Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar
The tragedy of Julius Caesar, more commonly known simply as Julius
Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written in 1600. It portrays
the conspiracy against the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar, his
assassination and its aftermath. It is the first of his Roman plays, based
on true events from Roman history.
Although the title of the play is “Julius Caesar”, he is not the central
character in the action of the play, appearing in only three scenes and dying at the beginning of the
Third Act. The central protagonist of the play is Marcus Brutus and the central psychological
drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship.
The play reflected the general anxiety of England due to worries over succession of leadership. At
the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth, a strong ruler, was elderly and had
refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome’s might
break out after her death.
The play contains many elements from the Elizabethan period, making it anachronistic. The
characters mention objects such as hats, doublets (large, heavy jackets), and clocks - none of
which existed in ancient Rome. Caesar is mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet
instead of a Roman toga.
Marcellus and Flavius criticize the commoners for celebrating Caesar's recent military defeat of
Pompey since they feel it's actually a sad day. During a victory march, a soothsayer warns Caesar
to "Beware the Ides of March" (March 15); Caesar ignores him. A race is run, wherein Marc
Antony, in the course of competing, touches Caesar's wife Calphurnia in hopes of curing her
infertility. During the race, Cassius tries to convince Brutus that Caesar has become too powerful
and too popular. Brutus neither agrees nor disagrees.
Caesar confers with Antony that he fears Cassius is evil and worth fearing. Casca explains to
Brutus and Cassius that shouting they heard was caused by Caesar's thrice refusal of a crown
offered to him by Antony (though confusing, the commoners rejoiced that he had refused it for it
indicated he is a noble man). At the third offering, Caesar collapsed and foamed at the mouth from
Afterward, Caesar exiled/executed Flavius and Marcellus for pulling scarves
off of Caesar's images (statues). In a thunderstorm, Casca meets Cicero
and tells him of many ominous and fearful sights, mostly of burning images,
he has seen. Cassius then meets Cicero and tells him the storm is a good
sign of the evil he and his other cohorts plan to do to Caesar.
It seems the senators plan to crown Caesar King, but Cassius aims to prevent it, or else commit
suicide. Casca agrees to help Cassius. Cinna informs Cassius that Decius Brutus (actually
Decimus), Trebonius, and Metallus Cimber will help them to kill Caesar.
Cassius is trying to convince Brutus to join too. Brutus, unable to sleep, tells himself that he fears
Caesar will become a tyrant if crowned king. Cassius et al. come to Brutus and resolve to murder
Caesar the next day (March 15). Metallus also convinces Caius Ligarius to join their cause.
The men leave and Portia (Brutus' wife) begs Brutus to tell her what is happening, but he does not
(though he does tell her before he leaves for the Senate). At Caesar's house, Calphurnia begs
Caesar to stay home for fear of danger (based on a foreboding dream and the night's storm). Holy
priests pluck the entrails of an animal and find no heart in it, another bad sign. Caesar declares he
will stay home, to calm his wive's fears. Decius, though, convinces Caesar to come to the senate.
On the way, the soothsayer Artemidorus tries to warn Caesar of impending death, to no avail. At
the Senate, Trebonius leads Antony away from Caesar, then the conspirators murder Caesar.
They cover themselves in his blood and go to the streets crying, "Peace, freedom, and liberty."
Antony comes back and mourns Caesar's murder. Antony pretends to support the clan, yet yearns
for great havoc to occur as a result of the death.
Brutus explains to the crowd that they killed Caesar because he was too ambitious. Antony replies
with reverse psychology to incite the commoners to riot in grief over Caesar's murder. Antony also
reads them Caesar's (supposed) will, wherein he leaves money to all the citizens, plus his private
gardens. In the ensuing riots, Cinna the poet is wrongly killed by a mob that believes him to be
Cinna the conspirator.
Antony forms a triumvirate with Octavius Caesar and Lepidus, to rule Rome. However, Brutus and
Cassius are raising an army to defy them.
