ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻧ S

‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪Sesbania‬‬
‫)‪ sesban(L.‬ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻟﺤﺸﺮﺓ ﺧﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺑﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪Callosobrucus maculatus(F.‬‬
‫)‪(Coleoptera : Bruchidae‬‬
‫ﺤﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻴﺤﻴﻰ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬
‫‪ ,‬ﻫﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺯﻋل ﺨﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﺒل ‪ /‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫‪  [email protected]‬‬
‫ﺘﻀﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴـﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴ‪‬ـــــﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ Sesbania sesban‬ﺒﺘﺭﺍﻜـــﻴﺯ) ‪ % (2 , 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺘﻲ ﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪ ،Callosobruchus maculatus‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪ . Chemotropometer‬ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟ ﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‪ 67.05‬ﻭ ‪ %67.77‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ % 2‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ‪ 14.06‬ﻭ ‪ . %15.4‬ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ 58.25‬ﻭ‪ %59.21‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ‪ %14.61‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ 91.66‬ﻭ ‪ %100‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ‪ %19.99‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ‪ 0‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ %13.33‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ‪ 80‬ﻭ ‪ %73.33‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ ﺘﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺎﺤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪،‬ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪Abstract‬‬
‫‪The present study showed that the effect of extracts phenolic compounds crud for fruits and leaves‬‬
‫‪of Sesbania sesban at concentration of (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2) % on some biological performances of‬‬
‫‪southern bean beetle known as Callosobruchus maculatus., and studying effect of attractant and‬‬
‫‪repellent of phenolic compounds extracts fruits and leaves in the adult,by using the appliance of‬‬
‫‪chemical Cemotropometer. Eggs mortality rate was 67.05 and 67.66% for fruits and leaves respectively‬‬
‫‪at a concentration of 2mg/ml as compared with 14.06 and 15.4% in the control treatment. Cummaltive‬‬
‫‪mortality rates of immature stage were58.25 and 59.21% at a concentration 2% for fruits and leaves‬‬
‫‪respectively compared with 14.61% in the control treatment. The percentages of attractant and‬‬
‫‪repellent were 0 ,13.33% and 80 , 73.33% respectively for fruits and leaves.‬‬
‫‪key words: Phenolic compounds, plant Alcspan, cowpea beetle South‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻬﺎﺠﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﻭﺘﻌﺩ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ C.maculatus‬ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻵﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼﻴﺏ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻭﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪،‬ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﻭﺠﺩ ﺇﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺼﻴﺏ ‪ 35‬ﻨﻭﻋﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻭﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤﺹ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺵ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺯﺍﻟﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺘﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪، % 62‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺘﺴﺘﻬﻠﻙ ﺤﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ %5‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﻤﻭﻫﺎ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭﻫﺎ )ﺍﻟﻌﺯﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻤﻬﺩﻱ‪ .(1983,‬ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﺨﻨﺎﻓﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻭل‬
‫ﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ‪1.6- 0.8‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ ﻟﻜل ‪5‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ)‪ Bello‬ﻭ ‪ ( 2001 , Edde‬ﻭﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺯﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ )‪ %(40-15‬ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ )‪ Lenteren‬ﻭ ‪, Huis‬‬
‫‪(2003‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺼل ﺍﻟﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ %87‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺨـﺎل ﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺭﻜﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫‪2084‬‬
‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ )‪ . (2006 ,Singh‬ﺇﺫ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻘل ﻭﺘﻜﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺘﻜﺎﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻥ ‪،‬ﻭﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻀﺭﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻴﺭﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ ﺇﻨﻔﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﻜل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﻘﻠل ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻨﺴﺏ ﺇﻨﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ )‪ Bhalla‬ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ ‪ .(2008،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺃﺘﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫)‪(S.sesban‬ﻜﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺒﺩﺍﺌل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﻀﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻭﻨﻴﻨﺎﺕ )‪ Patil‬ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ‪ (2010 ,‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﺍ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﻘﺼﻲ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺘﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴــﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨــﺏ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺘﻲ ﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪C. maculatus‬‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاد وﻃﺮاﺋﻖ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺠﻤﻌﺕ ﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ ﺸﻬﺭ ﺘﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺍﺌﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﺔ‪.‬ﺠﻔﻔﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ )ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ( ﻜﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻭﻁﺤﻨﺕ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴـﺤﻭﻕ‬
