CE305 Numerical Methods for Civil Engineers 2014 Fall Homework Exercise VI 1. A relaxation experiment is carried out on the Maxwell model, shown in the figure below, at a constant strain 0 0.01. The modulus of elasticity of the spring is E= 20 MPa and the coefficient of viscosity of the Newtonian dashpot is 6 MPa s . The evolution equation of the stress in the Maxwell model is given by the following ordinary differential equation . d with dt E with initial stress condition 0 (t 0) E 0 0.2 MPa Figure 1 Maxwell model of viscoelasticity. The exact solution of this stress evolution equation is (t ) E 0e t a) Integrate the evolution equation to compute the stress values at t =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 s by using the Euler method with the time step t = 0.1 s. b) Integrate the evolution equation to compute the stress values at t =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 s by using the (single-correction) Heun method with the time step t = 0.1 s. c) Calculate the local and global absolute true errors AT at the time points t =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 s for the both methods. Comment on the results and make suggestions to improve the accuracy of the methods. 2. Solve Problem 1 through the Mid-Point Rule (i.e. RK2 with a2=1) and the fourth-order Runge- Kutta method (RK4). 3. Use the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RK4) to solve the following initial-value problem dy y t with y(0) 1 dt 2 on the interval [0,3] by taking t = 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 and compare the solutions.You may want to write a computer code to conduct the calculations for the time steps t < 1. 4. A predator-prey problem is described by the Lotka–Volterra equations, a pair of firstorder non-linear differential equations. These equations are often used to describe the dynamics of biological systems where two species (one as predator, the other as prey) interact. The following system is an example for the Lotka-Volterra equations 1 CE305 Numerical Methods for Civil Engineers 2014 Fall Homework Exercise VI dx 2 x 0.02 xy dt dy 0.002 xy 0.8 y dt where the time-dependent variables x and y denote the population of rabbits and foxes, respectively. Use the Euler method to solve this system over the time interval [0,1] using the time step t = 0.1 for the following distinct initial conditions: a) x(0)= 3000 rabbits and y(0)= 120 foxes, b) x(0)= 2000 rabbits and y(0)= 50 foxes. 5. Solve Problem 3 through the (single-correction) Heun method and compare the results with the ones obtained by using the Euler method. 6. The van der Pol oscillator whose motion is given by the following second-order of nonlinear ordinary differential equation forms the basis for many models of electrophysiology describing the action potential transients in excitable neural and cardiac cells d 2x dx ( x 2 1) x 0 2 dt dt a) Recast this second-order differential equation into two first-order differential equations. b) Solve this first-order system through the Euler method for the initial conditions x(0)= 1 and dx(0)/dt= 1 over the time interval [0,1] using the time step t = 0.1. 7. In a chemical reaction, two molecules combine to form one molecule of the chemical product C. It is found that the concentration y(t) of the product C is the solution of the following initial-value problem dy 0.01(70 y)(50 y) with y(0) 0. dt a) Solve the initial-value problem for the concentration values y(t) at t =1, 3, and 5 by using the Euler method with the time step t = 1 s. b) Solve the initial-value problem for the concentration values y(t) at t =1, 3, and 5 by using the (single-correction) Heun method with the time step t = 1 s. c) Calculate the global percent relative true error RT % at the time points t =1, 3, and 5 s for the both methods. Note that the exact solution of this differential equation is given by y(t ) 350 350e0.02t 7 5e0.2t 2

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