Julius Caesar The tragedy of Julius Caesar, more commonly known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written in 1600. It portrays the conspiracy against the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar, his assassination and its aftermath. It is the first of his Roman plays, based on true events from Roman history. Although the title of the play is “Julius Caesar”, he is not the central character in the action of the play, appearing in only three scenes and dying at the beginning of the Third Act. The central protagonist of the play is Marcus Brutus and the central psychological drama is his struggle between the conflicting demands of honour, patriotism, and friendship. The play reflected the general anxiety of England due to worries over succession of leadership. At the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth, a strong ruler, was elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome’s might break out after her death. The play contains many elements from the Elizabethan period, making it anachronistic. The characters mention objects such as hats, doublets (large, heavy jackets), and clocks - none of which existed in ancient Rome. Caesar is mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet instead of a Roman toga. Synopsis Marcellus and Flavius criticize the commoners for celebrating Caesar's recent military defeat of Pompey since they feel it's actually a sad day. During a victory march, a soothsayer warns Caesar to "Beware the Ides of March" (March 15); Caesar ignores him. A race is run, wherein Marc Antony, in the course of competing, touches Caesar's wife Calphurnia in hopes of curing her infertility. During the race, Cassius tries to convince Brutus that Caesar has become too powerful and too popular. Brutus neither agrees nor disagrees. Caesar confers with Antony that he fears Cassius is evil and worth fearing. Casca explains to Brutus and Cassius that shouting they heard was caused by Caesar's thrice refusal of a crown offered to him by Antony (though confusing, the commoners rejoiced that he had refused it for it indicated he is a noble man). At the third offering, Caesar collapsed and foamed at the mouth from epilepsy. Afterward, Caesar exiled/executed Flavius and Marcellus for pulling scarves off of Caesar's images (statues). In a thunderstorm, Casca meets Cicero and tells him of many ominous and fearful sights, mostly of burning images, he has seen. Cassius then meets Cicero and tells him the storm is a good sign of the evil he and his other cohorts plan to do to Caesar. It seems the senators plan to crown Caesar King, but Cassius aims to prevent it, or else commit suicide. Casca agrees to help Cassius. Cinna informs Cassius that Decius Brutus (actually Decimus), Trebonius, and Metallus Cimber will help them to kill Caesar. Cassius is trying to convince Brutus to join too. Brutus, unable to sleep, tells himself that he fears Caesar will become a tyrant if crowned king. Cassius et al. come to Brutus and resolve to murder Caesar the next day (March 15). Metallus also convinces Caius Ligarius to join their cause. The men leave and Portia (Brutus' wife) begs Brutus to tell her what is happening, but he does not (though he does tell her before he leaves for the Senate). At Caesar's house, Calphurnia begs Caesar to stay home for fear of danger (based on a foreboding dream and the night's storm). Holy priests pluck the entrails of an animal and find no heart in it, another bad sign. Caesar declares he will stay home, to calm his wive's fears. Decius, though, convinces Caesar to come to the senate. On the way, the soothsayer Artemidorus tries to warn Caesar of impending death, to no avail. At the Senate, Trebonius leads Antony away from Caesar, then the conspirators murder Caesar. They cover themselves in his blood and go to the streets crying, "Peace, freedom, and liberty." Antony comes back and mourns Caesar's murder. Antony pretends to support the clan, yet yearns for great havoc to occur as a result of the death. Brutus explains to the crowd that they killed Caesar because he was too ambitious. Antony replies with reverse psychology to incite the commoners to riot in grief over Caesar's murder. Antony also reads them Caesar's (supposed) will, wherein he leaves money to all the citizens, plus his private gardens. In the ensuing riots, Cinna the poet is wrongly killed by a mob that believes him to be Cinna the conspirator. Antony forms a triumvirate with Octavius Caesar and Lepidus, to rule Rome. However, Brutus and Cassius are raising an army to defy them. Brutus learns that his wife Portia kills herself by swallowing hot coals. Messala tells Brutus that the triumvirate has killed 100 senators. Titinius, Messala, Brutus, and Cassius decide to confront Antony's army at Phillipi. At Brutus' tent, the ghost of Caesar comes and tells Brutus he will see him at Phillipi. The battle indeed ensues at Phillipi. Cassius confers to