‫ﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ‪ ،‬ﺤﻔﻅﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻨﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺤﻜﻡ ﻏﻠﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺠﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ‪ .‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﻡ ﺘﺭﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺴﻡ ﻋﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﺕ –ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺒل ﻭﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻜﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺜﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ )‪ ، C.maculatus (F.‬ﺍﺴـﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬
‫)‪ 1956 , El – sawaf‬ﻭ ‪ Brown‬ﻭ‪ 1988 , Downhower‬ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﺯﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﻤﻬـﺩﻱ ‪ 1983,‬ﻭ ‪Bandara‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ (1995 , Saxena‬ﻭﺘﻤﺕ ﺇﺩﺍﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻟﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﺴـﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﺩﺓ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ־‪º20‬ﻡ ﻭﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻜﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﻗﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻘﺘل ﺃﻱ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻗـﺩ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﻬﺎ )ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‪،(2005،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺨﺭﺠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﺩﺓ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻡ ﺘﺭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺤﺸـﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟـﻠﻭﺒـﻴﺎ ﺒﻨﻘـل ‪ 30‬ﺤﺸﺭﺓ )‪15‬ﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻭ ‪ 15‬ﺇﻨﺎﺙ ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻨﺎﻨﻲ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴـﺔ ﺴﻌـﺔ‬
‫‪ 600‬ﻤل ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻬـﺎ ﺒـﺫﻭﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻑ ‪،‬ﻏـﻁـﻴﺕ ﻓﻭﻫـﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻘــﻤﺎﺵ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻤـل ﻭﺍﺤﻜـﻡ ﺴــﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁـﺔ ﺃﺤﺯﻤﺔ ﻤﻁـﺎﻁـﻴﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻭﻀﻌـﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀـﻨﺔ ﺒـﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪º 2 ±30‬ﻡ ﻭﺭﻁـﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ‪70‬‬
‫‪ Guntrip) %5±‬ﻭ ‪ . (1998 , Sibly‬ﺘﻭﺒﻌﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀـﻭﻋﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺼﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺭﺓ ﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺠﻴﺎل ﻗﺒل ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪S.sesban‬‬
‫ﺍﺘﺒــﻌﺕ ﻁــﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪ (1972) Riberian-Gayon‬ﻟﺘﺤﻀ ـﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘــﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻭﺯﻨﺕ )‪ (20‬ﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﻤـﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺠـﺎﻓﺔ ﻜـﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻭﻀــﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺴــﻌﺔ )‪ (1000‬ﻤل ﺃﻀـﻴﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ )‪ (400‬ﻤل ﻤﻥ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻟﺨــﻠﻴﻙ ‪2%‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺒﻭﺴـﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜـﺜـﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻜـﺱ ‪ Reflex condenser‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻤـﺎﻡ ﻤﺎﺌﻲ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ )‪º(70‬ﻡ ﻭﻟﻤــﺩﺓ‬
‫)‪ (8‬ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ‪،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺞ ﻟﻴﺒﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺸ ﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺞ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺘﺭﺸــﻴﺢ )‪ (Whattman NO.1‬ﻭﻀﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺸﺢ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬
‫‪ Separating funnel‬ﺜﻡ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺸـ ﺢ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻡ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻤﻥ ‪N-Propanol‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻌــﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺼﻭﺩﻴــﻭﻡ ﺜــﻡ ﺭﺝ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺼل ﺤــﺩ ﺍﻹﺸﺒﺎﻉ ﺇﺫ ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﻁﺒﻘــﺘﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﺍﻟﻁـﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ )ﺍﻟﻌﻀـﻭﻴﺔ( ﺍﻟﺤــﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺃﻫﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺒــﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ‪،‬ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺠﻔﻔﺕ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﻤـﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻜﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺭﻗﻴﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺜــﻼﺠﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺒـﻌﺩ ﺘﺴـﺠﻴل‬
‫ﻭﺯﻨـﻬﺎ ﻭﻫـﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﺘــﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜـﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴــﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪2085‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺫﻴﺏ ‪ 2‬ﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴــﻨﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻑ ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻜﻼ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺤــﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﻤل ﻜﺤـﻭل ﺍﺜــﻴﻠﻲ )‪(96%‬ﻭﺃﻜﻤـل ﺍﻟﺤــﺠﻡ ﺇﻟـﻰ )‪ (100‬ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻤـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻓﺄﺼﺒﺢ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤــﻠﻭل ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ )‪ 2% (Stock solution‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﺩل ‪ 20‬ﻤﻠﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻤل ﻭﻤﻨﻪ ﺤﻀﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜــﻴﺯ‬
