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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
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Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Content :
- Anatomy ……………….…… 3
• Complete exams ………. 9
- physiology ……………..……. 21
• Complete exams ……….. 26
- Biochemistry …………………... 39
• Complete exams ……………. 48
- Histology ………………………... 66
• Complete exams ……………. 70
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
ANATOMY
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Head & neck
Give an account on the following:
• Anatomy of cavernous sinus. (78,79,84, 97)
• Blood supply of thyroid gland. Discuss in details.
(78, 79,89)
• The anatomy and content of paro#d gland. (79,94)
Mention:
• Arteries behind the ear in the scalp.
• Muscles of the scalp and their nerve supply.
• Branches of facial artery in the face.
• Significance of bregna in skull.
• Sensory innervations of external nose.
• Termination of retromandibular vein(posterior facial)
Give an account on:
• The scalp.
• Course & distribution of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve.
• Lateral pterygoid muscle.
(90)
• The inves#ng layer of deep facial of the neck. (90)
• Short ciliary nerves.
(90)
• Thyrocervical trunk.
(90)
• Posterior belly of digastric muscle.
(91,92)
• Lymphatic drainage of #p of tongue.
(90,97)
• Motor nerve supply of tensor palati and thyrohyoid muscles. (90)
• Caro#d sheath.
(90)
• Nasopharynx.
(90)
• Venous drainage of the face &scalp including its surgical significance.
• Maxillary artery.
(89,92)
• Facial nerve.
(89)
• Thyroid gland.
(92)
• Mandibular nerve.
(93)
Describe:
• The emissary veins and their surgical significance. (80,88)
• The rela#on of submandibular gland.
(80,88)
• The anatomy of the submandibular salivary gland including its blood & nerve
supply.
(96)
• Contents &connections of the cavernous sinus and its applied anatomy.
(80,93)
• the nerve supply ,mucous membrane and muscles of:
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
a) tongue
b) larynx
• The course, relations and distribution of the right phernicy nerve.
(80)
• Anatomy of paro#d gland.
(86,94)
• Lateral wall of nose.
(88,91)
• The arterial blood supply of the medulla oblongata and its clinical significance.
(Jun 90)
Neuroanatomy
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Pyramidal tract.
(88)
Corpus callosum.
(86,97)
Posterior column of spinal cord.
(88)
Boundaries of fourth ventricle of the brain.(80, 88)
Pathway of deep sensa#on.
(91)
Internal capsule.
(91,92)
Differences between upper and lower motor neuronic lesions
Arterial blood supply of the spinal cord. (89,90)
Nucleus solitaries.
(90)
Visual pathway 5 and effects of its lesion at different levels.
(89)
Tract of deep sensa#on of right big toe in spinal cord. (89)
Two main tracts affected by hemisection of spinal cord.
(89)
Levels of termination of Dura matter of spinal cord.
Circulus arteriosus at the base of the brain (circle of willis). (79,94,97)
Third ventricle.
(92, 93)
Anatomy of the frontal lobe
(97)
The lemnisci in the CNS.
(96)
Special Embryology
Cardiovascular system:
• Describe the development of right atrium.
( 78, 78,87)
• Describe in details the development of le; atrium.(79)
• give an account on fetal circulation & changes. which occur after birth.(81,84, 92)
• give an account on :
o Development of interatrial.
o Development of arch of aorta.
• Enumerate the anomalies of the heart.
• Describe the development of the superior venacava & the anomalies that may
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
occur.
(79)
• Give an account on sinus venous.
(91)
• Development of truncus arteriosus.
(94)
Respiratory system:
Describe the development of tracheobronchial tree. (86)
i.
Give an account on development of lung.
(90,91)
Head & Neck
• Mention the embryonic layers from which the smooth muscles of the iris & the
Dura ma>er are derived.
(Feb 88)
• Describe the development of the thyroid gland.
• Give an account on the derivatives of pharyngeal pouches.
(88)
• Give an account on development of the tongue.
• Give an account on development of pituitary gland.
(90,91)
• Give an account on derivatives of the brachial arches.
(Sept 94)
Abdomen
N.B.: to cover a question in an organ these pionts must be descussed (site – shpe –
size – features – peritoneal coverings – ligaments – relations – blood supply – nerve
supply - applied)
Describe:
• Anterior relations of left kidney.
• Blood supply of Stomach.
• Boundaries of openings of lesser sac.
• Attachment of the root of Mesentery of the small intestine. And Mention its
contents.
• Blood supply of the suprarenal gland.
• The blood supply of the peritoneal connections of the stomach.
• the origin of diaphragm and is openings.
• Surface Antomy of (Appendix – fundus of gall bladder – liver – spleen).
• Origin, course, relations and branches of (Splenic artery – sup. Mesemteric artery).
Mention
• Posterior wall of inguinal canal.
• Anterior boundaries of Lumbar triangle.
• 2 umbilical ligaments of embryonic origin.
• Insertion of rectus abdominis muscle.
• Arteries of rectus sheath.
• Structures passing through the inguinal rings in females.
• The surface marking of the esophageal opening in the diaphragm.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
• Vessels in gastro-splenic ligament.
• Vessels in front of left ureter.
• Two hollow viscera in front of left kidney.
• The tributaries of the left renal vein.
• The surface marking of the fundus of gall bladder.
• Drainage of inferior mesenteric vein.
• The anastomosing veins around the abdominal esophagus.
• Veins of anterior and posterior openings of the lesser sac.
• Structures behind the medial arcuate ligament.
• Major Foramina of the diaphragm.
• Boundaries of epiploic foramen.
• Coverings of the tesis.
• Tributaries of portal vein.
Give short account on
• Arterial supply of (the Colon – Liver – spleen).
• Relations of Caecum.
• The right kidney.
• Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the stomach.
• The posterior relation of The Stomach and its blood supply.
• Psoas Major Muscle.
• Internal oblique muscle.
• Rectus sheath.
• Posterior relations of the stomach.
• Vermiform appendix.
• Spermatic cord.
• Blood supply and development of the duodenum.
• The Contents of The rectus sheath.
• Inguinal Canal and its surgical significance.
• The inferior mesenteric artery.
• Left ureter.
• Differentiate between ileum and jejunum.
• Enumerate sites of Porto-systemic anastomosis and its surgical significance.
• Compare inguinal and femoral hernia.
• Discuss Rectus Sheath formation and content.
Pelvis
• Describe in details the anatomy of the urinary bladder.
• Give short account on pelvic peritoneum on male and female.
• Give short account on the broad ligament of the uterus.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
• Give an account on blood supply of female urinary bladder. Give relations to its
base in males.
• Give an account on anal Canal.
• Give an account on relations of the rectum in both sexes.
• Mention Structures attached to the white line of hipbone.
• Mention branches of external iliac artery.
• Mention structures crossing ala of Sacrum.
• Mention nerves of Levator ani.
• Mention veins of rectum.
• Mention structures opening into the prostatic urethra.
• Mention different parts of uterus.
• Mention two muscles of superficial perineal pouch.
• Give short account on prostate.
• Give short account on Male Urethra .add a note on its rupture in superficial
perineal pouch.
• Give short account on urinary bladder and its blood supply.
• Ischeorectal Fossa ( shape, site, boundaries, content)
• Mention nerve supply and action of(obturator internus - piriformis) .
• Enumerate (sphincters of anal canal – Boundaries of deep perineal pouch).
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Complete Exams
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
1998
May
Give an account on
1-Surface anatomy of the pleura.
2-venous drainage of the heart.
3-Development of superior venacava.
4-Maxillary artery origin,termintion, course,relations and branches.
5-Infrahyoid muscles.
6-Somatomotor areas.
7-Blood supply of spinal cord.
8-Development of pituitary gland.
1998
September
Give an account on
1-Mandibular nerve, course, relation and distribution.
2-pituitary gland.
3-Cranial subarachnoid space.
4-Visual pathway and its lesions.
5-Give an account on the development of pharyngeal (branchial arches).
1999
May
Give an account on
1-Thyroid gland.
2-Constictors of pharynx.
3-Nuclei of facial nerve.
4-Lesion of spinal cord.
5-Arterial blood supply of the heart.
6-Development of:
a-Palate and its anomalies.
b-Right atrium.
1999
September
Give an account on:
1-Anatomy of the submandibular salivary gland.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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2-sternocleidomastiod muscle . (attacement, action & nerve supply)
3-internal capsule.
4-spinothalamic tracts.
5-venous drianage of the heart.
6-fate of the different aortic arches.
7-development of spinal cord.
2000
May
Give an account on
1-muscles of tongue.
2-internal jugular vein.
3-arterial blood supply of spinal cord.
4-sulci,gyri,functional area and blood supply of
temporal lobe.
5-surface anatomy of the heart and its valves.
6-pharyngeal pouches.
2000
September
- Cavernous sinus
- Parotid gland
- Third vertical
- Lateral spinothalamic tract
- Mediastinal surface of the left lung
- Left coronary artery
- Development of pituitary gland
- Development of interatrial septum.
2001
May
Give an account on:
1-extracranial course of hypoglossal nerve&its distribution .
2-muscle of mastication(origin,insertion,nerve supply,action)
3-vagal nerve nuclei and their functional distribution.
4-circle of willis(site,formation&its branches)
5-arch of aorta.
6-foetal circulation&its changes after birth.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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2001
September
Give an account on:
1-give the relation and blood supply of thyriod gland.
2-give an account on nerve supply of tongue.
3-give an account on third ventricle.
4-give an account on visual pathway.
5-describ the surface anatomy of the lungs and pleura.
6-mention the development of inter-atrial septum.
7-eumerate derivatives of the mesoderm of the first pharyngeal arch.
2002
May
Give an account on
1-Nerve supply of tongue.
2-Submandibular salivary gland.
3-Arterial blood supply of the medulla oblongata and its applied anatomy.
4-Corpus callosum.
5-Azygos vein.
6-Development of pituitary gland.
7-Enumerate derivatives of mesoderm of the first pharygeal arch
2002
September
Give an account on:
1- Thyroid gland
2-4th ventricle
3-Muscles of matisfaction
4- Atrium development
5- Pharyngeal arches
6- Arches of Aorta
2003
May
All the questions are to be answered.
1. Submandibular salivary gland and its blood supply. (15 marks)
2. Falx cerebri Internal capsule and its blood supply.(10 marks)
3. Trigeminal nerve nuclei.
(10 marks)
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4. Surface anatomy of the heart and its valves. (15 marks)
5. Development of the tongue.
(15 marks)
2004
May
Answer all the questions.
1- Give the anatomy of pituitary gland (position, relations, blood supply, &development)
(15)
2- Give the origin , insertion, nerve supply & action of the following FIVE muscles :
Genioglossus, buccinator, sternocleidomastoid, medial pterygoid & tensor palate (20)
3- Give the beginning, termina#on & func#on of the different lemnisci. (10)
4- Describe the roof, floor, boundaries & foramina of the fourth ventricle (10)
5- Describe the surface anatomy of the pleura and the lungs. (15)
6- Describe the development of the arch of aorta & its three main branches (10)
2004
September
Give an account on :
1-Layers of scalp and its nerve supply
2- Nerve supply and action of the following muscles : Digastric muscle , stylopharyngeus
muscle , temporalis muscle , geniohoid muscle , cricothyroid muscle.
3- Pathway of Pain and Temperature
4- Arterial supply of spinal cord
5- Arterial supply of the heart
6- Enumerate derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch
7- Development of superior vena cava
2005
May
1. Give the relations& the structures inside & nerve supply of paro#d gland. (20)
2. Mention the boundaries & enumerate contents of posterior triangle of neck (10)
3. Give the loca#on & func#onal distribu#on of the different vagal nuclei. (10)
4. Give the boundaries, recesses & communica#ons of the third ventricle. (10)
5. Give the beginning, course, tributaries & end of the azygos vein.
(15)
A. enumerate the deriva#ves of the second pharyngeal arch.
(7)
B. Describe descent of testis & ovaries and enumerate anomalies of this descent (8)
Examination Note
-2nd year
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2005
September
All questions are to be answered
1. Relation of the lobe of thyroid gland and its blood supply
2. Nerve supply of the face
3. Pathway of proprioception from the lower limb
4. Circle of willis (Circulus Arteriosus )
5. Enumerate structure of superior mediastinum.
6. Development inertial septum.
7. Development of a vertebra.
2006
may
Answer all questions
Give abreif account on:
1- hyoglossus muscle( origin,insertion,nerve supply,relation) (10).
2- nerve supply of pharynx& larynx (enumera#on) (10).
3- cavernous sinus ( site, tributaries, communica#ons, drainage)(10).
4- arterial supply of cervical part of spinal cord.(10)
5- corpus callosum. (10)
6- surface anatomy of the heart& its valves.(10)
7- arterial supply& nerve supply of lungs (enumera#on of artries& nerves)(5)
8- anomalies arising during development of male urethra (enumera#on)(5)
9- development of tongue.(10)
2006
September
Give an account on
1- Relations of the parotid gland.(15)
2- Distribu#on of the mandibular nerve. (15)
3- Site &effect of lesion of each of the speach areas. (6)
4- The anterior cerebral artery (begining , end , course & branches) . (14)
5- Venous drainage of the heart. (7)
6- Enumerate Structures in the superior medias#num. (8)
7- Development of the thyroid gland. (7)
8- Deriva#ves of the second pharyngeal arch. (8)
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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2007
may
All questions are to be answered
1-Enumerate intr & extra-ocular muscles . Mention action & nerve supply of each. “ 15
marks”
2- Enumerate the nuclei of origin of glossopharyngeal nerve . Describe its course in the
neck & enumerate its branches.
“ 15 marks”
3- Give the beginning and the end of subclavian artery . Enumerate branshes of its first
part . “ 5 marks”
4- Describe arterial supply of cervical part of spinal cord “ 5 marks”
5- Enumerate and locate functional areas on the superolateral surface of the frontal
lobe . Give their blood supply . “ 10 marks”
6- Give the beginning and end of azygos vein. Enumerate its tributaries . “ 10 marks”
7- Give the surface anatomy of the anterior border of the right & left lungs.“ 5 marks”
8- Fate of truneus arteriosus and its anomalies . "5 marks”
9- Give deriva#ves of the second pharyngeal arch . "10 marks"
2007
September
Give an account on:
1- Nerve supply of face.(15M)
2- Hyoglossus muscle (a>achment , nerve supply , ac#on & rela#on) (15M)
3- Course & branches of fourth part of vertebral artery & basilar artery. (10M)
4- Pain pathway from the face and body. (10M)
5- Course and branches of typical intercostals nerve. (8M)
6- Enumerate branches of descending thoracic aorta. (7M)
7- Give the development of pituitary gland, anal canal & S.V.C. (15M)
2008
May
Answer all the following questions:
1. (Case 1)
A 5 years old child fell off his bicycle and his head hit the pavement. A 2 cm long
wound in his scalp was seen, but soon he was sitting in a pool of blood.
1) Why does a scalp wound bleed profusely? (1 mark)
2) How can u stop the bleeding if u r away from a hospital? (0.5 Mark)
3) Name arteries supplying the scalp? (2.5 Marks)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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4) Which is the dangerous layer of the scalp? Why is it dangerous? (1 Mark)
2. (Case 2)
A 30 years old lady visited her doctor complaining of headache and unilateral nasal
discharge especially during the night. The doctor noticed tenderness over the maxilla &
after doing an X-ray to the head and neck, he told her she had sinusitis.
1) Which Para nasal air sinus is affected? (1 Mark)
2) Why is it the most commonly infected Para nasal sinus? (2 Marks)
3) Why is the discharge more at night? (1 Mark)
4) What is the nerve supply of the sinus? (1 Mark)
3. Describe the blood supply of the thyroid gland; name the structures liable to be injured
during surgery. (10 Marks)
4. Give the course & distribution of the facial nerve after its exit from the skull, Comment
on its injury at that site. (8 Marks)
5. Give the site, blood supply & effect of lesion of the following cortical areas: auditory
area, visual area, anterior part of Para central lobule. (10 Marks)
6. Name arteries sharing in the circle of Willis. Where it located & what is is its significance
(8 Marks)
7. Describe features seen in the interior of the left ventricle & comment on development
of interventricular septum. (12 Marks)
8. Give the drainage of posterior intercostals veins. (8 Marks)
9. Comment on development of the liver. (5 Marks)
10. Give the fate of pharyngeal cle;s. (4 Marks)
2008
september
1. Case (1):
During an argument with his wife, a 48 year-old man experienced a sudden crushing
substernal pain in his chest. He was transferred to hospital and was noted to have a heart
rate of 40 beats/min and diagnosed as acute myocardial infarc#on due to block of a
coronary artery.
1- Are coronary arteries anatomical or func#onal end arteries? (1 M)
2- Enumerate main coronary arteries and their origin. (2 M)
3- Which coronary artery is the most likely affected? (1 M)
4- Explain why coronary obstruction is more dangerous if it occurs in young than old
age. (1 M)
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2. Case (2):
A 30 year-old woman complained of a swelling in the anterior part of her neck,
nervousness and loss of weight. The doctor examined her and found an enlarged thyroid
gland which moved up and down with swallowing. He suggested that a subtotal
thyroidectomy (partial removal of thyroid gland) had to be performed.
1- Why do swellings of thyroid gland move up and down with swallowing? (1 M)
2- What important structures could be injured in opera#ons of thyroid gland? (2 M)
3- Enumerate the main vessels supplying the thyroid gland. (2 M)
3. Give the course and distribu#on of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (10 M)
4. Describe action & nerve supply of the following muscles: hyoglossus, sternohyoid,
lateral pterygoid, inferior oblique of eyeball, and sternocleidomastoid. (10 M)
5. Describe the arterial supply of medulla oblongata. Give a brief note on medial
medullary syndrome. (10 M)
6. Describe the associa#on fibers of the cerebral hemispheres. (10 M)
7. Give beginning, end, tributaries, and importance of the azygos vein. (10 M)
8. Correlate between development of truncus arteriosus & possible ongenital anomalies.
(5 M)
9. Enumerate deriva#ves of cloaca. (5 M)
10. Give a brief account on development of pituitary gland. (5 M)
2009
May
Answer all the questions
1- Describe venous drainage of face & its applied anatomy.
(10 marks)
2- Locate the hypoglossal nucleus, describe its intracranial & extracranial course, &
give its distribution.
(10 marks)
3- Describe the origin, course & distribution of middle cerebral artery. (8 marks)
4- Give the pain pathway from the face.
(7 marks)
5- Give the surface anatomy of borders & valves of heart. Indicate places where its
valves are best heard (auscultated).
(10 marks)
6- Describe the fetal circulation & changes occurring after birth.
(10 marks)
Anatomy clinical cases
Case 1
A 45 year old man rushed to the hospital a;er a car accident. On examina#on, he had
paralysis of left leg (LMNL) & loss of proprioceptive sensation of the left leg, while the
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right leg exhibited loss of pain & temperature sensation. Loss of sensation in skin of
abdomen was noted below the level of the umbilicus.