Brutus learns that his wife Portia kills herself by swallowing hot coals. Messala tells Brutus that the
triumvirate has killed 100 senators. Titinius, Messala, Brutus, and Cassius decide to confront
Antony's army at Phillipi. At Brutus' tent, the ghost of Caesar comes and tells Brutus he will see
him at Phillipi. The battle indeed ensues at Phillipi. Cassius confers to Messala that it is his
birthday and that he fears defeat.
In battle, Titinius is captured by Octavius. Cassius convinces Pindarus to help him commit suicide.
Pindarus, in grief, flees after the deed is done. In a twist, Brutus overthrows Octavius and Cassius'
army, defeating part of Antony's army. Titinius, in grief over Cassius' death, kills himself with
Cassius's sword.
The battle turns again, this time against Brutus' army. Cato is killed and Lucilius is captured, while
pretending to be Brutus. Brutus successively asks Clitus, Dardanius, and Volumnius to help him
commit suicide, yet all refuse. Brutus finally convinces Strato to hold the sword while he (Brutus)
runs onto it and dies. Thus, Antony and Octavius prevail, while Cassius and Brutus both commit
suicide, assumedly partly in grief over murdering Caesar.
Julius Caesar
Triumvirs after Caesar’s Death
Octavius Caesar
Marcus Antonius
M. Aemilius Lepidus
Popilius Lena
Conspirators against Julius Caesar
Marcus Brutus
Decius Brutus
Metellus Cimber
Friends of Brutus and Cassius
Young Cato
Servants of Brutus
Flavius and Murellus - Tribunes
A Soothsayer
Cinna - a Poet
Another Poet
Pindarus - Servant of Cassius
Calpurnia - Wife of Caesar
Portia - Wife of Brutus
The way that power affects the individual is an important theme. We see several major characters
deal with the effects of power ast various stages of the play. When the play opens Caesar is the
most powerful man in Rome. It is clear that he has been in positions of power for some time
because he speaks quite comfortably about his own high status. There are, however, clear signs in
his own speech that Caesar has begun to be affected by his power. He refers to himself in the third
person, as “Caesar”, rather than in the first person, as “I”, suggesting that he has become rather
full of his own importance. Some of the other characters speak of him as though he were a god.
Antony says:`When Caesar says “do this”, it is performed`, a remark that shows that the
commands of Caesar are law to many Romans.
Brutus behaves differently. He says he is not interested in power for himself. He is concerned that
power should be exercised properly. In the context of the play this means by the Republic which
had a system of elected government. In reality, the Republic was not democratic. Many of the
conspirators acted against Caesar because they were frightened of losing the control of the
Senate that their families had held for generations. Brutus is regarded as the senior member of the
group that decides to kill Caesar and we see that Brutus does not use his power wisely. He
overrules Cassius on three occasions, each with disastrous results. This shows that although
Brutus has power he has neither the wisdom nor the ruthlessness to use it properly. While there
seems little doubt that both Caesar and Antony would have pursued their enemies, Brutus forgives
this. His motivation is honourable but his opinion of Antony is a little Naive.
Mark Antony is a follower of Caesar in more ways than one. After Caesar’s death, Antony tries to
act as he thinks Caesar would have done and is prepared to use his abilities to stir up the masses.
Antony’s power over the people is similar to that of Caesar’s, as is his manipulation of the
populace to serve his own ends. Antony realises that he can be given power by the people of
Rome, whereas he is unable to seize power by force. Once he has the power given by the
enraged masses he uses it ruthlessly to crush his enemies. He makes better military decisions
than any of the other generals at Philippi, yet allows Octavius to assume power. (Twelve years
later Antony was defeated by Octavius at the battle of Actium.)
Octavius behaves as though it is natural for him to take control in Rome following the death of
Caesar. Although he is supposedly in partnership with Antony (and Lepidus), Octavius insists on
taking the more favourable side of the battlefield at Philippi. Antony lets him, suggesting that
Antony recognises the superiority of Caesar’s great-nephew. Shortly after the battle of Philippi
Octavius went to war against Antony and eventually defeated him. Octavius took the name
Augustus and became the first Roman Emperor. He certainly understood the nature of power.