‫‪ 0.25‬ﻭ ‪ 0.5‬ﻭ ‪ 1‬ﻭ ‪ % 2‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻓﻜﺎﻨﺕ ‪ 3‬ﻤل ﻜﺤﻭل ﺍﺜﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺃﻜﻤــل ﺍﻟﺤـﺠـﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪100‬‬
‫ﻤل ﺒﺎﻟﻤـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁــﺭ‪ .‬ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻜﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ‪،‬ﻋﻭﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻟﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻤﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎ ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ ‪ 30‬ﺒﻴﻀﺔ ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻁﺒﻕ ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻜﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻜل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻭﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺭﺵ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺽ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﺸﺔ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﺭﻜﺕ ﻟﺘﺠﻑ ﺜﻡ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﻨﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪º30‬ﻡ ﻭﺘﻭﺒﻌﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺤﺴﺒﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻟﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪ (1925 , Abbotte) Abbotte‬ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺨﺫﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﺘﺭﻱ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ 5‬ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻜﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻜل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‪ .‬ﺜﻡ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻟﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻘﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻌـﺭﻓﺔ ﺘﺄﺜــﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴـﺯ ﻤﺴـﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔـﻴﻨﻭﻟـﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒــﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴـﺴﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬــﻼﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﺸﺎﻫﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻭﻀﻭﺤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﺫ ﺘﻡ ﻋﻤل ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ ‪ 3‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ ﻟﻜل ﻁﺒﻕ ﺇﺫ ﺃﺨﺫﺕ‬
‫‪ 10‬ﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻌﻤﺭ ‪ 2-1‬ﻴﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﻘﺱ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺽ ﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺸﺭﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻭﺒﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻜﺭﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻜل ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺇﺫ ﻋﻭﻤﻠﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺒﺘﺭ ﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻜﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺭﺸﻬﺎ ‪،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺒﻌﺕ ﻭﺼﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻭﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﻤﻭﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﺘﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻟﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻟﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺇﻨﺘـــﺎﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺱ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤـﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴـﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻐـﺎﺕ ﺤﺸـﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴـﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴـﺔ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬـﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴـﺎﺌﻲ‬
‫‪Chemotropometer‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻋﻥ ‪ ، (1931) Folsom‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺨﺸﺒﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻁﻭل ‪ 48‬ﺴﻡ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ‪ 20‬ﺴﻡ ﻭﻟﻪ ﻏﻁﺎﺀ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺘﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﻘﺎﺒﻠﺘﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺒﻁـﻭل‬
‫‪ 100‬ﺴﻡ ﻭﻗﻁﺭ‪3‬ﺴﻡ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻹﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻤﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ‪،‬ﻴﺴـﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻓﺎ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺒﻘﻁﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻥ ‪ .‬ﻋﻭﻤﻠﺕ ﻗﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺒـﻭﺏ ﺒﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴـﺯ ﻤﺴـﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻜﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻥ ﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺭﻯ ﻓﻌﻭﻤﻠﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺇﺫ ﻋﺩ‪‬ﺕ ﻜﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ‪ 5‬ﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻭﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅـﺎﺭ ﻟﻔﺘـﺭﺓ ‪20‬‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻟﻴﺤﺴﺏ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺠﺫﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻅـﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻴﻨﻅﻑ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺒﺈﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﻭﺘﻨﻅﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜل‬
‫‪2086‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻜﺭﺭﺕ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻜﺭﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺤﺴﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ 1971 , Busvine‬ﻭﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺡ‪ .(1993,‬ﺴﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﺒﺎﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﻗﻁﻌﺕ ‪25‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ= ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ × ‪100‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﻬﺔ ﻋﻜﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺓ ﻭﻗﻁﻌﺕ ‪ 25‬ﺴﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ= ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ × ‪100‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ = ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ – ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ‬
‫ﺤﻠﻠﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻭﻓﻕ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺘـﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺸـﻴﺔ‬