A lesion in spinal cord was diagnosed.
1. Name the lesion. (1 mark)
2. On which side was the spinal cord lesion? (1 mark)
3. At which level was the lesion? (1 mark)
4. Injury of which structures caused the paralysis & loss of sensation in the left leg?
(2 marks)
Case 2
A 57 year old man develops a myocardial infarc#on. He has severe retrosternal pain that
radiated to the left arm. He is noted to have a slow heart rate 40 beats/min. (normal rate
70-80 beats/min). The cardiologist diagnosed a coronary artery occlusion.
1. Which structure in the heart ini#ates its impulse? Where is it located? (2 marks)
2. Which coronary artery usually supplies this structure? (1 mark)
3. Are the coronary arteries end arteries? (1 mark)
4. Explain pain radia#on to the le; arm. (1 mark)
Case 3
A 2 years old boy was brought to the hospital a;er his mother no#ced abnormal posi#on
of his neck. The doctor noted that the neck was bent to the left side while the face
looked to the right.
1. Name this clinical condi#on. (1 mark)
2. Which muscle is involved? Indicate the side affected? (2 marks)
3. What is the nerve supply of this muscle? (1 mark)
4. Name another muscle supplied by the same nerve. (1 mark)
Case 4
A 65 year old man fell & lost his consciousness at the gate of a hospital. The doctor
rushed & felt for pulse in front of sternomastoid muscle.
1. Which artery's pulse did he feel? (1 mark)
2. From which aortic arch did this artery develop? (1 mark)
3. At which level in the neck does it divide into its terminal branches? (1 mark)
4. What is the rela#on of the vein to the artery in the neck? (1 mark)
5. Name one structure present at the bifurcation (termination) of the artery &
mention its significance. (1 mark)
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-2nd year
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2010
May
1- List the jugular veins. Give their beginning, termination and tributaries of each. Add
note on their clinical significance. (9 marks)
2- Describe the distribu#on of accessory nerve. How can you test for its injury? (6 marks)
3- Locate speech areas in the cerebral hemispheres; predict the effect of the lesion in
these areas. (5 marks)
4- Describe the vertebro-basilar supply of the bran. (Brief course and branches of the
arteries). (10 marks)
5- Give the relations of the base of urinary bladder. (5 marks)
6- List rela#ons of le; kidney (10 marks)
7- Describe development of the upper lip and its anomalies. (5 marks)
8- Describe development of the anal canal and it s anomalies. (5 marks)
Case 1 (7marks):
A 65-years old woman was admitted to the hospital complaining of severe pain in her
chest that radiated to the left shoulder. This pain was not relieved by chest. ECG showed
an infarction in the anterior wall of the left ventricle.
Questions:
1) Which artery supplies anterior wall of the le; ventricle (1mark)
2) Name the branches of right coronary artery (2 marks)
3) Locate the different parts of the conduc#ng system of the heart (3 marks)
4) Men#on the surface anatomy of the apex of the heart (1 mark)
Case 2 (5 marks):
A young man, while sucking a piece of lemon, noticed painful swelling below the
mandible with a small nodule related to the swelling. Examination revealed a stone in the
right submandibular duct.
Questions:
1) Where does the duct open in the mouth? (1mark)
2) Which nerve is in#mately related to the duct? (1 mark)
3) What is the nerve supply of the submandibular gland? (2 marks)
4) Name structure related to lateral surface of the superficial part f the gland (1 mark)
Case 3 (5marks)
A 52 year-old man was having his diner in a seafood restaurant when he was suddenly
chocked. He said a bone was stuck in his throat and he was transferred immediately to
the hospital. The doctor confirmed that a fish bone was stuck in the patient’s piriform
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fossa. While removing it the doctor accidently pierced the mucous membrane of the
fossa by the instruments he was using.
Questions:
1) Which nerve could by injured by piercing the mucous membrane of the fossa? (1 mark)
2) Men#on the boundaries of the piriform fossa (2 marks)
3) What is the nerve supply of the larynx? (2 marks)
Case 4 (3 marks):
A 20 year old student was playing baseball when the ball hit him on the side of the head.
He immediately fell to the ground unconsciousness, but a;er about 30 seconds he felt
well and decided to sit and watch the match. An hour later, he felt so sleepy then he
became unconscious. He was taken to the hospital. A skull X-ray showed a fracture in the
region of the pterion.
Questions:
1) Define the pterion (1 mark)
2) Why are fractures in this region extremely dangerous? (2 marks)
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physiology
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Central Nervous System
1. Discuss the relation between the hypothalamus &ANS.
2. Discuss the otor and vasomotor changes, which follow dissection of the spinal at mid
thoracic level.
3. Explain how can the body maintain the temperature when exposed to external cold.
4. The hypothalamus is the center of thermo stasis
5. What are the sensory and motor changes, which follow thrombosis in the
thalamogeniculate artery!
6. Write short notes on Refereed pain
7. Describe the properties of stretch reflex.
8. Discuss the properties of synaptic transmission.
9. Describe the nervous mechanisms, which keep you awake.
10. Describe the body representation in the primary somayi are &its physiological
function. .
11. Compare &contrast cutanious and visceral pain .
12. Explain the mechanism of increased body temperature in fever &inherit stroke.
13. Compare &contrast the function of pyramidal and non-pyramidal.
14. Describe the role basal ganglia in movements.
15. Describe and explain the effect of syrengomylic cavity involving the thoracic and
cervical segments of the spinal cord.
16. Describe the function of each cortical area in the spleen.
17. Describe &explain the sensory manifestation olfaction affecting the posterior limb of
the internal capsule.
18. Describe the characteristic feature of non rapid eye movement sleep &explain its
mechanism.
19. List &describe the functions of the cortical somatic sensory area.
20. Describe the effect of bilateral degeneration of the dorsal solemn in the lumbo-sacral
region of spinal cord.
21. Describe the function of cerebral hemisphere.
22. Discuss the rage reaction.
23. Describe the characteristics of Parkinson disease.
24. Discuss the cutanous hyperalgesia .
25. Discuss the characteristics of pain.
26. Discuss the effect of lesion in post-central gyres.
27. Discuss the role of cerebrulum in coordination of voluntary movements.
28. Discuss the fine touch.
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29. Discuss the sites of release &action of acetylcholine CNS .
30. Discuss the cause &manifestation of parkiaon ,s disease.
31. Compare &contrast the flexor withdrawal reflex & closed extensor reflex.
32. Describe the function of the thalamus.
33. Explain the function of neocerebral .
34. Compare &contrast fast and slow pain.
35. Describe the segmental pain control mechanism
36. Discuss synaptic inhibition &potentiation.
37. Describe the neuronal circuits from cortex to basal ganglia. Explain the function of
these neuronal circuits.
38. Explain the mechanisms of increase the temperature in the body during fever.
39.
Discuss the physiological role of cortical motor function.
Special Senses
1. Give notes on the new concept color vision.
2. Describe &Explain the function of the body ossicles in sound transmission.
3. Discuss the mechanism of excitation of photoreceptor in retina.
4. Compare &Contrast photopic and scotopic vision.
5. Describe the function of Eustachian tube. Explain why air conducts sound better than
bone .
6. Discuss the theory of color vision.
7. Discuss the various type of astigmatism.
8. How can we can correct simple myopic astigmatism?
9. Describe travailing waves basal membrane to various sound pitches.
10. Explain the function of body ossicles.
11. Discuss the administration to color by retina.
12. Discuss physiology of near vision & Explain presbyopia.
Renal function & Acid base balance
1. Mention how different parts of the renal tubule deal with Na+ & K+ ions.
2. Enumerate successfully reflexes occurring as a result of the urinary bladder internal
pressure.
3. Discuss the role of acid base balance.
4. Discuss the function of proximal tubule.
5. Describe the role of hydrogen ion secretion in renal tubule.
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6. Define renal plasma clearance of creatinine. Explain why clearance value of cretonne
is more than Urea.
7. Describe briefly the function of distal tubule.
8. What are forces involved in glomerular filtration.
9. Discuss the importance of collective tubules in concentration of urine.
10. Describe the mechanism of micturation in adult.
11. Describe the determination renal blood flow.
12. Discuss the factors controlling glomerular filtration rate.
13. Discuss the physiology of micturation.
14. Describe the role of kidney in the regulation of blood PH.
15. Describe the importance of the enzyme carbonic anhdrase in control of acid
balance by kidney.
Metabolism
1. Discuss the temperature regulation on exposure to heat.
2. Discuss the role of hypothalamus in temperature regulation.
3. Inicate the effect of acidosis on R.Q.
4. Define respiratory RQ and discuss its significance.
5. Discuss the change in metabolism of organic substances during sever starvation.
6. Discuss BMR &what its value in normal adult? Describe bases of calculating caloric
requirement of a person.
7. Define basal metabolic BMR & describe factors affecting it.
8. Describe the effects of age &sex &dietetic habits &pregnancy on BMR.
Endocrinology
1. Discuss the hormonal control of lactation.
2. Describe the mechanism of action and functions of parathyroid hormones
3. Write short notes on :
A) iodine pump
B) ATCH
C) calcitonin
D) Myxedema
4. Describe the relation between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland .
5. Discuss the control of secretion and physiological function of cortisone hormone in
normal & stressful conditions.
6. Define tetanus Mention its different types &causes.
7. Discuss the physiological effects of hyper secretion of growth hormone.
8. Describe the control release of insulin hormone.
9. Discuss regulation of secretion of posterior pituitary gland.
10. Describe the manifestation of cushing.s disease.
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11. List the hormones secreted by the human thyroid gland &Describe the physiological
effects of two hormones.
12. Describe the regulation of secetion thyroid hormones .
13. Discuss the hormonal control of blood glucose level.
14. Describe the function and control of secretion of prolactin hormone.
15. Describe the control of release and function s of parathyroid hormone.
16. Describe the of action and function aldosterone hormone.
17. Discuss the control of secretion of anti diuretic hormone
18. Describe the metabolic &cardiovascular &&nervous effect of thyroxin.
19. Describe the manifestation Edison’s disease. Mention the effects of exposure to
stress on patient.
20. Describe the function of thyroxin hormone.
21. Discuss the hormonal control of calcium ion level in blood.
22. Discuss the function of glucocorticoid .
23. Describe the effect s of hyper secretion of thyroxin hormone.
24. Describe posterior pituitary hormones &their functions.
25. Discuss briefly the hormones affecting calcium ion homeostasis.
26. Discuss the causes &mechanisms of different short individuals.
27. Discuss the effects of thyroid hormone deficiency.
28. Describe the function of growth hormone.
29. Discuss the sexual and metabolic functions of testosterone .
Reproduction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Describe the tests of early pregnancy .
Discuss function of placental hormones .
Give an account on the controle of spermatogenesis .What is cypotochidism?
How can you diagnose a non-ovulatory cycle?
Discuss the hormonal regulation of menstrual cycle.
Discuss the of the male in sexual intercourse.
Discuss the function of placental hormones.
Discuss the factor affecting spermatogenesis.
Discuss the control of testicular function.
Discuss the hormonal control of development and function of mammary gland.
Mention the effect s of testosterone hormone
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Complete Exams
Examination Note
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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1999
May
All question to be answered.
1- Compare and contrast the fast and slow pain. Discuss the spinal and supraspinal pain
control mechanisms
2- Indicate the function of stretch reflex. Describe how it is measured
3- Discuss the regulation of renal blood flow. Describe how it measured
4- Discuss the actions of thyroid hormones on metabolism &C.V.S.
5- Describe the action &control of secretion of aldosterone.
6- Discuss factors controlling spermatogenesis.
7- Describe the contents of middle ear and discuss the function.of each
8- Define basal metabolisms rate (BMR) and mention its normal value. Discuss the factors
affecting BMR.
1999
September
All question to be answered.
1- Classify the different sensation .discuss briefly touch sensation.
2- a) list type of release and function of Negro transmitter Dopamine.
b) Describe briefly causes &manifestation of Parkinson disease.
3- Explain forces determining glomerular filtration. Describe factor-affecting GFR.
4- Discuss briefly hormonal regulation of blood glucose level.
5- Discuss function &control of secretion parathyroid hormones.
6- Compare physiological function of Estrogen & progesterone.
7- Differentiate between photopic &Scotopic vision.
8- Describe thermoregulatory activated by exposure to cold water.
2000
May
All question to be answered.
1- Describe the pain control mechanisms.
2- Describe briefly the stretch reflex and its function. List the supra spinal centers
affecting the stretch reflex .
3- discuss briefly the different function of neocerebellum.
4- Describe the factor affecting the ability of the kidney to concentrate Urine.
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5- outline the factor affecting plasma calcium concentration .and discus briefly of action
of each.
6- discuss briefly the functions and control of its secretion.
7- Describe the mechanisms involved. In the near response. And mention the near vision
reflex.
7- Discuss the mechanisms activated by exposure to cold water
2000
September
1- Describe referred pain and give 2 examples . Explain the theories of referred pain.
2- Describe the properties of reflex arc.
3- Describe briefly the cases and manifestations of Parkinson ' disease.
4- Describe forces involved in glomerular filteration , and explain factors affecting the
glomerular filteration rate GFR.
5- Describe the metabolic and cardiovascular actions of thyroid hormaones.
6- Discuss the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis.
7- Describe the components and functions of middle ear. Mention the function of
Eustachian tube.
8- Define the metabolic rate and discuss factors affecting it.
2001
September
All question to be answered:
1- Explain the mechanisms of hydrogen ion secretion by renal tubules.
2- Discuss briefly types and mechanisms of sleep.
3- Discuss the different function of neocerebellum releated to its connections.
4- Describe the role of brain and spinal cord analgesia system in pain control.
5- Describe factors affecting secretion of growth hormone. State the effects of
hypersecre#on of this hormone in mane of 25 years old.
6- List the function of sertoli cells. Describe the control of testicular function.
7- Discuss discrimination of sound by cochlea.
8- Describe body temperature regulation on exposure to hot water. Explain the
mechanisms of fever.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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2001
May
All question to be answered.
1- Discuss the mechanism and properties of synaptic transmission.
2- Out line the function of thalamic syndrome.
3- Describe the components and functions of each of the stretch reflex and the inverse
stretch reflex.
4- Discuss briefly the methods used for testing the renal functions.
5- Name the metabolic thyroid hormones and their sources in the plasma . Describe their
effects on metabolism and on the CVS
6- Describe the function of insulin hormone. And explain its mechanism of action.
7- Discuss the various changes that occur in the retinal receptors on exposure to light.
8- Define the respiratory quotient (R.D) and discuss its importance and factors affecting
it.
2002
May
1- Describe briefly types. & Pathway and center of perception of cutoneous pain. Explain
pain analgesic system.
2- Describe the functions of the basal ganglia. Discuss briefly the effect of lesion in
subcutaneous Nigeria.
3- Discuss briefly the effect of complete transcription of spinal cord at mid thoracic level
4- Compare photopic and scotopic vision. Explain purking shift phenomenon.
5- Dicuss the forces involved in glomerular filtration. Explain why glomerular filtration
rate is normally high and list four conditions in which glomerular filtration rate decrease.
6- Compare the relationship between the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary with the
relationship between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Describe how anterior
pituitary hormone secretion is regulated.
7- Describe briefly the function and mechanisms of aldosterone hormone secretion.
Explain how the secretion of this hormone is regulated.
8- Discuss the compensatory ensures that occur in response to a rise in core temperature
as a result of heat exposure.
2003
May
1- Define "the generator (receptor) potential ".Describe its ionic bases and its
characteristics .
2- Describe the control of body movements.
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3- Describe the mechanisms of sleep. Compare and contrast between its types.
4- What is the near response ?Discuss the underlying mechanisms and mention its
neural pathway .
5- Discuss the renal plasma clearance concept
6- Discuss briefly the female reproductive cycles.
7- Discuss the functions of cortisol hormone . What are the manifestations of
hypercortisolism ?
8- Write short notes on the appestat centre &discuss the factors regulating its activity
2004
MAY
1- List the sequence of events that occur between entry of sound wave into the ear and
the firing of action potentials in the cochlear nerve.
(7 marks)
2-Describe the details the tests used in man for assessment of glomerular function.
(10 marks)
3-Discus the characters and func#ons of primary soma#c sensory area (1). Describe the
effects of its lesion.
(10 marks)
4-Define spinal shock, and describe the initial and long-term changes in spinal reflexes
that follow transec#on of the spinal cord.
(10 marks)
5-Describe the function of speech centers & state the different causes of aphasia.
(8 marks )
6-List the hormone needed for normal growth. What are the endocrinologic causes of
dwarfism, and how does each lead to short stature.
(10 marks)
7- Compare the phases of menstrual cycle according to uterine and ovarian events.
(8 marks)
8-Describe briefly regulation of body temperature on exposure to hot weather.
Summarize the sequence of events leading to fever.
(7 marks)
2004
September
All questions are to be answered:
1-Compare and contrast:
(10 marks)
a- Slow and fast pain.
b- Somatic and visceral pain.
2-Compare and contrast stretch and inverse stretch reflexes. (10 marks)
3-Describe the formation and drainage of aqueous humor. What is glaucoma? (10 marks)
4-Describe the role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. (10 marks)
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5-Describe the control of thyroid hormone secretion. Mention the effect of undescended
testes on tes#cular func#on. (10 marks)
6-Explain the hormonal control of spermatogenesis. Mention the effect of undescended
testes on tes#cular func#on.
(10 marks)
7-Describe the factors affec#ng the basal metabolicrate.
(10 marks)
2005
May
SECTION (1):20MARKS
A-State the transport and permeability characteristics of the descending and ascending
loop of Henle and the vasa recta
<7 marks>
B-What is the distal nephron? compare ans contrast the functions of the proximal renal
tubule and the distal nephron
<7 marks>
C-Explain the mechanism of micturation? what are the immediate and the delayed
effects of complete transection of the spinal cord in the thoracic region on micturation?
<6marks>
SECTION (2):20MARKS
A-List the hormones released by the posterior pituitary?State the origin of these
hormones and explain how the hypothalamus regulates their release
<7marks>
B-What is tetany? What are its causes? What are the phisiological basis in the treatment
of the tetanic state
<7marks>
C-State the func#on of the Sertoli cells in the testes
<6marks>
SECTION (3): 20 MARKS
A-State the thermoregulatory mechanisms activated by exposure to cold
<7marks>
B-Explain how visual accomodation is achieved and mention the defects associated with
myopia and hypermetropia and as#gma#sm
<7marks>
C-List and explain the effects of syringomyelia cavity invovling the cervical and the
thoracic segments of the spinal cord
<6marks>
SECTION (4):20MARKS
A-List the funtion of the cortical sensory areas
<7marks>
B-Explain the role of cerebellum in coordina#on of voluntery movment <7marks>
C-Explain the basic mechanism which maitain the upright posture <6marks>
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2005
September
Sec>on 1 :
a- What is meant by " renal autoregulation"? Explain the mechanisms that lead to
autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filteration rate .
b- How can GFR be measured? Can GFR be elevated clinically?
c- Explain how fluids and solutes reabsorped by the renal tubules are taken up into
plasma.
