enthusiasm around Kabir.
The occasion was graced by the presence of
Mukhtiyar Ali, a sufi singer who filled the evening with songs
Flavour of Kabir: “Pothithi Padhi Padhi, Jagh muaa,
aur pandit bhaya na koi, dhayee aakhar prem ka padhe so
pandit hoye…”
Flavour of Bulleh Shah: “Padhi Padh aalam fazil
banya, kadhi aapna aap noon padhiya hi nahin…”
Finally, he sang the perennial favourite, “Dama Dum
Mast Kalandar” at which the audience could not resist coming
and music to delight the audiences. The event was a mystical
experience which imprinted itself on the minds of the people
present. Mukhtiyar Ali’s music created enormous energy and
vibrancy in the atmosphere, the magic of his sufi voice ignited
souls and the audience was transferred to a different world.
Members not only from Uttarakhand but from other State
Institutes were present. It was a diverse group, with children,
teenagers, middle-aged people, and senior citizens, and there
was joy on every face.
on to the floor to dance.
Dileep Ranjekar concluded by sharing his feelings,
“This confluence of words and music has pierced everyone’s
hearts and settled inside. The things that we want to say in
education for years have been presented in two minutes, in
two lines, in one doha. We heard, we learnt, and there were so
many musical raags this evening…”
The author works at Azim Premji Foundation.
Mukhtiyar Ali dedicated his first song to paying
homage to the Almighty, with a composition that spoke about
equity. Another composition described Kabir’s thoughts about
his nation – “Kehat Kabir Suno re sadho… Pahunchela Guru
March 2013
Page 05
<< From the Field >>
Sports Day at Azim Premji School, Dhamtari
March 2013
Page 06
<< From the Field >>
Sports Day at Azim Premji School, Dhamtari
March 2013
Page 07
<< Viewpoint >>
Schools and Sand dunes
Anurag Behar
It was the first time I walked on sand dunes. The winter
The task of organizing good education for even a single child
evening sun converted the sand to gold. He was wearing a craggy
is perhaps one of the most challenging things that a person can face.
closed-neck coat which had thick black and white vertical stripes in the
The reality of being a teacher and doing this for 30-40 students makes
weave. We had walked half a kilometre into the dunes. He pointed in
this exponentially harder. This role becomes even more complex in
one direction, “two kilometres that way there is a school”, then another
India, given our diversity and socio-economic characteristics.
direction for another school 3 km. away. “The four of us are responsible
for 600 schools,” he said. Some schools are in places where they can
take their bikes, for others they leave the bike on the road and walk,
such as the two he pointed out across the dunes.
There is no winter evening sun through the year. There is the
The design of our schooling system with schools within a
kilometre of each habitation has solved the problem of access, but has
added further complexity. It forces teachers to handle children across
age groups together. It has also contributed to the isolation of teachers
and other education functionaries. The Barmer example makes this
heat and the sandstorms. Through this they reach the schools, it is their
stark: teachers in remote sand dunes, on their own. But, let this not
job. This is the education block resource team of Chautan in Barmer
suggest that the issue of isolation exists only in the so-called hard
district of Rajasthan. They are there to support the schools of the block.
places. This is the reality everywhere for our teachers even in the heart
His face shows the effect of trying to connect 600 schools through the
of our cities too.
sand and heat. It also shows how alone each of these schools is, and
how isolated the teachers may feel.
A teacher from one school said, “There is God, and then
This is because physical disconnectedness is only a part of
the problem. The core issue is that our large, bureaucratized, education
system does not recognize the importance of intellectual and social
there is me, that’s it.” He was not being dramatic; his reality is that he
connectedness of a teacher for her ability to perform her role. This
has to fend for himself completely – clean and maintain the school,
arises partly from the mechanizing, deindividualizing tendencies that
handle 30-40 students in every way, deal with the community, manage
are common to most large organizational systems. Unlike industries,
the mid-day meals, fill up reports, manage vaccination camps, respond
which thrive on scale, schools need to be smaller networks, connected
to the officers and the list is much longer. Two other teachers were
to communities with substantial autonomy for teachers and school
not fatalistic. They said: “We can live here crying, or we can live here
laughing.” They are all on their own.