‫‪(Factorial‬‬
‫)‪ experiments with completely randomized design‬ﻭﺼﺤﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻜـﺎﺕ ﻭﻓـﻕ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪.(1925 , Abbotte) Abbott Formula‬‬
‫‪ %‬ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ % -‬ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬
‫‪%‬ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﺤﺔ = ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ × ‪100‬‬
‫‪ % - 100‬ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻗل ﻓﺭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻱ )‪ Least significant Differences (L.S.D‬ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ‪0.05‬‬
‫‪ p ‬ﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ‪ .‬ﺤﻭﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﺤﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﻹﺩﺨﺎﻟﻬـﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴـل‬
‫ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ )ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻭﻱ ﻭﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﷲ‪.(2000 ،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (1‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺒﻴﺽ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ ، C.maculatus‬ﺇﺫ ﺘﺭﺍﻭﺤﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺒﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺴـﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨـﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜــﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨـﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ % 67.0 -56.75‬ﻭ ‪ % 67.77-57.70‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ )‪ % (2 - 0.25‬ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺴﺠﻠﺕ ) ‪ . % (15.4 -13.96‬ﺩﻟﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍ ﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ ‪.‬‬
‫‪2087‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل ) ‪ ( 1‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺒﻴﺽ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪C.maculatus‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ )‪(%‬‬
‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ‪%‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪14.06‬‬
‫‪15.4‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪56.75‬‬
‫‪57.70‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪65.1‬‬
‫‪62.01‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪64.28‬‬
‫‪65.77‬‬
‫‪67.77‬‬
‫‪67.05‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ L .S .D‬ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ 0.05‬ﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﺎﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﻭﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺽ = ‪1.38‬‬
‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜل )‪ ( 1‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬
‫‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﺤﺸـﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴـﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴـﺔ‬
‫‪ C.maculatus‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫) ‪ 58.25‬ﻭ‪ (% 59.21‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ % 2‬ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ )‪ (%14.61‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺒﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬
‫) ‪ 91.66‬ﻭ ‪ (% 100‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒـﺘﺭﻜــﻴﺯ ‪ % 2‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻁﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ )‪ ، (%19.99‬ﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺸﻜل )‪ (2‬ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﮭﻼك )‪(%‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﯿﺮﻗﻲ ‪ -‬اﻟﻌﺬري‬
‫اﻻدوار ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺒﯿﻮض‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫‪2088‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﮭﻼك )‪(%‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫اﻟﺒﯿﻮض‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﯿﺮﻗﻲ‪ -‬اﻟﻌﺬري‬
‫اﻻدوار ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ ( 1‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ C.maculatus‬ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﮭﻼك )‪(%‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﻌﺬري‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﯿﺮﻗﻲ‬
‫اﻻدوار ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫‪120‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪60‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﻌﺬري‬
‫اﻟﺪور اﻟﯿﺮﻗﻲ‬
‫اﻻدوار ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫‪2089‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫اﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺌﻮﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﮭﻼك )‪(%‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫ﺸﻜل ) ‪ ( 2‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩل ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ C.maculatus‬ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐـﺔ ﻟﺤﺸـﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪ C.maculatus‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴـﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺴﺒﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻤﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺽ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺴﺕ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﺒﺫﺭﺓ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺘﻌﺩ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺴﺒﺏ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺁﻨﻔﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺴﻤﻡ ﺨﻼﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺅﻭﻟﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬
‫ﻜﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺍﺼﺭ ﻫﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﻫﻀﻤﻬﺎ ) ‪ Al-Zubaidi‬ﻭ‪ .( 1989 ، Halify‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﻤﺘﻨـﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻫﻼﻜﻬـﺎ )‪ . ( 1978، Rockstein‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﺜـﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﻼﻙ ﻋﺫﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻌﻠل ﺴﺒﺏ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺠـﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺫﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺭ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﻡ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺎ ﻭﺸﻔﺎﻓﺎ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺏ )ﺍﻟـﺩﺭﻜﺯﻟﻲ ‪,‬‬