Sec>on 2:
a- What are the effects of T3 and T4 ? Which is the most potent of the thyroid
hormones? What is the source of most cicula#ng T3?
b- List the physiological effects of cortisol. What are the general symptomsof cortisol
excess?
c- Summarize the actions of estrogen and progesterone?
Sec>on 3:
a- Define fever and explain ite mechanism. Why does asprin decrease a fever but not
change normal body temperature ?
b- State the functions of the outer and middle ear?
c- State the overall functions of the thalamus. What are the changes which follow
thalamic lesion ?
Sec>on 4 :
a- Explain the significance of gamma motor neurans in the maintaince of muscle tone.
b- Predict the immediate and delayed effects of a lesion to the posterior limb of internal
capsule.
c- Outline the process of normal speech and differentiate between aphasia and
dysartheria.
2006
May
Sec>on 1 :
a- State and explain the most unique feature of renal circulation.
b- Define the term "renal plasma clearance " and explain why clearance of inulin is equal
to glomerular filteration rate.
c- Suppose a person with diabetes mellitus had an arterial pH of 7.3 , an abnormally low
arterial Pco2 , and an abnormally low bicarbonate concentra#on. What type of acid –
base disturbance would be this ?What might have caused it ?
Sec>on 2:
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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a-List the effect of estrogen and progesterone on breast, endometruim , cervical mucus,
and myometruim.
b-Where is ACTH produced? What does it do ?
Explain how its secretion is regulated. Explain what is meant by condenital adrenal
hyperplasia.
d- Compare the control of calcitonin release with parathyroid hormone. What effects
does calcitonin have on calcium metabolism?
Sec>on3:
a- Define the "respiratory quotient (RQ) and give its significance .
b- What is meant by "Binocular vision, double vision and monocular vision ?
c- Explain what is meant by postsynaptic inhibition, presynaptic inhibition, and lateral
inhibition.Give example for each.
Sec>on 4:
a- State the general principles of coding sensory information in the nervous system.
b- Compare and contrast func#ons and effect of lesion in area 4 and area 6.
c- Speech is due to coordinate refined movements. Explain the change in speech
produced by the following lesions :
I –Lesion of neocerebellum .
Ii –Lesion of wernicke' s area.
2006
September
Sec>on 1: a- State the composition of the glomerular filtrate and explain how it is
produced
b- Explain how the countercurrent exchange occurs in the vasa recta and state the
functional significance of this mechanism
c- Contrast water diuresis and osmaotic diuresis
Sec>on 2 : A Explain why the anterior pituitary is sometimes referred to as the" master
gland"And why this reference misleading.
b- List the actions of insulin and glucagons and explain the regulation of their secration
c- Explain the hormonal control of spermatogenesis and state the effects of androgens on
the male accessory sex organs
Sec>on 3 :
A- Explain the mechanism of increased body temperature in fevers and heat stroke
b- List the sequence of events that occurs between the entry of sound wave into the
external auditory canal and the firing of action potentials in the cochlear nerve .
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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c- Examination of a patient shows the following on the right lower limb : weakness and
flaccidity of calf muscles associated with the absence of knee jerk ,ankle jerk and planter
reflex . What neurological structure may be affected to produce these findings .
Sec>on 4:
a- state and explain modulation of pain sensation .
b- State the functions of gamma motorneurons and explain why they are stimulated at
the same time as alpha motorneurons during voluntary muscle contractions.
c- Enumerate the different hypothalamic functions.
2007
may
*Answer the Following Questions :
Secon "1": [20 Marks]
a. What are the dis#nguishing characteris#cs of a superficial nephron? (7 marks)
b. What are the pressures favoring and opposing glomeruler filtration? How can GFR be
measured? (7 marks)
c. What are the pressures favoring and opposing renal tubular reabsorption. How can
reabsorp#on by the proximal tubule be modulated? (6 marks)
Secon "2": [20 Marks]
a. What are the typical signs and symptoms of acromegaly? (6 marks)
b. Conn's syndrome is an endocrine disorders brought about by a tumor of the adrenal
cortex that secretes excessive aldosterone in uncontrolled fashion. Give what you know
about the functions of aldosterone. Explain the most prominent features of this
condi#on. (7 marks)
c. What is menopause? List the hormonal and anatomical changes that occur after
menopause. Do men get a similar state? (7 marks)
Secon "3": [20 Marks]
a. Define metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate. What two hormones alter the basal
metabolic rate? (6 marks)
b. List the sequence of events that occurs between the entry of a sound wave into the
external auditory canal and the firing of ac#on poten#als in the cochlear nerve. (7
marks)
c. Compare the sensory manifestations of thalamic lesion with a lesion affecting the
sensory cortex.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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Secon "4": [20 Marks]
a. Mention the different inputs on spinal lower motoneurons. Explain briefly how these
inputs affect motor func#on. (6 marks)
b. Differen#ate between clinical spas#city and rigidity. (6 marks)
c. It is dangerous to swim or dive in water for patient with defective labyrinthine
func#on. Can you explain why? (4 marks)
d. You can not detect movement during traveling a plane but you can detect the start and
end of movement in a car. Can you explain why? (4 marks)
2008
May
• Section 1 : [20 marks]
a- What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a normal human? How can GFR be
measured? Can GFR be elevated clinically? (7 marks)
b- What are the preglomerular blood vessels? Which blood vessels in the kidney
provide for the greatest resistance to blood flow? How would selective changes in
preglomerular or postglomerular renal vascular resistance alter GFR? (7 marks)
c- Explain how the counter current multiplier system works and discuss its functional
significance. (6 marks)
• Section 2 : [20 marks]
a- List the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary and explain how the
hypothalamus control the secretion of each. What is meant by isolated
hypopituitarism? (7 marks)
b- Explain the action of PTH and the regulation of its secretion. What is the
characteristic feature of hypoparathyroidism? (7 marks)
c- List the hormones secreted by the placenta. What is meant by fetoplacental unit?
(6 marks)
• Section 3 : [20 marks]
a- Explain the thermoregulatory mechanisms activated by exposure to cold. What are
the effects of hypothermia? (6 marks)
b- List the function and the clinical significance of light reflex. Describe the pathway
of light reflex. (7 marks)
c- Define ataxia. What are the causes and characteristic features of its different types?
(7 marks)
• Section 4 : [20 marks]
a- Summarize functions of the semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule. (7
marks)
b- Distinguish between stretch and inverse stretch reflexes. (6 marks)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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c- List the areas of the brain believed to be involved in the production of speech and
describe the different types of aphasias produced by damage to these areas. (7
marks)
2008
sebtember
Sec>on {1}:
a) Explain regulation of glomerular filtration.
b) Describe the mechanisms by which the kidney produces concentrated urine.
c) Compare and contrast uncompensated and compensated respiratory acidosis.
Sec>on {2}:
a) Describe how hypothalamus and pituitary interact to control many endocrine glands.
b) Describe how blood calcium level is regulated.
c) Mention the sources of estrogen. Out line its main functions.
Sec>on {3}:
a) Compare and contrast func#ons and effects of lesions in area 4 and 6.
b) Discuss supraspinal control of pain sensation.
c) Define sleep. Explain types and mechanisms of sleep.
d) What are the components and functions of vestibular apparatus?
Sec>on {4}:
a) What are the functions and mechanisms of near response?
b) Explain the physiological responses as a result of exposure to environmental
temperature of 40c.
c) Describe sound transmission in ear.
2009
May
Answer the following questions:
(EACH QUESTION IS 8 MARKS)
1- Define glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Describe how it can be measured. Briefly
explain the major factors affecting GFR.
2- Explain how secretion of GH is regulated. Describe the characteristic features of a
patient complaining of excess GH after union of epiphysis.
3- Describe the main functions, mechanism of action & control of secretion of
aldosterone hormone.
4- Discuss the functions of Sertoli cells.
5- Describe regulation of food intake (short & long term).
6- Define referred pain & give 3 examples. Describe the mechanism of referred pain.
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7- List the properties of stretch reflex. Mention the function of gamma (γ) efferent
fibers.
8- Compare between short term & long term memory. List the factors affecting
consolidation of memory.
9- Explain briefly the changes in retinal sensitivity on exposure to dark & bright light.
10- List the steps involved in mechanisms of hearing. Discuss the cochlear
microphonic potential.
2010
May
1) a. Discuss the renal plasma clearance concept and explain why the clearance of insulin
is used for measuring the glomerular filtra#on rate. (8 marks)
b. Explain the mechanism of micturation. (8 marks)
2) Explain the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that regulate renal blood flow. (8 marks)
3) Explain briefly the effect of thyroid hormones on carbohydrate and protein
metabolism and on cardiovascular system. Outline causes and characteristic features of
Grave’ disease. (8 mark)
4) List the hormones essen#al for life. Describe the mechanism of ac#on and regula#on
of secre#on of each hormone. (8 marks)
5) Men#on the 3 phases of uterine cycle. Explain the underlying hormonal mechanisms
for each phase. (8 marks)
6) Define basal metabolic rate (BMR). Outline the physiological and pathological factors
affec#ng BMR. (8 marks)
7) Men#on the proper#es of the receptor poten#al. Describe the mechanism of
adaptability receptors and differentiate between adapta#on and fa#gue. (8 marks)
8) Explain the role of the basal ganglia in regula#on of muscle tone and voluntary
movements. Outline the clinical features of the degenerative disease affecting basal
ganglia. (8 marks)
9) Define learning and mention types of simple and associative learning. Explain the
underlying mechanism of each type. Outline the cause and the characters of Alzheimer’s
disease. (8 marks)
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10) Describe cochlear microscopic poten#al. Explain how pitch, intensity, and localization
of sound are discriminated by the cerebral cortex. (8 marks)
Examination Note
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Biochemistry
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Carbohydrates
1- explain by chemical formula how pyruvic acid is converted to aspartic acid giving the
coenzymes of this transformation.
2- Give one metabolic reaction for each of the following enzymes related to carbohydrate
metabolism giving the name of substrates and products and the required cofactors and
coenzymes (no formula is needed)
• Transketose.
• Succinic dehydrogenase.
• Aldose.
• Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
3- The effects of catabolic hormones giving examples.
4- Hormones that regulates metabolism during fasting.
5- Physiological hormone levels in blood are maintained by a variety of homeostatic
mechanisms.
6- Give an account on synthesis and func>ons of 2,3 diphosphoglyceratein RBC's.
7- Mention different pathways of glucose-6-phosphate and explain how glucose could
be stored as a polysaccharide in liver.
8- Give an account on:
a) Oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids.
b) Importance of H.M.P shunt.
9- Discuss types of glucosuria
10- Discuss the lactate and alanine cycle and their importance.
11- Write the role of succinyl COA in the formation of Oxaloacetic acid (Oxaloacetate).
12- Explain how glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate is formed from glucose by two different
pathways and mention the Importance, regulation and enzyme defect of these two
pathways.
13- What is meant by galactosaemia?
14- Discuss:
a) Synthesis and fate of UDPG.
b) Regulation of citrate synthesis.
c) Substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis.
15- Illustrate with formula one reaction needing NAD & another needing FAD in citric acid
cycle & Explain the importance of these reactions.
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16- Explain how lactic acid is converted to phosphoenol pyurvate in the hepatic cells.
17- Mention the reaction catalyzed by:
a) Glycogen synthesis.
b) Phosphorylase.
c) How each of these two reactions is regulated.
18- What is the inborn error encountered indeficiency of:
a) Fructose-1-phosphate aldose.
b) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
c) UDP-galactose transferase.
19- Illustrate by formula how oxaloacetate is converted to aketogluterate.
20- Illustrate in a combine curve the changes in plasma insulin, glucagon blood glucose
after a large carbohydrate meal in normal person.
21- Explain how UDP-galactose serve as donor of galactose units in the following units in
the following synthetic pathways:
a) Synthesis of lactose.
b) Glycoproteins.
c) Glycolipids.
d) Proteoglycans
22- Role of insulin and adrenaline in glycogen metabolism.
23- How glycerol is changed into glucose and how the process is regulated.
24- Write the steps of glycolysis and what are the enzymes affecting it
25- Write by formula the reactions inTCA that liberate carbon dioxide.
26- Reactionscatalized by transketose and transaldose.
27- Role of NADP & NAD in carbohydrate metabolism.
28- Show by diagram only the differences between the normal glucose tolerance curve,
and in sever diabetic curve.
29- Mention how the intermediates that can be produced by the TCA are used for the
following processes:
a) Glucogneogenesis.
b) Urea cycle.
30- Explain the mechanism of synthesis and fate of lactate in skeletal muscle
31- Explain how pyruvate carboxylase and dehydrogenase enzymes regulate
carbohydrate metabolism.
32- Discuss: "Disruption of the uronic acid pathway is caused by enzyme defects".
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33- draw the normal glucose tolerance curve. Explain the different metabolic causes of
every part of the curve.
PROTEIN
1- write briefly on:
a) Primary hyperoxaluria.
b) Two examples for role of pyridoxal phosphate in amino acid decarboxylation.
c) Synthesis of formyl group from histamine.
2- prove by chemical reactions that alanine and glutamic acids are nonessential.
3- Give short notes on protein nuria.
4- Give short account on:
a) Primary hyperokaluria.
b) Alkaptenuria.
5- Mention two important functions of cysteine. Explain how it can be synthesized.
6- State two important functions of aspartic acid.
7- write with formula the following metabolic reactions indicating the enzymes and the
coenzymes:
a) Tryptophan to melatonin melatourin.
b) Glycine to creatine phosphate.
8- State the metabolic importance of:
a) L-glutamate dehydrogenase.
b) Alanine amino transferase.
9- "Amino acid decarboxylation gives important compounds in the body" discusses giving
five examples.
10- Discuss:
a) Conversion of phenylalanine to DOPA.
b) Conversion of glycine to creatine.
c) Conversion of glycine to glutathione.
d) Conversion of glutamine to ketoglutaric acid.
e) Conversion of homocysteine to cysteine.
11- How urea’s synthesized in liver.
12- Illustrate by formulae the conversion of tryptophan into serotonin.
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13- Explain how glutathione participates in the transport of the amino acids across the
plasma membrane of kidney cells.
14- Discuss disposal of ammonia in the brain.
15- Write short notes on:
a) Role of transamination in maintenance of gluconeogenesis.
b) Synthesis and degeneration of creatine phosphate.
16- Write the reactions of gamma-glutamyl cycle and demonstrate which enzyme is
deficient in individuals with oxoprolinurea.
17- Write with formulae the biosynthesis of cysteine from methionine and enumerate its
biological functions.
18- demonstrate how valine and isoleucine yield succinyl COA.
21- How can brain and muscle dispose of their amonia.
22- What is the ketoacids formed by transamination between the following amino acids
and ketogluterate:
a) Phenylalanine.
b) Aspartate.
c) leucine.
d) Tyrosine.
23- How the followings could be synthesized in the body:
a) Glutathione
b) â-alanine.
c) S-adenosylmethionine.
24- What is meant by nitrogen balance? Give two examples for each of positive and
negative balance.
25- Mention four examples for formation of biologically active amines from amino acids.
26- How isocitrate is converted to glutamine in the brain?
27- How propionate is converted to succinate?
28- Mention four compounds using glycine as a precursor in its synthesis.
29- Discuss the role of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbonyl phosphate .
30- Discuss ."Glutathione is an important tripeptide",explain with formulae its synthesis
,formation and role in the body.
31- Explain with reaction and formulae how cysteine is synthesized from serine and its
role in decarboxylation
32- Give an account on :
a- Different sources of blood ammonia in the body and its fate
b- Oxidative deamination of amino acid.
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33- Explain with formulae the conversion of :
a) cysteine to pyruvate .
b) Tryptophan to melatonine .
c) Methionine to creatinine.
34- Illustrate with formulae reactions catalyzed by the following enzymes:
a) Extra and intra mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate syntheta.
b) glutamate dehydrogenase .
35- Explain with formula how phenylalanine is converted to epinephrine , Mention the
possible inborn errors of this pathway.
Lipid
1- Mention the reaction used esterify blood cholesterol
2- Mention the effect of two hormones on blood cholesterol.
3- Give an account on formation and fate of chylomicrons.
4- Give an account on synthesis of triglycerides.
5- Give an account on lipotropic substances and their role in preventing fatty liver.
6- "Urine analysis of adiabolic patients revealed acetoacetate ." Discuss:
a) Its fate in extra hepatic tissues.
b) Hazards of elevation of these compounds .
7- Explain by formula how acetyl COA is completely oxidized in the mitochondria and
calculate the number of ATP produced .
8- Give an account on:
a) Importance of lipoprotein lipase.
b) Importance of HMG COA in metabolism.
9- Role of cAMP dependent protein kinase in adipose tissue metabolism.
10- Role of LDL receptors in cholesterol metabolism
11- Discuss synthesis of sphingomyelins.
12- function and fate of HDL.
13- Role of carntine palmityl transferase in regulation of ketogenesis.
14- Discuss control of adipose tissue lipolysis.
15- Discuss the main pathway of glucose utilization in adipose tissue when it is provided
in excess.
16- Regulation of cholesterol level in plasma.
17- Discuss lipolysis in adipose tissue in fasting condition.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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18- Discuss deficiency of ATP –citrate lyase
19- Synthesis of palmitic acid in mammalian cells.
20- Discuss the fatty liver.
21- Give an account on the microsomal elongation of fatty acid molecules.
22- Role of carntin in fatty acid oxidation.
23- Synthesis and function of one phospholipid in the liver.
24- Synthesis and catabolism of ketone bodies.
25- Role of malonyl COA in fatty acid synthesis .
26- Role of phospholipase in degradation and synthesis of phospholipids
27- Extra hepatic utilization of ketone bodies.
28- Formation and fate of LDL lipoprotein .
29- Synthesis and fate of HMG COA .
30- Formation and fate of low and high density lipoproteins.
31- Synthesis and fate of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl COA.
32- Discuss: the metabolic interrelationship between low density lipoproteins, very low
density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins.
Discuss:
a) Hormonal and metabolic factors controlling lipolysis in adipose tissue.
b) Utilization of acetoacetic acid as a source of energy in extra hepatic tissue.
34- Discuss the steps of oxidation of palmitic acid calculate the number of ATP molecules
generated.
35- Explain the synthesis and metabolic fates of BHMG COA in the body.
36- Give an account on synthesis and catabolism of chylomicrons.
37- Write the role of succinyl COA in the formation of ketone body utilization.
38- Illustrate the steps of synthesis of mevalonate.
39- What is meant by feedback inhibition and its role in cholesterol synthesis?