The murder of Caesar takes place both for personal and public reasons, yet there are sufficient
public reasons alone for Brutus to join the conspiracy. Roman noblemen were fiercely proud of
their republican status and opposed a return to the monarchy. The idea that the state
encompassed everyone and acted in the common good was one that many senior Romans looked
to as an example of good government. In reality, the government of Ancient Rome was little better
than a dictatorship because ordinary people had no say in what was decided in their name. The
important positions in Rome had been held by members of the same few families for years and so
the notion of a people’s republic was something of a sham.
All the actions in the play are carried out in the name of Rome. Each man adapts this notion of
loyalty to the state to suit his own cause; Antony to avenge his murdered friend.
Antony is loyal to the Rome that he knew under Caesar; a powerful nation made wealthy by
conquest. Brutus is loyal to the notion of a republic, though was himself a member of a powerful
and wealthy family.
It is no accident that all those characters who are disloyal to the state end up dead. This is
because of the political climate when the play was written and first performed. A playwright dare
not suggest that the murder of a king, or even near king, would be allowed to go unpunished. Of
course the events actually took place, but there is more than historical fact at work here. The
conventions of Elizabethan England insisted that perpetrators of regicide should suffer.
The close personal relationships that exist between some of the characters are also factors in
determining their actions. Antony acts largely out of a desire for personal revenge upon Caesar’s
killers. His close friendship is very important to him and is a major element of his motivation in
pursuing Caesar’s killers. Caesar had trusted Antony, as he can be seen when he asked Antony to
touch Calpurnia in the race at the festival of Lupercalia. The two men had fought many campaigns
together and knew one another very well.
Brutus is friendly with Cassius and allows this friendship to cloud his judgement at times. Brutus is
also aware of his own personal friendship with Caesar. Shakespeare is careful to observe the
account of Caesar’s death, given by Plutarch in which Brutus strikes the fatal blow. This friendship
affects Brutus greatly and he finds it difficult to overcome his feelings of personal grief at the death
of Caesar.
Personal wishes are, however, seldom allowed to interfere with the larger issues at stake. The
major characters in the play are all statesmen and understand, though to different degrees, the
role of friendship and the use of power.
Two married couples appear in the play: Caesar and Calpurnia, and Brutus and Portia. The two
relationships are in marked contrast. Caesar and Calpurnia seem to have a rather formal marriage.
He is very much in charge, though he does show consideration for his wife’s opinions when he
decides to stay at home on the morning of Ides of March. He is not relaxed enough with his wife to
drop the habit of calling himself `Caesar`. Perhaps this is intended to show his importance, but it
does tend to make him appear a vain and inconsiderate husband.
Brutus and Portia, on the other hand, have a very
close, trusting relationship. She goes to great lengths
to prove her loyalty to her husband, wounding herself
in the thigh and not complaining about it to prove she
can bear great hardship when required to. He tells
her of the plan to kill Caesar and this is the only
example in the play of a man really letting a woman
into his world. This marriage is much more of an
equal partnership (at least in Elizabethan terms) than
that between Caesar and Calpurnia.
Creative Writing
The children are to imagine that they are the conspirators. They are then to write a composition
arguing for or against the assassination of Julius Caesar.
The composition assumes that Caesar must be unseated and details Caesar's ambitions,
strengths and weaknesses relating to his lack of fitness to rule Rome.
Students then examine the political conditions which obtained in Rome at the time of
Caesar's assassination.
Students determine, given the political system then current in Rome, whether or not
assassination was the only method of changing leaders.
Students who argue for assassination must cite reasons why assassination is the only
Students arguing against assassination must argue that alternatives to assassination exist.
Creating a Senate debate
Using the creative writing from the previous exercise, create the Roman Senate and select some
children to be speakers in the Senate (for example two who are in favour of assassination and two
against). The children who have been selected to speak must try to persuade the other members
of the Senate to agree with their way of thinking. You may wish to use the following debating order
of speakers.