‫‪ . (1982‬ﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺴﻠﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻫﻤﺎ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺴﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺇﺫ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺨﻠﻼ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻹﻓﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﺩﻓﺔ ) ‪ ( 1978، Chapman‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺴﺒﺒﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻫﻼﻜﺎ ﻟﻸﻁﻭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺯﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻫﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫) ‪ ( 2001 ، Kelany‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﺭﻗﺎﺕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟ ﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻗﺘل‬
‫ﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ) ‪ Metspalu‬ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘﻪ ‪ .( 2001 ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠـﺎل ﺒـﻴﻥ ‪ Klocke‬ﻭﺠﻤﺎﻋﺘـﻪ‬
‫) ‪ (1980‬ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻤﺜل ‪ ellagic acid‬ﻭ ‪ geranin‬ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺯﻭﻟﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺜـﺎﻨﻭﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻲ ‪ Tamarix chinesis‬ﻗﺩ ﺜﺒﻁ ﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻴﺭﻗﻲ ﻟـﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺒـﺭﺍﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺒـﻎ ‪Heliothis‬‬
‫‪ ، virescense‬ﻭﺃﺸﺎﺭﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻟﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺴﻴﻭﻡ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻤﺴــﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜــﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨــﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻭﺍﻨـــﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴــﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨـﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴـﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﻟـﻐﺎﺕ ﺤﺸـﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠـﻭﺒﻴـﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ C.maculatus‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪Chemotropometer‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁـﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ % ( -80 , 80 , 0 ) %2‬ﻭ)‪ % (-60 , 73.33 , 13.33‬ﻟﻠﺜﻤـﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ، (2‬ﻭﺴﺒﺏ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ) ‪ (%100‬ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻘﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺨل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺘﻌﺩ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 25‬ﺴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺯ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﻴﻥ ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻟﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺩﻟﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻹﺤﺼﺎﺌﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬
‫‪2090‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل ) ‪ ( 2‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺯ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻡ ﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺴﺒﺎﻥ ‪ S.sesban‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪C. maculatus‬‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻨﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ)‪(%‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ)‪(%‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪66.66‬‬
‫‪-66.66‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪66.66‬‬
‫‪-66.66‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪73.33‬‬
‫‪-73.33‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪73.33‬‬
‫‪-73.33‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪73.33‬‬
‫‪-73.33‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪73.33‬‬
‫‪-73.33‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪13.3‬‬
‫‪73.33‬‬
‫‪-60‬‬
‫‪-80‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪L.S.D‬ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ 0.05‬ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ =‪4.454‬‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪L.S.D‬ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ 0.05‬ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ = ‪3.616‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻀﺢ ﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺡ )‪ (1993‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺯﻴﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻁـﺎﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻭﻜﺎﻟﺒﺘﻭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ‪C.maculatus‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻱ ﺒﺎﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ‪ 17‬ﻭ‪ % 7‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ‪ 47‬ﻭ ‪ % 73‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻓﺒﻠﻐﺕ ‪ 23+‬ﻭ ‪ % 66-‬ﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻭﻜﺎﻟﺒﺘﻭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺤﻤﺯﺓ )‪ (2001‬ﺒﻴﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻨﻭﻉ ﻭﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﻁﺭﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺒﻌﻭﺽ ‪ Culex pipenes‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻱ ﺇﺫ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫‪Nigella‬‬
‫‪ % 17) sativa‬ﻭ ‪ %3‬ﻭ ‪ (-14‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻜـﺎﻟﺒﺘﻭﺱ ‪ Eucalyptus spp‬ﻓﻘـﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ )‪ %27‬ﻭ ‪ %10‬ﻭ ‪ (-17‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻤل ) ‪ %13‬ﻭ ‪ %17‬ﻭ ‪(+4‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪ Chemotropometer‬ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﺤﻔﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺯﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺜﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺠﺩﺍ ﻟﻠﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺌﺭﺓ ﻤﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﺇﺘﺒﺎﻉ ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻠﺩ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻥ )ﺤﻤﺯﺓ ‪(2001 ,‬‬
‫‪ .‬ﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺼﻁﻴﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻤﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ )ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‪ .(2005 ,‬ﺒﻴﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺼﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫) ‪ (2007‬ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺫﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل ﺍﻻﺜﻴﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺨﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺜﻴـل ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻬﻜﺴـﺎﻥ(‬
‫ﻟﺭﻴﺯﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺩ ‪ Cyperus rotundus‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻟﺒﺎﻟﻐﺎﺕ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ % 2.5‬ﺃﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺤﻭل ﺍﻻﺜﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺨﻼﺕ ﺍﻻﺜﻴل ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺇﺫ‬
‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ )‪ 20‬ﻭ ‪ (% 80‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨـﺔ ) ‪ ( -60‬ﺃﻤـﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﺍﻟﻬﻜﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ )‪ 26.6‬ﻭ ‪ (% 73.4‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻓﻘﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ )‪ (-46.8‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ 20‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻔﻕ ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫‪2091‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ‪ .‬ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻏﻔﻭﺭ ﻭﻗﺎﺩﺭ )‪ (2011‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﺫﺏ ﻟﻠﺯﻴﻭﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺭﺒﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻲ ‪ Chemotropometer‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ‪ %8‬ﺃﻥ ﺯﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻁﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻁﺭﺩ ﻓﺒﻠﻐﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ‪ 76.66‬ﻭ ‪ % 23.33‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ‪ % -53.33‬ﻭﺘﻼﻫﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺯ ﺍﻟﻤﺭ ‪ 73.33‬ﻭ ‪ %26.67‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ‪ %-46.66‬ﺃﻤـﺎ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ‪ 60‬ﻭ ‪ % 40‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﻟﻲ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ‪ %-20‬ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﺭﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺫﺏ ﻟﺯﻴﺕ ﺍﻟﺯﻨﺠﺒﻴل ‪ 56.66‬ﻭ ‪ %43.33‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻭ ﺍﻟﻲ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ‪. %-13.33‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠﺼﺎﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺡ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺯﻫﺭﺓ ﻤﺤﺴﻥ ‪ . (2007) .‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﻴﺩ ﺃﻜﺘﻠﻙ ﻭﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﺤﻴﻕ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﺫﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺼﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴـﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴـﺔ ) ‪Callosobruchus‬‬
‫)‪ . maculates (Fabricius) (Coleoptera:Bruchidae‬ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ‪ /‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻓﺔ ‪57‬ﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻜﺯﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻌﻡ‪ .1982 .‬ﻋﻠﻡ ﻓﺴﻠﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ /‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل‪ 464.‬ﺼﻔﺤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺸﻊ ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ ﻭﺨﻠﻑ ﺍﷲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩﺍﻟﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‪ .2000 .‬ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‪.‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل‪.‬ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ 488 .‬ﺼﻔﺤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﺍﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻠﻴﺢ ﻭﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﻁﺎﻫﺭ ﻤﻬﺩﻱ ) ‪ . (1983‬ﺤﺸﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﺯﻥ ‪ .‬ﻤﻁﺒﻌﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ ﺒﻐـﺩﺍﺩ ‪460 ،‬‬
‫ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﻤﺯﺓ ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺱ ﻜﺎﻅﻡ ‪ .(2001).‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺭﺩ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘـﺎﺕ ﻀـﺩ ﺒﻌـﻭﺽ‬
‫‪ ، (Diptera: Culicidae) Culex pipiens‬ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ‪،‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ‪/‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌـﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺴـﻴﺔ ‪107‬‬
‫ﺼﻔﺤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤل ﻜﻤﺎل ‪ .(2005)،‬ﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻜﺎﻟﺒﺘﻭﺱ‪Eucalyptus camldulenis L.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺤﺒﺢ ‪ ، Melia azedarach L.‬ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻓﻠﺔ ‪Nerium oleander L.‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺤﺸﺭﺓ ﺨﻨﻔﺴـﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺤـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺌﻴﺔ )‪Tribolium castaneum ( Herbst‬‬
‫)‪ ( Coleoptera , Tenebrionidae‬ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺘﻜﺭﻴﺕ ‪102 ،‬ﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺸﻌﺒﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺯﺍﺭ ﻤﺼﻁﻔﻰ ‪ .(1993 ).‬ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟ ﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤـﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺏ ﻟﻠﻁﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‪ /‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼل ‪ 520‬ﺼﻔﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﺯﻡ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻤﻬﻴﻭﺏ ‪ . (2005),‬ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻜﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻤﺎﺠﺴﺘﻴﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻙ ﺴﻌﻭﺩ ‪ 101 ،‬ﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻏﻔﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺸﺎﻫﻭ ﻤﻴﺭﺯﺍ ﻭ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺨﻭﺵ ﺠﻭﻫﺭ ﺭﺸﻴﺩ ‪ .(2011).‬ﺨﻨﻔﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻠﻭﺒﻴﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﻜﺎﻓﺤﺔ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻘﺒﻭل ﻟﻠﻨﺸﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪Abbott , W. S .(1925) . A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide . J.‬‬
‫‪Econ. Entomol . 18 : 265- 267 .‬‬
‫‪Bandara , K. A. N. P. and Saxena , R. C. (1995). A technique For handling and‬‬
‫‪sexing Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) adults (Coleoptera : Bruchidae). J. of‬‬
‫‪Stored Product Research. 31 (1): 97 – 100.‬‬
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