PURINES
1. Discuss catabolism of adenosine.
2. Explain with formulae the conversion of guanine of uric acid.
3. Illustrate by formula reac#ons catalyzed by xanthine oxidase.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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4. Discuss:
The metabolic pathway of purines.
The catabolism of pyrimidines .
The conversion of hypoxanthine to uric acid.
”Gout is adefect in purine metabolism” Explain how uric acid is formed.
6. What are the end products of purines and pyrimidines?
7. What is the hazard of eleva#on of purine catabolic end product?
8. Enumerate the sources of different arbon atoms and nitrogen atoms of purine and
pyrimidine ring.
9. Discuss synthesis of 5 amino levulenic acids.
10. Enumerate the different nucleo#des from pyrimidines and write the structure of one
of them.
Minerals
1. Discuss level of blood calcium and its regulation.
2. Discuss "Minerals are well controlled at the level of absorb#on" (Give iron &copper as
example.
3. Draw the model that represents the metabolism of iodide in the thyroid follicle.
4. Discuss role of calcium in muscle contrac#on.
5. The possible mechanism by which trace elements act as enzyme ac#vators .
6. Discuss Importance of Iodine.
7. Give short account on Iron absorb#on and factors regula#ng it.
8. Give account on calcium absorb#on and factors regula#ng it.
9. Explain two factors affec#ng Ca++ absorbtion and its level in blood.
10. Discuss absorb#on and transport of Iron.
Hormones
1- Metabolic functions of cholesterol.
2- Chemistry and secretion of insulin.
3- The general mechanisms of hormonal action.
4- Role of calcium in hormonal action,
6- The role of phosphattidyl inossitide metabolism in calcium dependent hormone action
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Role of prostaglandins as local hormones.
7- The mechaniam of action of peptide hormones.
8- Explain the synthesis and mechanism of action of calcitriol.
10- Discuss the mechanism of action adrenal steroid homrmone.
Biological Oxidation
1. Write briefly the high –energy compounds.
2. Write briefly the role of respiratory chain in energy capture
3. Describe briefly hydrogen carriers containing flavin
5. Discuss high-energy phosphate containing compounds.
6. Give an account on the of ATP on the energy currency of the cell.
7. Give an account on :
- Respiratory chain and its inhibitors
Heme
1. Discuss the catabolic pathway of HB and enumerate the types of jaundice.
(May 93)
2. Give short account on : Heme synthesis.
(June 97)
3. Enumerate the role of succinyl COA in the formation of Heme.
General Questions
1.What is the defect in ;
a) Phenylketonuria.
2. During fas#ng ,Liver is considered to be glycogenoly#c gluconogenic, ketogenic
&proteolytic.
Explain this statement diagrammatically.
3 Succinyle COA and malony COA be synthesized during carbohydrate metabolism and
can be used in lipid metabolism, Explain.
4- one carbon metabolism is folic acid dependent,Explain this statement giving one
example
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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Complete Exams
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
1996
May
Answer all question:
1- Explain :
a- the cori ( lactate ) &alanine cycle &thier importance (8 m )
b- write the role of succinyl co a in the formation of
1- oxaloacetate .
2- keton body utilization .
3- heme synthesis .
2- a- illustrate the steps of synthesis of mealonate .
b- What is meant by feed back inhibition and its role in cholisterol synthsis .
c- discuss the steps of oxidation of palmitic acid
d- calculate the number of ATP molecules generated . (10)
3- Explain with formula the conversion of :
1) cystein to pyruvate .
2) trypotophan to melatonin .
3) methionine top crea#ne .
4) guanine to uric acid .
5- explain the synthsis and mechanism of ac#on of calcitriol (10)
6- give an account on :
(30)
1) transferrine receptor and lactoferine .
2) oxida#ve phosphoryla#on and its inhibitors .
3) geni#c code and its charasteris#c .
4) fibrinogen to fibrin .
5) two metabolic reac#on u#lizing nico#nic acid as co-enzyme.
1997
May
All questions to be answered :
1- a) Explain how glceraldhyde 3-phosphate is formedfrom glucose by two diffrent
pathwayes mention the regulation and enzymes defect of thesze two pathways
(14)
b) Typs of glcosuria .
2- a) formation and fate of low and high -denisty lipoprotein (LDL'HDL )
b) synthesis and fate of B_hydroxy B_methyl glutaryl co-a (HMGCOA ) (8)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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3- a) ILLUSTRATE by formula reactions catalyzed by the following enzymes .
1) extra and intra mitochondrial carb-myl phosphate synthetase .
2) glutamate dehydrogenase .
3) xanthine oxidase .
(12)
b) explain with formula how phenyl-Alanine is converted to epinephrine .
1998
May
*.Give an account on:
1- a) Control of citric acid cycle and the interacions between the cycle and the others
metabolic pathways.
b) Important of pyruvate kinase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes in
Red cell metabolism.
2- Write the reactions catalyzed by the follwing enzymes and ention their importance.
a) Acetly CoA carboxylase.
b) Acly CoA synthetase(Thiokinase)
c) hydroxy methy1 coA reductase.(HMGCOA reducate)
d) Carnitine palmity1 transferase.
e) Thiopherase(succinyle coA acetoacetare transferase)
3. Ilustrate with formula the following metabolice conversions.
a) Norepinepinephrine to vanilly1 manddelic acid (VMA)
b) Tryptophan to Melatonin
c) Ornithine to arginine
d) Glycine to creatine phosphate
4- a) Mentoin the different sources of carbon and nitrogen atoms of purine ring.
b) Synthesis of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate(PRPP)
c) Role of G protein in hormonal ac#on and men#on 2 hormones that act by this
mechanism
5. Give an account on :
a) Inition and elongation steps of protein
b) b)Hormonal regulation of blood calcium
1998
September
1- Discuss the following ;
a) Formation and fate of succinylCoA
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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b) Glycerole phosphate and malate shuttles
2- a) Give an account on the low density lipoproteins .
b) Explain the role of lipoproteinlipase and hormone sensitive lipase in lipid
metabolism .
3- Illustrate with formula the following metabolic convesions ;
a) tyrosine to epinephrine .
b) Glutamate to gamma aminobutyrate .
c) Glicine to hyporic acid .
d) Glutamine to glutarate .
4- write short notes on .
a) Mechanism of action of insulin .
b) Fate of bilurobin in the body .
c) Absorbsion and functions of iron
d) Carbomyl phosphate synthetase .
2000
May
1- explain each of the following:
a-biochemical aspects of diabetics complication.
b-regulation &function of glycolysis in rbcs and adipose tissue.
c-inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation.
2- discuss each of the following:
a- formation and fate of hmgcoa
b- adipose tissue lipolysis.
3- a- define transmethyelation process,give three example.
b- explain with formula the biosynthesis of the following
compounds:
i- epinephrine
ii- sertonine
iii- gamma aminobutyric acid(gaba)
4- discusis each of the following:
a- types and features of hormone receptors.
c- catcbolism of adenine nucleotied with reference to adenosine deaminase
deficiency.
5- explain each of the following:
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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a- role of cytochrome p450 in xenobio#c metabolism.
b- biochemical role of aminolevulinic acid synthase(ala)and effect of drugs on its activity.
2000
September
1- a) Explain the amphibolic nature of TCA cycle
b)Explain metabolic importance of NADH+H
c) Explain 2 examles of inborn errors in carbohydrate metabolism.
2- Explain :
a) Formation and Fate of acetoacetate.
b)Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis with reference to atherosclerosis.
3- a)Discuss in detail the metabolic importance of glycine.
b) Transamination and its clinical importance.
c) Explain with formula the conversion of tryptophan to melatonm.
4- a) Explain the mechanism of action of steroid hormones.
b) Explain the conversion of ribonucleotide to deoxyribonucleotide .
5-a) Discuss the metabolic fate of bilirubin.
b) Factors affecting iron absorption.
2001
May
*All question to be answered;
1- During stsrved state alanine is converted to glucse. Explain its sites steps &regulation
of such metabolic biotransformation .
2- a) Ilustrae diagramaticly ceratinine shuttle .Calculaate the energy generated from
oxidation of one molecule of stearic acid .
b) Mention metabolic importance and regulation of each of the following ;
- Hormone sensitive lipase .
- Lipoprtein lipase .
- Lecithin cholesterole acyl transferase .
3- a) Explain the biological active component drived from glutamate.
b) Discuss 3 in born errors of amino acid metabolism &one pyramine metabolism .
c) Sorces and utilization of one carbon unit .
4- a) Explain the role of cyclic AMP as second messenger .
b) Regulation of heme synthesis .
c) Enumerate iron containing protein in the body .
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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2001
September
*All question to be answered;
1- Mention the steps by which glucose is converted to lactose &What are the regulatory
enzymes. Explain how these enzymes are regulated .
2- a) Explain how acetyl CoAis converted to HMG CoA .Mention how HMG CoA is
converted mevalonate &acetoaetate .
. b) Menton three causes of ketosis and three causes hypercholesterlaemia .
3- Give one example of each of the following reactions
- Transamination
- Transmethilation
- Oxidative deamination
- Amino acid decarboxylation
4- men#on the names of 3 important products that can be ob#aned from each of the
following amino acids.glycine-tyrosine-tryptophan-glutamic acid.
5- mention the names of two enzymes utilizing each of the following:
a- nadp
b- tpp
c- biotin
d- coash
e- fad
6- give short accaunt on hormonal reglulation of::
a-blood glucose
b-blood calcium.
2002
May
1- a) Mention the names of key regulatory enzymes for glycolysis , Krebs cycle and
gluconeogenesis. Exolain how these enzymes are regulated .
b)Mention the name of the defective enzyme in the following :
i-Von Gierke's disease.
ii-Essential pentosuria.
iii-Galatosaemia.
iv-Fructose intolerance
v-Favism
vi-Phenyl Ketonuria.
vii-Hyperammonaemiatypel.
viii-Lesh-Nyhan Syndrome.
2- Explain each of the following :
A) Formation and fate of b hydroxyl b methyl glutaryl CoA.
B) Cholesterol esterification and its significance.
C) Role of Calcitriool (ac#ve vit D3)in regula#ng blood calcium level.
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3- Illustrate by formulae , mentioning the enzyme and coenzymes for each of the
following biotransformation :
a)Glutamic to GABA.
b) DOPA to epinephrine.
c)Serotonin to melatonin.
d) Glycine to serine
e) Argnine ta ornithine.
f) Aspartate to oxaloacetate .
4- a) Give an account on each of the following :
i- Protein and its role in cAMP dependent protein kinase
ii- Regulation of heme synthesis .
iii- Synthesis of uric acid in human body without formulae.
i- Define tumor markers . Give 2 examples and their applica#ons .
ii- Define Apoptosis . Outline its molecular phases.
2003
MAY
Answer all the following questions:
(No formula is required)
1- a- enumerate different fates of glucose 6- phosphate. Illustrate diagrammatically one
pathway. Explain its regula#on , importance, and one inborn error.(14 marks)
b- Give short notes on the sources and fate of oxaloacetate .Enzymes and coenzymes in different reac#ons are required. (6 marks)
2- A-Give short account on:
a-Role of carni#ne and the effect of its deficiency (3 marks)
b-Metabolic changes in the skeletal muscles in starva#on. (5 marks)
c- Metabolic importance and regulation of:
(4 marks)
o Acetyl CoA carboxylase
o LCAT
B- 1) sources of carbon and nitrogen atoms in purine ring (3 marks)
2) Give short notes on 2 causes of hyperuricemia. (5 marks)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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3- a-Illustrate diagrammatically the following biotransformation . Mention enzymes
and co-factors for each:
1-Tryptophan to serotonin. (2 marks)
2-glutamine to succinate (4 marks)
3-glycine to crea#ne phosphate (3 marks)
4-acetoacetate to acetyl Co A. (2 marks)
5-Dopa to epinephrine (3 marks)
6-Succinyl CoA to porphobilinogen. (3 marks)
b-Give the name of the deficient enzyme in each of the following:
1- Alkaptonuria
2- Albinism
3- Type 1 hyperammonemia
4- Hemoly#c anemia (4 marks)
4- Give short notes on:
a-Enumerate 4 different second messengers. Explain mechanism of forma#on of
one of them. (7marks)
b- 1) Give short notes on the effect of uncouplers on oxida#ve phophryl#on . Two
examples are required. (3 marks)
2) Enumerate 3 NAD linked dehydrogenases having different func#ons as regards
carbohydrates, lipids, and protein metabolism respectively. Mention the reaction
catalyzed by each. (3 marks)
c-Illustrate diagramma#cally ho re#noblastoma and p53 interact to control the cell cycle.
(6 marks)
2003
September
Answer All The Following Questions :( No fomula are Required )
1- a-Illustrate diagrammatically synthesis of glucose from glutamate and its
regulation . What are the conditions associated with active gluconeogenesis?
( 14 Marks)
b—Metabolic importance of HMP pathway . ( 6 Marks)
1- Explain each of the followings_:
a- Regulation of fatty acid oxidation . What is the energy released from oxidation of
stearic acid?
( 6 Marks)
b-Metabolic importance and regula#on of : (9 Marks)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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Lipoprotein lipase
Hormone sensitive lipase
HMG Co A reductase
3- A- Illustrate diagramatically the following biotransformation . Mention enzymes
and cofactors in each reac#on : ( 9 Marks)
1-Cysteine to pyruvate .
2-Phenylalanine to dopa .
3-Serotonin to melatonin
4- Glycine to hippuric
B- Give short notes on 2 inborn errors in amino acid metabolism
(6 Marks)
4- a- Metabolic changes in liver during prolonged starva#on (8 Marks)
b-Site . function and regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I and II ( 6 marks )
4- a- Define oncogene ans tumour marker . Give 2 examples for each (6 Marks)
b- cAMP as second messenger in hormone ac#on( 6marks)
c- Mechanism of ac#on of steroid hormones ( 4 marks)
2004
MAY
Answer all the following questions (No formula is required)
1- Compare: (20 marks)
a-Glycolysis and HMP pathways as regards : phases , end products of each phase ,
metabolic importance and regula#on.
(15 marks)
b-Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. (5 marks)
2- Explain (15 marks)
a-Amphibolic aspect of TCA cycle
b-synthesis of citrate and its regulatory effect on TCA cycle and lipogenesis.
c-Leptin and its role in obesity.
3- Give the biochemical explana#ons of eachof the followings: (16 marks)
a-Development of cataract in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
b-Use of aspirin as n anti-inflammatory drug.
c-Prevention of atherosclerosis by supplementation of dietary fibres.
d-B6 deficiency may result in pellagra.
4- A- illustrate diagrammatically the following biotransformations: (7 marks)
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a- Trytophan to melatonin. (5 marks)
b-Norepinephrine to valinyl mandelic acid (VMA)
form.
(2 marks)
B- Enumerate different types of extra cellular receptors. Mention briefly the
mechanism of ac#on of insulin. (8 marks)
5- Give short account on each of the followings:
o a-Inhibitors of purine and pyrimidines synthesis. (7 marks)
o b-Cytochrome P 450 and its metabolic role. ( 7 marks)
2004
September
1- Explain synthesis of UDP glucose. Discuss how its converted to glycogen and
glucouronic acid. Mention the importance of each pathway.
2- Explain each of the following:
a) Synthesis and regulatory role of fructose 2,6bisphosphate .
B) Regulation of cholesterol symthesis and conditions associated with
hypercholesterolemia.
c) Sources of succinyl-coA and its importance
d) Uncouplers of oxida#ve phosphoryla#on with 2 examples.
3- Give the biochemical explanation of each of the following :
a- Defiency of pyruvate Kinase and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase in RBCs results in
hemolytic anemia.
b- HDL is anti-atherogenic.
c- Ketoacidosis is a complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
4- A- Illustrate diagrammatically the following biotransformations (enzymes & coenzymes
are required)
a- Methionine and Cystiene.
b- Gyycine to creatine
B-G proteins:structure , types, and their role in hormone action .Mention effect of
cholera toxins on G proteins.
5- Give short account on each of the following :
a- Purine salvage pathways giving examples of a defect in the pathway.
b- Iron absorption and factors affecting it.
c- Transamination reactions and its medical importance.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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2005
May
Answer the following questions
Glycolysis occurs through an amplification cascade. Explain. Show the differences
between liver and muscle glycogenolysis as regards func#ons and regula#on. (15)
2. Illustrate diagramma#cally 3 bio#n dependant reac#ons. Explain their
neurological importance and regula#on. (9)
3. Give short notes on cell membrane proteins. Enumerate 3 examples of disease
resulting from defect on biological membranes. (6)
4. Explain the metabolic role of each of the following during starva#ons:
a. Cori cycle.
b. Keton bodies.
c. Glucose-Alanine cycle.
5. Give biochemical explana#on for each of the following:
• Insulin stimulates lipogenesis in well fed state.
• Glutamic acid is important in brain metabolism.
• Glutamine antagonists interfere with purine and pyrimidine synthesis.
• Allpurinol decreases uric acid production.
2. Give short notes on:
a. cGMP as second messenger : synthesis & functions.
b. Regulation of heme synthesis.
c. Synthesis of nitric oxide and its importance.
d. Sources and fates of one carbon moiety.
2005
September
1-a--Glycerol can be metabolized to pyruvate or converted to glucose . Explain
illustrating your answer diagrammatically . Regula#on is required when present ( 15
MARKS)
b- ATP generation by substrate level phosphorylation ( 6 Marks)
2-a- Illustrate the reactions catalyzed by each of the following enzymes . Explain its
regula#on and importance :
( 12 Marks)
• HMG Co A reductase
• Endoperoxide synthase
• L glutamate dehydrogenase
Examination Note
-2nd year
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b- Give 3 different examples of FADH2 forming reactions . What are the fates of FADH
( 8 Marks)
2
3Control of hepatic metabolism in the well fed and starved states by allosteric
effectors
( 8 Marks)
4- Give the biochemical explana#on for each of the following :
(15 Marks)
a- Glucosuria is not always an indication of diabetes
b- Glutamine antagonists interfere with purine and pyrimidine synthesis
c- Cholera toxins disrupt G protein signaling
5- Give short notes on :
( 16 Marks)
a- Serum calcium level , its regulation and role as second messenger
b- Synthesis and importance of glutathione
Regulation of urea synthesis
2006
May
NO FORMULA ARE REQUIRED
1-For each of the following enzymes , illustrate the reaction , its regulation , importance
and consequence of defect in the enzyme :
a-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
b- lipoprotein lipase c- muscle phosphorylase
d- Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
e- hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase
2-Give 3 examples of NADPH forming reac#ons . Explain its role in RBCs and xenobio#c
metabolism
3-Explain the metabolic changes in adipose tissue in response to low and high
insulin/glucagon ratio with reference to their regula#on( 18 MARKS)
4-Explain each of the following : ( 25 MARKS)
a- Regulation of heme synthesis
b- Differences between inhibitors and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation
giving ONE example for each
c- Synthesis and importance of nitric oxide
d- Formation and utilization of succinyl Co A in lipid metabolism
e- The insulin receptor : structure and mechanism of action
Examination Note
-2nd year
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2006
September
Give an account on:
1- synthesis and fate of each of the following in different metabolic pathway:
a- UDP Glucose .(10).
b- HMGCOA (8).
c- Citrate (9).