Many of them live in the schools, since there is no place
Moreover, the problem arises from the doubtful assumptions
about a teacher’s role, which ignore its complex and creative nature.
to rent in the village and it is not possible to walk a few kilometres
Complex, creative professions such as film-making or being a scientist
every day in that terrain from elsewhere. In Jaipur, they call this region
thrive on intellectual and social connectedness – we think of this as
‘kalapaani’ for Barmer is a pretty hard place to be in. Every aspect of the
natural. Such connectedness is equally crucial for teachers. It is just
district emphasizes the isolation of teachers, although their reality is not
that we don’t think of the teachers’ role as being similarly demanding
different elsewhere.
and challenging, when in reality this is very much so.
Fifty kilometres outside Bangalore, just off National Highway
I have seen repeatedly that it does not take much to enable
4, I walked into a school. No one had visited them in a year. The teacher
this connectedness. It is often about someone playing a facilitating
had been to the block office for supplies; he had virtually no real
role to bring together a group of teachers. It does require persistence
connection with the system.
and thoughtfulness. The block (and cluster) level resources are ideally
There are demands on the teachers and the block
education authorities to file administrative reports very often. However,
interactions between different parts of the system are rare let alone
a genuine connection on their real work— education. This is the story
across India.
March 2013
placed to do this, but they are thinly spread, and themselves in need of
some help to build their capacity to play this kind of a role.
The author is CEO, Azim Premji Foundation.
Article as it appeared in Live Mint.
Page 08
<< From the Field >>
समुदाय में इतिहास की खोज
अनिल गुप्ता व राकेश कारपेन्टर
विद्यालयों में
सामाजिक अध्ययन विषय
के प्रति शिक्षकों का नजरिया हमे शा से ही उपे क्षित रहा
है । इसका अं दाजा इसी से लगाया जा सकता है कि न तो
विद्यालयों में इस विषय को पढ़ाने वाले प्रशिक्षित शिक्षक
होते है और न ही अच्छे प्रशिक्षण, और पाठ्यपु स्तकें तो
एकदम नीरस हैं । इस विषय के प्रति अक्सर यही सोच होती
है कि इसे तो कोई भी पढ़ा ले गा। विषय के तौर पर दे खें
तो कई प्रकार की समस्यायें दिखाई दे ती हैं । एनसीईआरटी
की नई पाठ्यपु स्तकें जो कक्षा 8 में इस वर्ष से लागू हु ई है
उनके प्रति भी
एकदम विपरीत
पु स्तकें तो बदल
गई पर विषय
के प्रति शिक्षकों
है ।
मु झे
के वल समस्याएँ
गिनने से क्या
होगा जब तक
सामने हम कु छ
करके नही बताते । इसिलिए हमने कु छ नया करने के लिए
शिक्षकों के साथ मिलकर इतिहास में स्थानीय इतिहास पर
काम करने की एक योजना बनाई।
स्थानीय इतिहास पर काम करने का बड़ा उद्दे श्य
यह भी था कि बच्चों मे इतिहास के प्रति यह समझ
पै दा करें कि इतिहास वास्तव में लिखा कै से जाता है |
एक इतिहासकार किन साक्ष्यों के आधार पर भू त काल की
घटनाओं का सही विष्लेषण प्रस्तुत करता है और क्या हम
भी ऐसा कर सकते हैं ।
हमने तय किया कि स्थानीय इतिहास पर काम
की योजना चार चरणों में होगी। प्रथम चरण में बच्चों
से इतिहास को ले क र सं वाद करना, द ूस रे चरण में किसी
ऐतिहासिक स्थान का भ्रमण व साक्ष्य एकत्रित करना,
तीसरे चरण में साक्ष्यों के परिपे क्ष्य में लोगों से बातचीत
March 2013
करना, और अन्त में साक्ष्यों का विष्लेषण कर निष्कर्ष तक
पहु चना।
इस कार्य की शु रू आत हमने राबाउप्रावि बहड से की।
हमारी योजना को ले क र हमने पहले स्कू ल प्रधानध्यापक से
बातचीत की। फिर सामाजिक विज्ञान विषय को पढ़ाने वाली
शिक्षिका श्रीमति प्रियं का जै न के साथ भी कार्ययोजना साझा
कर बातचीत की। और हमारे साथ वह भी इस प्रक्रिया में
बड़े उत्साह के साथ शामिल हु ई। प्रक्रिया में विद्यालय की
सभी शिक्षकों की विषे श रूचि थी।
पहले चरण में हमने कक्षा 6 व 7 के बच्चों के साथ
गाँ व