Messala that it is his birthday and that he fears defeat. In battle, Titinius is captured by Octavius. Cassius convinces Pindarus to help him commit suicide. Pindarus, in grief, flees after the deed is done. In a twist, Brutus overthrows Octavius and Cassius' army, defeating part of Antony's army. Titinius, in grief over Cassius' death, kills himself with Cassius's sword. The battle turns again, this time against Brutus' army. Cato is killed and Lucilius is captured, while pretending to be Brutus. Brutus successively asks Clitus, Dardanius, and Volumnius to help him commit suicide, yet all refuse. Brutus finally convinces Strato to hold the sword while he (Brutus) runs onto it and dies. Thus, Antony and Octavius prevail, while Cassius and Brutus both commit suicide, assumedly partly in grief over murdering Caesar. Characters Julius Caesar Triumvirs after Caesar’s Death Octavius Caesar Marcus Antonius M. Aemilius Lepidus Senators Cicero Publius Popilius Lena Conspirators against Julius Caesar Marcus Brutus Cassius Decius Brutus Casca Ligarius Trebonius Metellus Cimber Cinna Friends of Brutus and Cassius Lucilius Young Cato Titinius Volumnius Messala Servants of Brutus Varro Strato Clitus Lucius Claudius Dardanius Flavius and Murellus - Tribunes Artemidorus A Soothsayer Cinna - a Poet Another Poet Pindarus - Servant of Cassius Calpurnia - Wife of Caesar Portia - Wife of Brutus Themes Power The way that power affects the individual is an important theme. We see several major characters deal with the effects of power ast various stages of the play. When the play opens Caesar is the most powerful man in Rome. It is clear that he has been in positions of power for some time because he speaks quite comfortably about his own high status. There are, however, clear signs in his own speech that Caesar has begun to be affected by his power. He refers to himself in the third person, as “Caesar”, rather than in the first person, as “I”, suggesting that he has become rather full of his own importance. Some of the other characters speak of him as though he were a god. Antony says:`When Caesar says “do this”, it is performed`, a remark that shows that the commands of Caesar are law to many Romans. Brutus behaves differently. He says he is not interested in power for himself. He is concerned that power should be exercised properly. In the context of the play this means by the Republic which had a system of elected government. In reality, the Republic was not democratic. Many of the conspirators acted against Caesar because they were frightened of losing the control of the Senate that their families had held for generations. Brutus is regarded as the senior member of the group that decides to kill Caesar and we see that Brutus does not use his power wisely. He overrules Cassius on three occasions, each with disastrous results. This shows that although Brutus has power he has neither the wisdom nor the ruthlessness to use it properly. While there seems little doubt that both Caesar and Antony would have pursued their enemies, Brutus forgives this. His motivation is honourable but his opinion of Antony is a little Naive. Mark Antony is a follower of Caesar in more ways than one. After Caesar’s death, Antony tries to act as he thinks Caesar would have done and is prepared to use his abilities to stir up the masses. Antony’s power over the people is similar to that of Caesar’s, as is his manipulation of the populace to serve his own ends. Antony realises that he can be given power by the people of Rome, whereas he is unable to seize power by force. Once he has the power given by the enraged masses he uses it ruthlessly to crush his enemies. He makes better military decisions than any of the other generals at Philippi, yet allows Octavius to assume power. (Twelve years later Antony was defeated by Octavius at the battle of Actium.) Octavius behaves as though it is natural for him to take control in Rome following the death of Caesar. Although he is supposedly in partnership with Antony (and Lepidus), Octavius insists on taking the more favourable side of the battlefield at Philippi. Antony lets him, suggesting that Antony recognises the superiority of Caesar’s great-nephew. Shortly after the battle of Philippi Octavius went to war against Antony and eventually defeated him. Octavius took the name Augustus and became the first Roman Emperor. He certainly understood the nature of power. Loyalty The murder of Caesar takes place both for personal and public reasons, yet there are sufficient public reasons alone for Brutus to join the conspiracy. Roman noblemen were fiercely proud of their republican status and opposed a return to the monarchy. The idea that the state encompassed everyone and acted in the common good was one that many senior Romans looked to as an example of good government. In reality, the government of Ancient Rome was little better than a dictatorship because ordinary people had no say in