2- Explain each of the following :
a- lep#n &it,s rule in obesity .(6)
b- rule of shu>le system in transport od reduced equivalent to mitochondria .(6)
c- ammonia toxicity .(5)
d- chemosmo#c theory of ATP forma#on .(5)
3- Metabolic changes in liver and skeletal muscle during starva#on .(12)
4- Discuss:
a- types & regula#on of hormone receptor .(7)
b- billirubin conjuga#on in hepatocytes and it,s metabolic defect .(6)
c- metabolic importance of glycine.(6)
2006
September
1- (a) allosteric regulation play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism.
Explain this statement as regards TCA cycke and gluconeogenesis “ 10 m”
(b) illustrate the oxidatine steps in glycolysis , HMP pathway and glucoronic acid
pathway , explain their importance .
mention regulation of glycolysis and HMP pathway
“ 13 marks “
(c) men#on 3 errors in carbohydrate metabolism
manifested by hypoglycemia
giving enzyma#c defect in each
“ 6 marks”
2- (a) explain metabolic role of ketone bodies during starva#on “ 4 marks”
(b) illustrate diagrammatically :
1-ac#vated methyl cycle giving 2 examples of transmethyla#on reac#ons “ 4
marks”
2-prostaglandins synthesis, inhibi#on and 3 clinical applica#ons “ 5 marks”
3-give the biochemical explana#on of each of the followings: “ 19 marks”
(a) hyperuricemia “ 8 marks”
(b) hypocalcemia “ 6 marks”
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-2nd year
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(c) familial hypercholesterolemia “ 5 marks”
4-give short notes :
(a) func#ons of cupper giving 3 examples of copper containing proteins “ 5
marks”
(b) phosphoinositides cascade
(c) reaction catalyzed by mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate synthetase and
its regula#on
“ 2 marks”
(d) ammonia transport from peripheral #ssues to liver “ 5 marks”
5- (a) mention the deficient enzyme in each of the followings: “ 7 marks”
1- albinism
2- essential pentosuria
3- hemolytic anemia
4- phenylketonuria
5- alkaptonurea
6- maple syrup urine disease
7- severe galactosemia
(b)men#on 2 important compounds derived from : “ 3 marks”
a- arginine
b- glycine
c- tryptophan
2007
September
1-Explain the regulation of hepatic metabolism during the well fed & starved states by
covalent modifica#on of enzymes. (12M)
2- A) Glycerol is a substrate for gluconeogenesis & lipogenesis. Explain.
(Regulation is required when present). (17M)
B) Decarboxylation reactions for can be oxidative or non oxidative. Give examples
for each. (Enzymes & Cofactors are required). (8M)
3- Explain each of the followings:
A) Ammonia toxicity & hyperammonemia. (8M)
B) Hypoglycemia may be due to an inborn error in carbohydrate metabolism or
impaired fa>y acid oxida#on. (6M)
C) Mechanism of intracellular calcium release & its role as 2nd messenger (10M)
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-2nd year
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4- Give short account on:
A) Use of antimetabolites & glutamine antagonists as chemo therapeu#c agents. (6M)
B) Cytochrome P450 & its metabolic role giving 2 examples. (8M)
C) Three func#ons of zinc. (5M)
5- Illustrate diagrammatically the following reactions & mention the enzymes and
cofactors: (10M)
A) Synthesis of nitric oxide from Arginine.
B) Synthesis of Sorbitol from glucose.
C) One reaction of ATP formation by substrate level phosphorylation.
D) A citric acid cycle reaction inhibited by high NADH/NAD ratio.
E) A glycolytic reaction inhibited by fluoride.
(May 2008)
(1) Explain metabolic fate of Pyruvate in starved state. Regulation is required.
(19marks)
(2) Men#on biochemical explana#on of the followings: (21)
A- High ATP/ADP ratio and product accumula#on inhibit TCA cycle. (6)
B- Hyperammonemia is toxic to brain. (5)
C- Diabe#c coma is complica#on of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. (6)
D- Hyperammonemia may occur in pa#ents with Von Gierk disease. (4)
(3) G protein: structure, role in signal transduction and effect of cholera toxin. (10)
(4) Illustrate diagrammatically the following metabolic interconversions and mention
enzyme and Cofactors (10marks)
A- Glucose to sorbitol (2.5)
B- Serine to glycine (2.5)
C- Glutamic acid to glutamine (2.5)
D: Acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA (2.5)
(5) A- Enumerate important compounds derived from tyrosine and tryptophans.
Explain one inborn Error in each. (7)
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-2nd year
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B- Explain regula#on of heme synthesis. (6)
C- Compare mitochondrial and peroxismal fa>y acid oxida#on (6)
(6) A- Cytochrome p450: properties, metabolic role and effect on drugs interaction.
(7)
B- Enumerate 4 iron containing proteins and men#on importance of 2 of them. (4)
(Sep 2008)
1) Give two reac>ons (substrates, products and cofactors) for each of the following:
(6 Marks each)
a- Anabolic role of uridine diphosphate glucose.
b- Generation of reduced FAD.
c- Metabolic reactions of glycine.
d- Utilization of succinyl CoA.
2) On biochemical bases, Explain:
(4 Marks each)
a- Elevated cytoplasmic citrate is a green signal for lipogenesis.
b- G-6-P dehydrogenase deficiency results in hemolytic anemia.
c- Reduced NAD generates 3 ATP molecules.
d- Carnitine deficiency results in hypoglycemia.
e- G-6-phosphatase deficiency may cause secondary gout.
3) Give an account on:
a- Significance of hexose monophospate pathway.
(8 Marks)
b- Synthesis of epinephrine.
(8 Marks)
c- Estrifica#on of cholesterol.
(5 Marks)
4) Explain each of the following:
a- Synthesis, mode of ac#on and inac#va#on of cAMP. (10 Marks)
b- Malate/Aspartate shu>le.
(5 Marks)
c- Characteris#cs of cytochrome P450.
(5 Marks)
d- Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency.
(5 Marks)
Examination Note
-2nd year
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2009
May
Answer all of the following questions:
Q1: Compare between each of the following:
a) Glycolysis & HMP pathway as regards: metabolic intermediates, biological
importance & regulation.
(10 marks)
b) The mechanisms of action of peptide & steroid hormones.
(10 marks)
Q2:
a) Mention the role of the liver in well fed state as regards CHO & lipid metabolism.
(10 marks)
b) Discuss the catabolism of Heme & types of Jaundice.
(10 marks)
Q3:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Discuss the biological compounds derived from Arachidonic acid.
2 reac#ons u#lizing HMG CoA as a substrate.
Synthesis of creatinine.
Transportation of palmitic acid into mitochondria.
(3 marks)
(3 marks)
(6 marks)
(8 marks)
Q4: Give complete reac#ons (formulae are not necessary) for each of the following:
a) 2 reac#ons genera#ng oxaloacetate in mitochondria.
(4 marks)
b) 2 reac#ons u#lizing succinyl CoA.
(4 marks)
c) 3 reac#ons genera#ng one carbon group carried by tetrahydrofolate. (6 marks)
d) 3 cytosolic reac#ons of urea synthesis.
(6 marks)
Q5: Men#on the consequence & name of disease resul#ng from the deficiency of each of
the following enzymes:
a) Glucose 6-phosphatase.
(2 marks)
b) Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
(2 marks)
c) Phenyl Alanine hydroxylase.
(2 marks)
d) Sphingomyelinase.
(2 marks)
e) Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase.
(2 marks)
2010
May
1. Give an example of one enzyme which is regulated by covalent modifica#on and
another which is regulated by noncovalent modification. For each of the two enzymes:
a. Show the reactants, products, and cofactors that are needed for the reaction to go.
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-2nd year
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b. Show how these modifications; negatively or positively affect the related
pathways. (6 marks)
2. Epinephrine and Cor#sol can s#mulate glucose output from liver cells by different
mechanisms. Show how each of them regulate the metabolic pathways that increase
blood glucose level. (6 marks)
3. You are given a five-carbon, straight chain, saturated fa>y acid (5:0):
a. Diagrammatically, show the pathway if its oxidation. Write the names of the
enzymes and coenzyme involved.
b. What are the final products of this pathway, and how do they enter the citric acid
cycle.
4. Explain diagramma#cally the metabolic origin of each of the following urinary
cons#tuents: (6 marks)
a. ammonia
b. creatinine
c. urea
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Histology
Examination Note
-2nd year
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GastroGastro-intestinal tract
tract
1. Describe cell types in small intestine crypts.
2. ” The intestinal villus is an absorptive organ .” Discuss this statement .
3. Discuss the pyloro-duodenal junction.
4. Give an account on the types of peripheral cells found in the lining of the small
intestine with particular emphasis on their relation and origin.
5. Give an account on fundic gland of the stomach.
6. Discuss the structure of ileum in relation of its function .
7. Give an account on small intestine crypt .
8. Draw and describe a section in the lip .
9. Discuss the structure of Parotid Gland with exocrine portion of pancreas.
10. In a table enumerate the main differences between a section in first part of
duodenum and that of large intestine .
11. Give an account on the histology of small intestine in relation to its function.
12. Give an account on the structure of the stomach in relation to its function.
13. Give a detailed description of hepatic lobule .
14. Describe a section in the first part of duodenum.
15. Give an account on the intestinal villus..
C.N.S
1. Give an account on the muscle spindle.
2. Give an account on the cortico-spinal tracts.
3. Make a labeled diagram to show the structure of the inferior pons.
4. Give an account on the structure of the motor end plate.
5. Give an account on vestibular nuclei & their connection.
6. Make a labeled diagram to show the structure of the cervical region of the spinal
cord.
7. Enumerate the neuroepithelial structure concerned with the equilibrium of the
inner ear. Discuss ONE of them in details.
8. Give a full account on the medical longitudinal bundle (MLB) with reference to
its component fiber connection.
9. Make a labeled diagram to show the structure of the open medulla.
10. Draw and label a section in the middle pons.
11. Describe the following; cerebral cortex & its connections.
12. Give an account on trigeminal sensory nuclei & their connections.
13. Draw a section in the mid – brain at the level of superior colliculus.
14. With labeled diagram , give a SHORT account on the following
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-2nd year
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15. A – Nerve ending in muscular tissue.
16. B – Gracile tract.
17. Describe red nucleus & its connection .
18. Mention the decussations in the tegmentum of the mid – brain , full account on
their component fibers.
19. Give an account on olivary nuclei & their connections.
20. Give an account on pain sensation pathway.
21. Give an account vestibular nuclei & their connection.
22. Discuss the tracts of posterior white column of the spinal cord.
23. Give an account on 2 cutaneous receptors.
24. Make a labeled diagram showing the structure of the superior level of midbrain.
25. Make a labeled diagram showing the structure of closed medulla at the level of
sensory decussation.
26. Give an account auditory pathway.
27. Discuss pain sensation.
28. Draw a diagram in the pons at the level of facial coiliculus.
29. Give an account on : Inferior cerebrellar peduncle.
30. Describe the “ Cochlear pathway “ .
31. Draw a labeled section in mid-brain at the level of inferior colliculus.
32. Describe the spinothalamic tract.
33. Draw and label a diagram showing structure of open medulla.
34. Give an account on “ Cuneate tract “.
35. Give an account on Astrocytes.
36. Give an account on reticulo spinal tracts.
37. Describe the “ Auditory pathway “ .
38. Discuss exteroceptin.
39. Draw & labeled diagram to show the cerebellar connection.
40. Draw and label a diagram that show a section in spinal cord at lower thoracic
region.
41. Give an account on “ pacinian corpuscle “.
Kidney
1. Discuss the structure of the convoluted tubules of the kidney in relation to their
function.
2. Describe the structure & ultra structure of the glomerular filtration barrier.
3. Give an account on renal Malpighian corpuscle.
4. Give an account on Juxta glomerular complex.
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-2nd year
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5. Discuss the renal corpuscle.
6. Discuss histology of proximal convoluted tubules.
7. Describe the structure & ultra structure of the glomerular filtration barrier.
8. Endocrine
9. Discuss the structure and function of pars nervosa.
10. Give an account on the pars nervosa of pituitary gland.
11. Describe the “ Islets of langerhans “ .
12. Give an account on the structure of a thyroid follicle with reference to the
mechanism of the formation of its secretion.
13. Give an account on suprarenal cortex.
14. Give an account on adrenal cortex.
15. Give an account on adrenal gland.
16. Describe the pars distalis of pituitary gland.
17. Give an account on blood supply of pars destalis of pituitary gland.
18. Discuss the structure of the adrenal medulla .
19. Discuss the structure of parotid gland
MALE GENITAl SYSTEM
1. Give an account on spermiogensis.
2. Describe the excretory passage of the male genital system.
3. Describe a section in the testis.
4. Describe the structure of seminiferosis tubule.
5. Draw a labeled diagram, give a short account on the A.T.S in semineferous
tubule.
FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM
1. Give an account on the structure of the corpus luteum. ( june 94)
2. Give an account of structure , function and fate of corpus luteum.
3. Give an account on the formation , structure , & function of the corpus luteum. (
June 90 & Sept. 93)
4. Describe the structure of the endometrium during the different phases of menstrual
cycle.
5. Give an account on the uterine tube.
6. Give an account on the histological changes in the breast during pregnancy and
lactation.
7. Describe and draw ovarian follicle
8. Draw and label a diagram to show the layers of a mature “ graafian follicle”.
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-2nd year
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9. Discuss structure of fallopian tube in relation to its function.
Complete Exams
Examination Note
-2nd year
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1998
MAY
Ilustrate your answer with diagrams .
1- Give a detailed account on nerve cell body .
2- Give afull account on rectoanal canal .
3- Discuss the structur of the pars distalis with referanc to its relation to hypothalmous .
4- Give account on male accessory glands of male reproductive system .
5- Describe the structure of mature grfian follicle .
6- Enumerate the extra pyramidal tract &Discuss in detail the structure of tract sarising
from midbrain .
7- Draw &label a diagram to show the layers of the retina.
1998
September
Ilustrate your answer with diagrams .
1- Give account on classic hepayic lobules with special referance to structure of
hepatocyte.
2- discuss the histology of renal corpusle
3- Give adetailed account of the basophil of pituitary gland with referance to
hypothalmous .
4- Describe the structure of the endometrium during different phases of mestrual cycle .
5- Give an account on sensation caried by tracts of posterir colum of white matter of
spinal cord .
6- Draw &label disgram to show the layrs of retina .
1999
MAY
Ilustrate your answer with diagrams .
1- structure adabts function :Discuss in relation to the mucosa of the fundus of the
stomach .
2- Give an account on structure of adrenal cortex with referance to the controle of its
function .
3- Discuss the structure &function of renal Corpusle
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-2nd year
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4- Give adetailed account on the structure of placenta with referance to the placental
barier .
5- Discuss the structure of cornea .
6- Give afull account on sensory nuclei Of the tregminal nerve &their conections .
7- Draw a label diagram toshow the structure of spinal cord at the lower thoracic region .
2000
May
Illustrate your answers with diagrams
1- Discuss the structure of intestinal villus in relation to its function.
2- Discuss the structure and function of the island of langerhans.
3- Give full account on seminiferous tubule.
4- Give full account on the fallopian tube .
5- Give full account on strcture of motor end plate .
6- Give full account on cista ampularis .
7- Discuss the unconscious propriception.
8- Draw &label diagram to show the structure at mid brain levelon superior colliculus .
2000
September
1- Give an account on classic hepatic lobule
2- Give an account on the histological structure of adrenal cortex
3- Give an account on the renal corpuscle
4- Give an account on the histological structure of the ampullary part of fallopian tube
5- Give an account on the cornea
6- Discuss the structure of pansinian corpuscle
7- Give an account on the pain pathway
8- Marke a labeled diagram of a section of a closed medulla at the level of motor
decussation.
2001
MAY
Give account on the following
1- Epithelial cells lining the gastric &intestinal mucosa related to protein digestion
&absorbsion.
Paranervosa &its relation to hypothalmous.
3- a)Describe the bloodsupplyofkideny.
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-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
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b)write shhortnoteontheurinarybladder.
4- Give account on oogenises.
5- Give account on cells forming the blood testis barrier.
6- Enumerate the receptors of the skin &Give an account on two of them ,one capsulated
&the other is noncapsulated .
7- Give an account on corticospinal tracts .
8- Draw and label adiagram toshow the structure of the pons at the level of facial
colliculus .
2001
September
Illustrate your answers with diagrams.
1- Give an account of a classic hepatic Iobule with special reference to the structure of
the hepatocyte.
2- Give an account of the structure of pars distalis of the pituitary gland.
3- Discuss the structure of renal corpuscle in relation to its function.
4- Discuss in detail origin,structure and fate of corpus luteum.
5- Give an account of the structure of the cornea.
6- Discuss the structure of the muscle spindle.
7- Give an account of the spinocerebellar tracts.
8- draw a labelled diagram of the open medulla.
2002
May
Ilustrate your answer with diagrams .
1- Give an account on the followoing .
a) the structure of parotid gland .
b) Cells that border the space of disse .
2- Discuss gonadotropes &their effect on ovarian follicles .
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-2nd year
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3- Give an account on the microscopic structure of cells lining the simenferous tubules .
4- Discuss the detail structure of renal corpuscles .
5- discuss the following :
a) the rods b) Extraceptivesensation of the face .
6- Draw &Label diagram of open medulla
2003
May
Answer the following questions:
1- Give a detailed account of the structure of large intestine.
2- Discuss in detail the structure of liver acinus .
3- Give an account of the structure of cells involved in regulation of calcium level in
blood.
4- Discuss in detail the light microscopic structure of convoluted tubules of kidney with
reference to fine structure .
5- Answer the following :
a- structure of endometrium in relation to different stages of menstrual cycle .
b- prostate
6- Give a detailed account of sensory nuclei of trigeminal nerve.
7- Draw a labeled diagram of the retina.
200 3
September
1- Give an account of the histological structure of the middle 1\3 of human oesophagus
in relation to its functions.
2- Discuss in detail the histological structure of the exocrine part of pancreas comparing it
with the parotid gland .
3- Give an account of the ovarian structures involved in ovulation .
4- Dicuss in detail the cells responsible for regulation of milk production and secretion .
5- Give an account of spermatogenic cells.
6- Answer the following :
a- Structure of crista ampularis b- Spinocerebellar tracts .
7- Draw a labeled diagram of the lower part of pons.
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-2nd year
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2004
May
Answer the following ques#ons:(75 marks)
Illustrate your answers with diagrams.