स्थित किले के बारे
में उनकी जानकारी
कु छ
है |
किले से सम्बन्धित
बहु त सी जानकारी
हमें मौखिक रुप से
बच्चों से पहले दिन
और उन्होने आपस
में किले के बारे में
जो जानते थे वह साझा किया। इस चर्चा के बाद बच्चों
को कहा गया कि वह अपने दादा-दादी व गाँ व के बु जु र्ग
लोगों से और पता करके आएँ । बच्चे किले के बारे में अपने
दादा-दादी से बातचीत कर सवालों के जवाब लिखकर लाए।
बच्चे जो जानकारी ले क र आए वाकई हमें उत्साहित करने
वाली थी। जै से सु ग ना ने बताया कि किला 250 वर्ष पहले
सोगानसिंह राजा ने बनवाया था और उसका एक लडका
था जिसका नाम महे न्द्रसिंह था। इसी प्रकार कोमल ने
बताया कि किलें में तो राजा और उसका परिवार रहता था
परन्तु अन्य लोग नीचे गाँ व में रहते थे । राजा ने किले को
पहाड़ पर इसिलिए बनवाया था ताकि उसके उपर यदि कोई
आक्रमण हो तो वह किले से उसका मु क़ाबला कर सके । इसी
प्रकार मधु ने बताया कि यहाँ के लोग उस समय अलग-
Page 09
<< From the Field >>
अलग फसलो की खे ती करते थे पर पानी की समस्या थी।
समु दाय के साथ बातचीत
भी है । इस प्रकार की बहु त सी जानकारी बच्चें अपनी कापी
में लिखकर लाये जिस पर हमने बच्चों के साथ खु ल कर चर्चा
सामाजिक व आर्थिक क्रियाकलापों पर विस्तार से बातचीत
अतः राजा ने पास ही एक बड़ा तालाब बनवाया था जो आज
कार्य के अगले चरण में तीसरे
दिन किले का
कार्य के अगले चरण में बच्चों ने अब तक जु टा ई
जानकारी के आधार पर गाँ व के बु जु र्ग लोगों से बातचीत
की। जिसमें उन्होने किले के बारें में और वहाँ की भोगोलिक
अवलोकन व साक्ष्य एकत्र करने की योजना बनाइ और बच्चों
की। समु दाय के बु ज़ु र्गों ने बड़ी सहजता के साथ बच्चों के
की दीवारें उनमें प्रयोग की गई सामग्री, किले के दरवाजें
में विस्तार से अब तक विभिन्न स्रोतों से प्राप्त समस्त
व शिक्षकों ने किले का अवलोकन किया। अवलोकन में किले
,अलग-अलग स्थानों का उस समय क्या उपयोग होता
होगा, सामान रखनें की व्यवस्था, यु द्ध से रक्षा, खाने - पीने
प्रश्नो के जबाव दिये । इसके बाद बच्चों ने बहड के बारें
जानकारियों के आधार पर गाँ व के इतिहास पर एक समझ
की वस्तु ऐं , दै निक दिनचर्या की चीजें , पानी की व्यवस्था,
बनाई। इस पू री प्रक्रिया में शिक्षकों ने बहु त ही प्रंशसा के
साथ इस कार्य को दे खा व तारीफ़ की कि वाकई में इतिहास
किया। यहाँ सबसे महत्त्वपू र्ण बात यह दे खी गई कि बच्चें
महत्त्वपू र्ण रही।
लगा रहे थे । अपने अवलोकन को कापी में लिख रहे थे । यहाँ
की। शिक्षकों ने बताया कि “इससे पहले हमने बच्चों को
भी इस किले पर आज आप के साथ पहली बार गया। मैं इस
आने - जाने के मार्ग आदि पर बच्चों ने गहनता से अवलोकन
एक द ूस रें से खू ल कर चर्चा कर रहे थे और अपने अनु मान
बच्चों के साथ किले को ले क र शिक्षकों व हमने खू ब बातचीत
इतनी बातचीत करते नही दे खां यहाँ तो बच्चें खु ल कर एक
द ूस रे से खू ब सवाल-जबाव कर रहे थे । ” एक बच्चे के सवाल
का जबाव द ूस रा दे ता और इस प्रकार गहन चर्चा चली।
अवलोकन के उपरान्त बच्चों ने अपने अवलोकन व बातचीत
को व्यवस्थित रूप में लिखनें का कार्य किया।
March 2013
के प्रति एक नज़रिये के विकास के लिए यह प्रक्रिया
रामस्वरुप मीणा स्कू ल प्रधानाध्यापक ने कहा कि
“इस स्कू ल में मैं भी 8 साल से प्रधानाध्यापक हूँ ले किन मैं
किले को सिर्फ एक खण्डहर की नजर से दे खता था ले किन
उसको उलट आपने नए नजरिये से मु झे व हमारे बच्चों को
दे खने - समझने की दृष्टि दी, जो वाकई मजे दार रहा।”
ले ख क अज़ीम प्रेमजी फ़ाउं डे श न में काम करते हैं
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<< From the Field >>
Madarsa Training in Tonk
Vinod Jain
One of the major challenges in the area of education is
• Enhancing content knowledge on Language and Mathematics
the universalisation of education, especially for socially deprived
communities. There are several kinds of schooling options available
The training was divided into three parts:
in Tonk, such as Government Schools (Rajiv Gandhi schools,
• General Session – Objective of Education, Philosophy of
Learning, Right to Education Act, 2009 and NCF - 2005.
Shikshakarmi Schools, Sanskrit Nideshalaya Primary and Upper
Primary Schools, 4 to 6 hours alternative school), non-government