what was decided in their name. The important positions in Rome had been held by members of the same few families for years and so the notion of a people’s republic was something of a sham. All the actions in the play are carried out in the name of Rome. Each man adapts this notion of loyalty to the state to suit his own cause; Antony to avenge his murdered friend. Antony is loyal to the Rome that he knew under Caesar; a powerful nation made wealthy by conquest. Brutus is loyal to the notion of a republic, though was himself a member of a powerful and wealthy family. It is no accident that all those characters who are disloyal to the state end up dead. This is because of the political climate when the play was written and first performed. A playwright dare not suggest that the murder of a king, or even near king, would be allowed to go unpunished. Of course the events actually took place, but there is more than historical fact at work here. The conventions of Elizabethan England insisted that perpetrators of regicide should suffer. The close personal relationships that exist between some of the characters are also factors in determining their actions. Antony acts largely out of a desire for personal revenge upon Caesar’s killers. His close friendship is very important to him and is a major element of his motivation in pursuing Caesar’s killers. Caesar had trusted Antony, as he can be seen when he asked Antony to touch Calpurnia in the race at the festival of Lupercalia. The two men had fought many campaigns together and knew one another very well. Brutus is friendly with Cassius and allows this friendship to cloud his judgement at times. Brutus is also aware of his own personal friendship with Caesar. Shakespeare is careful to observe the account of Caesar’s death, given by Plutarch in which Brutus strikes the fatal blow. This friendship affects Brutus greatly and he finds it difficult to overcome his feelings of personal grief at the death of Caesar. Personal wishes are, however, seldom allowed to interfere with the larger issues at stake. The major characters in the play are all statesmen and understand, though to different degrees, the role of friendship and the use of power. Two married couples appear in the play: Caesar and Calpurnia, and Brutus and Portia. The two relationships are in marked contrast. Caesar and Calpurnia seem to have a rather formal marriage. He is very much in charge, though he does show consideration for his wife’s opinions when he decides to stay at home on the morning of Ides of March. He is not relaxed enough with his wife to drop the habit of calling himself `Caesar`. Perhaps this is intended to show his importance, but it does tend to make him appear a vain and inconsiderate husband. Brutus and Portia, on the other hand, have a very close, trusting relationship. She goes to great lengths to prove her loyalty to her husband, wounding herself in the thigh and not complaining about it to prove she can bear great hardship when required to. He tells her of the plan to kill Caesar and this is the only example in the play of a man really letting a woman into his world. This marriage is much more of an equal partnership (at least in Elizabethan terms) than that between Caesar and Calpurnia. Activities Creative Writing The children are to imagine that they are the conspirators. They are then to write a composition arguing for or against the assassination of Julius Caesar. ‚ The composition assumes that Caesar must be unseated and details Caesar's ambitions, strengths and weaknesses relating to his lack of fitness to rule Rome. ‚ Students then examine the political conditions which obtained in Rome at the time of Caesar's assassination. ‚ Students determine, given the political system then current in Rome, whether or not assassination was the only method of changing leaders. ‚ Students who argue for assassination must cite reasons why assassination is the only alternative. ‚ Students arguing against assassination must argue that alternatives to assassination exist. Creating a Senate debate Using the creative writing from the previous exercise, create the Roman Senate and select some children to be speakers in the Senate (for example two who are in favour of assassination and two against). The children who have been selected to speak must try to persuade the other members of the Senate to agree with their way of thinking. You may wish to use the following debating order of speakers. ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ ‚ Proposer of the motion (one who is in favour of assassination) Opposer of the motion Second proposer Second opposer Summing up for the proposition Summing up for the opposition Once the Senate has heard the arguments the floor is open for questioning and other members' opinions. Once the debate has drawn to a close, the house must take a vote on the motion to assassinate Caesar or not. This exercise will encourage the speaking students to work together as a team (proposers work together and opposers work together). Try to stress that it is good practice if the first and second speakers do not have the same thread of argument, or try to use a different tact at getting their message across. The Summing up must be a concise account of the arguments made for or against the motion, with a final appeal to either agree or disagree with the motion. Playing the dramatic scene Having looked at the arguments for and against the assassination of Caesar, read through and then perform Act III scene i, where Caesar is killed. A crowd of people; among them ARTEMIDORUS and the Soothsayer. Flourish. Enter CAESAR, BRUTUS, CASSIUS, CASCA, DECIUS BRUTUS, METELLUS CIMBER, TREBONIUS, CINNA, ANTONY, LEPIDUS, POPILIUS, PUBLIUS, and others CAESAR [To the Soothsayer] The ides of March are come. SOOTHSAYER Ay, Caesar; but not gone. ARTEMIDORUS Hail, Caesar! read this schedule. DECIUS BRUTUS Trebonius doth desire you to o'erread, At your best leisure, this his humble suit. ARTEMIDORUS O Caesar, read mine first; for mine's a suit That touches Caesar nearer: read it, great Caesar. CAESAR What touches us ourself shall be last served. ARTEMIDORUS Delay not, Caesar; read it instantly. CAESAR What, is the fellow mad? PUBLIUS Sirrah, give place. CASSIUS What, urge you your petitions in the street? Come to the Capitol. CAESAR goes up to the Senate-House, the rest following POPILIUS I wish your enterprise to-day may thrive. CASSIUS What enterprise, Popilius? POPILIUS Fare you well. Advances to CAESAR BRUTUS What said Popilius Lena? CASSIUS He wish'd to-day our enterprise might thrive. I fear our purpose is discovered. BRUTUS Look, how he makes to Caesar; mark him. CASSIUS Casca, be sudden, for we fear prevention. Brutus, what shall be done? If this be known, Cassius or Caesar never shall turn back, For I will slay myself. BRUTUS Cassius, be constant: Popilius Lena speaks not of our purposes; For, look, he smiles, and Caesar doth not change. CASSIUS Trebonius knows his time; for, look you, Brutus. He draws Mark Antony out of the way. Exeunt ANTONY and TREBONIUS DECIUS BRUTUS Where is Metellus Cimber? Let him go, And presently prefer his suit to Caesar. BRUTUS He is address'd: press near and second him. CINNA Casca, you are the first that rears your hand. CAESAR Are we all ready? What is now amiss That Caesar and his senate must redress? METELLUS CIMBER Most high, most mighty, and most puissant Caesar, Metellus Cimber throws before thy seat An humble heart,-Kneeling CAESAR I must prevent thee, Cimber. These couchings and these lowly courtesies Might fire the blood of ordinary men, And turn pre-ordinance and first decree Into the law of children. Be not fond, To think that Caesar bears such rebel blood That will be thaw'd from the true quality With that which melteth fools; I mean, sweet words, Low-crooked court'sies and base spaniel-fawning. Thy brother by decree is banished: If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him, I spurn thee like a cur out of my way. Know, Caesar doth not wrong, nor without cause Will he be satisfied. METELLUS CIMBER Is there no voice more worthy than my own To sound more sweetly in great Caesar's ear For the repealing of my banish'd brother? BRUTUS I kiss thy hand, but not in flattery, Caesar; Desiring thee that Publius Cimber may Have an immediate freedom of repeal. CAESAR What, Brutus! CASSIUS Pardon, Caesar; Caesar, pardon: As low as to thy foot doth Cassius fall, To beg enfranchisement for Publius Cimber. CASSIUS I could be well moved, if I were as you: If I could pray to move, prayers would move me: But I am constant as the northern star, Of whose true-fix'd and resting quality There is no fellow in the firmament. The skies are painted with unnumber'd sparks, They are all fire and every one doth shine, But there's but one in all doth hold his place: So in the world; 'tis furnish'd well with men, And men are flesh and blood, and apprehensive; Yet in the number I do know but one That unassailable holds on his rank, Unshaked of motion: and that I am he, Let me a little show it, even in this; That I was constant Cimber should be banish'd, And constant do remain to keep him so. CINNA O Caesar,-CAESAR Hence! wilt thou lift up Olympus? DECIUS BRUTUS Great Caesar,-CAESAR Doth not Brutus bootless kneel? CASCA Speak, hands for me! CASCA first, then the other Conspirators and BRUTUS stab CAESAR CAESAR Et tu, Brute! Then fall, Caesar. Dies CINNA Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead! Run hence, proclaim, cry it about the streets. CASSIUS Some to the common pulpits, and cry out 'Liberty, freedom, and enfranchisement!' BRUTUS People and senators, be not affrighted; Fly not; stand stiff: ambition's debt is paid. CASCA Go to the pulpit, Brutus. DECIUS BRUTUS And Cassius too. BRUTUS Where's Publius? CINNA Here, quite confounded with this mutiny. METELLUS CIMBER Stand fast together, lest some