1-Give a detailed account of the histological structure of human tongue {10 marks}
2-Give an account of the following
{10 marks}
a-Graafian follicle
b-Classic hepatic lobule
3-Discuss in detail spermatogensis
{10 marks}
4-Give a detailed account of the following:
{5 marks each}
a-juxta-glomerular apparatus
b-Adrenal medulla
C-Rod cell
5-Discuss in detail the auditory pathway {10 marks}
6-Draw a labeled diagram of the cerebellar cortex
{10 marks}
2004
September
Answer the following ques#ons: (75 marks)
Illustrate your answers with diagrams:
1. Give a detailed account on the strucyure of the mucosa of the ileum .
2. Discuss in detail the pancreas.
3. Discuss the following in detail:
a- podocytes
b- Blood testis barrier.
4.Discuss the histological structures involved in the milk secre>on and ejec>on.
5. Discuss the following in detail:
a- organ of corti.
b- Cerebellar connections.
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-2nd year
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6. Draw a labeled diagram of the lower level of pons.
2005
May
Answer the following ques#ons: (75 marks)
Illustrate your answers with diagrams:
4. Give the detailed account of the histological structure of the human tongue.
(10)
5. Give an account of the following: (20)
o graffian follicle.
o classic hepatic lobule.
6. Discuss in details spermatogenesis. (10)
7. Give the detailed account of the following: (15)
o Juxta glomerular apparatus.
o Adrenal medulla.
o Rod cells.
8. Discuss in detail the auditory pathway. (10)
9. Draw a labeled diagram of the cerbellar cortex.
2006
May
Discuss in detail the cells sharing in protein igestion and absorption .
2.Give an account of cyclic endometrial changes with reference of its hormonal control.
3. Give an account of the renal corpuscle
4. Discuss the histological structure of suprarenal cortex.
5. Give an account of conscious propricep#on.
6. Give an account of :
a- male urethra .
b- ciliary body.
c- crista ampullaris.
6. Draw a labeled diagram of superior midbrain.
2006
September
1_Discuss the structure of different types of saliva#on acini in rela#on to func#on where
you can find each type (10Marks)
2_give an account of : (15Marks)
a)surfaces of hepatocyte
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-2nd year
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b)duct system of exocrine pancreas
c)parital cell
3_the structure of mammery gland controlled by pituitart hormone(Discuss) (10Marks)
4_Give an account on : (10Marks)
a)loop of henle
b)blood testis barrier
5_Discuss the sructure of (10Marks)
a)the iris
b)hair cell of organ of corti
6_Give an account of ves#bular nuclei &their conec#on (10Marks)
7_Draw aliabled diagram of closed medulla at the level of sensory dicussation (10Marks)
2007
September
Illustrates your answer with diagrams :
1- give an account on the structure of :
(a) taste bud ( sites, structure & func#on ) “ 5 marks”
(b) biliary passages
“5 marks”
2- describe in detail the cells involved in diges>on & absorp>on of fat . “5 marks”
3- give an account on :
(a) adrenal medulla
“ 5 marks”
(b) podocytes with refrence to blood renal barrier
“ 5 marks”
4- describe the structure of :
(a) male urethra “ 5 marks”
(b) fallopian tube “ 5 marks”
(c) red cell
“ 5 marks”
5- discuss the following :
(a) the different lemnisci present in the brain stem ( origin, course, termination &
func#on)
“ 10 marks”
(b) the stucture of crista ampullaris
6- draw a labeled diagram of a section at the level of cervical region of spinal cord
“5 marks”
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-2nd year
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2007
September
ALL QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ANSWERED
Illustrate your answers with labeled diagrams whenever possible :
1- (a) Give an account on the glands and cells secreting mucous along the alimentary
canal . “ 7 marks”
(b) Enumerate the cells that can be seen inside a hepatic lobule. Mention the function
of each . “ 3 marks”
2- Describe the stucture of :
(a) The suprarenal cortex .
“ 6 marks”
(b) The pineal body.
“ 4 marks”
3- (a) Give an account on the microscopic picture and function of the distal convulated
tubules.
“ 7 marks”
(c) In a table , compare between a section in the ureter and vas deference
microscopically.
“ 3 marks”
4- (a) Describe the stucture of the endometrium in different phases of the menstrual
cycle .
“ 7 marks”
(b) Give an account on the primary spermatocytes.
“ 3 marks”
5- Give an account on :
(a) Pacinian corpuscle.
“ 5 marks”
(b) Cells of the inner nuclear layer of the retina.
“5 marks”
(c)
Suppor#ng cells of the organ of Cor#.
“5 marks”
6- (a) Describe tracts carrying touch sensation from the body ( origin , course , and
termina#on )
“ 8 marks”
(b) Enumerate only the trigeminal nuclei and the function of each .
“ 2 marks”
7- Draw labeled diagrams for :
(a) A sec#on at the superior level of the pons.
“ 6 marks”
(b) The corneo-scleral junc#on.
“ 4 marks”
(May 2008)
Illustrate your answers with labeled diagrams whenever possible:
1- A) Describe the histological structure of circumvallate papillae.
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(2 marks)
Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
B) In a table, compare between the fundic and the pyloric glands. Describe the
histological picture (LM & EM) and function(s) of the main cells present in both
glands.
(5 marks)
C) Give an account on the hepatic blood sinusoids and the space of Disse. (3 marks)
2- A) Describe the main microscopic components of the neurohypophysis. Mention its
relation to the hypothalamus.
(5 marks)
B) Describe the structure (LM-EM) and functions of the suprarenal medulla.
Mention TWO stains for identification of the medulla from the cortex. (5 marks)
3- Give an account on:
A) Podocytes (with special reference to its role in the blood renal barrier). (4 marks)
B) Mesangial cells. (3 marks)
C) Male urethral (lining epithelium and glands open into it).
(3 marks)
4-Write an account on:
A) Spermatogenic cells which undergo meiosis during spermatogenesis. (4 marks)
B) Name the Extra testicular genital ducts. Mention the lining Epithelium and
function of each.
(3.5 marks)
5-Describe the microscopic picture of:
A) Growing follicles
(6 marks)
B) Lactating mammary gland.
(4 marks)
6- Give an account on:
A) Corneoscleral junction.
(5 marks)
B) Crista ampularis.
(5 marks)
7- Give an account on:
A) The medial longitudinal fasciculus or bundle (MLF).
(5 marks)
B) The main tracts or fibers that make crossing in the medulla. (3 marks)
C) The mesencephalic nucleus of the 5th trigeminal nerve.
(3 marks)
(Sep 2008)
Illustrate your answers with labeled diagrams:
1-First question:
a- Enumerate cells covering the villi and lining the crypts of small intestine. Describe
structure (LM & EM) of the cell responsible for absorp#on. (5 M)
b- Compare bet. a sec#on of the large intes#ne and a sec#on of the appendix. (5 M)
2- Second question:
a- Define the classical hepatic lobule, the portal lobule and the liver acinus. (3 M)
b- Describe structure (LM & EM) and correlated func#ons of the hepatocytes(7 M)
3- Third question:
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Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
a- Describe structure (LM & EM) and correlated functions of the zona fasciculate of
the suprarenal cortex. (5 M)
b- Describe structure (LM & EM) and correlated function of the follicular cells of
thyroid follicles. (5 M)
4- Fourth question:
a- Describe structure and correlated function of the blood-renal barrier. (5 M)
b. Describe the structure (LM AND EM) and correlated functions of the proximal
convoluted tubules. (5 M)
5- Fifth question:
a- Describe structure and correlated functions of the blood-tes#s barrier. (5 M)
b- Describe the endometrium during the secretory phase of menstrual cycle. (5 M)
6- Sixth question:
a- Describe the structure and correlated func#on of the muscle spindle. (5 M)
b. Describe a sec#on of the cornea. (5 M)
7- Seventh question:
State the origin, course, termina#on and func#on of the cor#cospinal tract. (7.5 M)
2009
May
All the questions are to be answered
Illustrate your answers with labeled diagrams whenever possible
Q1- Describe structure (LM & EM) & correlated functions of:
a) Parietal cells.
(5 marks)
b) Enterocytes (Columnar absorptive cells) of small intestine.
(5 marks)
c) M (Microfold) cells.
(1.5 marks)
d) Hepatocytes.
(5 marks)
Q2- Describe the structure of exocrine portion of pancreas.
(7 marks)
Q3- Describe the structure (LM & EM) & correlated functions of the thyroid follicle.
(7 marks)
Q4- Describe the structure & correlated functions of the components of glomerular
filtration barrier. (5 marks)
Q5a) Describe the structure & function of the prostate gland.
(7 marks)
b) Outline the structural endometrial changes which occur during secretory phase of
menstrual cycle. (3 marks)
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Q6- Describe the structure of the cornea with reference to the causes of its transparency.
(5 marks)
Q7- Describe the pathway of conscious proprioception of the body. (7 marks)
Q8- Draw a labeled diagram of the cervical region of the spinal cord. (10 marks)
2010
May
1) Correlate between the structure and func#ons of different cells lining the crypts of the
large intes#ne. (10 marks)
2) Describe the structure and correlated func#ons of the cells of pars distalis of the
pituitary gland, with special reference to its blood supply. (8 marks).
3) In a table form, compare between the structure of the proximal and distal convoluted
tubules of the kidney. (8 marks)
4) a. Describe the structure of the different spermatogenic cells present in the adluminal
compartment of the seminiferous. (5 marks)
b. Discuss spermiogensis (5 marks)
5) Describe the structure and correlated func#ons of:
a. Pigmented epithelium of re#na (4 marks)
b. Perisinusoidal space of Disse. (3.5 marks)
6) Give an account on the structure and correlated functions of the cortex of the ovary
during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle (8 marks)
7) Men#on the origin, pathway, termina#on and func#on of :
a. Lateral spinothalmic tract (3 marks)
b. Medial lemniscus. (3 marks)
8) Draw a labeled diagram showing closed medulla at the level of motor decussa#on (10
marks)
Examination Note
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Psychology
Examination Note
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Write short notes on :
1- Fields of psychology.
2- Sensory deprivation.
3- Clasification of inteligence according intelegent quotient (I.Q) .
4- Factors affeecting selection in preception .
5- Types of conditionation .
6- Creative problem solving.
7- What is meant by short&long -term memory?
8- Psychology in relation to medicine .
9- Pain in psycho-physiological phenomenon .
10 -Psychological respones to stress .
11- Psychological changes that accompany emotion .
12- Concept of motivation .
13- psychology of terminal illness .
14- Characteristics of these personalities :
- Paronoid personality
- Schizoid personality
15- Characteristics of these personalities :
- Histironic personality
- Antisocial personality
16- Characteristics of these personalities -:
- Complusive personality
- Pasive aggressive personality
17- Emurate four defense mechanisms.
1- List three disordersof thinking control .
1- List four complications frour complications of
2- frustration .
3- State TWO uses of clinical psychology.
4- List TWO intrauterine effects on personality development.
5- Mention FOUR endocrine glands that can affect the personality.
6- What are the body types and temperaments described by "Sheldon".
7- List TWO functions of the superego.
8- List TWO functions of the id.
9- Mention FOUR characteristics of Maslow's self-actualization.
10-Mention FOUR uses of intelligence test.
11-List TWO ingerited motives.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
12- List FOUR complications of frustration.
13- List TWO brain centers related two emotions.
14- Specify TWO pleasant and TWO unpleasant emotions.
15- Mention TWO figural factors in perception.
16- List TWO causes of hallucination.
17-Mention TWO characteristics for compulsive personality.
18- List FOUR methods of learning.
19- List TWO functions of REM sleep.
20- List and define four defensive mechanisms.
3- List FOUR external factors that stimulate attention.
4- List stages of psychosexual development according to Freud.
5- List TWO disorders of memory.
6- Mention TWO characteristics of hysterical personality.
7- Define repression and projection.
8- List two differences between classical and operant conditions.
9- List the FOUR stages of Piaget's congnitive development.
10- List FOUR dimensions of Eysenck's personality traits.
11- List FOUR causes of having the I.Q. in the same individuals inconstant.
12- List THREE disorders of control of thinking.
13- Mention FOUR figural factors affecting perception.
14- Mention THREE methods to prevent aggression.
15- Discuss THREE traits of paranoid personality.
16- List TWO causes of forgetting.
17- Mention THREE types of memory disorders.
18- Bystander fails to intervene. List four reasons.
19- Mention TWO conditions in which communication between doctors and patient's
relatives are important.
20- Describe briefly the function of the limbic system.
21- What are the stages of classical conditioning?
22- Define language and clarify 3 levels.
23- What are the two major types of motivation? Give examples for each.
24- Define personality and enumerate 3 biological factors affecting personality
development.
25- What are the factors affecting the constancy
of the I.Q.?
26- Define stereotype and norm. Mention briefly how they affect our attitudes.
27- Describe the function of the short-term memory.
28- Define perception and enumerate the personal factors affecting its selectivity.
29- Define reinforces. Give examples of their different types.
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
30- What is concept? Give an example.
31- List four differences between REM and NREM sleep deprivation.
32- Define emotion amid enumerate their components.
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-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
Complete Exams
2002
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
2002
May
Write short notes on the folowing questions:
1- Sensory deprivation .
2- Classification of inteligence accprding to intelegent
quoient (I.Q) .
3- Factors affeecting selection in preception
4567-
Creative problem solving
Psychology in relation to medicine
Psychological changes that accompany emotion
Characteristics of these personalities :
- Paronoid personality
- Schizoid personality
8- Emurate four defense mechanisms
9- psychological response to stress.
10- How does doctor patient relationship affect success of treatment .
2003
May
WRITE SHORT NOTES ON THE FOLLOWING:
1-Fields of psychology.
2- Psycology in relation to medicine.
3- Pain in psyco-physiological phenomenon.
4- Psycological changes that accompany emotion.
5- Concept of motivation.
6 -Psycology of terminal illness.
7- Characteristics of the following personalities.
* Histrionic personality.
* Antisocial personality.
8-Enumerate four defense mechanisms.
9- Disorders of memory.
10-How does doctor-patient relationship affect success of treatment.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
2004
May
ALL QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ANSWERED:
1-Fields of psychology.
2-Classification of intelligence according to intelligent quotient(I.Q).
3-What is meant by short and long-term memory.
4-Psycology in relation to medicine.
5-Physiological changes that accompany emotions.
6-Characteristics of paranoid personality.
7-Psycological response to stress.
8-How does doctor –patient relationship affect success of treatment.
2005
MAY
1-Differences in intelligence .
2 -Physiological changes that accompany emotion
3- Factors affecting selection in perception.
4- Disorders of memory .
5- Models and importance of effective doctor-patient relationship.
6-Characteristics of the following personalities:
a- Paranoid personality b- Schizoid personality
7- Personality differences in response to illness and treatment.
8- Factors affecting social attraction.