• Language – Nature, concept and some innovative practices of
schools (categorized into aided schools, unaided schools and
recognized schools) and Madarsas. About 13500 children (mostly from
• Mathematics - Nature and concept of maths; some innovative
practices of teaching
the Muslim community) are obtaining education in Madarsas. Despite
the presence of public and private schools in the vicinity, Muslim
parents often prefer Madarsa education. There are 218 Madarsas
across Tonk district, with around 635 Para-Teachers.
In this modern age of education, many attempts were
made to modernize these Madarsas; continuous improvements and
innovations in the quality of secular education in the Madarsas are
very important to keep the interest of students. The need to reform the
Madarsa education system was felt and, after a series of meetings
with members of the Madarsa Board and other key stakeholders in the
district, we were able to develop a shared understanding on the issue.
It was a new experience for us so before framing the plan of
training we realized the need to understand the culture and principles
Thereafter, two 7-day training programmes were organized – one in
September 2012 and one in the second half of January 2013.
of Madarsas. It was also necessary to understand the perspective of
teachers on education and contents for outlining the appropriate plan.
designed to provide the participants with a better understanding of
Therefore, some selected Madarsas were first observed. 10 Madarsas
their field from a theoretical perspective as well as to engage them in
were randomly visited to observe what is going well, what needs
concrete examples for how to best engage the children they teach.
improvement, and potential for innovation. During observation it was
After the first training programme, a need that emerged from the
found that traditional religious education aside, the options available to a
participants’ feedback was to include more on Teaching Learning
Muslim child seeking quality education are limited.
Material (TLM) – how to create effective TLM and use them well. This
Module -Creation and Training
On the basis of the observations and as per the requirement
Both the trainings were experiential, with interactive activities
was addressed and incorporated appropriately in the second training
programme. Trainers had the participants develop TLM based on the
concepts they learned in the workshop and then present them to the
of teachers, an appropriate module for training was prepared. During
class. Through interactive exercises such as these, the participants
module-preparation, the main objectives were:
were able to learn new skills and gain confidence in their ability to
• Building their self-confidence
• Improving their knowledge of child psychology and the learning
process of children
• Training them to use a variety of teaching techniques to get points
across to students
• Introducing sequential learning and improved thinking by children
March 2013
implement new ideas, dramatically increasing the likelihood that they
will utilize that knowledge in class. Both training programmes have
been successful since they provided tools to the participants which they
could directly use and apply in the classroom and with children. Over
100 teachers of 25 Madarsas participated in these trainings.
The author works at Azim Premji Foundation
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Azim Premji Foundation
Do visit: www. azimpremjifoundation.org www.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in
email: [email protected]
March 2013
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