Proposer of the motion (one who is in favour of assassination)
Opposer of the motion
Second proposer
Second opposer
Summing up for the proposition
Summing up for the opposition
Once the Senate has heard the arguments the floor is open for questioning and other members'
opinions. Once the debate has drawn to a close, the house must take a vote on the motion to
assassinate Caesar or not.
This exercise will encourage the speaking students to work together as a team (proposers work
together and opposers work together). Try to stress that it is good practice if the first and second
speakers do not have the same thread of argument, or try to use a different tact at getting their
message across. The Summing up must be a concise account of the arguments made for or
against the motion, with a final appeal to either agree or disagree with the motion.
Playing the dramatic scene
Having looked at the arguments for and against the assassination of Caesar, read through and
then perform Act III scene i, where Caesar is killed.
A crowd of people; among them ARTEMIDORUS and the Soothsayer. Flourish. Enter CAESAR,
[To the Soothsayer] The ides of March are come.
Ay, Caesar; but not gone.
Hail, Caesar! read this schedule.
Trebonius doth desire you to o'erread,
At your best leisure, this his humble suit.
O Caesar, read mine first; for mine's a suit
That touches Caesar nearer: read it, great Caesar.
What touches us ourself shall be last served.
Delay not, Caesar; read it instantly.
What, is the fellow mad?
Sirrah, give place.
What, urge you your petitions in the street?
Come to the Capitol.
CAESAR goes up to the Senate-House, the rest following
I wish your enterprise to-day may thrive.
What enterprise, Popilius?
Fare you well.
Advances to CAESAR
What said Popilius Lena?
He wish'd to-day our enterprise might thrive.
I fear our purpose is discovered.
Look, how he makes to Caesar; mark him.
Casca, be sudden, for we fear prevention.
Brutus, what shall be done? If this be known,
Cassius or Caesar never shall turn back,
For I will slay myself.
Cassius, be constant:
Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes;
For, look, he smiles, and Caesar doth not change.
Trebonius knows his time; for, look you, Brutus.
He draws Mark Antony out of the way.
Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go,
And presently prefer his suit to Caesar.
He is address'd: press near and second him.
Casca, you are the first that rears your hand.
Are we all ready? What is now amiss
That Caesar and his senate must redress?
Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Caesar,
Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat
An humble heart,-Kneeling
I must prevent thee, Cimber.
These couchings and these lowly courtesies
Might fire the blood of ordinary men,
And turn pre-ordinance and first decree
Into the law of children. Be not fond,
To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood
That will be thaw'd from the true quality
With that which melteth fools; I mean, sweet words,
Low-crooked court'sies and base spaniel-fawning.
Thy brother by decree is banished:
If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him,
I spurn thee like a cur out of my way.
Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause
Will he be satisfied.
Is there no voice more worthy than my own
To sound more sweetly in great Caesar's ear
For the repealing of my banish'd brother?
I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Caesar;
Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may
Have an immediate freedom of repeal.
What, Brutus!
Pardon, Caesar; Caesar, pardon:
As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall,
To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber.
I could be well moved, if I were as you:
If I could pray to move, prayers would move me:
But I am constant as the northern star,
Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality
There is no fellow in the firmament.
The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks,
They are all fire and every one doth shine,
But there's but one in all doth hold his place:
So in the world; 'tis furnish'd well with men,
And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive;
Yet in the number I do know but one
That unassailable holds on his rank,
Unshaked of motion: and that I am he,
Let me a little show it, even in this;
That I was constant Cimber should be banish'd,
And constant do remain to keep him so.
O Caesar,-CAESAR
Hence! wilt thou lift up Olympus?
Great Caesar,-CAESAR
Doth not Brutus bootless kneel?
Speak, hands for me!
CASCA first, then the other Conspirators and BRUTUS stab CAESAR
Et tu, Brute! Then fall, Caesar.
Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead!
Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets.
Some to the common pulpits, and cry out
'Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!'
People and senators, be not affrighted;
Fly not; stand stiff: ambition's debt is paid.
Go to the pulpit, Brutus.
And Cassius too.
Where's Publius?
Here, quite confounded with this mutiny.