Examination Note
-2nd year
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‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ؟‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ﺍﺻﻼ‪:‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﷲ ﻋﺰ ﻭﺟﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﱘ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻋﻤﻼ ﻓﻠﻴﺘﻘﻨﻪ ( ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺚ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬
‫‪2.‬ﺍﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﺮﺣﺔ ﺍﻻﻡ ﺑﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﺑﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﻋﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫‪3.‬ﺍﺭﺿﺎﺀ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﻰ ﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ ) ﻭﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﻬﻴﺐ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﳉﺒﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺶ ﺍﺑﺪ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﺮ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻔﺮ)‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺗﻔﻮﻕ ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﱵ ؟‪:‬‬
‫)‪1‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻟﻠﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﳛﺪﺩﻭﺍ ﻷﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎﹰ ﻗﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻭﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﺎﹰ ﺃﺧﺮ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ‬
‫ﻓﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﱵ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺇﳒﺎﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻋﲔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺎﺑﻴﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﳑﺘﺎﺯ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻷﺟﻞ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﲟﻌﺪﻝ ﳑﺘﺎﺯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺜﺔ ﳌﻨﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬
‫)‪2‬ﻛﻦ ﻃﻤﻮﺣﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻓﻚ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻃﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺌﺔ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻃﻤﺢ ﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻴﻌﲔ ﺣﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﻧﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻃﻤﻮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﱂ ﳛﺎﻟﻔﻪ ﺍﳊﻆ‬
‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺅﻩ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﻓﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺒﺠﺔ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﺅﻩ ﳑﺘﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﳑﺘﺎﺯﺓ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﺩﺅﻙ ﻣﺘﻤﻴﺰﺍﺍ‬
‫)‪ 4‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻚ ﺑﻌﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ ‪ :‬ﻗﻞ ﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﻚ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﺖ‬
‫)‪ 5‬ﺛﻖ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺍﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﳘﺎ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ 6‬ﺍﻧﺖ ﲤﻠﻚ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﲰﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ‪:‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
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‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﺌﺔ ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ ﻋﺼﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺣﺲ _ﺑﺼﺮﻱ ﺍﻛﺮﻣﻨﺎ ﺍﷲ ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﲰﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﺭﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﳝﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ )‪ (٥٠٠‬ﻋﻀﻠﻪ ﰲ ﺟﺴﻤﻪ ﲢﻤﻠﻊ ﺃﻳﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ )‪ (٢٠٠‬ﻋﻈﻤﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ )‪ (١٠٠‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺒﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﺍﻳﲔ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻭﻗﻠﺒﺎ ﻳﻨﺒﺾ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺃﻟﻒ ﻧﺒﻀﺔ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎﹰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻀﺦ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺁﻻﻑ ﺟﺎﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‬
‫ﰒ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﱄ ﺍﺭﻳﺪ ﺣﻼ ﺳﺤﺮﻳﺎ‬
‫)ﻛﺎﻓﺄ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ‬
‫ﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺣﺪﺩ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﳑﺘﺎﺯ ﻓﻴﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺊ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯ‬
‫ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ 9‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺣﻞ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺭﺗﺐ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﻚ ﺗﺮﺗﺐ ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭﻙ)‬
‫)ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻨﻤﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼﱪ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ‪:‬‬
‫)‪ 5‬ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻭﺟﺒﺎﺗﻚ ﺑﺬﻛﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﱃ ﺍﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ)‬
‫)‪ 6‬ﻭﺍﻇﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺮﺭﺍﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ) ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﳏﺎﺿﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﰲ ﳒﺎﺣﻚ‬
‫)‬
‫)‪8‬ﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻻﹰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﻞ ﻭﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻻﻳﺎﻡ‬
‫)‪9‬ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻄﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ) ﻭﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﺒﲔ)‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﲰﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﻏﺎﱐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﶈﺎﺿﺮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄﺄ‬
‫)‪10‬ﺍﺧﺘﺮ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫) ‪11‬ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺃﺟﻴﺐ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻛﻢ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻛﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﻣﻨﻚ ﰲ ‪ ٣‬ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﺠﺰﻩ ﰲ ﺳﺖ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﺃﻻ‬
‫ﳝﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﻻ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻗﺪ ﺃﳒﺰﺕ ﻭﺍﺟﺒﺎﺗﻚ‬
‫)‪12‬ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺗﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺣﱴ ﻳﺼﻞ ﻷﺧﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻷﻥ ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺗﺪﺭﳚﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺑﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﻌﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺘﲔ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ ﻗﺪ ﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺗﻚ‬
‫)‪13‬ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﻋﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺻﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﻧﺴﻴﺎ‪‬ﺎ ) ﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺩﻓﺘﺮ ﺻﻐﲑ ﻭﺳﺠﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺩﺭﺳﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﲟﻌﺰﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ ﰒ ﺍﺭﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺩﳎﻬﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪14‬ﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ) ﻻ ﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻷﻥ ﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ ﻓﻮﻕ ﻇﻬﺮﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻏﻠﻘﺘﻪ ﲟﻔﺘﺎﺣﻚ (‬
‫ﺍﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﺃﻭﻻ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻛﺰ ﰲ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻷﻧﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 90‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻥ ﺗﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ) ﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ ( ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻧﻚ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﲨﻊ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻟﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﲨﻠﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ‬
‫)‪15‬ﻛﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﻠﻞ ﺍﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ﻏﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺘﻚ ﺍﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺟﺎﻟﺴﺎ ﻗﻒ ﻭﺍﻣﺸﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺪﺭﺱ‬
‫ﺑﺼﻤﺖ ﺍﺭﻓﻊ ﺻﻮﺗﻚ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻔﻌﺎ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻫﻨﻚ ‪،‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻨﺖ ﰲ ﻏﺮﻓﺔ ﳌﺎ ﻻ ﲣﺮﺝ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ‬
‫ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﻗﻢ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪16‬ﺍﺩﺭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﻻ ﲢﺘﻔﻆ ﺑﺂﻻﻑ ﺍﻻﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﻠﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻓﻜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺭﺑﺎﻛﻚ‬
‫(ﺣﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺗﺮﻛﺰ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ ﲣﻴﻞ ﻭﻛﺄﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﻛﺎﻣﲑﺍ ﲣﺰﻥ ﺻﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ( ،‬ﻷﻧﻨﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﺗﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ‬
‫) ‪17‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﺎﻣﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﺑﺪﻉ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﺘﺨﺘﺰﻥ ﰲ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺗﻚ‬
‫)‪18‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺪﻭﻳﻦ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎﺗﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﺆﻟﻒ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺿﻊ ﺧﻄﻮﻃﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺭﻣﻮﺯﻙ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﳒﻤﺔ ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺢ ‪ :‬ﺣﻔﻆ ‪x : ،‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬
‫)‪19‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ ﻛﺤﻔﻆ ﺍﻻﲰﺎﺀ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻨﺘﺒﻪ ﳌﻦ‬
‫ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻧﻔﺴﻊ ﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﺐ ﰲ ﺻﻔﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺑﺮﻣﺎﺭﻛﺖ ‪ ) ،‬ﻣﻊ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺳﺘﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻙ)‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ ﻟﻚ ‪ :‬ﻟﻮ ﺍﻏﻤﻀﺖ ﻋﻴﻨﻚ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻞ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻢ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﺑﻄﺔ ﻋﻨﻘﻲ) ‪....‬‬
‫ﻗﺼﺔ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻒ ﺗﻮﻣﺎﺱ ﺇﺩﻳﺴﻮﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪﻳﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩﻭﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﳌﺪﺓ ﺳﺘﺔ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﳌﺮﻭﺭ ﰲ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺗﻮﺻﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ )ﻣﻨﻠﻮﺑﺎﺭﻙ( ﺑﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﺟﺮﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻛﺮﺯ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺇﻥ ﻋﻘﻞ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻱ ﻻﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﺟﺰﺀﺍﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻟﻒ ﳑﺎ ﺗﺮﺍﻩ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﻒ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
‫ـ ﺃﻳﺔ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ـ ﻻﻳﻜﺎﺩ ﻳﺼﺪﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 91‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫·ﻫﻞ ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺑﺄﻧﻚ ﲤﺘﻠﻚ ﺃﺳﻮﺃ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ؟‬
‫·ﻫﻞ ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺩﺭﺱ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ؟‬
‫·ﻫﻞ ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ؟‬
‫·ﻫﻞ ﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺑﺎﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ؟‬
‫·ﻻ ﺗﻘﻠﻖ ﻓﺬﺍﻛﺮﺗﻚ ﺃﻛﱪ ﳑ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺘﺼﻮﺭ‪.....‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻀﻲ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ً ‪ / ١٢ /‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻀﻴﻒ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ‪ / ٥ -٢ /‬ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺴﺘﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭﺍﻩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻳﺒﺬﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺟﻬﺪﺍﹰ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻟﻠﻨﺠﺎﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻻ ﻳﻮﻓﻖ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻭﻥ ﺣﺘ‪‬ﻰ ﺇﻥﹼ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻓﻴﻖ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺷﺨﺺ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﳚﺪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺴﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺟﺘﻴﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺑﺄﻗﻞﹼ ﺍﳋﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪.....‬‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻨﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﺧﻄﻄﺎﹰ ﻭﻧﺼﺎﺋﺢ ﺗﻜﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﳎﺘﻤﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻓﻌ‪‬ﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻻﹰ ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﳎﺔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﱯ‪:‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻹﳚﺎﰊ‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺛﺒﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺘﻜﻠﹼﻢ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎﹰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ‪ /٥٠٠٠ /‬ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪%٨٠ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﺎﺅﻡ ﻭﺗﺮﺩ‪‬ﺩ ﻭﺧﻮﻑ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﹼﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﳊﻞ ‪ :‬ﺍﺣﺬﻑ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺳﻚ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ) ﺳﻮﻑ ( ﻭﻻ ﺗﺆﺟ‪‬ﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﺬﺭ ﺍﻹﳛﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺗﻄﻠﻖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﺎﹰ ﻣﺜﻞ )‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ – ﺫﺍﻛﺮﰐ ﺿﻌﻴﻔﺔ – ﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻭﻗﺖ – ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﺎﺷﻞ)‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ؟ ﻭﻛﻴﻒ ؟‬
‫ﳌﺎﺫﺍ ﺃﻧﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ؟ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﺯﻳﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻌﻴﻘﺎﺕ ؟ ﻛﻴﻒ ﳝﻜﻨﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻗﻮ‪‬ﻱ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﰐ ؟ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺃﻧﻈﹼﻢ ﻭﻗﱵ ؟‬
‫ﻭﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺄﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻧﺴﺎﻫﺎ ؟ ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﺣﻔﻈﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﺗﺬﻛﹼﺮﻫﺎ ؟‬
‫(ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ ﻳﻔﻜﹼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻞﹼ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺷﻞ ﻳﻔﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ)‬
‫ﻼ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻓﹼﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻋﺎﻣﺎﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻛﱪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﻛﱪ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻧﺖ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺭﺟ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺟﺊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﺖ ﻟﻠﺮﻭﺡ ﺍﻹﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 92‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻠﺔ ‪ :‬ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﻨﺎ ﻏﲑ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ) ﺍﳋﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ( ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﻔﻈﻮﻥ ﻭﺟﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﺳﺘﺠﺪ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ) ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ( ﻏﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬
‫ﺇﳚﺎﰊ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ) ﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻔﺎﺩﻉ‪) .‬‬
‫‪2.‬ﺃﻧﺖ ﺟﺪﻳﺮ ﺇﺫﺍﹰ ﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻐﲑﻩ ﻓﻠﻦ ﲡﺪ ﺃﻃﺒﺎﺀ ﻭ‪....‬‬
‫‪3.‬ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻟﻐﲑﻱ ﳑﻜﻦ ﱄ‪.‬‬
‫‪4.‬ﻻﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺸﻞ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺧﱪﺍﺕ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻻ ﻳﻔﺸﻞ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺮ‪‬ﺏ)‬
‫ﺇﻳﺪﻳﺴﻮﻥ ) ﻻ ﺗﻴﺄﺱ ﻓﻠﺮﺑ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﺧﲑ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻴﻔﺘﺢ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ)‬
‫‪5.‬ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﳉﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺍ‪‬ﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻔﻌﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﹼﻊ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ)‬
‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻧﻌﻢ ﻫﻞ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ ؟ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺇﳝﺎﻥ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫ﻻ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻭﻧﺔ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﳍﺪﻑ‬
‫(ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻋﺎﺷﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﻀﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻳﻨﺒﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻮﻕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺗﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻛﻞ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ( ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﻓﻠﻦ ﺗﻐﻴ‪‬ﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲢﺼﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪) .‬‬
‫‪6.‬ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﲡﺎﻩ ﻣﺎ ﳛﺪﺙ ‪ :‬ﺣﺪﺙ ‪ +‬ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﲣﺪﻣﲏ ؟ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﲣﺪﻣﲏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻛﹸﺴﺮﺕ ﺭﺟﻠﻪ ﻓﺮﺁﻫﺎ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﻔﻆ‪.‬‬
‫(ﺍﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺆﺛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳍﺪ‪‬ﺍﻣﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﻨ‪‬ﺎﺀﺓ)‬
‫(ﻻﻳﻜﻔﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻻﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻏﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻀﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ)‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﱯ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻹﺣﺒﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺻﺤﺘﻪ‬
‫‪3.‬ﺍﻏﺮﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ‬
‫‪4.‬ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﺑﺪﻻﹰ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪﺍﹰ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺎﹰ ) ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﻴﲏ ﺍﺣﻔﻆ – ﺃﻧﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ – ﺳﺄﻧﻈﻢ ﻭﻗﱵ – ﺃﻧﺎ ﻓﻌ‪‬ﺎﻝ ﺳﺄﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ)‬
‫ﻛﺮﺭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ ﻛﻲ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ) ﺍﻟﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﳊﺴ‪‬ﻴﺔ ( ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺬﺏ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻃﻦ ﻻ ﳝﻴ‪‬ﺰ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﻴﺎﻝ ) ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻤﻮﻧﺔ ( ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻌﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﰊ ﻗﻨﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺤﲔ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺸﻜﹼﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﺒﺪﳍﺎ ﺑﻘﻨﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺇﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﻋﺔ ؟ ﻓﻌﻞ ؟ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ؟ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ ؟ ﻣﺼﲑ ) ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ)‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺑﺮﳎﻨﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻏﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ :‬ﺗﻨﺎﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺣﱴ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻌﺔ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻚ‬
‫ﺇﻧﻚ ﺳﺘﺄﺧﺬ ﺟﺎﺋﺰﺓ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻈﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺳﺔ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎﹰ ﳌﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻉ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﺘﻔﻌﻞ ؟‬
‫ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﳉﻴ‪‬ﺪ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﹼﺐ ﺟﻬﺪﺍﹰ ﺫﺍﺗﻴﺎﹰ ﻻ ﻣﻮﻗﻔﺎﹰ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺎﹰ ) ﻛﻞ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺬﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻼ ﺗﺰﺭﻉ ﺷﻮﻛﺎﹰ ﻟﺘﺠﲏ ﻋﻨﺒﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 93‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎﹰ ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﻑ‪:‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺧﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻙ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﲏ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﰲ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻮﻟﹼﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳉﻴﻢ‬
‫ﺣﲔ ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ ﻭﺳﻴﻄﺮ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻳﻮﻗﻒ ﺟﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺨﺮ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﳌﺘﺎﺣﺔ ﻹﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻄﺮ ﺍﶈﺪﻕ ﺑﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪١٢٠‬ﻡ ‪ /‬ﺛﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻔﺮﺯ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻷﺩﺭﻳﻨﺎﻟﲔ ( ﻭ‬
‫)ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﺗﻴﺴﻮﻝ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎﹰ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ‪ ) :‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺣﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺭﻉ ( ‪ .‬ﻓﻴﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﲔ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﱯ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻫﺐ ﻟﺮﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺮﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻀﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻛﻲ ﻳﻮﺻﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺎﺕ ( ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ) ﺍﻷﺩﺭﻳﻨﺎﻟﲔ – ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺭﺗﻴﺴﻮﻝ ( ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﳊﺎﻕ ﺍﻷﺫﻯ ﲞﻼﻳﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ) ﺃﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﻋﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ( ﻭﻣﺎ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻓﺎﳌﺸﺎﻋﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻃﻒ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺎﺳﻴﺲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺣﺬﺭ ﺭﻓﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺀ ﻭﻗﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪ :‬ﺍﲝﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺻﺪﻳﻖ ﺃﻭ ﺻﺪﻳﻘﲔ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴ‪‬ﺰﻳﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﻚ ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‬‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻜﺜﲑ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﺼﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺒﺎﻁ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺪﺩ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻡ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ‬
‫ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺟﻌﻞ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺻﺎﺭﻣﺔ ﻭﺟﺪ‪‬ﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺨﺺ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻗﺪﺭ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻭﻳﺄﻣﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻐﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻚ ﺍﳉﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺜﺎﺀﺏ ﺍﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻳﺘﺜﺎﺀﺏ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ)‬
‫(ﺍﻟﺸﻲﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻗﺎﹰ ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬
‫(ﻟﻦ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻚ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻝ ﺇﻻ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﺃﻗﻮﻳﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻕ ﻭﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺎﺏ)‬
‫(ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻘﺪ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﻣﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻜﻠﺔ)‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﰐ ‪ :‬ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺇﻻﹼ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺇﻻﹼ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﳑﺎﺭﺳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻷﻧﻚ ﻟﻦ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺒﻠﻞ ﺟﺴﻤﻚ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫(ﻻ ﺗﻘﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﺗﻌﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﺗﺼﺪﻕ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﻤﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﻌﻞ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ‪) .‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻣﺘﺎﺯ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻋﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬
‫(ﳜﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻬﻬﻢ ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺄﺗﻴﻬﻢ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﲟﻼﺑﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﺮﺹ ﳎﺮﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺹ ﰲ ﺍﻷﺣﻼﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﻡ‪).‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﻛﺪ ﻟﻨﻔﺴﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻣﺼﻤﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺸﻌﺮﻙ‬‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻳﺎﺩ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﻓﻌﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﲪﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪.‬‬
‫(ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﺃﻣﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺣﺘﻤﺎﹰ ﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻣﻌﲎ‪ ‬ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺿﺮ)‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 94‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫(ﻻ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺗﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺃﻫﺪﺍﻓﻚ)‬
‫ﺟﺮ‪‬ﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺨﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺨﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻭﺃﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻔﻮ‪‬ﻕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺧﺬ ﺍﳌﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ) ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ)‬‫(ﺍﻻﻛﺘﻔﺎﺀ ﲟﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺟﻴﺪ ﻳﺼﺮﻓﻚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ)‬
‫(ﺍﻹﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﺧﺬ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﺗﻨﺠﺰ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ)‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺮ ﳘﺘﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻊ ﺃﻥ ﲢﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺍﻻﳚﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ) ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﲑ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ ( ؟ ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻔﺲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻛﻦ ﻓﺨﻮﺭﺍﹰ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﺍﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬‫ﻻ ﺗﻜﻦ ﺟﺒﺎﻧﺎﹰ ﻓﺘﻔﻘﺪ ﺛﻘﺘﻚ ﺑﺬﺍﻛﺮﺗﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﻭﺳﺘﺠﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ‬‫ﲢﻔﻈﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺴ‪‬ﻦ ﻋﻼﻗﺘﻚ ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻚ ﻷﻥﹼ ) ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻬﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻧﻔﻮﺱ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬‫ﻹﻗﻨﺎﻋﻬﻢ ( ﻭﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺍﻧﻪ ) ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺪﻓﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺿﻐﻄﻪ‪) .‬‬
‫ﻻ ﲡﻌﻞ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﺴﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻷﻥﹼ ) ﻛﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻫﺰﳝﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ( ﻓﻤﻦ ﻻ ﳜﻄﺊ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﺪ‪‬ﻡ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻞ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺯﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻼﻡ ﻗﺼﲑ ﻭﳜﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﳑ‪‬ﺎ‬‫ﻳﺼﻴﺒﻚ ﺑﺎﻹﺣﺒﺎﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻬﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﱪ ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺘﻚ ﻭﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺋﻚ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﳉﻴ‪‬ﺪ ﰲ ﺻﻘﻞ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺣﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬‫‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﻫﻮ ﳏﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺃﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻋﻴﻨﻨﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻻ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﺍﳘﺎ ﺇ ﹼ‬‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺁﺓ ﺃﻭ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺻﺎﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺮﺁﺓ ﻫﻲ ) ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‪) .‬‬
‫ﻛﺎﻓﺊ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺟﻴﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺄﺧﺬ ﻗﺴﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻛﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪ‪‬ﺍﹰ ﻷﻥ ﺗﻐﲑ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻻﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﱐ‪:‬‬
‫(ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ – ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻫﺎ – ﻋﻼﺟﻬﺎ)‬