friend of Caesar's Should chance-BRUTUS Talk not of standing. Publius, good cheer; There is no harm intended to your person, Nor to no Roman else: so tell them, Publius. CASSIUS And leave us, Publius; lest that the people, Rushing on us, should do your age some mischief. BRUTUS Do so: and let no man abide this deed, But we the doers. Re-enter TREBONIUS CASSIUS Where is Antony? TREBONIUS Fled to his house amazed: Men, wives and children stare, cry out and run As it were doomsday. BRUTUS Fates, we will know your pleasures: That we shall die, we know; 'tis but the time And drawing days out, that men stand upon. CASSIUS Why, he that cuts off twenty years of life Cuts off so many years of fearing death. BRUTUS Grant that, and then is death a benefit: So are we Caesar's friends, that have abridged His time of fearing death. Stoop, Romans, stoop, And let us bathe our hands in Caesar's blood Up to the elbows, and besmear our swords: Then walk we forth, even to the market-place, And, waving our red weapons o'er our heads, Let's all cry 'Peace, freedom and liberty!' CASSIUS Stoop, then, and wash. How many ages hence Shall this our lofty scene be acted over In states unborn and accents yet unknown! BRUTUS How many times shall Caesar bleed in sport, That now on Pompey's basis lies along No worthier than the dust! CASSIUS So oft as that shall be, So often shall the knot of us be call'd The men that gave their country liberty. DECIUS BRUTUS What, shall we forth? CASSIUS Ay, every man away: Brutus shall lead; and we will grace his heels With the most boldest and best hearts of Rome. Enter a SERVANT BRUTUS Soft! who comes here? A friend of Antony's. SERVANT Thus, Brutus, did my master bid me kneel: Thus did Mark Antony bid me fall down; And, being prostrate, thus he bade me say: Brutus is noble, wise, valiant, and honest; Caesar was mighty, bold, royal, and loving: Say I love Brutus, and I honour him; Say I fear'd Caesar, honour'd him and loved him. If Brutus will vouchsafe that Antony May safely come to him, and be resolved How Caesar hath deserved to lie in death, Mark Antony shall not love Caesar dead So well as Brutus living; but will follow The fortunes and affairs of noble Brutus Thorough the hazards of this untrod state With all true faith. So says my master Antony. BRUTUS Thy master is a wise and valiant Roman; I never thought him worse. Tell him, so please him come unto this place, He shall be satisfied; and, by my honour, Depart untouch'd. SERVANT I'll fetch him presently. Exit BRUTUS I know that we shall have him well to friend. CASSIUS I wish we may: but yet have I a mind That fears him much; and my misgiving still Falls shrewdly to the purpose. BRUTUS But here comes Antony. Re-enter ANTONY Welcome, Mark Antony. ANTONY O mighty Caesar! dost thou lie so low? Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well. I know not, gentlemen, what you intend, Who else must be let blood, who else is rank: If I myself, there is no hour so fit As Caesar's death hour, nor no instrument Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich With the most noble blood of all this world. I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard, Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke, Fulfil your pleasure. Live a thousand years, I shall not find myself so apt to die: No place will please me so, no mean of death, As here by Caesar, and by you cut off, The choice and master spirits of this age. BRUTUS O Antony, beg not your death of us. Though now we must appear bloody and cruel, As, by our hands and this our present act, You see we do, yet see you but our hands And this the bleeding business they have done: Our hearts you see not; they are pitiful; And pity to the general wrong of Rome-As fire drives out fire, so pity pity-Hath done this deed on Caesar. For your part, To you our swords have leaden points, Mark Antony: Our arms, in strength of malice, and our hearts Of brothers' temper, do receive you in With all kind love, good thoughts, and reverence. CASSIUS Your voice shall be as strong as any man's In the disposing of new dignities. BRUTUS Only be patient till we have appeased The multitude, beside themselves with fear, And then we will deliver you the cause, Why I, that did love Caesar when I struck him, Have thus proceeded. ANTONY I doubt not of your wisdom. Let each man render me his bloody hand: First, Marcus Brutus, will I shake with you; Next, Caius Cassius, do I take your hand; Now, Decius Brutus, yours: now yours, Metellus; Yours, Cinna; and, my valiant Casca, yours; Though last, not last in love, yours, good Trebonius. Gentlemen all,--alas, what shall I say? My credit now stands on such slippery ground, That one of two bad ways you must conceit me, Either a coward or a flatterer. That I did love thee, Caesar, O, 'tis true: If then thy spirit look upon us now, Shall it not grieve thee dearer than thy death, To see thy thy Anthony making his peace, Shaking the bloody