Stand fast together, lest some friend of Caesar's
Should chance-BRUTUS
Talk not of standing. Publius, good cheer;
There is no harm intended to your person,
Nor to no Roman else: so tell them, Publius.
And leave us, Publius; lest that the people,
Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief.
Do so: and let no man abide this deed,
But we the doers.
Where is Antony?
Fled to his house amazed:
Men, wives and children stare, cry out and run
As it were doomsday.
Fates, we will know your pleasures:
That we shall die, we know; 'tis but the time
And drawing days out, that men stand upon.
Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life
Cuts off so many years of fearing death.
Grant that, and then is death a benefit:
So are we Caesar's friends, that have abridged
His time of fearing death. Stoop, Romans, stoop,
And let us bathe our hands in Caesar's blood
Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords:
Then walk we forth, even to the market-place,
And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads,
Let's all cry 'Peace, freedom and liberty!'
Stoop, then, and wash. How many ages hence
Shall this our lofty scene be acted over
In states unborn and accents yet unknown!
How many times shall Caesar bleed in sport,
That now on Pompey's basis lies along
No worthier than the dust!
So oft as that shall be,
So often shall the knot of us be call'd
The men that gave their country liberty.
What, shall we forth?
Ay, every man away:
Brutus shall lead; and we will grace his heels
With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome.
Soft! who comes here? A friend of Antony's.
Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me kneel:
Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down;
And, being prostrate, thus he bade me say:
Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest;
Caesar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving:
Say I love Brutus, and I honour him;
Say I fear'd Caesar, honour'd him and loved him.
If Brutus will vouchsafe that Antony
May safely come to him, and be resolved
How Caesar hath deserved to lie in death,
Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead
So well as Brutus living; but will follow
The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus
Thorough the hazards of this untrod state
With all true faith. So says my master Antony.
Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman;
I never thought him worse.
Tell him, so please him come unto this place,
He shall be satisfied; and, by my honour,
Depart untouch'd.
I'll fetch him presently.
I know that we shall have him well to friend.
I wish we may: but yet have I a mind
That fears him much; and my misgiving still
Falls shrewdly to the purpose.
But here comes Antony.
Re-enter ANTONY
Welcome, Mark Antony.
O mighty Caesar! dost thou lie so low?
Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,
Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well.
I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,
Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:
If I myself, there is no hour so fit
As Caesar's death hour, nor no instrument
Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich
With the most noble blood of all this world.
I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard,
Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke,
Fulfil your pleasure. Live a thousand years,
I shall not find myself so apt to die:
No place will please me so, no mean of death,
As here by Caesar, and by you cut off,
The choice and master spirits of this age.
O Antony, beg not your death of us.
Though now we must appear bloody and cruel,
As, by our hands and this our present act,
You see we do, yet see you but our hands
And this the bleeding business they have done:
Our hearts you see not; they are pitiful;
And pity to the general wrong of Rome-As fire drives out fire, so pity pity-Hath done this deed on Caesar. For your part,
To you our swords have leaden points, Mark Antony:
Our arms, in strength of malice, and our hearts
Of brothers' temper, do receive you in
With all kind love, good thoughts, and reverence.
Your voice shall be as strong as any man's
In the disposing of new dignities.
Only be patient till we have appeased
The multitude, beside themselves with fear,
And then we will deliver you the cause,
Why I, that did love Caesar when I struck him,
Have thus proceeded.
I doubt not of your wisdom.
Let each man render me his bloody hand:
First, Marcus Brutus, will I shake with you;
Next, Caius Cassius, do I take your hand;
Now, Decius Brutus, yours: now yours, Metellus;
Yours, Cinna; and, my valiant Casca, yours;
Though last, not last in love, yours, good Trebonius.
Gentlemen all,--alas, what shall I say?
My credit now stands on such slippery ground,
That one of two bad ways you must conceit me,
Either a coward or a flatterer.
That I did love thee, Caesar, O, 'tis true:
If then thy spirit look upon us now,
Shall it not grieve thee dearer than thy death,
To see thy thy Anthony making his peace,
Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes,
Most noble! in the presence of thy corse?
Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds,
Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood,
It would become me better than to close
In terms of friendship with thine enemies.
Pardon me, Julius! Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart;
Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters stand,
Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe.
O world, thou wast the forest to this hart;
And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee.
How like a deer, strucken by many princes,
Dost thou here lie!
Mark Antony,-ANTONY
Pardon me, Caius Cassius:
The enemies of Caesar shall say this;
Then, in a friend, it is cold modesty.
I blame you not for praising Caesar so;
But what compact mean you to have with us?
Will you be prick'd in number of our friends;
Or shall we on, and not depend on you?
Therefore I took your hands, but was, indeed,
Sway'd from the point, by looking down on Caesar.
Friends am I with you all and love you all,
Upon this hope, that you shall give me reasons
Why and wherein Caesar was dangerous.
Or else were this a savage spectacle:
Our reasons are so full of good regard
That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar,
You should be satisfied.
That's all I seek:
And am moreover suitor that I may
Produce his body to the market-place;
And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend,
Speak in the order of his funeral.
You shall, Mark Antony.
Brutus, a word with you.
Aside to BRUTUS
You know not what you do: do not consent
That Antony speak in his funeral:
Know you how much the people may be moved
By that which he will utter?
By your pardon;
I will myself into the pulpit first,
And show the reason of our Caesar's death:
What Antony shall speak, I will protest
He speaks by leave and by permission,
And that we are contented Caesar shall
Have all true rites and lawful ceremonies.
It shall advantage more than do us wrong.
I know not what may fall; I like it not.
Mark Antony, here, take you Caesar's body.
You shall not in your funeral speech blame us,
But speak all good you can devise of Caesar,
And say you do't by our permission;
Else shall you not have any hand at all
About his funeral: and you shall speak
In the same pulpit whereto I am going,
After my speech is ended.
Be it so.
I do desire no more.
Prepare the body then, and follow us.
Exeunt all but ANTONY
O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
That I am meek and gentle with these butchers!
Thou art the ruins of the noblest man
That ever lived in the tide of times.
Woe to the hand that shed this costly blood!
Over thy wounds now do I prophesy,-Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips,
To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue-A curse shall light upon the limbs of men;
Domestic fury and fierce civil strife
Shall cumber all the parts of Italy;
Blood and destruction shall be so in use
And dreadful objects so familiar
That mothers shall but smile when they behold
Their infants quarter'd with the hands of war;
All pity choked with custom of fell deeds:
And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge,
With Ate by his side come hot from hell,
Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice
Cry 'Havoc,' and let slip the dogs of war;
That this foul deed shall smell above the earth
With carrion men, groaning for burial.
You serve Octavius Caesar, do you not?
I do, Mark Antony.
Caesar did write for him to come to Rome.
He did receive his letters, and is coming;
And bid me say to you by word of mouth-O Caesar!-Seeing the body
Thy heart is big, get thee apart and weep.
Passion, I see, is catching; for mine eyes,
Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine,
Began to water. Is thy master coming?
He lies to-night within seven leagues of Rome.
Post back with speed, and tell him what hath chanced:
Here is a mourning Rome, a dangerous Rome,
No Rome of safety for Octavius yet;
Hie hence, and tell him so. Yet, stay awhile;
Thou shalt not back till I have borne this corse
Into the market-place: there shall I try
In my oration, how the people take
The cruel issue of these bloody men;
According to the which, thou shalt discourse
To young Octavius of the state of things.
Lend me your hand.
Exeunt with CAESAR's body
Hot-seating Brutus
Select the child playing Brutus in the scene. Place him/her in the hot seat to answer questions
about his character and motivations for his actions. It is usually a good idea to have the teacher
begin the questioning to give the other students an idea of what to ask and time to think of their
own questions.
Some initial questions to consider:
Why do you really want to have Caesar assassinated?
Is there anyone involved in the plot that you do not trust?
Would you like to be the next Caesar?
What are your opinions of Marc Antony?
Do you feel any remorse for Caesar’s death?