‫ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻟﻠﻄﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻞ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺼﻒ ﺑﺎﳋﻮﻑ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﻻﺕ ﻓﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﺳﻠﺒﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﺮﺍﺽ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻴﻖ ﻭﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﹼﻂ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻮﺍﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﺧﻔﻘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﳊﻠﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻔﺘﲔ ﻭﺗﺼﺒ‪‬ﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻕ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﻭﺃﱂ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻄﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺜﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬ﺃﺳﺒﺎ‪‬ﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 95‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻳﺮﻯ ﰲ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ‪‬ﺪﻳﺪ ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻫﻮ ﻗﻠﻖ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﳒﺪ‬‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ) ﺑﺮﻛﺲ ﺩﺍﺭﺳﻮﻥ ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺺ‪ ‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ) ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻖ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ)‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻟﻼﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮ‪‬ﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﺮﺗﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﲔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﺟﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺛﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ) ﺗﺘﺴﺮ ( ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ) ﺗﺼﻔﺢ – ﺗﺴﺎﺅﻝ – ﺍﻗﺮﺃ – ﲰ‪‬ﻊ – ﺭﺍﺟﻊ)‬‫ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ ) ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺓ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﺔ‪).‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻏﲑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﺍﻹﳛﺎﺋﻲ ‪:‬‬‫ﲣﻴﻞ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﲨﻴﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﳛﺔ ﻭﻣﺘﺤﺮ‪‬ﻛﺔ ﳍﺎ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﲢﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺳﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺜﲑﺓ ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ‪:‬‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻠﻘﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻏﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﲔ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﻳﺢ ﰒﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ ﻭﺇﺭﺧﺎﺀ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬‫ﺻﻐﲑﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ) ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺻﺎﻝ\ﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ ( ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺰﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﺗﺒﻌﺚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﻃﺌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺧﱪﺍﺕ ﺳﻠﺒﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻤﻤﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻮﻗﻒ‬‫ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﱐ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﻬﺔ ) ﻗﻬﻮﺓ – ﺷﺎﻱ)‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﺮﻛﻪ ﲢﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺑﺄﻥﹼ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻫﻮ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻂ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻃﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻴﺎﱄ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪.‬‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺪﺓ ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺨﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎﹰ ‪:‬ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫·ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﳉﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﲟﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﺟﻞ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺘﻌ ﹼﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ؟ ) ﻛﻞ ﻟﺘﺘﻌﻠﻢ ( ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ) ﻛﻞ ﻟﺘﺄﻛﻞ)‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 96‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﺇﻥﹼ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ، %٨٧‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ %٢‬ﻣﻦ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ ﺇ ﹼ‬‫ﻻ‬
‫ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ‪ %٢٠‬ﻣﻦ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﻠﻎ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ‪ ٨‬ﺟﺎﻟﻮﻧﺎﺕ ‪ /‬ﺳﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻱ ‪ ١٩٢‬ﺟﺎﻟﻮﻥ ‪ /‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﺭﺑﻊ ﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﳚﺎﺩ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻲ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﺇﱃ ﺫﺭﻭﺓ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻪ ﳛﺘﺎﺝ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎﹰ ﺇﱃ ) ‪ ( ١٢ -٨‬ﻛﺄﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺺ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ) ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻌﺎﺱ ( ) ﺍﺷﺮﺏ ﻟﺘﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ)‬
‫ﺍﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﺄﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﳉﺎﻫﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺧﻔﹼﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺒﻬﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻷ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺼﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﺒﺎﻫﻚ ﻭﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺳﺮﻋﺎﻥ ﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺒﻂ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﻬﻮﺓ ﺗﺴﺤﺐ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻫﻮ ﺃﻛﺴﺠﲔ ﻭﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﲔ ﻭﻏﺬﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻫﻮ )‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮ ( ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﺄﰐ ﻟﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ‪ ) :‬ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻐﻲ – ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻄﻲ)‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺄﻛﻮﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‪:‬‬‫( ‪-‬ﺍﳋﻀﺮﺍﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ – ﺍﻷﲰﺎﻙ – ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﻛﻪ – ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﺍﻷﲪﺮ ﺍﳋﺎﱄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﻥ – ﺍﳉﻮﺯ – ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺘﻖ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻠﱯ – ﺍﻟﻠﻮﺯ – ﺯﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺘﻮﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ )ﺍﻷﺳﻴﻠﻜﻮﻟﲔ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ) ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺒﲔ ( ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪( 50‬ﻍ ﺯﳒﺒﻴﻞ – ‪٥٠‬ﻍ ﺣﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻛﺔ – ﲣﻠﻂ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻎ ﻋﺴﻞ ‪ +‬ﺻﻨﻮﺑﺮ ‪ +‬ﺯﺑﻴﺐ ( ﺗﺆﻛﻞ ﻣﻠﻌﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﻖ‪.‬‬
‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ‪:‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﺧﺰﻧﻪ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ﲤﻬﻴﺪﺍﹰ ﻹﺧﺮﺍﺟﻪ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﰲ‬
‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﲤﺘﻠﺊ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺑﺘﻔﺮﻳﻐﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺘﲔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻔﻊ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﳛﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺆﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻭﲣﻔﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎﹰ ‪:‬ﺍﳌﻜﺎﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ﲡﻨ‪‬ﺐ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ) ﺍﻟﻠﻤﺒﺎﺕ ( ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﲪﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺀ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺮﺍﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﲔ )‪ ( ٢١ -١٥‬ﺩ ﺣﱴ ﳛﺘﻔﻆ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻃﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺿﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﱰﻝ ﻭﺇﻻ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪4‬ﳚﺐ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺸﺘﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ‪ :‬ﺃﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺘﺤﺮ‪‬ﻙ ﺃﻣﺎﻣﻚ ) ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻨﺒ‪‬ﻪ ‪-‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﹼﺎﻕ – ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺎﺏ – ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻉ)‬
‫‪5‬ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﺮﻳﺢ ) ﻃﺎﻭﻟﺔ – ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ( ﻧﻈﻴﻒ ﻭﻣﺮﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺒﻌﺜﺮﺓ ﺗﺒﻌﺚ ﺍﻟﻜﺂﺑﺔ ﻭﺗﻮﻟﹼﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﳌﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﺒﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺮﺳﻲ ﻻ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺴﻮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻣﻔﺮﻁ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﲔ ﻭﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﲔ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺺ )‪ ( ٣٥ -٢٥‬ﺳﻢ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 97‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫‪6‬ﻧﻈﹼﻢ ﻛﺮ‪‬ﺍﺳﺘﻚ ﺗﺮﺗﺎﺡ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ) ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻁ ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺣﱴ ﻻ ﺗﻀﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻌﻮﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎﹰ‪:‬ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﹼﺮ‪:‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ) ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ)‬
‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﺨﺼ‪‬ﺺ‬
‫‪2.‬ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻟﻠﺠﻠﻮﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺇﻫﺪﺍﺭ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻭﲟﺎ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻚ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺩﺕ ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪3.‬ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺪ‪‬ﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺳﺘﺪﺭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﺯﻡ ﳍﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪ ) :‬ﺳﺄ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﺧﻼﻝ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ)‬
‫‪4.‬ﺗﻌﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪5.‬ﻗﺴ‪‬ﻢ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺺ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺣﺪﺍﺕ ﰒﹼ ﺍﺣﻔﻆ‪.‬‬
‫‪6.‬ﺃﻣﺴﻚ ﺑﻴﺪﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻟﺘﻀﻊ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﲢﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﳍﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺱ ﻭﺣﺼﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻳﺆﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺍﲢﺎﺩ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺦ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻗﻮ‪‬ﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﻴﺔ )‬
‫ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻋﻴﺔ)‬
‫‪7.‬ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻐﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻗﺮﺃ ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﻗﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺟﻬﺮﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺎﹰ ﲝﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﲡﻴﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻋﺔ ﰲ ‪‬ﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ‬
‫‪8.‬ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﹼﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﻓﻬﻤﺎﹰ ﺗﺎ ‪‬‬
‫‪9.‬ﺧﺬ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ) ‪ ( ١٠ – ٥‬ﺩ‪ /‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﲬﺴﲔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ /‬ﻛﻲ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﻭﺍﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﰎﹼ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ؟ ﺗﻄﻮﻝ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ‪.‬‬
‫?ﺍﻧﺸﻐﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻭﻧﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻷﻭ‪‬ﻝ‪.‬‬
‫‪10.‬ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻃﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻨﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﺔ ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮﻳﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﻈﹼﻢ‬
‫ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺗﻌﻄﻴﻚ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲡﻌﻠﻚ ﺗﻀﻊ ﺃﻛﱪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﳋﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻏﻴﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺷﺒﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻞ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻳﻘﺎﻝ ﺇ‪‬ﺎ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺄﻟﻒ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻓﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﻴﺘﻢ ﲣﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺮﻉ ﻭﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻃﺔ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻄﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ – ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ – ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻄﺮ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ‪ :‬ﻭﻳﻬﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ – ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ – ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺴﻞ – ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻄﻲ‪.‬‬
‫(ﲣﻴ‪‬ﻞ ﺇﻧﺴﺎﻧﺎﹰ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺗﻪ)‬
‫‪11.‬ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ‪ ) :‬ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﺎﻧﻴﺔ ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﶈﺴﻮﺳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺑﻂ ﺻﻮﺗ ‪‬ﻴﺎﹰ ﻭﺑﺼﺮﻳﺎﹰ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻛﻞﹼ‬
‫ﻓﻘﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﱵ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﰐ‪.‬‬
‫‪12.‬ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺗﻪ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻇﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﲑﺓ ﺍﳌﺪﻯ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﰒﹼ ﻧﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ ؟‬
‫ﺭﺳﻮﺧﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
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‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻋﻴﺎﹰ ) ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ( ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﳋﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻔﻆ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻖ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺆﺩ‪‬ﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺧﻄﺄ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﹼﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﻳﺘﻜﻮ‪‬ﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻼﻳﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪ %١٠‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ) ﻋﺼﺒﻮﻥ ( ﻭﻳﺒﻠﻎ ﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ )‪ ١٠٠‬ﻣﻠﻴﺎﺭ ( ﻋﺼﺒﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ) ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ( ﺃﻭ )‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﺴﻮﻥ ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ) ﺍﳌﺎﻳﻠﲔ ( ﻭﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﺰﻝ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﳑ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﺸﺘﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻴﺎﻋﻬﺎ ؟ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥﹼ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ؟ ﺗﺰﺍﻳﺪ ﺗﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳌﺎﻳﻠﲔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﶈﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ‪ ،‬ﳑ‪‬ﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻝ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺴﺮ‪‬ﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ) ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﺳﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻴﺔ)‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻟﺼﻤﻐﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻭﺗﺸﻜﻞ ‪ %٩٠‬ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺒﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬
‫ﳊﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪13.‬ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ‪:‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﺎﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻭﺷﻌﺮﺕ ﺍﻧﻚ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻪ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻳﻮﻣﺎﹰ ﺑﻴﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﻠﹼﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻗﺼﲑﺍﹰ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﹼﺮ ﺃﻗﻮﻯ‬
‫ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﺰﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺬﻝ ﺟﻬﺪﺍﹰ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺑﺎﳌﺘﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ؟ ﻣﺘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺣﻔﻈﺖ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪﺍﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ‪.‬‬
‫‪14.‬ﻗﻴ‪‬ﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﺳﺄﻝ ‪ :‬ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺃﳒﺰﺕ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ؟‬
‫ﻼ )‪ (١٠‬ﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺇﻥ ﺷﺎﺀ‬
‫‪15.‬ﺷﻮ‪‬ﻕ ﺩﻣﺎﻏﻚ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪ :‬ﺃﺭﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﻧﺸﻴﻄﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺣﻔﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ)‬
‫ﺍﷲ ) ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﺗﻔﻜﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻠﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ‬
‫‪16.‬ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻥ ‪ - :‬ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﳌﻨﻈﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﻄﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻴﻘﺎﻅ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻧﻔﻌﺎﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻳﺮﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺐ‪.‬‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﻨﺖ ﺗﺘﻘﺪﻡ ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﰲ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺘﻚ ﰲ ﺣﲔ ﺃﻧﻚ ﺗﻘﻀﻲ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻛﺒﲑﺍﹰ ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﲏ ﺃﻥﹼ ﻟﺪﻳﻚ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﳚﺐ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﺒﺪﳍﺎ ﺑﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺟﻴ‪‬ﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﲢﻔﻆ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﳌﻠﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺭﻫﺎﻕ‪.‬‬‫ﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺯﻣﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﺎﺩ‪‬ﻳﻦ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ‪.‬‬‫ﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﺿﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﳊﺎﺿﺮ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﺣﺮﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺩﻓﻌﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﻠﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻴﻖ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﻮﻗﹼﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﲔ ﻵﺧﺮ ﻭﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬‫ﺭﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﳉﺴﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺪ‪ ‬ﺫﺭﺍﻋﻴﻚ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺍﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﺀ‪.‬‬‫‪-‬ﻏﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
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‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﺩﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﹼﺮ ﺏ ) ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺳﺔ – ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ – ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴ‪‬ﻞ – ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ – ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ – ﺍﻟﺘﻠﺨﻴﺺ –‬‫ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪).‬‬
‫ﻧﻈﹼﻢ ﻭﻗﺘﻚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻻﹰ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺳﺒﻮﻋﻴﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺎﹰ ﲢﺪ‪‬ﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻮﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬‫ﺭﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻌﺘﺎﻥ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ؟‬
‫ﺑﺄﻱ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺮﺃ ؟‬
‫ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥﹼ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﲤﻴ‪‬ﺰﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻮﺍﱄ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻼﻳﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ؟‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺧﻒ‪ ‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﲢﺮﻙ ﺭﺃﺳﻚ‪:‬‬‫ﺃ‪ ١٠ -‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ ﺇﱃ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ‬
‫ﺏ‪١٠ -‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﺇﱃ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ‬
‫ﺕ‪١٠ -‬ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﳉﺒﻬﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﻤﲎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺷﻜﹼﻞ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻚ ﺗﺮﲰﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﺎﲡﺎﻩ ﻋﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﻭﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻌﻜﻮﺱ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻛﺮ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ )‪(١٠‬‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻏﻂﹼ ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﻴﺪﻳﻚ ﰒ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺑﻀﻊ ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺀ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻴﺪﻳﻦ‬‫ﺑﺒﻂﺀ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻲ ﺗﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺷﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻏﻤﺰ ﺑﻌﻴﻨﻴﻚ ﻟﺘﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺮﺍﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺮﺧﺎﺋﻬﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎﹰ ‪:‬ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﺭﺍﺳﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨ‪‬ﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ ﻓﻬﻮ ﻳﻮﻓﹼﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫(ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﳊﻆﹼ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺪﻡ ﻧﺎﲡﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺇﺳﺎﺀﺓ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ)‬
‫ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﺮ‪‬ﻭﺍ ﲟﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻧﺎﺟﺤﺔ ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻌﻮﺍ ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻬﻢ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺭﻛﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﲔ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﲔ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﳌﺬﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﺍﺋﺪﻩ‪:‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻻ ‪‬ﻤﻞ ﺇﺣﺪﻯ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﺒﺎﹰ ﰲ ﺭﺳﻮﺑﻚ‪.‬‬‫ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﺘﻮﻓﺮ ﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﰲ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﻤﻴﻊ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺿﻴﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﰲ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﳊﻔﻆ ﻭﺗﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﺃﻳﻀﺎﹰ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﺿﻄﺮﺍﺏ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺷﺆﻭﻥ ﺍﳊﻴﺎﺓ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺪﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 100‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻨﻮﻡ ‪ :‬ﺳﺖ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﻞ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺻﻞ ﺣﱴ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﳌﺦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻗﺪﺭ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺜﺒﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻹﺭﻫﺎﻕ ﻳﻮﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍ‪‬ﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﻟﻜﻦ‬
‫ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺎﹰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﰲ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻧﻮﻣﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻮ ﺃﻧﻚ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ /٩ /‬ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎﹰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻚ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻴﻘﻆ ﳌﺮﺓ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ‪ / ٦/‬ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﺠﺢ ﰲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺳﺘﻔﻌﻞ ؟ ﺇﻥﹼ ﻟﻠﺪﻣﺎﻍ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﺷﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻢ‬
‫ﺭﺑﻄﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺄﻝ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ‪ :‬ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ؟ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻙ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻛﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺗﻘﻀﻴﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ؟ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﻗﺘﻚ‬
‫(ﺿﻊ ﳐﻄﻄﺎﹰ ﻟﻨﺸﺎﻃﻚ)‬
‫‪3.‬ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻄﻌﺎﻡ ‪ :‬ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻬﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ ) ﺍﻹﻓﻄﺎﺭ ( ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻘﺎﻇﻪ ﻣﺒﻜﹼﺮﺍﹰ ﳑ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺗﺸﺘﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﻦ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳍﺪﻭﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺍﺀ ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﳍﺎ ‪‬ﺪﻭﺀ ﻣﻊ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻌﻘﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺟﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ‪ :‬ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺒﻜﺮ ﻭﺧﻔﻴﻒ ﺣﱴ ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪ -‬ﻻ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺴﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻭﻳﺸﺎﺕ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻴﺘﺎﻣﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪4.‬ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ ‪ :‬ﻗﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﲡﻤﻊ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺨﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺘﻮﺯﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺎﻍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺫﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﳑﺎ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ؟‬
‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳉﺴﻢ ﻭﲢﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻝ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﻭﺃﻋﺪﺍﺅﻙ ﰲ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫‪1.‬ﺍﶈﻴﻄﻮﻥ ) ﺃﺻﺪﻗﺎﺀ – ﺃﻗﺎﺭﺏ ( ﺳﻠﺒﻴﻮﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﻴﺔ ) ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮ – ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺯ ( ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﳚﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﲝﺰﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪3.‬ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻓﻬﺔ ‪ :‬ﺃﺗﻰ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ؟ ﻗﻠﻤﻪ ﻣﻜﺴﻮﺭ ؟ ﲝﺚ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﱪﺍﺓ ؟ ﺳﺄﻝ ﺇﺧﻮﺗﻪ ؟ ﲰﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﲟﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺃﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ؟ ﺍﳔﺮﻁ ﻣﻌﻬﻢ ؟ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﳎﺎﹰ ﺇﺫﺍﻋﻴﺎﹰ ؟ ﺃﻗﻨﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺃﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﻻ ﺿﺮﺭ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﲰﺎﻋﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﳌﺢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ؟ ﺃﻋﺎﺩﺕ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮﻳﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪4.‬ﻛﺮﺍﻫﻴﺘﻚ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺳﲔ ) ﺃﺣﺒﺐ ﻓﻴﻐﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺥ) ‪...‬‬
‫‪5.‬ﺷﻌﻮﺭﻙ ﺑﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺗﺄﻛﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻛﺜﲑﻭﻥ ﳒﺤﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺑﺘﻔﻮ‪‬ﻕ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳒﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺸﻠﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ) ﻻ ﻓﺸﻞ) ‪.....‬‬
‫‪6.‬ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻛﻞ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ‪ :‬ﳚﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﲢﺪﻳﺪﻫﺎ ﰒﹼ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﹼﺺ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
‫‪P a g e | 101‬‬
‫‪Examination Note‬‬
‫)‪Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC‬‬
‫‪Faculty Of Medicine - ASU‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﺟﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‪:‬‬
‫ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺗﻚ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ‪.‬‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺸﻌﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻛﻞ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻞ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻡ ﳌﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﳍﺎﻣﺔ ؟ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬‫ﻭﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻟﻨﻴﻞ ﺍﻷﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﺃﻣﺮ ﳑﻜﻦ ﻭﻣﺘﺪﺭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻒ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﳉﺪﻳﺪﺓ ) ﺍﳌﺮﻭﻧﺔ)‬‫ﺍﻣﺘﻼﻙ ﺍﻹﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﻌﻠﻚ ﺗﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻋﻚ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﹼﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻌﻠﹼﻢ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻳﻮﻡ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻮﺍﻃﻒ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﳛﺮﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﻟﺬﹼﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﳉﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻔﺘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺣﺔ‪.‬‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺍﶈﻴﻄﲔ ﺑﻚ‪.‬‬‫‪-‬ﺑﺪﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﰲ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺍﲣﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪-2nd year‬‬
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‫‪Examination Note‬‬
Student Union Scientific Committee (SUSC)
Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
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Examination Note
-2nd year
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Faculty Of Medicine - ASU
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Examination Note
-2nd year
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