fingers of thy foes, Most noble! in the presence of thy corse? Had I as many eyes as thou hast wounds, Weeping as fast as they stream forth thy blood, It would become me better than to close In terms of friendship with thine enemies. Pardon me, Julius! Here wast thou bay'd, brave hart; Here didst thou fall; and here thy hunters stand, Sign'd in thy spoil, and crimson'd in thy lethe. O world, thou wast the forest to this hart; And this, indeed, O world, the heart of thee. How like a deer, strucken by many princes, Dost thou here lie! CASSIUS Mark Antony,-ANTONY Pardon me, Caius Cassius: The enemies of Caesar shall say this; Then, in a friend, it is cold modesty. CASSIUS I blame you not for praising Caesar so; But what compact mean you to have with us? Will you be prick'd in number of our friends; Or shall we on, and not depend on you? ANTONY Therefore I took your hands, but was, indeed, Sway'd from the point, by looking down on Caesar. Friends am I with you all and love you all, Upon this hope, that you shall give me reasons Why and wherein Caesar was dangerous. BRUTUS Or else were this a savage spectacle: Our reasons are so full of good regard That were you, Antony, the son of Caesar, You should be satisfied. ANTONY That's all I seek: And am moreover suitor that I may Produce his body to the market-place; And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend, Speak in the order of his funeral. BRUTUS You shall, Mark Antony. CASSIUS Brutus, a word with you. Aside to BRUTUS You know not what you do: do not consent That Antony speak in his funeral: Know you how much the people may be moved By that which he will utter? BRUTUS By your pardon; I will myself into the pulpit first, And show the reason of our Caesar's death: What Antony shall speak, I will protest He speaks by leave and by permission, And that we are contented Caesar shall Have all true rites and lawful ceremonies. It shall advantage more than do us wrong. CASSIUS I know not what may fall; I like it not. BRUTUS Mark Antony, here, take you Caesar's body. You shall not in your funeral speech blame us, But speak all good you can devise of Caesar, And say you do't by our permission; Else shall you not have any hand at all About his funeral: and you shall speak In the same pulpit whereto I am going, After my speech is ended. ANTONY Be it so. I do desire no more. BRUTUS Prepare the body then, and follow us. Exeunt all but ANTONY ANTONY O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! Thou art the ruins of the noblest man That ever lived in the tide of times. Woe to the hand that shed this costly blood! Over thy wounds now do I prophesy,-Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips, To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue-A curse shall light upon the limbs of men; Domestic fury and fierce civil strife Shall cumber all the parts of Italy; Blood and destruction shall be so in use And dreadful objects so familiar That mothers shall but smile when they behold Their infants quarter'd with the hands of war; All pity choked with custom of fell deeds: And Caesar's spirit, ranging for revenge, With Ate by his side come hot from hell, Shall in these confines with a monarch's voice Cry 'Havoc,' and let slip the dogs of war; That this foul deed shall smell above the earth With carrion men, groaning for burial. Enter a SERVANT You serve Octavius Caesar, do you not? SERVANT I do, Mark Antony. ANTONY Caesar did write for him to come to Rome. SERVANT He did receive his letters, and is coming; And bid me say to you by word of mouth-O Caesar!-Seeing the body ANTONY Thy heart is big, get thee apart and weep. Passion, I see, is catching; for mine eyes, Seeing those beads of sorrow stand in thine, Began to water. Is thy master coming? SERVANT He lies to-night within seven leagues of Rome. ANTONY Post back with speed, and tell him what hath chanced: Here is a mourning Rome, a dangerous Rome, No Rome of safety for Octavius yet; Hie hence, and tell him so. Yet, stay awhile; Thou shalt not back till I have borne this corse Into the market-place: there shall I try In my oration, how the people take The cruel issue of these bloody men; According to the which, thou shalt discourse To young Octavius of the state of things. Lend me your hand. Exeunt with CAESAR's body Hot-seating Brutus Select the child playing Brutus in the scene. Place him/her in the hot seat to answer questions about his character and motivations for his actions. It is usually a good idea to have the teacher begin the questioning to give the other students an idea of what to ask and time to think of their own questions. Some initial questions to consider: ‚ Why do you really want to have Caesar assassinated? ‚ Is there anyone involved in the plot that you do not trust? ‚ Would you like to be the next Caesar? ‚ What are your opinions of Marc Antony? ‚ Do you feel any remorse for Caesar’s death?
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